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Sample records for abdominal trauma index

  1. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  2. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  3. Laparoscopy in Pediatric Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajesh R.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The use and indications for laparoscopy have been increasing. As part of this trend, a new algorithm may emerge for pediatric trauma in which laparoscopic techniques are used in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected hollow viscus perforation. Case Report: We present a case in which laparoscopy was successfully used in a pediatric trauma patient as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. A 4-year-old boy was a back-seat passenger in a head-on collision motor vehicle accident. He was restrained by a lap seat belt. He sustained a concussion, a large forehead laceration and a seat belt abdominal injury. On admission, he complained of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a soft, nondistended abdomen with moderate diffuse tenderness. He was hemodynamically stable. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed free fluid in the pelvis. No abnormalities were detected in the liver or spleen. Because of clinical deterioration and suspected intestinal perforation, diagnostic laparoscopy was utilized instead of proceeding directly to celiotomy. At laparoscopy a jejunal perforation was found and successfully repaired laparoscopically. Large hematomas were seen in the mesentery, as well as an unsuspected splenic laceration. No active bleeding was found. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 5 days following the surgical procedure. Conclusion: This case illustrates the efficacy of using early laparoscopy in children with abdominal trauma when diagnosis is difficult and hollow viscus injury is suspected. PMID:9876702

  4. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

    2010-01-01

    Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

  5. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  6. [Diagnostic possibilities of multilayer computer tomography in blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Nemsadze, G Sh; Urushadze, O P; Tokhadze, L T; Kipshidze, N N

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine MDCT diagnostic possibility in blunt abdominal trauma. Our work was based on MDCT results of 84 blunt abdominal trauma patients with stable hemodynamic status (28 (33.3%) female and 56 (66.6%) male). Age ranges from 17 up to 64 years. The CT scan showed obvious organ and system injuries in 82 poly-trauma patients. Injuries of craniocerebral region, also of facial bones, chest and spine were determined in two patients; in one of which, however, it was not possible to differentiate subcapsular spleen hematoma accurately because of left upper joint metallic holder artifacts. In second patient the liver injury was accurately diagnosed, but there were visualization problems caused by the massive retroperitoneal hematoma from right adrenal gland injury. The investigation showed that sensitivity of CT scan data was 98%, specificity-97% and accuracy rate-98%. All above mentioned clearly states the importance of MDCT in the emergency department. MDCT ensures precise diagnosis in maximally short period of time and thereby helps to choose proper treatment and decreases post-traumatic complications. PMID:21436472

  7. Serial bedside emergency ultrasound in a case of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma with severe abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pershad, J; Gilmore, B

    2000-10-01

    We present a case of a teenager with isolated left renal laceration with perirenal hematoma. The patient had presented with severe left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) sustained during a sledding accident. A screening bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) rapidly excluded free fluid on two serial examinations, 30 minutes apart. It provided the pediatric emergency physician with a measure of diagnostic confidence that the patient could be safely transported to the CT suite for detailed delineation of his injury. Moreover, narcotic analgesia was liberally administered early in his illness course, without the fear of unmasking potential hypovolemia when it was known that he did not have gross intra-abdominal bleeding on his bedside ultrasound (US). It also provided a working diagnosis of the primary organ of injury. Our hospital, like many pediatric hospitals around the nation, does not have in-house 24-hour radiology support. We suggest that the use of the bedside US be extended to the stable pediatric patient in severe abdominal pain following BAT. It can serve as a valuable, rapid, noninvasive, bedside, easily repeated, fairly accurate triage tool to evaluate pediatric BAT with severe pain. PMID:11063373

  8. Left External Iliac and Common Femoral Artery Occlusion Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma without Associated Bone Injury

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Park, Il Hwan; Do, Hye-jin; Bae, Keum Seok; Oh, Joong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause peripheral vascular injuries. However, blunt abdominal trauma rarely results in injuries to the external iliac and common femoral arteries, which often stem from regional bone fractures. Here, we present the case of a patient who had experienced trauma in the lower abdominal and groin area three months before presenting to the hospital, but these injuries did not involve bone fractures and had been managed conservatively. The patient came to the hospital because of left lower leg claudication that gradually became severe. Computed tomography angiography confirmed total occlusion of the external iliac and common femoral arteries. The patient underwent femorofemoral bypass grafting and was discharged uneventfully. PMID:26078931

  9. Frequency, causes and pattern of abdominal trauma: A 4-year descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of abdominal trauma is still underreported from the Arab Middle-East. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, clinical presentation, and outcome of the abdominal trauma patients in a newly established trauma center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at the only level I trauma center in Qatar for the patients admitted with abdominal trauma (2008-2011). Patients demographics, mechanism of injury, pattern of organ injuries, associated extra-abdominal injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale, complications, length of Intensive Care Unit, and hospital stay, and mortality were reviewed. Results: A total of 6888 trauma patients were admitted to the hospital, of which 1036 (15%) had abdominal trauma. The mean age was 30.6 ± 13 years and the majority was males (93%). Road traffic accidents (61%) were the most frequent mechanism of injury followed by fall from height (25%) and fall of heavy object (7%). The mean ISS was 17.9 ± 10. Liver (36%), spleen (32%) and kidney (18%) were most common injured organs. The common associated extra-abdominal injuries included chest (35%), musculoskeletal (32%), and head injury (24%). Wound infection (3.8%), pneumonia (3%), and urinary tract infection (1.4%) were the frequently observed complications. The overall mortality was 8.3% and late mortality was observed in 2.3% cases mainly due to severe head injury and sepsis. The predictors of mortality were head injury, ISS, need for blood transfusion, and serum lactate. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is a frequent diagnosis in multiple trauma and the presence of extra-abdominal injuries and sepsis has a significant impact on the outcome. PMID:26604524

  10. Role of exploratory laparoscopy in haemodynamically stable patient with a penetrating abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad-Sharizan, Emira Nur Shafina; DiNicola, Valerio V.

    2015-01-01

    A young lady presented to the hospital following a penetrating abdominal trauma. She was haemodynamically stable during the initial assessment. Despite fruitless finding from blood test, plain radiograph and computed tomographic scanning, a bowel contusion was found during an explorative laparoscopy. Here, we highlight the need for laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in haemodynamically stable patient with a penetrating abdominal trauma. PMID:26139644

  11. False-positive focused abdominal sonography in trauma in a hypotensive child: case report.

    PubMed

    Imamedjian, Isabelle; Baird, Robert; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a false-positive focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST) examination in a persistently hypotensive pediatric trauma patient, performed 12 hours after the trauma, suspected to be caused by massive fluid resuscitation leading to ascites. While a positive FAST in a hypotensive trauma patient usually indicates hemoperitoneum, this case illustrates that the timing of the FAST examination relative to the injury, as well as clinical evolution including the volume of fluid resuscitation, need to be considered when interpreting the results of serial and/or late FAST examinations. PMID:26035503

  12. Rupture of Hydatid Liver Cyst into Peritoneal Cavity Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Abbas-zadeh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a serious parasitic infection in places, which people has a close contact with dogs or sheep. They may be found as an incidental findings during routine clinical examination or even followed by radiographic or ultrasonography evaluation. The disease becomes more complicated if rupture of the cysts occurs due to blunt trauma or spontaneously increases of intra-cystic pressure. Here, we reported a case of hydatid liver cyst that ruptured into the peritoneal cavity after blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:26512369

  13. Abdominal aortic rupture from an impaling osteophyte following blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Seth A; Murphy, William R C; Murphy, Todd W; Haan, James M

    2014-04-01

    Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta is highly fatal. We present an unusual case of an osteophyte impaling the abdominal aorta treated by endovascular repair. A 77-year-old man sustained a thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation with posterior aortic rupture between his celiac and superior mesenteric artery origins. His aortic injury was treated with a stent graft, excluding the celiac origin. He was dismissed on postoperative day 6. At 6 months, he had returned to most preinjury activities, and at 2-year follow-up, he continues to have good functional outcome. Endovascular repair may be successfully employed in select aortic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients. PMID:23810261

  14. Radiographic evaluation of the patient with sport-related abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kevin D

    2007-04-01

    Abdominal injuries are rare in sports, but they can be very serious, even life threatening when they occur. With the increasing popularity of snowboarding and extreme skiing, the rate of abdominal injuries is beginning to rise slightly. It is imperative that physicians be able to recognize signs of injury to the liver, spleen, kidney, and hollow abdominal viscera and order appropriate diagnostic tests to investigate these injuries. This article focuses on the imaging modalities physicians can use to assist in diagnosis of sport-related abdominal trauma. Although the sports medicine physician will likely not provide definitive care and treatment of these injuries, because a team approach works best, it is important to know how to diagnose them through the proper studies. PMID:17376340

  15. Bacteriology and drug susceptibility analysis of pus from patients with severe intra-abdominal infection induced by abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHAOYI; REN, LELE; LI, YOUSHENG; WANG, JIAN; YU, WENKUI; LI, NING; LI, JIESHOU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the bacteriology and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal trauma patients with severe intra-abdominal infection (SIAI). A total of 41 patients with SIAI induced by abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study, from which 123 abdominal pus samples were obtained. The results from laboratory microbiology and drug sensitivity were subjected to susceptibility analysis using WHONET software. A total of 297 strains were isolated in which Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 53.5 (159/297), 44.1 (131/297) and 0.7% (2/297), respectively. Anaerobic bacteria accounted for 1.7%. The five predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). E. coli was highly susceptible to cefoperazone (91%) and imipenem (98%), while Gram-positive cocci were highly susceptible to teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%). S. aureus was 100% susceptible to vancomycin and K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and amikacin (79%). P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (90%). Gram-negative bacterial infection was present in the majority of cases of SIAI. However, a large number of patients were infected by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus that exhibited significant resistance to penicillin (100%), oxacillin (100%) and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime (95%). Amongst the pathogenic bacteria that cause SIAI, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria account for a high proportion, so high-level and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initially used. PMID:24940451

  16. Bacteriology and drug susceptibility analysis of pus from patients with severe intra-abdominal infection induced by abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoyi; Ren, Lele; Li, Yousheng; Wang, Jian; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the bacteriology and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal trauma patients with severe intra-abdominal infection (SIAI). A total of 41 patients with SIAI induced by abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study, from which 123 abdominal pus samples were obtained. The results from laboratory microbiology and drug sensitivity were subjected to susceptibility analysis using WHONET software. A total of 297 strains were isolated in which Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 53.5 (159/297), 44.1 (131/297) and 0.7% (2/297), respectively. Anaerobic bacteria accounted for 1.7%. The five predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). E. coli was highly susceptible to cefoperazone (91%) and imipenem (98%), while Gram-positive cocci were highly susceptible to teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%). S. aureus was 100% susceptible to vancomycin and K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and amikacin (79%). P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (90%). Gram-negative bacterial infection was present in the majority of cases of SIAI. However, a large number of patients were infected by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus that exhibited significant resistance to penicillin (100%), oxacillin (100%) and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime (95%). Amongst the pathogenic bacteria that cause SIAI, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria account for a high proportion, so high-level and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initially used. PMID:24940451

  17. [Tactics of "damage control" in the injured persons with severe combined trauma of abdominal organs].

    PubMed

    Bo?ko, V V; Zamiatin, P N; Peev, S B; Nakonechny?, E V; Miroshnichenko, Iu I

    2014-12-01

    In the clinic in 2000 - 2013 yrs of 42 injured persons with severe combined trauma of abdominal organs were treated, in 18 of them the method of a multi-staged treatment (damage control) with a short-term operative intervention on the first stage was applied, what permitted to lower postoperative lethality by 22.3%, and rate of purulent-septic complications--by 18.1%. PMID:25842874

  18. Acute direct inguinal hernia resulting from blunt abdominal trauma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of traumatic inguinal hernia following blunt abdominal trauma after a road traffic accident and describe the circumstances and technique of repair. The patient suffered multiple upper limb fractures and developed acute swelling of the right groin and scrotum. CT scan confirmed the acute formation of a traumatic inguinal hernia. Surgical repair was deferred until resolution of the acute swelling and subcutaneous haematoma. The indication for surgery was the potential for visceral strangulation or ischaemia with the patient describing discomfort on coughing. At surgery there was complete obliteration of the inguinal canal with bowel and omentum lying immediately beneath the attenuated external oblique aponeurosis. A modified prolene mesh hernia repair was performed after reconstructing the inguinal ligament and canal in layers. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the formation of an acute direct inguinal hernia caused as a result of blunt abdominal trauma with complete disruption of the inguinal canal. Surgical repair outlines the principles of restoration of normal anatomy in a patient who is physiologically recovered from the acute trauma and whose anatomy is distorted as a result of his injuries. PMID:20537142

  19. Small bowell perforation and mesentery injury after an unusual blunt abdominal trauma–Case report

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta de Castro, J.; Gomes, G.; Mateus, N.; Escrevente, R.; Pereira, L.; Jácome, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In blunt abdominal trauma, lesions of the small bowell and mesentery are often underdiagnosed; although unusual, they represent the third most injured organ, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Presentation of case The authors present the case of a 68 years old male, admitted to the emergency department after being hit by a bale of straw, weighing around 300 kg, in the abdomen. After successful ressuscitation, a CT scan was performed, suggesting hemoperitoneum because of vascular lesion of the right colon bleeding. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, confirming the presence of blood in the abdominal cavity and identifying jejunal perforation, an apparently innocent hematoma of the small bowel mesentery (beside the bowel wall) distally to the first lesion and a laceration of the sigmoid serosa; a segmental jejunal resection and suture of the colon serosa were performed. In the early post-operative period, an enteric discharge was noticed, mandating surgical reexploration; a previously unnoticed bowel perforation, in the mesenteric border where the hematoma was identified, justified an additional enterectomy, after what the patients recovery progressed uneventfully. Discussion In this case, a sudden increase in abdominal pressure could explain that missed rupture of the mesenteric border of the jejunum, also causing the mesenteric hematoma, or, in spite of that, a state of low perfusion could have lead to total wall ischemia of an already irrigation compromised segment. Only noted after surgical exploration, despite prior evaluation with a computed tomography. Small bowell and mesenteric injuries are potentially missed due to decreased exploratory laparotomies for blunt abdominal trauma. Conclusion Although uncommon, small bowel and mesenteric injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. High clinical suspicion is essential for an early diagnosis PMID:25576959

  20. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fabio; Miele, Vittorio; Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice in the assessment of multiple trauma patients. However, in patients who suffered from low-energy abdominal trauma, the use of CT is controversial, since the probability of injury is low and therefore most of the studies are normal. Thus, conventional US imaging has increasingly been employed as the initial imaging modality in the work-up of minor traumatic emergency condition. More recently, the introduction of a new contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) technique, using second-generation ultrasound contrast agents, has led to a notable increase in the diagnostic accuracy of US in many organs. Therefore, in trauma patients, following assessment with conventional US imaging, a CEUS exam can be performed, to provide a more reliable assessment of solid organ injuries. CEUS has the potential to detect active bleeding from a variety of traumatic origins. Similar to CT, active extravasation is considered when there is evidence of contrast agent collection with echogenicity similar to that of an adjacent vessel. On the other hand, at least some drawbacks have to be addressed, including operator competence and reduced panoramic view. Moreover, CEUS, like conventional US imaging, cannot depict some lesions, such as diaphragmatic ruptures, bowel, and mesenteric traumatic injuries. This technique represents a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be performed at patient's bedside and is therefore extremely helpful for the follow-up of solid organs traumas managed conservatively, especially in pediatric patients and women of fertile age. Moreover, it may reduce the number of CT scans and expedite patient discharge. PMID:24060814

  1. The Impact of Damage Control Surgery on Major Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Talia A; Moore, Ernest E; Wohlauer, Max V; Biffl, Walter L; Pieracci, Fredric M; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Barnett, Carlton C; Bensard, Denis D; Burlew, Clay Cothren

    2012-01-01

    Background Thirty years ago we reported our experience with abdominal vascular trauma, highlighting the critical role of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. Damage control surgery was subsequently introduced to address this “lethal triad.” The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes from our most recent 6-year experience compared to 30 years ago. Methods Patients with major abdominal vascular injuries were examined; the most recent 6-year period was compared with archived data from a similar 6-year period three decades ago. Results The number of patients with major abdominal vascular injuries decreased from 123 patients (1975–1980) to 64 patients (2004–2009). The mean initial pH decreased from 7.21 to 6.96 (1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009]) for patients with overt coagulopathy. In spite of increasingly protracted acidosis, mortality attributable to refractory coagulopathy has decreased from 46% to 19% (1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, ?2 = 4.36, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in mortality due to exsanguinating injuries (43% vs. 62%, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, ?2 = 1.96, p = 0.16). Prehospital transport times were unchanged (22 min vs. 20 min, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009). Despite the administration of additional clotting factors and the advent of DCS, the overall mortality remains largely unchanged (37% vs. 33%, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, ?2 = 0.385, p = 0.53). Conclusions Adoption of damage control surgery, including the implementation of a massive transfusion protocol, is associated with a reduction in mortality for abdominal vascular injuries due to coagulopathy, however, patients continue to die from exsanguination. PMID:22682716

  2. A case of thoracic splenosis in a post-splenectomy patient following abdominal trauma: Hello Howell-Jolly.

    PubMed

    Viviers, Petrus J

    2014-08-01

    Seeding of splenic tissue to extra-abdominal sites is a relatively infrequent consequence of open abdominal trauma. Immunological function of these small foci of ectopic splenic tissue is unknown and their use in determining the splenic function may be limited. In this case report, a patient is described who had previously undergone an emergency splenectomy. The absence of Howell-Jolly bodies on the blood smear in a patient who had previously undergone surgical splenectomy raised the suspicion of splenosis. The immunological features as well as non-invasive evaluation of these ill-defined splenic tissue sites are discussed. PMID:25988041

  3. Severe spasm of the renal artery after blunt abdominal trauma simulating end-organ infarction.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Agayev, Ayaz; Yanar, Fatih; Bakan, Selim; Bulakci, Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Yekeler, Ensar

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic occlusion of the renal artery is a serious injury. Management differs according to the grade of injury. In most circumstances, emergency surgical revascularization or endovascular intervention is required. We describe the case of a child with multiorgan injuries and spasm of the main renal artery after blunt trauma simulating arterial occlusion or end-organ infarction. PMID:21209808

  4. Severe Spasm of the Renal Artery after Blunt Abdominal Trauma Simulating End-Organ Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Agayev, Ayaz; Yanar, Fatih; Bakan, Selim; Bulakci, Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Yekeler, Ensar

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic occlusion of the renal artery is a serious injury. Management differs according to the grade of injury. In most circumstances, emergency surgical revascularization or endovascular intervention is required. We describe the case of a child with multiorgan injuries and spasm of the main renal artery after blunt trauma simulating arterial occlusion or end-organ infarction. PMID:21209808

  5. Development and evaluation of a novel, real time mobile telesonography system in management of patients with abdominal trauma: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the use of e-FAST in management of patients with abdominal trauma, its utility in prehospital setting is not widely adopted. The goal of this study is to develop a novel portable telesonography (TS) system and evaluate the comparability of the quality of images obtained via this system among healthy volunteers who undergo e-FAST abdominal examination in a moving ambulance and at the ED. We hypothesize that: (1) real-time ultrasound images of acute trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting can be obtained and transmitted to the ED via the novel TS system; and (2) Ultrasound images transmitted to the hospital from the real-time TS system will be comparable in quality to those obtained in the ED. Methods Study participants are three healthy volunteers (one each with normal, overweight and obese BMI category). The ultrasound images will be obtained by two ultrasound-trained physicians The TS is a portable sonogram (by Sonosite) interfaced with a portable broadcast unit (by Live-U). Two UTPs will conduct e-FAST examinations on healthy volunteers in moving ambulances and transmit the images via cellular network to the hospital server, where they are stored. Upon arrival in the ED, the same UTPs will obtain another set of images from the volunteers, which are then compared to those obtained in the moving ambulances by another set of blinded UTPs (evaluators) using a validated image quality scale, the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS). Discussion Findings from this study will provide needed data on the validity of the novel TS in transmitting live images from moving ambulances to images obtained in the ED thus providing opportunity to facilitate medical care of a patient located in a remote or austere setting. PMID:23249290

  6. Small bowel obstruction secondary to strangulation through a defect in the falciform ligament after blunt abdominal trauma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Joseph A; Norton, Karen I; Bhattacharya, Nishith; Stombaugh, Lauretta

    2010-06-01

    Obstruction caused by strangulation internal hernia secondary to incarceration within the falciform ligament, although rare, has been previously reported in the literature. These cases, however, were unrelated to trauma. We report on the first case in the pediatric literature of a strangulated internal hernia secondary to incarceration in the falciform ligament precipitated by blunt abdominal trauma. A 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency room less than 24 hours after sustaining a kick to the right upper quadrant. She described sharp, nonradiating, right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, which was associated with nausea and vomiting. A KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) view showed a paucity of bowel in the right upper quadrant with distended adjacent bowel. An ultrasound showed a small amount of abdominal ascites and a prominent liver. Computed tomography scan revealed a linear hypodensity at the tip of the right lobe of the liver, suggestive of a laceration. Moderate abdominal and pelvic ascites and multiple collapsed small-bowel loops with diffuse wall thickening and poor enhancement were seen in the right upper quadrant. Significantly, pneumatosis was noted, raising the question of obstruction/volvulus and/or bowel ischemia. An exploratory laparotomy revealed incarcerated small bowel herniated into a defect in the falciform ligament, which was resected. The defect was repaired. Seemingly trivial trauma may play a precipitating role in strangulation in a patient who already has a defect in the falciform ligament. PMID:20531130

  7. Combined Intrathoracic and Subcutaneous Splenosis Discovered 51 Years after Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, James Benjamin; Hadeh, Anas; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Schroeder, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Splenosis is a rare condition that results from the autotransplantation of splenic parenchyma into unexpected locations such as the abdomen or subcutaneous tissue. In the presence of coexisting injury to the diaphragm intrathoracic transplantation can occur emerging as single or multiple pleural-based masses. This occurs after traumatic rupture of the spleen and is usually asymptomatic, only to be discovered incidentally on routine thoracic or abdominal imaging. To our knowledge this is the third documented case of combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis found in English literature. This occurred in a 71-year-old male involved in a motor vehicle accident at age 19 requiring urgent splenectomy. He has a significant cigarette smoking history and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of an abnormality seen on shoulder X-ray. PMID:26236530

  8. Abdominal gunshot wounds. An urban trauma center's experience with 300 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Burch, J M; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Mattox, K L; Jordan, G L

    1988-01-01

    From July 1983 through December 1987, 300 consecutive patients with penetrating gunshot wounds of the abdomen causing visceral or vascular injuries were treated. Resuscitative thoracotomy was required in 20 patients (6.6%), and only two survived. The most commonly injured organs were the small bowel (60%), colon (41.6%), liver (29.3%), vascular structures (24.6%), stomach (17.3%), and kidney (17.0%). The overall survival rate for the series was 88.3%; however, if only the 226 patients without vascular injuries are considered, the survival rate was 97.3%. In the 35 patients who died, the blood pressure on admission was 51 mmHg, 18 required a resuscitative thoracotomy, four visceral or vascular injuries were present, and the median blood replacement was 18 units. The cause of death was perioperative shock in 30 patients (85.7%), whereas five patients (14.3%) died of sepsis and multiple organ failure. The most common postoperative complication in survivors and patients who died later in the study was an intra-abdominal abscess (3.0%). Rapid conservative operative techniques for civilian gunshot wounds leads to few postoperative complications and an excellent survival rate, especially if vascular injuries are not present. PMID:3421760

  9. [Immunological aspects in spleen ruptures surgery due to closed abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The remote results of immunity investigation in 30 patients after organ-preserving surgery and in 30 patients after splenectomy forspleen rupture are presented in the article. Indexes of cellular and humoral immunity were normal and life quality did not differ from that in healthy individuals after organ-preserving operations with splenic artery ligation. Splenectomy leads to deterioration of life quality and disorders in cellular immunity including decrease of T-helpers/inductors cells (CD4), immunoregulatory index (CD3/CD4) and general number of T-lymphocytes (CD3) in some cases on background of compensatory increase of normal killers (CD16). It was observed significant decrease of IgG and IgM levels. Values of IgA and cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF remained normal. Level of immunosuppression is reduced due to development of splenosis. PMID:26031956

  10. Augmentation index and aortic pulse wave velocity in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Ismet; Kazaz, Zeynep; Altun, Gokalp; Cansu, Aysegul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a severe disease that can prove fatal. Factors such as advanced age, male gender, family history and cigarette use increase the risk of AAA. These factors associated with AAA development also increase arterial stiffness. Aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness. The heart rate-corrected augmentation index (AIx@75) was estimated as a composite marker of wave reflections and arterial stiffness. Elevated arterial stiffness increases the risk of development of cardiovascular events and impairs cardiovascular functions. In this study we investigated whether arterial stiffness rises in patients with AAA by measuring aortic PWV and AIx@75 parameters. Methods: Eighteen patients with AAA (age 69 ± 4 years) and 20 patients with no aneurysm (age 66 ± 6) were included. AAA was diagnosed using computerized tomography. Arterial stiffness was measured non-invasively in all patients using a SphygmoCor device. Aortic PWV and AIx@75 were used as arterial stiffness parameters. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. AIx@75 (33.2 ± 8.9 vs 25.1 ± 7.8, p=0.008) and aortic PWV (14.8 ± 4.9 vs 10.0 ± 1.7, p=0.002) were significantly elevated in the AAA group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Elevated AIx@75 and aortic PWV shows that arterial stiffness increases in patients with AAA. PMID:24600499

  11. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  12. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise. PMID:24278873

  13. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise. PMID:24278873

  14. Abdominal Surgical Incision Induces Remote Preconditioning of Trauma (RPCT) via Activation of Bradykinin Receptors (BK2R) and the Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase Pathway in Canine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Garrett J.; Baker, John E.; Moore, Jeannine; Falck, John R.; Nithipatikom, Kasem

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a novel observation was made in which nonischemic trauma at a site remote from the heart produced by a transverse abdominal incision resulted in a marked reduction of infarct size (IS) in the mouse heart via activation of sensory nerve fibers in the skin and subsequent activation of bradykinin 2 receptors (BK2R). This phenomenon was termed remote preconditioning of trauma (RPCT). Since RPCT may have potential clinical implications we attempted to confirm these findings in a large animal model, the dog. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have also recently been shown to be antinociceptive and have been shown to mimic ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and postconditioning (POC) in dogs, therefore, we tested the role of the EETs in RPCT. Anesthetized adult mongrel dogs of either sex were subjected to 60 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion. In all groups except the controls (no slit), a transverse slit (9 cm) was applied to the abdominal wall of the dog being careful to only slit the skin. Subsequently, 15 min after the slit the heart was subjected to the ischemia/reperfusion protocol. In the control dogs, the IS as a percent of the area at risk (AAR) was 22.5 ± 2.4%, whereas in the dogs subjected to the slit alone the IS/AAR was reduced to 9.2 ± 1.2% (*P<0.01). The BR2R blocker, HOE 140 (50 ug/kg, iv) given 10 min prior to the slit, completely abolished the protective effects of RCPT as did pretreatment with 14,15-EEZE, a putative EET receptor blocker or pretreatment with the selective EET synthesis inhibitor, MSPPOH. These results suggest that BK and the EETs share cardioprotective properties in a large animal model of RPCT. PMID:21786213

  15. Development and preliminary validation of a Function IndeX for Trauma (FIX-IT)

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Mohit; Wasserman, Scott M.; Yurgin, Nicole; Petrisor, Brad; Sprague, Sheila; Dent, Ricardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing fracture healing in clinical trials is subjective. The new Function IndeX for Trauma (FIX-IT) score provides a simple, standardized approach to assess weight-bearing and pain in patients with lower extremity fractures. We conducted an initial validation of the FIX-IT score. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with lower extremity fractures across different stages of healing to evaluate the reliability and preliminary validity of the FIX-IT score. Patients were independently examined by 2 orthopedic surgeons, 1 orthopedic fellow, 2 orthopedic residents and 2 research coordinators. Patients also completed the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire, and convergent validity was tested with the SF-36v2. Results For interrater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficents ranged from 0.637 to 0.915. The overall interrater reliability for the total FIX-IT score was 0.879 (95% confidence interval 0.828–0.921). The correlations between the FIX-IT score and the SF-36 ranged from 0.682 to 0.770 for the physical component summary score, from 0.681 to 0.758 for the physical function subscale, and from 0.677 to 0.786 for the role–physical subscale. Conclusion The FIX-IT score had high interrater agreement across multiple examiners. Moreover, FIX-IT scores correlate with the physical scores of the SF-36. Although additional research is needed to fully validate FIX-IT, our results suggest the potential for FIX-IT to be a reliable adjunctive clinician measure to evaluate healing in lower extremity fractures. Level of evidence Diagnostic Study Level I. PMID:24067526

  16. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 ± 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 ± 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 ± 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 ± 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 ± 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 ± 9.5; PAD: 31.4 ± 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 ± 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  17. Computed tomography in trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Toombs, B.D.; Sandler, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book begins with a chapter dealing with the epidemiology and mechanisms of trauma. Trauma accounts for more lives lost in the United States than cancer and heart disease. The fact that 30%-40% of trauma-related deaths are caused by improper or delayed diagnoses or treatment emphasizes the importance of rapid and accurate methods to establish a diagnosis. Acute thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic trauma and their complications are discussed. A chapter on high-resolution CT of spinal and facial trauma and the role of three-dimensional reconstruction images is presented.

  18. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  19. A case of abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Georgina C.; Claydon, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  20. A case of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Georgina C; Claydon, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  1. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20–64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16–2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46–3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ? 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17–3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31–3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21–7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women, visceral adipose tissue area shows significant positive association with glomerular hyperfiltration as in men. PMID:26495973

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  3. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  4. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  5. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  6. Specific trauma subtypes improve the predictive validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi refugees.

    PubMed

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-12-01

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations. PMID:24549491

  7. Body Mass Index Is a Marker of Nutrition Preparation Sufficiency Before Surgery for Crohn's Disease From the Perspective of Intra-Abdominal Septic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhi, Min; Chen, Huangwei; Tang, Jian; Su, Minli; Yao, Jiayin; Yang, Qingfan; Chen, Junrong; Hu, Pinjin; Liu, Huanliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poor preoperative nutritional status for individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intra-abdominal septic complications (IASCs). The present study aimed to investigate the association of the common nutrition indices serum albumin and body mass index (BMI) with IASCs. Sixty-four CD patients who had received elective intestinal operations were retrospectively investigated. Among these patients, 32 had received individualized fortified nutrition support. IASCs occurred in 7 patients (10.9%). Compared with non-IASC patients, IASC patients had a lower BMI (17.6?±?2.7 vs 15.6?±?1.3?kg/m2, P?=?0.048). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve according to the BMI-based IASC prediction was 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.601–0.944; P?=?0.020) with an optimum diagnostic cutoff value of 16.2?kg/m2. A BMI?index (CDAI), a low BMI level remained associated with IASCs (OR, 7.650; 95% CI, 0.808–72.427; P?=?0.076). Serum albumin was not associated with IASCs. Although the fortified nutrition support group had an albumin level comparable to the control group, this group had a higher simplified CDAI score, a lower BMI level, and a comparable incidence rate of IASCs. Thus, BMI more accurately reflects the basic preoperative nutritional status of CD patients than serum albumin. BMI can aid in guiding preoperative nutrition support and judging the appropriate operation time for CD. PMID:26334908

  8. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  9. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done on someone who is choking and also conscious . Most experts do not recommend abdominal thrusts for ... the airway, call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing ...

  10. Tailbone trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    Choi SB, Cwinn AA. Pelvic trauma. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 52. Vora A. Coccydynia. In: Frontera, ...

  11. MDCT of renal trauma: correlation to AAST organ injury scale.

    PubMed

    Heller, Matthew T; Schnor, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Renal injuries affect 8-10% of patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred modality at most trauma centers. Renal injuries have been categorized by several grading schemes in the literature. The classification proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) predicts clinical outcome with reasonable accuracy. Although the AAST classification for renal injury is primarily based on findings during surgery, it has a strong correlation with MDCT findings. PMID:24667041

  12. Delayed repair for traumatic abdominal wall hernia: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Sall, I; El Kaoui, H; Bouchentouf, S M; Ait Ali, A; Bounaim, A; Hajjouji, A; Baba, H; Fahssi, M; Alhyane, A; Zentar, A; Sair, K

    2009-08-01

    Abdominal wall hernias after trauma have been recognized for more than a century, with the first case reported as occurring after a fall. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) after blunt trauma are uncommon. The timing of definitive repair, early or delayed, is not clear. We report a case on TAWH and mesenteric avulsion, highlighting the reasons for immediate or delayed repair. A single case study can hardly be considered as a basis for profound changes in the management of post traumatic hernias. However, damage to all layers of the abdominal wall indicates high-energy trauma. In such cases, the damage is not, in all probability, limited to the integumentary system. For the moment, the timing of surgery in any TAWH should be considered differently according to the trauma, the wall defect, clinical and radiological findings, associated injuries, and the clinical status of the patient. PMID:19153644

  13. Computed tomography of pancreatic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Crass, R.A.

    1983-05-01

    In a review of over 300 CT scans of abdominal trauma, we encountered 13 patients with surgically proved pancreatic injuries. CT correctly diagnosed pancreatic fractures, contusions, or posttraumatic pseudocysts in 11 of these patients. There were two false positive and two false negative diagnoses. The CT diagnosis of pancreatic trauma may be difficult in selected patients who are scanned soon after injury. Acutely, the actual plane of a pancreatic fracture may be difficult to identify with CT, and the peripancreatic soft-tissue changes of traumatic pancreatitis are often subtle. Eight of 11 correctly diagnosed pancreatic injuries showed thickening of the left anterior renal fascia on CT scans. This sign should prompt a critical evaluation of the pancreas of the traumatized patient.

  14. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-12-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children.

  15. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  16. Specific Trauma Subtypes Improve the Predictive Validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Arnetz, Bengt B.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A.; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. Methods A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Results Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12% and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7% and 3%, respectively). Discussion Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations. PMID:24549491

  17. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  18. [Trauma in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Niquille, M; Ardigo, S

    2012-08-15

    Older patients can suffer severe trauma, especially in home environment. In Switzerland, falls are the main cause of trauma mortality in patients older than 65. Low kinetics mecanisms can cause severe trauma. Undertriage is frequent in emergency rooms and could result in delayed mortality. Except for hip fractures and simple fractures of extremities, age more then 65 should be a criteria for admitting the patient in a trauma center and activating the trauma team. PMID:22937673

  19. Damage control surgery for spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Kossmann, Thomas; Trease, Larissa; Freedman, Ilan; Malham, Gregory

    2004-07-01

    The concept of "damage control" surgery was originally developed for massive abdominal trauma and also successfully applied to the management of lone bone injuries. More recently this has been extended to severely injured patients with spine injuries. This paper provided an overview of how damage control principles can be applied to multitrauma patients with spine injuries, to patients with isolated spine injuries and to spine injuries with and without neurology. The role of neuroimaging in acute spine trauma and controversies in the pharmaceutical approach to spine injuries are discussed. Additional prospective controlled trials are required to delineate the role and timing of damage control surgery in acute spine injury. With improved neuroimaging early spinal damage control surgery will be formally established in the management of spine trauma. PMID:15203306

  20. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case. PMID:26614151

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Overview What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? The main blood vessel in your body ... educational materials I could read? Are there any web sites you recommend where I can learn more ...

  2. Relationship between trauma narratives and trauma pathology.

    PubMed

    Amir, N; Stafford, J; Freshman, M S; Foa, E B

    1998-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between posttrauma pathology and the level of articulation (complexity) in rape narratives recounted by victims shortly after the assault. Degree of articulation was operationalized as the reading level of the narrative as determined by a computer program. Shortly after the trauma, reading level was correlated with severity of anxiety but not with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Degree of the narrative articulation shortly after the trauma, however, was related to severity of later PTSD. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the less developed trauma narratives hinder recovery from trauma. PMID:9565923

  3. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased.

  4. Helping Youth Overcome Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jamie C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of trauma can roll on unchecked like a spirit of death. In its path are strewn its once vibrant victims. Human bonds are rent asunder by the disgrace of trauma. These are the youngsters who have been verbally bashed, physically battered, sexually assaulted, and spiritually exploited. Other traumas of childhood neglect include: (1)…

  5. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  6. Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

    2006-01-01

    The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

  7. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  8. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  9. Canine tactical field care part three - thoracic and abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Wesley M

    2010-01-01

    Military and law enforcement agencies have seen a dramatic increase in the utilization of working canines both at home and in foreign deployments. Due to the fact that professional veterinary care is sometimes distant from internal disaster or foreign deployment sites, the military medic, police tactical medic, or other first-response medical care provider may be charged with providing emergency or even basic, non-emergency veterinary care to working canines. (Editor's Note: Military veterinary detachments are collocated next to the major human treatment facilities in a deployment environment. In a deployed environment veterinary care is located in areas where they are most needed or where most of the animals are located.) The medical principles involved in treating canines are essentially the same as those for treating humans, but the human healthcare provider needs basic information on canine anatomy and physiology and common emergency conditions in order to provide good basic veterinary care until a higher level of veterinary care can be obtained. This article represents the third in a series of articles designed to provide condensed, basic veterinary information on the medical care of working canines, to include military working dogs (MWDs), police canines, federal agency employed working canines, and search and rescue dogs, to those who are normally charged with tactical or first responder medical care of human patients. This article provides and overview of the diagnosis and treatment of common traumatic injuries to the thorax and abdomen. PMID:20306416

  10. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain, including recurrent abdominal pain, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was originally defined ... or constipation alternating with diarrhea) is the classic irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Causes The trigger for functional abdominal ...

  11. Congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm with porencephaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Yumoto, Yasuo; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Morokuma, Seiichi; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Hojo, Satoshi; Wake, Norio

    2011-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare disease in the paediatric population and is mainly caused by intrauterine infection, connective tissue diseases, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Marfan's syndrome, and iatrogenic trauma due to umbilical artery catheterization. Although several cases have been reported in the English literature, they were rarely diagnosed prenatally. Vascular obstruction in utero is also believed to be the major cause of porencephaly. Recently, gene mutations have been reported as the cause of both the above-mentioned diseases. We present a prenatally diagnosed case of congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm with porencephaly. PMID:21160169

  12. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. PMID:26450606

  13. Laparoscopy in trauma: An overview of complications and related topics

    PubMed Central

    Kindel, Tammy; Latchana, Nicholas; Swaroop, Mamta; Chaudhry, Umer I; Noria, Sabrena F; Choron, Rachel L; Seamon, Mark J; Lin, Maggie J; Mao, Melissa; Cipolla, James; El Chaar, Maher; Scantling, Dane; Martin, Niels D; Evans, David C; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of laparoscopy has provided trauma surgeons with a valuable diagnostic and, at times, therapeutic option. The minimally invasive nature of laparoscopic surgery, combined with potentially quicker postoperative recovery, simplified wound care, as well as a growing number of viable intraoperative therapeutic modalities, presents an attractive alternative for many traumatologists when managing hemodynamically stable patients with selected penetrating and blunt traumatic abdominal injuries. At the same time, laparoscopy has its own unique complication profile. This article provides an overview of potential complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma, focusing on practical aspects of identification and management of laparoscopy-related adverse events. PMID:26557490

  14. Non-operative management of renal trauma in very young children: experiences from a dedicated South African paediatric trauma unit.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Alex; Lazarus, John; Sebastian van As, A B

    2012-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma results in renal injury in 10% of paediatric cases. Over the last twenty years, the management of paediatric renal trauma has shifted towards a primarily non-operative approach that is now well-established for children up to 18 years old. This retrospective study reviews our experiences of non-operatively managing blunt renal trauma in a very young cohort of patients up to 11 years old. Between June 2006 and June 2010, 118 children presented to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town with blunt abdominal trauma. 16 patients shown to have sustained renal injury on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed for the mechanism of injury, severity of renal injury, clinical presentation, associated injuries, management method and clinical outcomes. All renal injuries were graded (I-V) according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Severity Scale. All renal trauma patients included in this study were aged between 1 and 11 years (mean of 6.5 years). 1 patient sustained grade V injuries; 2 grade IV, 6 grade III and 7 grade I injuries. The majority of injuries (9/16) were caused by motor vehicle crashes, whilst 5 children fell from height, 1 was struck by a falling tree and 1 hit by a moving train. 1 of 16 patients was haemodynamically unstable on presentation as a result of multiple splenic and hepatic lacerations. He was resuscitated and underwent immediate laparotomy. However, his renal injuries were not indications for surgical management. 15 haemodynamically stable patients were non-operatively managed for their renal injuries. Following lengths of admissions ranging from 4 to 132 days, all 16 patients were successfully discharged with no mortalities. No significant complications of renal trauma, such as new-onset hypertension, were detected during their first follow up outpatient appointments. Our findings successfully extend non-operative management of haemodynamically stable renal injuries to a very young cohort up to 11 years old. However, we still advocate immediate resuscitation and surgical intervention for any haemodynamically unstable child who had sustained any abdominal injury. We also argue for a limited role for abdominal CT imaging for diagnosing renal injury and routine follow up, instead recommending a greater emphasis on clinical observations for possible complications. PMID:21269622

  15. Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury.

    PubMed

    Terrosu, G; Rossetto, A; Kocjancic, E; Rossitti, P; Bresadola, V

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations. An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The mobilization of the patient revealed a deep gap, about 8 × 8 cm, in the perineum, with the anus and rectum displaced from their original site. Anal reimplantation was performed, suturing the median raphe, inserting two pelvic drainage tubes, and fashioning a loop transverse colostomy. Closed rectal traumas account for only 4-11% of all rectal traumas. Crushing of the pelvis causes a sudden reduction in its anteroposterior diameter and a corresponding increase in its latero-lateral diameter, together with an abrupt rise in intra-abdominal pressure. The anus is pushed out of the perineal plane due to the divarication of the levator muscles. As suggested in the literature, the standard treatment is wound debridement with immediate or deferred repair, fashioning a diversion colostomy, and repair of the rectum, wherever possible. PMID:21556880

  16. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis complicating abdominal penetrating injury: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is a rare condition usually associated with endocarditis or spinal surgery. However, it may also occur following abdominal penetrating trauma with associated gastrointestinal perforation. Diagnosis might be challenging and appropriate treatment is essential to ensure a positive outcome. In trans-abdominal trauma, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotics is generally recommended for prophylaxis of secondary infections. A case report of vertebral osteomyelitis complicating trans-colonic injury to the retroperitoneum is presented and clinical management is discussed in the light of literature review. PMID:24373134

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  18. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  19. Blunt transection of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma with associated small and large bowel injury?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K.; Doolin, R.; Suggett, N.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Closed rupture of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 45 year old female who presented with closed rupture of the rectus abdominis in conjunction with damage to small bowel mesentery and infarction of small and large bowel following a high velocity road traffic accident. Multiple intestinal resections were required resulting in short bowel syndrome and abdominal wall reconstruction with a porcine collagen mesh. Post-operative complications included intra-abdominal sepsis and an enterocutaneous fistula. DISCUSSION The presence of rupture of rectus abdominis muscle secondary to seatbelt injury should raise the suspicion of intra-abdominal injury. CONCLUSION Our case highlights the need for suspicion, investigation and subsequent surgical management of intra-abdominal injury following identification of this rare consequence of seatbelt trauma. PMID:24055917

  20. Head Trauma, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or all parts of the head: the scalp, skull, brain, spinal fluid, and blood vessels. Head trauma ... or both. External injuries can cause a fractured skull. An internal injury, such as the brain hitting ...

  1. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies. PMID:21485605

  2. Use of vacuum-assisted closure device in a disastrous form of abdominal sepsis and stoma site infection: systematic review and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Popovi?, Milos; Barisi?, Goran; Markovi?, Velimir; Petrovi?, Jelena; Krivokapi?, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Use of Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) for treatment of open abdomen has been established predominantly in cases of severe abdominal trauma, resulting with high percentage of primary fascial closure. The role of VAC technique in cases of severe diffuse peritonitis is not definitely incorrigible. However, in cases of severe complicated abdominal sepsis VAC come up as a last resort. PMID:23373369

  3. Trauma resuscitation time.

    PubMed

    van Olden, Ger D J; van Vugt, Arie B; Biert, Jan; Goris, R Jan A

    2003-03-01

    Documenting the timing and organisation of trauma resuscitation can be utilised to assess performance standards, and to ensure a high quality of trauma resuscitation procedures. Since there is no European literature available on trauma resuscitation time (TRT) in the emergency room, the aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate TRT in the Netherlands. The introduction of an ATLS-trained prehospital mobile medical team (MMT) in the Nijmegen area initiated the on-site advanced trauma life-support for the prehospital management of trauma patients. We studied TRT in two groups of patients, one with, the other without on-site care by a MMT. In the emergency room the use of videotape recording was chosen to document trauma resuscitation (22 actions) and TRT. A specially flow-chart was used to define the TRT-procedures. We studied 43 patients; 27 without MMT treatment and 16 with MMT treatment. The activities were divided into the ABCDE's of trauma care. Significant more patients of the MMT group were intubated before arrival in the hospital (12/16 (75%) versus 2/27 (2%), P<0.05). Eleven definitive airway management interventions (intubation) and one thoracic drainage in the non-MMT group were demanded by the protocol, but not performed before arrival in the hospital. Sixteen out of 22 actions that were documented were carried out at an earlier stage in the MMT group. There was no significant difference between the resuscitation times; in both groups the recorded median time was approximately 43 min. This prospective analysis demonstrates the timing of resuscitation procedures in a resuscitation room and provides some insight into the timing of ATLS initial assessment. PMID:12623249

  4. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  6. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  7. External laryngeal trauma.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, W; Hebert, A F

    2000-05-01

    External laryngeal trauma, blunt or penetrating, is a rare but potentially life-threatening injury. This is frequently seen in multiple-trauma patients and can go unrecognized in the absence of astute clinical awareness. Injuries may range from small endolaryngeal hematomas or lacerations to complete laryngotracheal separation. Proper airway management is of utmost importance and is one of the most controversial aspects of treatment of laryngeal trauma. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy and high resolution computed tomography scanning of the larynx has greatly enhanced the evaluation of these injuries. Treatment options range from conservative, nonsurgical observation to evaluation in the operating room. Surgical intervention may involve endoscopy, open surgical exploration, and possibly laryngeal stenting. Long-term goals are aimed at maintaining voice, airway, and swallowing ability. A systematic approach to this condition often results in predictable and acceptable outcomes. PMID:10875208

  8. Mesenteric calcification following abdominal stab wound

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Velopulos, Catherine G.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the formation of bone in non-ossifying tissue. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is a rare form of HO that is characterized by the formation of an ossifying pseudotumour at the base of the mesentery, usually following abdominal surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of mesenteric HO in a young male who presented for elective ventral incisional hernia repair following a stab wound to the abdomen requiring exploratory laparotomy 21 months earlier. Preoperative workup was unremarkable, but a hard, bone-like lesion was noted to encircle the base of the mesentery upon entering the abdomen, consistent with HO. The lesion was excised with close margins, and his hernia was repaired without incident. DISCUSSION Traumatic HO describes the ossification of extra-skeletal tissue that specifically follows a traumatic event. It usually occurs adjacent to skeletal tissue, but has been occasionally described in the abdomen as well, usually in patients who suffer abdominal trauma. Overall the prognosis of HO is good, as it is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential. However, the major morbidity associated with mesenteric HO is bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION The size, location, and symptoms related to our patient's mesenteric HO put him risk for obstruction in the future. As a result, the mass was surgically excised during his ventral hernia repair with good outcomes. PMID:24981165

  9. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140

  10. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  11. Paediatric trauma with hyperamylasemia.

    PubMed

    Boam, Tristan; Durell, Jonathan; Dagash, Haitham; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a paediatric case of hyperamylasemia following parotid trauma. A 12-year-old boy was hit by a motorcycle, sustaining only superficial lacerations to the face overlying the parotid. A hyperamylasemia was noted, and further characterised by a fractionated isoamylase test, as being predominantly of the salivary type. Serum lipase levels were low. Based on these investigations, pancreatic injury was judged unlikely with the minor parotid trauma being the probable source of the hyperamylasemia. The patient was spared further unnecessary investigations and managed conservatively. PMID:26443093

  12. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. PMID:25463338

  13. Initial systolic blood pressure and ongoing internal bleeding following torso trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kassavin, Daniel S; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Ahmed, Nasim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested that an initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the range of 90–110 mmHg in a trauma patient may be indicative of hypoperfusion and is associated with poor patient outcome. However, the use of initial SBP as a surrogate for predicting internal bleeding is yet to be validated. The purpose of this study was to assess the presenting SBPs in patients with torso trauma and evidence of ongoing internal hemorrhage. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective chart review conducted at the Level II Trauma Center. Patients and Methods: Adult patients who sustained trauma and underwent chest and/or abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans and angiography were included in the study. Demographic and clinical information was extracted from patients who had CT scan and angiography. Extravasation of contrast material on CT scan and angiography was considered positive for ongoing internal bleeding. Results: From January 2002 through July 2007, a total of 113 consecutive patients were included in this study. Forty-seven patients had evidence of ongoing internal bleeding (41.6%; 95% confidence interval: 32.4%, 51.2%). When comparing patients with and without ongoing bleeding, these two groups were similar in their gender, race, pulse, injury severity score and shock index. However, bleeding patients were typically older [mean (standard deviation): 44.5 (20.5) vs 37.3 (19.1) years; P = 0.051], had a lower initial SBP [116.2 (36.0) vs 130.0 (30.4) mmHg; P = 0.006] and had a higher Glasgow coma scale (GCS) [13.1 (4.0) vs 12.1 (4.4); P = 0.09]. From a multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age (P = 0.046) and lower SBP (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with bleeding, when controlled for gender, race and GCS. Among the 47 patients with ongoing bleeding, only seven patients (15%) had a SBP lower than 90 mmHg and 25 patients (53%) had a SBP higher than or equal to 120 mmHg. The spleen was the most frequently injured organ identified with active bleeding. Conclusions: Initial SBP cannot predict the ongoing internal bleeding. PMID:21633565

  14. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Jenny N; Abboud, Bassam N

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal cocoon, the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Preoperative diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion. The early clinical features are nonspecific, are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan. Surgery is important in the management of this disease. Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases. PMID:22563185

  15. Diaphragmatic hernia repair more than four years after severe trauma: Four case reports

    PubMed Central

    de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Lopes, José Carlos Paiva; Inaco Cirino, Caio César; Godinho, Maurício; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Scarpelini, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diaphragmatic rupture is an infrequent complication of trauma, occurring in about 5% of those who suffer a severe closed thoracoabdominal injury and about half of the cases are diagnosed early. High morbidity and mortality from bowel strangulation and other sequelae make prompt surgical intervention mandatory. Case presentation Four Brazilian men with a delayed diagnosis of a rare occurrence of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Patient one had diaphragmatic rupture on the right side of thorax and the others three patients on the left thoracic side, all they had to approach by a laparotomy and some approach in the chest, either thoracotomy or VATS. This injuries required surgical repositioning of extensively herniated abdominal viscera and intensive postoperative medical management with a careful control of intra-abdominal pressure. Discussion The negative pressure of the thoracic cavity causes a gradually migration of abdominal contents into the chest; this sequestration reduces the abdomen’s ability to maintain the viscera in their normal anatomical position. When the hernia is diagnosed early, the repair is less complicated and requires less invasive surgery. Years after the initial trauma, the diaphragmatic rupture produces dense adhesions between the chest and the abdominal contents. Conclusions All cases demonstrated that surgical difficulty increases when diaphragmatic rupture is not diagnosed early. It should be noted that when trauma to the thoraco-abdominal transition area is blunt or penetrating, a thorough evaluation is required to rule out diaphragmatic rupture and a regular follow-up to monitor late development of this comorbidity. PMID:26241166

  16. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  17. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  18. Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  19. Trauma induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lolay, Georges A; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed K

    2016-01-15

    Chest Trauma in athletes is a common health problem. However, myocardial infarction secondary to coronary dissection in the setting of blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. We report a case of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma. A 32-year-old male with no relevant medical problems was transferred to our medical center for retrosternal chest pain after being elbowed in the chest during a soccer game. Few seconds later, he started experiencing sharp retrosternal chest pain that was severe to that point where he called the emergency medical service. Upon arrival to the trauma department patient was still complaining of chest pain. ECG demonstrated ST segment elevation in the inferior leads with reciprocal changes in the lateral leads all consistent with active ischemia. After rolling out aortic dissection, patient was loaded with ASA, ticagerlor, heparin and was emergently taken to the cardiac catheterization lab. Coronary angiography demonstrated 100% thrombotic occlusion in the distal right coronary artery with TIMI 0 flow distally. After thrombus aspiration, a focal dissection was noted on the angiogram that was successfully stented. Two days after admission patient was discharged home. Echocardiography prior to discharge showed inferior wall akinesis, normal right ventricular systolic function and normal overall ejection fraction. PMID:26490501

  20. Abbas Edalat Trauma Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Edalat, Abbas

    political and social spheres insofar as residues of certain traits of post-traumatic stress disorder have, Social and Scientific History of Iran1 Abstract We study the traumatic impact of the Mongol invasions of political and social violence in post-Mongol Iranian history, we provide evidence to support the Trauma

  1. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  2. Pediatric spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Tekes, Aylin; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spinal trauma is unique. The developing pediatric spinal column and spinal cord deal with direct impact and indirect acceleration/deceleration or shear forces very different compared to adult patients. In addition children are exposed to different kind of traumas. Moreover, each age group has its unique patterns of injury. Familiarity with the normal developing spinal anatomy and kind of traumas is essential to correctly diagnose injury. Various imaging modalities can be used. Ultrasound is limited to the neonatal time period; plain radiography and computer tomography are typically used in the acute work-up and give highly detailed information about the osseous lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for disco-ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. Depending on the clinical presentation and timing of trauma the various imaging modalities will be employed. In the current review article, a summary of the epidemiology and distribution of posttraumatic lesions is discussed in the context of the normal anatomical variations due to progressing development of the child. PMID:25512255

  3. Extrasensory Perception Experiences and Childhood Trauma: A Rorschach Investigation.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Ciura, Giulia; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether people who report recurrent extrasensory perception (ESP) experiences (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition) have suffered more traumatic experiences and traumatic intrusions. Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire); traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure (Rorschach Traumatic Content Index). Participants also completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Dissociative Experience Scale, and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Implications for health professionals are discussed. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma. PMID:26488918

  4. Trauma Mechanisms and Injuries Associated with Go-Karting

    PubMed Central

    Eker, Hasan H.; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.; Den Hartog, Dennis; Schipper, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    Annually, approximately 600 patients seek medical attention after go-kart accidents in the Netherlands. A large variability in injury patterns can be encountered. Knowledge of the trauma mechanisms of go-kart accidents and insight into the associated injuries is limited and requires improvement. Such additional knowledge may lead to customized trauma protocols for patients with a high index of suspicion on go-kart injuries. Research into trauma mechanisms may also lead to implementation of improved or additional safety measures for go-karting, involving both the go-karts itself as well as prerequisites to the go-kart tracks and qualifications for the drivers. The main trauma mechanisms involved in go-kart accidents, and three cases to illustrate the variety of injuries are described in the current manuscript. PMID:20361000

  5. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Jean-Francois; Pierce, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among people under the age of 44. Hemorrhage is a major contributor to deaths related to trauma in the first 48 h. Accordingly, the management of these patients is a time-sensitive and critical affair that anesthesiologists responsible for surgical resuscitation will face. Coagulopathy associated with trauma exists in one-third of all severely injured patients upon presentation to the hospital. Trauma patients presenting with coagulopathy have significantly higher mortality. This trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) must be managed adroitly in the resuscitation of these patients. Recent advancements in our understanding of TIC have led to new protocols and therapy guidelines. Anesthesiologists must be aware of these to effectively manage this form of shock. TIC driven by a combination of endogenous biological processes, as well as iatrogenic causes, can ultimately lead to the lethal triad of hypothermia, acidemia, and coagulopathy. Providers should understand how to promptly diagnose TIC and be aware of the early indicators of massive transfusion. The use of common laboratory studies and patient vital signs serve as our current guide, but the importance of each is still under debate. Thromboelastography is a tool used often in the diagnosis of TIC and can be used to guide blood product transfusion. Certain pharmaceutical strategies and non-transfusion strategies also exist, which aid in the management of hemorrhagic shock. Damage control surgery, rewarming, tranexamic acid, and 1:1:1 transfusion protocols are promising methods used to treat the critically wounded. Though protocols have been developed, controversies still exist on the optimal resuscitation strategy. PMID:25587242

  6. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  7. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  8. Needle Thoracotomy in Trauma.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Fay, Shmuel; Gendler, Sami; Klein, Yoram; Arkovitz, Marc; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2015-12-01

    Tension pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in trauma patients. Needle thoracotomy (NT) is the currently accepted first-line intervention but has not been well validated. In this review, we have critically discussed the evidence for NT procedure, re-examined the recommendations by the Advanced Trauma Life Support organization and investigated the safest and most effective way of NT. The current evidence to support the use of NT is limited. However, when used, it should be applied in the 2nd intercostal space at midclavicular line using a catheter length of at least 4.5 cm. Alternative measures should be studied for better prehospital management of tension pneumothorax. PMID:26633663

  9. Fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of avulsion of the gallbladder: a postmortem case report

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury. PMID:23986858

  10. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric trauma involving the bones of the face is associated with severe injury and disability. Although much is known about the epidemiology of facial fractures in adults, little is known about injury patterns and outcomes in children. The most common facial fractures were mandible, nasal and maxillary/zygoma. The most common mechanisms of injury are motor vehicle collisions, violence and falls. These fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury varies with age. Cranial and central facial injuries are more common among toddlers and infants, and mandible injuries are more common among adolescents. Although bony craniofacial trauma is relatively uncommon among the pediatric population, it remains a substantial source of mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions. Continued efforts toward injury prevention are warranted. An overview of various types of fractures and their management modalities is discussed, with case reports. How to cite this article: Mukherjee CG, Mukherjee U. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):231-236. PMID:25206176

  11. Cervical spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    Torretti, Joel A; Sengupta, Dilip K

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine trauma is a common problem with a wide range of severity from minor ligamentous injury to frank osteo-ligamentous instability with spinal cord injury. The emergent evaluation of patients at risk relies on standardized clinical and radiographic protocols to identify injuries; elucidate associated pathology; classify injuries; and predict instability, treatment and outcomes. The unique anatomy of each region of the cervical spine demands a review of each segment individually. This article examines both upper cervical spine injuries, as well as subaxial spine trauma. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the broad topic of cervical spine trauma with reference to the classic literature, as well as to summarize all recently available literature on each topic. Identification of References for Inclusion: A Pubmed and Ovid search was performed for each topic in the review to identify recently published articles relevant to the review. In addition prior reviews and classic references were evaluated individually for inclusion of classic papers, classifications and previously unidentified references. PMID:21139776

  12. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  13. New technology in the management of liver trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Glikeria; Kaskarelis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the second most frequently injured solid organ in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Hence the diagnosis and clinical assessment of hepatic trauma is of great importance because of the relationship of the liver to high morbidity and mortality. Multi detector-row computed tomography is the main diagnostic modality for the examination of hepatic parenchyma and other associated organ injuries, such as acute or delayed complications. Based on clinical and radiological findings, the majority of patients are managed conservatively, with the most important criterion of surgical therapy being hemodynamic instability. Radiologists must demonstrate a high knowledge of imaging recommendations and standardization of reporting to enable the selection of the appropriate treatment algorithm. Transcatheter embolization therapy is a method of great potential for the management of patients with traumatic hepatic injuries. PMID:24714662

  14. New technology in the management of liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Glikeria; Kaskarelis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the second most frequently injured solid organ in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Hence the diagnosis and clinical assessment of hepatic trauma is of great importance because of the relationship of the liver to high morbidity and mortality. Multi detector-row computed tomography is the main diagnostic modality for the examination of hepatic parenchyma and other associated organ injuries, such as acute or delayed complications. Based on clinical and radiological findings, the majority of patients are managed conservatively, with the most important criterion of surgical therapy being hemodynamic instability. Radiologists must demonstrate a high knowledge of imaging recommendations and standardization of reporting to enable the selection of the appropriate treatment algorithm. Transcatheter embolization therapy is a method of great potential for the management of patients with traumatic hepatic injuries. PMID:24714662

  15. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip; Schubert, Johanna

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery.

  16. Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    !" Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block Presentation developed by Dr. Ashley Meister Presented by Dr. Kevin Wong April 25, 2015 #12;Objectives ! Goals of the TAP block & effects ! Anatomy-sparing ! Good for abdominal wall pain (incisional pain) ! Does not cover visceral pain ! Field block in fascial

  17. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  18. Trauma and PTSD Symptoms: Does Spiritual Struggle Mediate the Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Because exposure to potentially traumatic events is common (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, & Hughes, 1995), the mechanisms through which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms develop is a critical area of investigation (Ozer, Best, Lipsey, & Weiss, 2003). Among the mechanisms that may predict PTSD symptoms is spiritual struggle, a set of negative religious cognitions related to understanding or responding to stressful events. Although prominent theories emphasize cognitive factors in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, they have not explicitly addressed spiritual struggle. The present prospective study tested the role of spiritual struggle in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms following trauma. We assessed exposure to trauma and non-trauma events during the first year of college, spiritual struggle due to the most stressful event, and PTSD symptoms resulting from the index event. Spiritual struggle partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms. Interestingly, some individual subscales of spiritual struggle (specifically, Punishing God Reappraisal, Reappraisal of God’s Powers, and Spiritual Discontent) partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms; however, reappraisal of the event to evil forces did not relate to PTSD symptoms. These results suggest that spiritual struggle is an important cognitive mechanism for many trauma victims and may have relevance for cognitive therapy for PTSD. PMID:22308201

  19. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  20. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  1. A case report of abdominal splenosis - a practical mini-review for a gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Ksi?dzyna, Dorota

    2011-09-01

    Splenosis is a benign condition caused by ectopic autotransplantation of splenic tissues after splenic trauma or surgery. It is usually diagnosed accidentally. However, occasionally splenosis poses a significant diagnostic dilemma, especially when this condition presents as a metastatic malignant disease on abdominal imaging. This is the case report of a 54-year-old woman, who underwent post-traumatic splenectomy at the age of 12 years. The physical examination of this patient complaining of epigastric and low back pain, except for postoperative abdominal scar, as well as laboratory tests were normal. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed chronic gastritis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed no spleen, enlarged lymph nodes in the right retroperitoneum and a focal lesion in the uterus. In addition, the CT scan disclosed enlarged left hepatic lobe, numerous oval tumors between intestinal loops, in the caecal region, under the diaphragm and abdominal wall, periaortic enlarged lymph nodes and an osteolytic lesion in the first lumbar vertebra, suggesting disseminated malignant disease. The exploratory laparotomy showed multiple abdominal nodules, a tumor of the ileum, the greater omentum and the uterus. Except for the last one (leiomyoma), all excised tumors proved to have histological structure typical for the spleen and, finally, abdominal splenosis was diagnosed. Splenosis should be considered when a differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions disclosed on abdominal imaging occurs in a patient with a splenic injury in the past. PMID:21961104

  2. Emergency Treatment of Ocular Trauma.

    PubMed

    Lipke, Klaus J; Gümbel, Hermann O C

    2015-08-01

    Injuries to the eye and its adnexa are common in head and neck trauma centers. An ophthalmologist experienced in ocular traumatology is not always available. Therefore, every emergency physician should be familiar with the basic evaluation, triage, and management of ocular trauma. Above all, the identification of a need for immediate treatment should be implemented in the algorithm of an emergency room, especially in a head and neck trauma center, to reduce the risk of a devastating loss of vision. This article formulates the different types of ocular trauma and their required first-line therapy. PMID:26372708

  3. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612

  4. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth with Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…

  5. Rural Trauma: Is Trauma Designation Associated with Better Hospital Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…

  6. Acute brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem. PMID:26688392

  7. Open partial splenectomy for trauma using GIA-Stapler and FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Daniela; Rizzi, Sabrina; Zampogna, Annunziatino; Alonzo, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A ruptured spleen caused by blunt abdominal injury is often treated by splenectomy. In view of the gravity of the ‘postsplenectomy syndrome,’ a conservative approach has been increasingly used. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with a Grade III splenic lesion for a blunt abdominal trauma after a car accident. We performed a partial splenectomy of the upper pole using GIA-Stapler. A supplemental haemostasis of the stapled line was successfully achieved by the application of FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent. The splenic remnant was fixed into the left-upper quadrant using human fibrin glue. PMID:22767672

  8. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24?hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  9. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functional pain. Your doctor will also follow your child to see if any changes take place which would suggest a different problem. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children NASPGHAN • PO Box 6 • Flourtown, PA 19031 • 215-233-0808 • ...

  10. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  11. Liver Trauma During Combined Liposuction and Abdominoplasty: A Rare but Potentially Lethal Complication.

    PubMed

    Gialamas, Eleftherios; Oldani, Graziano; Modarressi, Ali; Morel, Philippe; Toso, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Liposuction is a well-established procedure that is generally safe. However, rare complications can occur. The authors report on a 38-year-old woman who underwent combined abdominoplasty and liposuction at a private clinic. Four hours after the procedure, severe hypovolemic shock developed and required emergency transfer to a tertiary-care center. After primary fluid resuscitation, abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed severe right-sided liver trauma, with active bleeding and free intra-abdominal fluid. Two attempts at right hepatic artery embolization failed to fully control the bleeding, and surgical hemostasis was required. After a 2-week hospitalization, the patient was discharged, and she returned to work 3 months later. Although it appears that this is the first reported case of liver trauma during liposuction, this potential complication should be kept in mind and identified early to permit efficient and effective management. PMID:26254474

  12. Clinical practice: dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Wyszkowski, Jacek

    2010-09-01

    Approximately 50% of children under the age of 15 are victims of various kinds of injuries in the orofacial region. Post-traumatic complications may occur, including crown discolouration, cervical root fracture, ankylosis, root resorption and tooth loss. The most severe complication after dental injury in primary dentition can affect the developing permanent tooth germ, and various consequences may be seen several years later when the permanent tooth erupts. In the permanent dentition, the most severe dental injury affects the surrounding alveolar bone structure and will lead to loss of the tooth. Current literature emphasises that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory and that delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should a paediatrician know, and more importantly, how should he/she advise parents and caretakers? In an emergency situation such as tooth avulsion, reimplantation within 30 min is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If reimplantation of the tooth is impossible, milk, saline or even saliva are the preferred transport media. The prognosis for an avulsed tooth depends upon prompt care, which is a determinant factor for successful treatment of the traumatised tooth. In all other dental trauma cases, it is important to refer the child to a paediatric dentist, to follow up the healing process and reduce late post-traumatic complications. With timely interventions and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for healing following most dental injuries is good. In conclusion, it is important that paediatricians are able to inform parents and caretakers about all possible and long-lasting consequences of different dental injuries. PMID:20058022

  13. Mortality profile in trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, D S; Sodi, G S; Banerjee, A K

    1993-01-01

    To assess the mortality incidence among trauma victims a one year prospective study was conducted on all patients admitted with physical trauma. The causes of death amongst trauma victims comprised road traffic accident (44.71%), thermal injuries (19.71%), domestic causes (11.54%), agriculture related injury and criminal violence (9.61% each), fall of construction workers (2.4%), collapse of buildings and train accidents (0.96% each) and industrial injury (0.48%). Mortality was highest among victims with multiple injuries (41.35%). The mortality rate increased in direct proportion to increase in transportation time and injury severity score. PMID:8491973

  14. [Damage control in vascular trauma].

    PubMed

    Henzan, Eisei

    2002-07-01

    During the era of frequent occurrence of motor vehicle accidents and criminal injuries with lethal weapons, trauma surgeons have accumulated much experience in managing severely injured victims. Very often, efforts to proceed with definitive repair at initial surgery led to patient death despite the control of anatomic bleeding. Damage control methods were thus developed to save patients who otherwise would hove died. Damage control treatment for vascular trauma patients is still in its infancy in Japan. This paper presents an overview of the relevant reports form international journals dealing with the present status of damage control methods in vascular trauma patients. PMID:12143290

  15. [The advantages of combined US-fluoroscopic guidance in the drainage of abdominal abscesses].

    PubMed

    Lemmi, A; Lupattelli, L; Barzi, F; Malaspina, C; Rizzo, F

    1992-01-01

    The authors report their experience with 19 percutaneous drainages of abdominal abscesses in 19 patients. Six collections were in the subphrenic spaces, 6 in the liver, 1 in the infracolic space, 2 in the psoas muscle, 3 within the abdominal wall, and 1 in the pararenal space. Their etiology was abdominal surgery in 10 patients, biliary obstruction in 1, and trauma in 2; in the extant patients a hematogenous infection was supposed. The procedures were performed under combined US and fluoroscopic guidance, following Seldinger technique in all but two cases. Van Sonnenberg double-lumen sump catheter was successfully employed in all cases. After a review of the technique the authors discuss the advantages of US-fluoroscopic over CT guidance. The latter is preferred if the collection is not well demonstrated by US and in the cases where a posterior approach is needed. The economic advantages of US-fluoroscopic over CT guidance are also stressed. PMID:1557550

  16. Secondary Trauma in Children and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    A review of childhood secondary trauma is presented. Secondary trauma involves the transfer and acquisition of negative affective and dysfunctional cognitive states due to prolonged and extended contact with others, such as family members, who have been traumatized. As such, secondary trauma refers to a spread of trauma reactions from the victim…

  17. Return to Play After Liver and Spleen Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Juyia, Rushad F.; Kerr, Hamish A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Conclusion: Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy: C. PMID:24790694

  18. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Wesley S.; Kashyap, Vikram S.; Vescera, Candace L.; Quiñones-Baldrich, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) will result in a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity rates and cost when compared with open transabdominal repair. Summary Background Data Since the introduction of endovascular repair of AAA this decade, multiple groups have evaluated different endovascular grafts. Despite the excellent results reported initially, there has been a paucity of well-controlled, comparative studies looking at long-term outcome. Methods From 1992 to 1998, the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular AAA repair (mean age 74.7, AAA size 5.6 cm) were compared to 100 patients undergoing transabdominal repair (mean age 72.9, AAA size 5.9 cm). All patients undergoing endovascular repair received a device manufactured by Endovascular Technologies, Inc. (Menlo Park, CA) and were prospectively followed with periodic examination, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and duplex scanning. Of the 200 patients, 198 have been available for long-term follow-up. Results The two groups had similar preoperative risk factors. Surgical time (211 vs. 256 minutes, p < 0.005), blood loss (326 vs. 1010 ml, p < 0.005), and blood replacement (0.4 vs. 1.6 units, p < 0.005) were all decreased in the endovascular group. Median intensive care unit stay (0 vs. 2 days) and hospital stay (2 vs. 7 days) were significantly reduced in the endovascular group. Insignificant trends in lower morbidity rates (myocardial infarction 1% vs. 5%, respiratory failure 1% vs. 5%, colon ischemia 0% vs. 2%) were present in patients undergoing endovascular repair. This led to decreased hospital cost and increased hospital profit. The surgical mortality rate (2% vs. 3%) and 5-year survival rate (65% vs. 72%) have been equivalent between the two groups. Conclusions The surgical mortality rate is low for both groups and not statistically different. Endovascular repair significantly reduces resource utilization (surgical time, blood replacement, intensive care unit and hospital stay) and cost when compared to transabdominal aneurysm repair. Long-term survival is equivalent in patients undergoing AAA repair regardless of technique. Although endovascular repair appears durable for up to 6 years, longer follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:10493477

  20. Traumatic Infra-renal Aortic Dissection After a High-energy Trauma: A Case Report of a Primary Missed Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Godry, Holger; Rölleke, Guido; Mumme, Achim; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Gothner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A traumatic infra-renal aortic dissection is a rare but life-threatening injury that follows deceleration injuries. The mechanism of blunt abdominal aortic injury involves both direct and indirect forces. The successful management of patients with traumatic injuries depends on a prompt suspicion of the injury and early diagnosis and therapy. Missed injuries in trauma patients are well-described phenomena and implementation of the ATLS® trauma schedule led to a decrease in the number of missed injuries, but trauma computed tomography (CT) scans in injured patients are still not standard. We report on a 54-year old Caucasian female patient who was involved in a car accident. The fellow passenger of the car was seriously injured. The patient had been previously treated at two different hospitals, and a dislocated acetabular fracture had been diagnosed. Because of this injury, the patient was transferred to our institution, a level 1 trauma-center where, according to the nature of the accident as a high-energy trauma, a complete polytrauma management was performed at the time of admission. During the body check, a moderate tension of the lower parts of the abdomen was detected. During the CT scan, an aneurysm of the infra-renal aorta with a dissection from the height of the second lumbar vertebral body to the iliac artery was observed. The patient required an operation on the day of admission. After 19 days post-trauma care the patient was able to leave our hospital in good general condition. Therefore, missed injuries in multiple injury patients could be fatal, and it is essential that the orthopedic surgeon leaves room for suspicion of injuries based on the nature of the trauma. Traumatic injuries of the abdominal aorta are rare. According to the ATLS® trauma schedule, all of the patients who have experienced high-energy trauma and associated fractures should undergo routine screening using a trauma CT scan with contrast agents to detect potential life-threatening injuries. In case of abdominal trauma, an aortic dissection, which can easily be overlooked, has to be considered. PMID:24744835

  1. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  2. [Surgery of abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Lotina, S L; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Velimirovi?, D V; Petrovi?, P Lj; Perisi?-Savi?, M V; Kovacevi?N S

    1997-01-01

    Seventy one surgical procedures on abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney have been reported in literature until 1980. Bergan reviewed 30 operations of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in these patients until 1974. Of them 3 AAA were ruptured. Gutowitz noticed 57 surgically treated AAA in patients with horseshoe kidney until 1984. Over the period from 1991 to 1996 thirty nine new cases were reported , including 2 ruptured AAA. The surgery of the abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney is associated with the following major problems: -reservation of anomalous (aberrant) renal arteries; reservation of the kidney excretory system; approach to the abdominal aorta (especially in patients with AAA) and graft placement The aim of the paper is the presentation of 5 new patients operated for abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney. Over the last 12 years (January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996) at the Centre of Vascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 5 patients with horseshoe kidney underwent surgery of the abdominal aorta. There were 4 male and one female patients whose average age was 57.8 years (50-70). Patient 1. A 50-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for disabling claudication discomforts (Fontan stadium IlI) and with significantly decreased Ankle-Brachial indexes (ABI). The translumbal aortography showed aorto-iliac occlusive disease and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from infrarenal aorta (Crawford type II). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. The aorto-bifemoral (AFF) bypass with Dacron graft was done with end-to-end (TT) proximal anastomosis just under the anomalous renal artery. The graft was placed behind the isthmus. During a 12-year follow-up renal failure, renovascular hypertension and graft occlusion were not observed. Patient 2. A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for symptomatic AAA. Two years before admission the patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The Duplex scan ultrasonography and translumbal aortography showed an infrarenal AAA, aneurysm of the right iliac artery and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from the left iliac artery (Crawford type III). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. After partial aneurysmectomy, the flow was restaured using bifurcated Dacron graft placed behind the isthmus. The right limb of the bifurcated graft was anastomosed with the common femoral artery and the left limb with left iliac artery just above the origin of the anomalous renal artery. The first day after operation thrombosis of the left common femoral artery with leg ischaemia was observed. (That artery was cannulated for ECC during coronary artery bypass grafting 2 years ago). The revascularisation of the left leg was done with femoro-femoral cross over bypass. During a 11-year follow-up period, the graft was patent and renal failure or revascular hypertension were not observed. Patient 3. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for rest pain (Fontan stadium III) and significantly decreased ABI. The patient had diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction two months before admission. Translumbar aortography showed an aorto-iliac occlusive disease associated with horseshoe kidney with 5 anomalous renal arteries. (Crawford type III). Due to high risk, the axillo-bifemoral (AxFF) extra-anatomic bypass graft was performed. Five years after the operation the patient died due to new myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period the graft was patent and there were no signs of renal failure and renovascular hypertension. Patient 4. A 50-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital for high asymptomatic AAA. The diagnosis was established by Duplex scan and translumbal aortography. The large infrarenal AAA (transverse diameter 7 cm) associated with horseshoe kidney with two normal renal arteries (Crawford type I) were

  3. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of abdominal obesity in Polish rural children.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Janusz, M; Jagielski, P; G?odzik, J; Pa?ka, T; Ciso?, T; Pilch, W

    2015-08-01

    Secular trends of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference indicate greater increase in abdominal obesity compared to general obesity. Determinants of obesity described by BMI are relatively well documented in various populations, unlike abdominal obesity described by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aim of the study was to determine prevalence and abdominal obesity (WHtR) risk factors in a cohort of 3048 rural children aged 7-12 years from southern Poland. Biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were analysed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in rural boys and girls in the sample was 11% and 9% respectively. Obesity in both parents, irregular breakfasts, irregular meals during the day and regularly consumed tea were significant factors of abdominal obesity risks in rural girls. Being the only child, low number of people in a household, obesity in both parents, high energy-dense food index and no exercise significantly increased the risk of abdominal obesity in rural boys. The study demonstrated tendencies similar to other European countries in the prevalence of abdominal obesity among sexes. Lifestyle behaviours should be changed and adapted to each sex since risk factors differ between the sexes and indicate higher eco-sensitivity in boys. PMID:25796137

  5. Elongated left lobe of the liver mimicking a subcapsular hematoma of the spleen on the focused assessment with sonography for trauma exam.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert; Tabbut, Matthew; Gramer, Diane

    2014-07-01

    The focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination has assumed the role of initial screening examination for the presence or absence of hemoperitoneum in the patient with blunt abdominal trauma. Sonographic pitfalls associated with the examination have primarily been related to mistaking contained fluid collections with hemoperitoneum. We present a case in which an elongated left lobe of the liver was misdiagnosed as a splenic subcapsular hematoma. It is imperative that emergency physicians and trauma surgeons be familiar with this normal variant of the liver and its associated sonographic appearance on the perisplenic window in order to prevent nontherapeutic laparotomies or embolizations. PMID:24556519

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  7. Functional abdominal bloating with distention.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

  8. Fibrolipomas masquerading as abdominal hernias

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803

  9. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  10. Early Liver Dysfunction in Patients With Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kun; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Chen, Guopu; Youming, Deng; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Liver dysfunction is commonly seen in patients with severe sepsis; however, few studies were reported in intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). This study was performed to assess the risk factors for early liver dysfunction (ELD) in patients with IAIs and to determine the effects of ELD on outcomes of these patients. From January 2011 to November 2014, a retrospective study that screened 421 patients with IAIs was performed. ELD was defined as an increase in serum total bilirubin (TB) >2?mg/dL or aminotransferases levels greater than twice the normal value within 48?hours after IAIs’ onset. Patients with pre-existing liver disease or major hepatobiliary injury were excluded. Risk factors for ELD and outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analysis was performed for ELD patients within 24 to 48?hours. Of 353 enrolled patients admitted with IAIs, 147 (41.6%) developed ELD. Significant independent risk factors for ELD were trauma (odds ratio [OR] 1.770, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.126–2.783, P?=?0.01) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) (OR 3.199, 95% CI 1.184–8.640, P?=?0.02). Successful source control <24?hours was shown to exert protection against ELD after 24?hours during IAIs (OR 0.193, 95% CI 0.091–0.409, P?Trauma and ACS were relevant risk factors. Early successful source control appeared to be an important method to prevent and/or reduce ELD in patients with IAIs. PMID:26496306

  11. The study of psychic trauma.

    PubMed

    Bacciagaluppi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This article starts from the DSM definition of psychic trauma. A central source in this field is the 1992 book by Judith Herman. One line of investigation is the sexual abuse of women and children. In an early phase, both Janet and Freud described dissociation as a reaction to trauma. In 1897, Freud disputed the reality of sexual trauma, a position countered later by Ferenczi. In a later phase, this subject was investigated by the American feminist movement. Studies of physical abuse are then described, followed by mental abuse and neglect. Another line of investigation is combat neurosis. The two lines converged in the definition of PTSD and its incorporation into the DSM in 1980. The views on trauma of John Bowlby and Alice Miller are also discussed. The integration of the relational model in psychoanalysis with the trauma literature is presented. The most recent advances are located in neurobiology. The discussion makes a preliminary investigation of the remote causes of war and sexual violence. PMID:21902510

  12. Birth trauma and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Geirsson, R T

    1988-03-01

    Birth trauma is a rare primary cause of perinatal death, occurring at most only once in every 1000-2000 births. As a cause of brain damage and later handicap it is often difficult to dissociate injury at birth from the concomitant effects of asphyxia, growth retardation or preterm delivery. A continuum of reproductive casualty has been postulated, but for trauma is not proven. Among children with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation trauma may be implicated in a few cases, possibly 1-2 of 1000 deliveries. Vaginal breech delivery has been related to a higher incidence of minimal brain damage syndromes and some of this damage probably has its origin in perinatal trauma. The pregnancies where there is particular risk of birth trauma include those where the infant is large for gestational age, has intrauterine growth retardation, is delivered preterm, is vaginally delivered in breech presentation or is from multiple gestation. Particular care must be given to diagnosis and preventive measures in these cases and competent handling is required if the disaster of brain damage caused by traumatic birth is to be minimized. PMID:3046800

  13. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  14. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  15. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  16. Early interventions following psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2002-09-01

    What is the best way to provide early interventions for psychiatric disorders after trauma? The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have raised urgent concerns about the evidence for early treatments after trauma that can prevent psychiatric disorders. This review outlines the expected course of posttraumatic stress reactions and discusses the current means of identifying people who are at risk of developing disorders. A critique of psychological debriefing and an analysis of evidence for cognitive-behavioral therapy as an early intervention is provided. The major challenges for early intervention are discussed, including increasing treatment effectiveness, delivering therapy when it is required by thousands of people, and developing early interventions for a wide array of psychiatric disorders in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder that can develop following trauma. PMID:15097928

  17. Severity assessment in trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Raux, M; Vivien, B; Tourtier, J-P; Langeron, O

    2013-01-01

    Severity assessment in trauma patients is mandatory. It started during initial phone call that alerts emergency services when a trauma occurred. On-call physician assesses severity based on witness-provided information, to adapt emergency response (paramedics, emergency physicians). Initial severity assessment is subsequently improved based on first-responder provided informations. Whenever information comes, it helps providing adequate therapeutics and orientating the patient to the appropriate hospital. Severity assessment is based upon pre-trauma medical conditions, mechanism of injury, anatomical lesions and their consequences on physiology. Severity information can be summarized using scores, yet those are not used in France, except for post-hoc scientific purposes. Triage is usually performed using algorithms. Whatever the way triage is performed, triage tools are based on mortality as main judgement criterion. Other criteria should be considered, such as therapeutics requirements. The benefit of biomarkers of ultrasonography at prehospital setting remains to be assessed. PMID:23906735

  18. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  19. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management

    PubMed Central

    TORBA, M.; GJATA, A.; BUCI, S.; BUSHI, G.; ZENELAJ, A.; KAJO, I.; KOCEKU, S.; KAGJINI, K.; SUBASHI, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. Patients and methods This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Results Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 –1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 – 21.3, p<0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries. PMID:26017103

  20. Penetrating ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge injury. Intraocular foreign bodies undetectable by CT were identified by B-scan ultrasonography in our patient. This case highlights the importance of additional ultrasonography when evaluating severe ocular trauma. And ophthalmologists should consider the possibility of penetrating injury caused by blank ammunition. PMID:24589340

  1. [Pre- and perimortem bone trauma vs. postmortem damages-- Principles of differentiation].

    PubMed

    Holz, Franziska; Birngruber, Christoph G; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    In medicolegal practice, evidence of trauma or damage on human skeletons or single bones raises the question whether this was inflicted in an antemortem, perimortem, or postmortem time frame. Trauma that occurred around the time of death, i. e., perimortem trauma, is of special forensic interest, as it can yield clues about the manner and cause of death. Perimortem traumas thus need to be carefully distinguished both from antemortem injuries that were evidently survived (these can still be useful for identification purposes) and from postmortem damage, as may occur during retrieval of remains. This study offers an up-to-date review of the specialist literature, e. g. textbooks and pubmed-listed publications, identifying differentiation criteria for ante- and perimortem traumas and postmortem damage. The results that are useful for practice in actual medicolegal casework are presented, and an overview of all macroscopically visible criteria (including simple magnifications, i. e., magnifying glass) that can be used to distinguish between ante- and perimortem traumas on the one side, and postmortem damage on the other is given. The difficulty of distinguishing antemortem trauma and postmortem damage from perimortem trauma rises sharply the closer in time they were inflicted to the time of the death event. Additional postmortem changes due to exposure of the bones to the surrounding deposition conditions may also occur after the relevant postmortem damage or antemortem trauma was inflicted and further complicate the problem. In this context, the "perimortem interval" and the "Fracture Freshness Index" (FFI) are discussed as means to classify the time frame of traumas. PMID:26399122

  2. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chen-Ju; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Wang, Li-Jen; Chen, Huan-Wu; Ku, Yi-Kang; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Huan-Wen; Kang, Shih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. METHODS Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. RESULTS A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma. PMID:26268303

  3. Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers Article Body All ... temporary or permanent hearing loss. This is called acoustic trauma. How loud is 85 decibels? Surprisingly, not ...

  4. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  5. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  6. Managing Mental Health Disorders Resulting from Trauma through Yoga: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    There are many and varied types of trauma. The extent to which trauma influences the mental health of an individual depends on the nature of trauma, as well as on the individual's coping capabilities. Often trauma is followed by depression, anxiety, and PTSD. As the pharmacological remedies for these conditions often have undesirable side-effects, nonpharmacological remedies are thought of as a possible add-on treatment. Yoga is one such mind-body intervention. This paper covers eleven studies indexed in PubMed, in which mental health disorders resulting from trauma were managed through yoga including meditation. The aim was to evaluate the use of yoga in managing trauma-related depression, anxiety, PTSD and physiological stress following exposure to natural calamities, war, interpersonal violence, and incarceration in a correctional facility. An attempt has also been made to explore possible mechanisms underlying benefits seen. As most of these studies were not done on persons exposed to trauma that had practiced yoga, this is a definite area for further research. PMID:22778930

  7. Managing Mental Health Disorders Resulting from Trauma through Yoga: A Review.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    There are many and varied types of trauma. The extent to which trauma influences the mental health of an individual depends on the nature of trauma, as well as on the individual's coping capabilities. Often trauma is followed by depression, anxiety, and PTSD. As the pharmacological remedies for these conditions often have undesirable side-effects, nonpharmacological remedies are thought of as a possible add-on treatment. Yoga is one such mind-body intervention. This paper covers eleven studies indexed in PubMed, in which mental health disorders resulting from trauma were managed through yoga including meditation. The aim was to evaluate the use of yoga in managing trauma-related depression, anxiety, PTSD and physiological stress following exposure to natural calamities, war, interpersonal violence, and incarceration in a correctional facility. An attempt has also been made to explore possible mechanisms underlying benefits seen. As most of these studies were not done on persons exposed to trauma that had practiced yoga, this is a definite area for further research. PMID:22778930

  8. Medicating Relational Trauma in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…

  9. Transforming Cultural Trauma into Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Aboriginal populations increasingly is being called "intergenerational trauma." Restoring the cultural heritage is a central theme in the book, "Reclaiming Youth at Risk." That work describes the Circle of Courage model for positive development which blends Native child and youth care philosophy with research…

  10. Penetrating trauma to the head.

    PubMed

    Blank-Reid, C; Reid, P C

    2000-12-01

    Penetrating trauma to the brain is not as common as blunt trauma; however, the incidence is becoming a frequent occurrence in our society. Rapid transport to trauma centers where definitive care can be rendered is essential. Outcome depends on the site of the missile tract, the presenting neurologic status, and the extent of neurologic tissue destruction. Neurologic deterioration occurs rapidly, and outcome results seem to depend on the patient's neurologic status at the time of surgery. CT scanning is the diagnostic procedure of choice and should be performed if the patient's condition is stable (see Fig. 3). Aggressive removal of missile and bone fragments needs to be balanced by the knowledge that it is preferable to leave behind a few hard-to-reach fragments than to increase the patient's neurologic deficit. CT scanning in the postoperative period is very helpful in identifying abscess formation as well as new or recurrent hematomas, edema, and areas of tissue injury not evident at the time of initial scanning. Antibiotic therapy should be initiated preoperatively. Control of elevated ICP plays a significant role in decreasing mortality and morbidity. Judicious debridement of injured brain combined with medical management of increased ICP will maximize the quality of recovery and increase survivability. Although great strides have been made in reducing mortality and morbidity for trauma patients, the sad issue is that the majority of traumas are preventable. Until society is willing to understand that it needs to make firearm safety a priority, there will always be patients to care for who have sustained a penetrating injury. PMID:11855251

  11. A Case Report of Delayed Diagnosed Chronic Aortocaval Fistula: A Rare Complication of Penetrating Trauma to the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Beton, Osman; Kaplano?lu, Hatice; Berkan, Öcal; Y?lmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aortocaval fistula (ACP) is a rare complication of penetrating trauma to the abdomen. We report a case of traumatic ACP presenting with pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure symptoms 15 years after the initial penetrating injury. Although symptoms of pulmonary hypertension started 5 years ago, it was wrongly diagnosed and treated as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presence of a continuous abdominal bruit and history of penetrating abdominal trauma gave rise to suspicion of a fistula, which was confirmed by computed tomography and angiography. Percutaneous closure of ACP was planned, but the patient died of severe pneumonia. The clinical presentation of chronic ACP can vary from being asymptomatic to symptoms related to pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, and pulmonary embolism; thus, definitive diagnosis can be challenging. PMID:26713178

  12. Minor Trauma Causing Stroke in a Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old Caucasian male presented with sudden dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and clumsiness lasting for a couple of hours. He had a subtle trauma during a wrestling match 2 days prior to the presentation. A CT Angiogram (CTA) and MRI showed left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with anticoagulation with heparin drip in the ICU. The patient was discharged home on the third day on Lovenox-warfarin bridging. This case underscores the importance of considering VAD as a differential diagnosis in patients with sports-related symptoms especially in activities entailing hyperextension or hyperrotation of neck. Due to a varied latent period, often minor underlying trauma, and subtle presentation, a low index of suspicion is warranted in timely diagnosis and treatment of VAD. Considering recent evidence in treatment modality, either antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation may be used for treatment of VAD. PMID:25883815

  13. Peritoneal Breach as an Indication for Exploratory Laparotomy in Penetrating Abdominal Stab Injury: Operative Findings in Haemodynamically Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Victor; Martin, Kate; Varma, Dinesh; Fitzgerald, Mark; Pilgrim, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injuries varies from nonoperative to operative management. The aim was to investigate whether peritoneal breach when used as an indication for exploratory laparotomy appropriately identified patients with intra-abdominal visceral injury. Methods. We conducted retrospective cohort study of all patients presenting with PAI at a major trauma centre from January 2007 to December 2011. We measured the incidence of peritoneal breach and correlated this with intra-abdominal visceral injury diagnosed at surgery. Results. 252 patients were identified with PAI. Of the included patients, 71 were managed nonoperatively and 118 operatively. The operative diagnoses included nonperitoneal-breaching injuries, intraperitoneal penetration without organ damage, or intraperitoneal injury with organ damage. The presenting trauma CT scan was reported as normal in 63%, 34%, and 2% of these groups, respectively. The total negative laparotomy/laparoscopy rate for all patients presented with PAI was 21%, almost half of whom had a normal CT scan. Conclusion. We found that peritoneal breach on its own does not necessarily always equate to intra-abdominal visceral injury. Observation with sequential examination for PAI patients with a normal CT scan may be more important than exclusion of peritoneal breach via laparoscopy. PMID:26064688

  14. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    PubMed Central

    Dierkhising, Carly B.; Ko, Susan J.; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Lee, Robert; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement) among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS) is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth. PMID:23869252

  15. Invasive cervical resorption following trauma.

    PubMed

    Heithersay, G S

    1999-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is an insidious and often aggressively destructive form of external root resorption which may occur as a late complication following dental trauma particularly where it involves damage to cementum and supporting tissues. While this resorption may be evident clinically as a pink coronal discolouration, later with cavitation of the enamel, often there are no obvious external signs and the condition is only detected radiographically. It is characterised by the invasion of the cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue which progressively resorbs dentine, enamel and cementum. The dental pulp remains protected by an intact layer of dentine and predentine until late in the process. Ectopic calcifications can be observed in advanced lesions both within the invading fibrous tissue and deposited directly onto the resorbed dentine surface. The aetiology of invasive cervical resorption is unknown but trauma has been documented as a potential predisposing factor. A recent study by the author of 222 patients with a total of 257 teeth which displayed varying degrees of invasive cervical resorption showed that trauma alone was a potential predisposing sole factor in 14% of patients and 15.1% of teeth. Trauma in combination with bleaching, orthodontics or delayed eruption was found in an additional 11.2% of patients or 10.6% of teeth and of these a combination of trauma and bleaching occurred in a relatively high proportion of 7.7% of patients or 7.4% of teeth. This study also revealed that of other potential predisposing factors orthodontics was the most common sole factor constituting 21.2% of patients and 24.1% of teeth examined. Successful treatment of invasive cervical resorption is dependent on the extent of the resorptive process. Teeth with invasive cervical resorption have been divided into four classes. Whilst several treatment modalities are possible, a clinical evaluation of the treatment of this condition by the topical application of a 90% aqueous solution of trichloracetic acid, curettage, endodontic therapy where necessary and restoration with a glass ionomer cement has been evaluated on 94 patients with a total of 101 teeth with a minimum follow-up period of three years. Results indicate a satisfactory treatment outcome can be anticipated in Class 1, 2 and 3 cases. In Class 4 resorption no treatment or alternative therapy is recommended. Diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of development is highly desirable and therefore the patients who have a potential for the development of this condition by virtue of a history such as trauma should be monitored radiographically at intervals throughout life. PMID:11411085

  16. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training in the ATLS and the future guidelines for trauma care in the ICU based on epidemiological studies carried out in both the North Spanish Group and the Southern one to promote development and improvement in several areas. PMID:12951298

  17. Initial validity of the Logical Rorschach in the assessment of trauma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Chang, Jenss; Kochinski, Sivan; Patz, Sarah; Nowinski, Lisa A

    2010-05-01

    Wagner's (2001) Logical Rorschach (LR) was designed to be a simple but reliable and valid system for assessing psychological distress and cognitive slippage using the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Exner, 2003). In this investigation, we administered the Rorschach to 50 adults with and without trauma histories. Scoring of the test followed both the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) and the LR guidelines. Results indicate that the Perceptual Thinking Index (Exner, 2000, 2003), the CS-derived Trauma Content Index (Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990) and Aggressive Past (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), and the LR Perceptual Accuracy Score (Wagner, 2001) scores were able to differentiate the 2 groups. Despite largely equivocal findings, it appears that some aspects of the LR may have some validity in the assessment of trauma-related phenomena. PMID:20408022

  18. Negative pressure wound therapy management of the “open abdomen” following trauma: a prospective study and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) for temporary abdominal closure of open abdomen (OA) wounds is widely accepted. Published outcomes vary according to the specific nature and the aetiology that resulted in an OA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new NPWT system specifically used OA resulting from abdominal trauma. Methods A prospective study on trauma patients requiring temporary abdominal closure (TAC) with grade 1or 2 OA was carried out. All patients were treated with NPWT (RENASYS AB Smith & Nephew) to achieve TAC. The primary outcome measure was time taken to achieve fascial closure and secondary outcomes were complications and mortality. Results A total of 20 patients were included. Thirteen patients (65%) achieved fascial closure following a median treatment period of 3 days. Four patients (20%) died of causes unrelated to NPWT. Complications included fistula formation in one patient (5%) with spontaneous resolution during NPWT), bowel necrosis in a single patient (5%) and three cases of infection (15%). No fistulae were present at the end of NPWT. Conclusion This new NPWT kit is safe and effective and results in a high rate of fascial closure and low complication rates in the severely injured trauma patient. PMID:23305306

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Idoguchi, Koji Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro; Okita, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Koji

    2012-10-15

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  20. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  1. Abdominal wall endometriosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Eljuga, Damir; Klari?, Petar; Bolanca, Ivan; Grbavac, Ivan; Kuna, Krunoslav

    2012-06-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis, also known as scar endometrioma, is a rare condition, in most cases occurring after previous cesarean section or pelvic surgery. The incidence of scar endometrioma is estimated to 0.03%-1.5% of all women with previous cesarean delivery. The predominant clinical picture is cyclic pain. Due to a wide range of mimicking conditions and a relative rarity, a significant delay is often observed from the onset of symptoms to proper treatment. We report on a case of a 36-year-old patient with scar endometrioma after two previous cesarean deliveries. The possible diagnostic pitfalls and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23115952

  2. Burden of Maxillofacial Trauma at Level 1 Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Ruchi Pathak; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Maneesh; Kumar, Abhishek; Jaipuria, Jiten; Misra, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide. This study was performed to evaluate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures, associated injuries, and treatment used at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, between January 2007 and June 2010. The study provides basis for establishment of trauma as major etiology of maxillofacial injuries and planning for preventive strategies. A retrospective study of patients seen and treated at JPNATC, AIIMS, New Delhi, between January 2007 and June 2010 was performed. Data extracted from patient records included etiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality, and concomitant injuries. There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (RTA) (56.8%) was the most common etiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 to 75 years (mean, 34.7 years) with a peak incidence in the third decade with a male-to-female ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615 (77%) and middle third 180 (23%). With regard to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the most common site, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%), and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 84 (10.8%) with orthopedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated in 16.3% of cases. RTA was the major etiologic factor of maxillofacial injuries in our setting and the young adult males were the main victims. Henceforth, establishment of regionalized, efficient, and focused trauma centers in various parts of the country particularly for acute trauma should be emphasized. Also, the laws regarding the precautions such as seat belts, speed limits, and traffic rules must be observed strictly to reduce the incidence of RTA. PMID:25071877

  3. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  4. Pearls of Mandibular Trauma Management

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, John C.; Feldman, Evan M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular trauma is a common problem seen by plastic surgeons. When fractures occur, they have the ability to affect the patient's occlusion significantly, cause infection, and lead to considerable pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. Physicians determining how to manage these injuries should take into consideration the nature of the injury, background information regarding the patient's health, and the patient's comorbidities. Whereas general principles guide the management of the majority of injuries, special consideration must be paid to the edentulous patient, complex and comminuted fractures, and pediatric patients. These topics are discussed in this article, with a special emphasis on pearls of mandibular trauma management. PMID:22550460

  5. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: the RAPTOR (Resuscitation with Angiography Percutaneous Treatments and Operative Resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting existing ones, to address the need for single-site flexible haemorrhage control. This manuscript therefore describes the many considerations in the design and refinement of the physical build, equipment selection, human factors evaluation of new combined treatment paradigms, and the final introduction of a RAPTOR protocol in order that others may learn from our initial efforts. PMID:24560091

  6. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  7. Trauma pain – a military perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wyldbore, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the system developed by the United Kingdom’s Defence Medical Services to manage the pain associated with combat trauma from the point of wounding, through repatriation back home to rehabilitation and eventual discharge from the Forces, whenever that may be. The system is founded upon the principles of integration and sustainability and this article includes discussion of both clinical and non-clinical components. PMID:26516503

  8. Contemporary Management of Renal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Shoobridge, Jennifer J; Corcoran, Niall M; Martin, Katherine A; Koukounaras, Jim; Royce, Peter L; Bultitude, Matthew F

    2011-01-01

    In the management of renal trauma, surgical exploration inevitably leads to nephrectomy in all but a few specialized centers. With current management options, the majority of hemodynamically stable patients with renal injuries can be successfully managed nonoperatively. Improved radiographic techniques and the development of a validated renal injury scoring system have led to improved staging of injury severity that is relatively easy to monitor. This article reviews a multidisciplinary approach to facilitate the care of patients with renal injury. PMID:21941463

  9. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  10. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  11. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  12. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy. PMID:24165614

  13. Some observations relating to behind-body armour blunt trauma effects caused by ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lidén, E; Berlin, R; Janzon, B; Schantz, B; Seeman, T

    1988-01-01

    Live, anesthetised pigs were used to assess behind-armour blunt trauma effects. The thoraco-abdominal body region was covered with varying thicknesses of Kevlar fabric packets. This soft body armour was applied, either in direct contact with the thoracic wall of the animals, or with different plastic foam sheets, so-called trauma packs, between the armour and the skin. The live animals were surgically evaluated, and then sacrificed. Blocks of soft soap were subjected to equal tests and the behind-armour indentations were measured. The results indicate that serious injury to the body armour-protected chest may be caused by the impact of nonpenetrating bullets and shotgun pellets. Severe pulmonary contusions and lacerations were found when the energy transferred through the body armour was estimated to be high. PMID:3339677

  14. Image Registration Assists Novice Operators in Ultrasound Assessment of Abdominal Trauma*

    E-print Network

    . Vosburgh,1 2 3 Jeffrey Stoll, 2 Vicki Noble,3 Kilian Pohl, 4 Raul San José Estepar,2 Barnabas Takacs5 or outside expert, with knowledge of the anatomy of the injured patient. The project has had three primary

  15. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach in a child with major abdominal penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Adorisio, Ottavio; Elia, Antonio; Pinzauti, Enrico; Pancani, Simone; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Lenares, Elena; Danti, Dante Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who had a lawn mower accident with subtotal gut evisceration, multiple ischemic intestinal lesions, hepatic and gastric wounds, amputation of the left forearm, and hypovolemic shock. Prompt and adequate management was carried out in tertiary level institution, based upon quick evaluation of the lesions, fluid resuscitation, surgical repair, and postoperative admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. PMID:18212607

  16. Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure by measuring abdominal wall tension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-zhuo; Yan, Shu-ying; Chen, Yan-qing; Zhuang, Yu-gang; Wei, Zhao; Zhou, Shu-qin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) by measuring abdominal wall tension (AWT) was effective and feasible in previous postmortem and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the AWT method for noninvasively monitoring IAP in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this prospective study, we observed patients with detained urethral catheters in the ICU of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital between April 2011 and March 2013. The correlation between AWT and urinary bladder pressure (UBP) was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The effects of respiratory and body position on AWT were evaluated using the paired samples t test, whereas the effects of gender and body mass index (BMI) on baseline AWT (IAP<12 mmHg) were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were studied. A significant linear correlation was observed between AWT and UBP (R=0.986, P<0.01); the regression equation was Y=–1.369+9.57X (P<0.01). There were significant differences among the different respiratory phases and body positions (P<0.01). However, gender and BMI had no significant effects on baseline AWT (P=0.457 and 0.313, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant linear correlation between AWT and UBP and respiratory phase, whereas body position had significant effects on AWT but gender and BMI did not. Therefore, AWT could serve as a simple, rapid, accurate, and important method to monitor IAP in critically ill patients. PMID:26056545

  17. Trauma therapy for death row families.

    PubMed

    Long, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    The family members of death row inmates undergo unique suffering that includes disenfranchised grief and intense psychological trauma. In Texas, where executions occur at a rate of 1 every 2 weeks, this class of trauma victims presumably is large, a fact that should generate public mental health concern. Yet the class remains virtually unknown to the therapeutic community. Very little has been done to address the trauma healing needs of death row families. This theoretical paper proposes that structural therapy designed to reengage attachment relationships and reempower family members' innate resources to emotionally regulate one another may provide one of the most effective means of helping this population survive trauma. PMID:21967176

  18. Expanding Trauma through Space and Time: Mapping the Rhetorical Strategies of Trauma Carrier Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degloma, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I detail two rhetorical strategies that trauma carrier groups--including social movement organizations, professional mental health associations, and patient advocacy groups--use to expand the relevance of trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through space and time: the social transmission of trauma and the social…

  19. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  20. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  1. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE TRAUMA ON HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–ADRENAL AXIS FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia M.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Back, Sudie E.; Spratt, Eve; Ciolino, Jody D.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Dipankar, Bandyopadhyay; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the modifying effect of gender on the association between early life trauma and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to a pharmacologic challenge and a social stress task in men and women. Participants (16 men, 23 women) were the control sample of a larger study examining HPA axis function. Individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, or psychotic or eating disorders were excluded. Methods In two test sessions, subjects received 1 ?g/kg of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously and participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Primary outcomes included plasma cortisol and corticotropin levels measured at baseline and more than five time points following the challenges. Predictors included gender and early life trauma, as measured by the Early Trauma Index. Using factor analysis, the domains general trauma, severe trauma, and the effects of trauma were established. Using regression, these constructs were used to predict differential HPA reactivity in men and women following the challenges. Results The three factors accounted for the majority of the variance in the ETI. Following the CRH challenge, women had higher overall corticotropin response as dictated by the area under the curve analysis. There were no significant associations between trauma and neuroendocrine response to the TSST. Conclusions CRH challenge results indicate that gender differences in the impact of early trauma may help explain the differential gender susceptibility to psychopathology following adverse childhood events. This may help explain gender differences in some stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders. PMID:21328636

  2. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mm?Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  3. Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals. PMID:21331361

  4. Imaging of Urinary System Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joel A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Linnau, Ken F; Voelzke, Bryan B; Sandstrom, Claire K

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the kidney, ureter, and bladder permit accurate and prompt diagnosis or exclusion of traumatic injuries, without the need to move the patient to the fluoroscopy suite. Real-time review of imaging permits selective delayed imaging, reducing time on the scanner and radiation dose for patients who do not require delays. Modifying imaging parameters to obtain thicker slices and noisier images permits detection of contrast extravasation from the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, while reducing radiation dose on the delayed or cystographic imaging. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system is discussed, along with challenges and limitations. PMID:26046510

  5. Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

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  6. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

  7. Trauma Management of the Auricle.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Armin; Frenzel, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Smaller injuries of the auricle, such as lacerations without tissue loss, have more or less standardized treatment protocols that require thorough wound closure of each affected layer. Even extended lacerations of larger parts of the ear quite often heal with only minor irregularities. New in vivo diagnostic tools have aided the understanding of this outstanding "skin flap behavior." At the other end of the trauma severity spectrum are partial or complete amputations of the ear. Here, the debate has become more intense over the last decade. There were numerous reports of successful microvascular reattachments in the 1990s. Consequently, pocket methods and their variations have received increasing attention because the results seem to be convincing. Nevertheless, the pressure damage due to banking larger parts of the elastic cartilage in the mastoid region is tremendous, and the tissue for secondary reconstruction is severely injured. Particularly in cases of acute trauma with relevant concomitant injuries to the patient and in cases in which the amputated area is in a critical state, direct wound closure is a straightforward and safe option. Subsequent thoughtfully planned secondary reconstruction using ear or rib cartilage, or even allogenous material as an ear framework, can achieve excellent aesthetic results. PMID:26372713

  8. The Biology of Trauma: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…

  9. Tips for Teachers during Times of Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Myrna Ann; Harper, Eric

    This guide for teachers in times of trauma was updated after the events of September 11, 2001--the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These traumatic events could cause refugees to experience trauma or become re-traumatized. For many refugees, their English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are the places where they…

  10. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  11. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  12. Antagonistic implications of sarcopenia and abdominal obesity on physical performance in COPD.

    PubMed

    van de Bool, Coby; Rutten, Erica P A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-08-01

    Decreased physical performance due to loss of muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) is prevalent in ageing and appears more pronounced in chronic disease. A comprehensive profile of the sarcopenic phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to characterise prevalence, functional implications and predictive value of sarcopenia with or without abdominal obesity in Dutch COPD patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation.505 COPD patients (aged 37-87 years; 57% male) underwent assessment of lung function, body composition and physical functioning, before entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Sarcopenia was assessed by appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) and abdominal obesity by android/gynoid percentage fat mass (A/G%FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.86.5% of patients were sarcopenic and showed lower physical functioning, while coexistent abdominal obesity (78.0%) resulted in higher physical functioning. Implications on endurance were less pronounced in women. The predictive value for physical functioning was higher for the "three-compartment" model (ASMI, bone mineral content and A/G%FM) than the "two-compartment" model (fat-free mass index and fat mass index) or "one-compartment" model (body mass index).In patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation, sarcopenia is highly prevalent in all body mass index categories and associated with impaired strength, and in men also with decreased endurance. Abdominal obesity seems to have protective effects on physical functioning. ASMI is a better predictor for physical functioning than fat-free mass index. PMID:25882802

  13. [Modern concepts of trauma care and multiple trauma management in oral and maxillofacial region].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinghui

    2015-06-01

    Multiple trauma management requires the application of modem trauma care theories. Optimal treatment results can be achieved by reinforcing cooperation and stipulating a treatment plan together with other disciplines. Based on modem theories in trauma care and our understanding of the theoretical points, this paper analyzes the injury assessment strategies and methods in oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma management. Moreover, this paper discusses operating time and other influencing factors as well as proposed definitive surgical timing and indications in comprehensive management of oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma patients associated with injuries in other body parts. We hope that this paper can help stomatological physicians deepen their understanding of modem trauma care theories and improve their capacity and results in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma. PMID:26281245

  14. The top 100 articles in the radiology of trauma: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Ryan Scott; Hanna, Tarek N; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma, analyze the resulting database to understand factors resulting in highly cited works, and establish trends in trauma imaging. An initial database was created via a Web of Science (WOS) search of all scientific journals using the search terms "trauma" and either "radiology" or a diagnostic modality. Articles were ranked by citation count and screened by two attending radiologists plus a tiebreaker for appropriateness. The following information was collected from each article: WOS all database citations, year, journal, authors, department affiliation, study type and design, sample size, imaging modality, subspecialty, organ, and topic. Citations for the top 100 articles ranged from 82-252, and citations per year ranged from 2.6-37.2. A plurality of articles were published in the 1990s (n?=?45) and 1980s (n?=?31). Articles were published across 24 journals, most commonly Radiology (n?=?31) and Journal of Trauma-Injury, Infection, and Critical Care (n?=?28). Articles had an average of five authors and 35 % of first authors were affiliated with a department other than radiology. Forty-six articles had sample sizes of 100 or fewer. Computed tomography (CT) was the most common modality (n?=?67), followed by magnetic resonance (MR; n?=?22), and X-ray (XR; n?=?11). Neuroradiology (n?=?48) and abdominal radiology (n?=?36) were the most common subspecialties. The 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma are diverse. Subspecialty bibliometric analyses identify the most influential articles of a particular field, providing more implications to clinical radiologists, trainees, researchers, editors, and reviewers than radiology-wide lists. PMID:26377425

  15. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  16. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  17. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine. PMID:23820001

  18. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Bobby; De Portu, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided. PMID:23326726

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  20. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  1. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  2. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  3. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  4. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  5. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7?d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4?micromol·kg?1, infusion rate: 6?micromol·kg?1·min?1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to control values during convalescence. PMID:24460539

  6. Impact of visceral adiposity measured by abdominal computed tomography on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Sik; Kwon, Hyuk Tae; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Choi, Seung Ho; Cho, Young Min; Lee, Jinwoo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2011-06-01

    Although an inverse relationship between abdominal adiposity and pulmonary function has been suggested, direct measurement of abdominal adipose tissue has rarely been attempted. Our object is to determine the impact of abdominal adiposity on pulmonary function by directly measuring abdominal adipose tissue with abdominal computed tomography (CT). In this cross-sectional study, we included never-smokers between the ages of 18 and 85 yr, who had undergone spirometry and abdominal adipose tissue analysis with CT scans during November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2009 as part of the comprehensive health examination. Among a total of 3,469 participants, 890 (25.7%) were male. The mean body mass index and waist circumference among males and females were 24.6 kg/m(2) and 87.8 cm and 23.0 kg/m(2) and 83.0 cm, respectively. Although total adipose tissue (TAT) of the abdomen in males (269.1 cm(2)) was similar to that in females (273.6 cm(2)), the ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)/subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was different; 0.99 in males and 0.50 in females. In males, TAT, SAT, and VAT were inversely associated with the absolute value of forced vital capacity (FVC), and TAT and VAT were inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). However, in females, TAT and VAT, but not SAT, were inversely associated with absolute FVC and FEV(1) values. In conclusion, the amount of abdominal adipose tissue directly measured using CT is inversely associated with lung function. PMID:21655063

  7. Changes in Neuroticism Following Trauma Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Method Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M age = 60.55, 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at mean age 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. Results No differences in pre-and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events. PMID:23550961

  8. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma: A review

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert T.; Lisco, Steven J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children from the age 1 year to 21 years old. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system following severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of TIC that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  9. Preferences for trauma treatment: A systematic review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Simiola, Vanessa; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Thompson, Richard; Cook, Joan M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of trauma histories and related psychological problems is high in general clinical settings, but little is known about trauma patient preferences for mental health treatment. The purpose of this article is to systematically review and synthesize the literature on treatment preferences in survivors of traumatic events. Studies were identified using comprehensive searches of PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. Included in the review were articles published between January 1980 and September 2014, in English that reported patient preference of treatment for trauma related disorders in either clinical or nonclinical (e.g., analog) samples. The total number of individual participants was 6,091. Of the identified studies, 35 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative. Methodological concerns included the use of analog samples, small sample sizes, and the assessment of a limited number of treatment options (e.g., asking about only 1 type of psychotherapy or medication). Overall, participants expressed a preference for psychotherapy over medication and for talking about their trauma. Understanding and addressing trauma patient preferences may assist in improving treatment initiation as well as facilitate engagement, retention and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25866958

  10. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Clara

    2014-03-01

    The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171

  11. Trauma Management of the Pregnant Patient.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Amie; Dantoni, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Trauma continues to be a leading cause of nonobstetric maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. Caring for the pregnant trauma patient requires a systematic and multidisciplinary approach. It is important to understand the anatomic and physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy. Accepted trauma guidelines for imaging and interventions should generally not be deviated from just because a patient is pregnant. Focus should be placed on injury prevention and education of at risk patients to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with traumatic injuries in pregnant patients. PMID:26600448

  12. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  13. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  14. Mortality after road traffic crashes in a system with limited trauma data capability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Africa has 4% of the global vehicles but accounts for about one tenth of global vehicular deaths. Major trauma in Kenya is associated with excess mortality in comparison with series from trauma centers. The determinants of this mortality have not been completely explored. Objectives To determine the factors affecting mortality among road users in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data of trauma admissions at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a calendar year (2009–2010). Information collected included age, gender, road user type, principal anatomical region of injury, admission status, admission blood pressure and GCS, disposition destination, Injury Severity Score (ISS), injuries sustained, treatment and mortality at two weeks. Major or severe injury was defined as injuries of ISS?>?15. Groups based on in-hospital survival were compared using determinants of mortality using X2 or students t-test as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to assess the independence of predictive variables. Results One thousand six hundred forty seven (1647) patients were admitted for trauma during the study period. Traffic admissions were 1013 (61.7%) and males predominated (79.8%). The average age of patients admitted was 31.7 years. Pedestrians, vehicle occupants and motorcyclists represented 43.3%, 27.2% and 15.2% of the road users injured. The proportion of patients with ISS?>?15 was 10.9%. The overall mortality was 7.7%. Mortality for ISS?>?15 was 27.6%. The following factors significantly predicted mortality on univariate analysis: head injury, abdominal injury, transfer in status, blood transfusion, ICU admission, age?>?60 years, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and injury severity. GCS (p?=?0.001) and ISS?>?15 (p?Trauma mortality rates in this study exceed those from mature trauma systems. Head injury and injury severity based on the ISS are independent predictors of mortality after traffic trauma. Improvements in neurosurgical and critical care services ingrained within wider primary and secondary prevention initiatives are logical targets. PMID:24524582

  15. Evaluation of cutaneous abdominal wall sensibility after abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fels, Klaus Werner; Cunha, Marcelo Sacramento; Sturtz, Gustavo Pinó; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cutaneous sensibility are common after diverse plastic surgical procedures. Although prior studies examined aesthetic results, combined procedures, and new abdominoplasty techniques, few examined the effect of undermining on cutaneous sensibility. This study aimed to analyze and quantify cutaneous sensibility after classic abdominoplasty. Two groups of patients were studied: a control group of 10 patients without surgery and another group of 25 patients who had undergone classic abdominoplasty. The abdominal wall surface was divided into nine regions. Pain sensibility was evaluated by tests with needles, and thermal sensibility by test tubes containing hot and cold water. Superficial tactile sensibility was tested using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD), which is capable of determining the cutaneous pressure threshold. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's 't-test'. The results showed a decrease in the three types of sensibility. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups for all regions tested. The centermost regions of the abdominal wall presented the highest index of analgesia and thermal anesthesia, as well as higher cutaneous pressure thresholds. PMID:15759089

  16. Age of Trauma Onset and HPA Axis Dysregulation Among Trauma-Exposed Youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Vargas, Ivan; Geiss, Elisa G; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a pathway through which childhood trauma may increase risk for negative health outcomes. The HPA axis is sensitive to stress throughout development; however, few studies have examined whether timing of exposure to childhood trauma is related to differences in later HPA axis functioning. Therefore, we examined the association between age of first trauma and HPA axis functioning among adolescents, and whether these associations varied by sex. Parents of 97 youth (aged 9-16 years) completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), and youth completed the Socially-Evaluated Cold-Pressor Task (SECPT). We measured salivary cortisol response to the SECPT, the cortisol awakening response, and diurnal regulation at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Exposure to trauma during infancy related to delayed cortisol recovery from peak responses to acute stress, d = 0.23 to 0.42. Timing of trauma exposure related to diverging patterns of diurnal cortisol regulation for males, d = 0.55, and females, d = 0.57. Therefore, the HPA axis may be susceptible to developing acute stress dysregulation when exposed to trauma during infancy, whereas the consequences within circadian cortisol regulation may occur in the context of later trauma exposure and vary by sex. Further investigations are warranted to characterize HPA axis sensitivity to exposure to childhood trauma across child development. PMID:26556544

  17. Examination of Trauma in a Neandertal Ulna

    E-print Network

    Eddie, Diane Marie

    2013-12-31

    of traumatic injury. ............................................. 47 Figure 7: X-ray of ulna #180. X-ray provided by J Radov?i? (Zagreb). The blue arrows highlight postmortem loss of bone as both are radiolucent and show no new bone growth. The red arrow... indicates the major trauma of interest. At this area of injury, the bone is comparatively denser than the postmortem injuries that indicate that new bone has been laid down, demonstrating this trauma occurred antemortem...

  18. Trauma imaging in the thorax and abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, A.; Adler, O.

    1987-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers the radiologic diagnosis of traumatic injuries of the thorax and abdomen with special consideration given to the physical principles governing blunt, blast, and penetrating trauma and to the pathophysiology which they cause. The clinical experience forming the major data base for this book is drawn from the Ramban Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, the major trauma center for the Middle East wars.

  19. The role of palliative care in trauma.

    PubMed

    Owens, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Despite the aggressive and heroic nature of trauma care, including trauma surgery, 10% to 20% of patients admitted to trauma intensive care units die. As the population continues to age, it is predicted that by 2050, approximately 40% of those experiencing traumatic injury will be older than 65 years. For multiple reasons, people in this age group who experience trauma are at greater risk for death. Palliative care is the specialty of health care that provides care for patients with serious, life-threatening, or life-limiting illness or injury, regardless of the stage of disease or treatment. The goal of palliative care is to reduce or alleviate suffering through expert pain and symptom management, as well as assistance with decision making. The integration of palliative and trauma care can assist and support patients and families through stressful, often life-changing times, regardless of the final outcome. PMID:22668994

  20. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  1. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation. PMID:20092428

  2. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  3. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  4. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  5. Animal Models of Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cernak, Ibolja

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are used to elucidate primary and secondary sequelae underlying human head injury in an effort to identify potential neuroprotective therapies for developing and adult brains. The choice of experimental model depends upon both the research goal and underlying objectives. The intrinsic ability to study injury-induced changes in behavior, physiology, metabolism, the blood/tissue interface, the blood brain barrier, and/or inflammatory- and immune-mediated responses, makes in vivo TBI models essential for neurotrauma research. Whereas human TBI is a highly complex multifactorial disorder, animal trauma models tend to replicate only single factors involved in the pathobiology of head injury using genetically well-defined inbred animals of a single sex. Although such an experimental approach is helpful to delineate key injury mechanisms, the simplicity and hence inability of animal models to reflect the complexity of clinical head injury may underlie the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical trials of neuroprotective therapeutics. Thus, a search continues for new animal models, which would more closely mimic the highly heterogeneous nature of human TBI, and address key factors in treatment optimization. PMID:16389305

  6. Trauma management incorporating focused assessment with computed tomography in trauma (FACTT) - potential effect on survival

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Immediate recognition of life-threatening conditions and injuries is the key to trauma management. To date, the impact of focused assessment with computed tomography in trauma (FACTT) has not been formally assessed. We aimed to find out whether the concept of using FACTT during primary trauma survey has a negative or positive effect on survival. Methods In a retrospective, multicentre study, we compared our time management and probability of survival (Ps) in major trauma patients who received FACTT during trauma resuscitation with the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society (DGU). FACTT is defined as whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) during primary trauma survey. We determined the probability of survival according to the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), the Revised Injury Severity Classification score (RISC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Results We analysed 4.817 patients from the DGU database from 2002 until 2004, 160 (3.3%) were from our trauma centre at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) and 4.657 (96.7%) from the DGU group. 73.2% were male with a mean age of 42.5 years, a mean ISS of 29.8. 96.2% had suffered from blunt trauma. Time from admission to FAST (focused assessment with sonography for trauma)(4.3 vs. 8.7 min), chest x-ray (8.1 vs. 16.0 min) and whole-body CT (20.7 vs. 36.6 min) was shorter at the LMU compared to the other trauma centres (p < 0.001). SMR calculated by TRISS was 0.74 (CI95% 0.40-1.08) for the LMU (p = 0.24) and 0.92 (CI95% 0.84-1.01) for the DGU group (p = 0.10). RISC methodology revealed a SMR of 0.69 (95%CI 0.47-0.92) for the LMU (p = 0.043) and 1.00 (95%CI 0.94-1.06) for the DGU group (p = 0.88). Conclusion Trauma management incorporating FACTT enhances a rapid response to life-threatening problems and enables a comprehensive assessment of the severity of each relevant injury. Due to its speed and accuracy, FACTT during primary trauma survey supports rapid decision-making and may increase survival. PMID:20459713

  7. Albumin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Segersvärd, Ralf; Wernerman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The drop in plasma albumin concentration following surgical trauma is well known, but the temporal pattern of the detailed mechanisms behind are less well described. The aim of this explorative study was to assess changes in albumin synthesis and transcapillary escape rate (TER) following major surgical trauma, at the time of peak elevations in two well-recognized markers of inflammation. Methods This was a clinical trial of radiolabeled human serum albumin for the study of TER and plasma volume. Ten patients were studied immediately preoperatively and on the 2nd postoperative day after major pancreatic surgery. Albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique employing incorporation of isotopically labelled phenylalanine. Results Fractional synthesis rate of albumin increased from 11.7 (95% CI: 8.9, 14.5) to 15.0 (11.7, 18.4) %/day (p = 0.027), whereas the corresponding absolute synthesis rate was unchanged, 175 (138, 212) versus 150 (107, 192) mg/kg/day (p = 0.21). TER was unchanged, 4.9 (3.1, 6.8) %/hour versus 5.5 (3.9, 7.2) (p = 0.63). Plasma volume was unchanged but plasma albumin decreased from 33.5 (30.9, 36.2) to 22.1 (19.8, 24.3) g/L. (p<0.001). Conclusion Two days after major abdominal surgery, at the time-point when two biomarkers of generalised inflammation were at their peak and the plasma albumin concentration had decreased by 33%, we were unable to show any difference in the absolute synthesis rate of albumin, TER and plasma volume as compared with values obtained immediately pre-operatively. This suggests that capillary leakage, if elevated postoperatively, had ceased at that time-point. The temporal relations between albumin kinetics, capillary leakage and generalised inflammation need to be further explored. Trial Registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu: EudraCT 2010-08529-21 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194492 PMID:26313170

  8. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Y?lmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  9. Exploration of the role of attachment in the relationship between trauma and distress in psychosis 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Lucy Victoria

    2013-07-02

    Background: Attachment literature indicates attachment status is related to trauma with associations between early trauma and insecure attachment. Links between psychosis and trauma have been established within the ...

  10. Potentially perilous pedagogies: teaching trauma is not the same as trauma-informed teaching.

    PubMed

    Carello, Janice; Butler, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why and how trauma theory and research are currently used in higher education in nonclinical courses such as literature, women's studies, film, education, anthropology, cultural studies, composition, and creative writing. In these contexts, traumatic material is presented not only indirectly in the form of texts and films that depict traumatic events but also directly in the form of what is most commonly referred to in nonclinical disciplines as trauma studies, cultural trauma studies, and critical trauma studies. Within these areas of study, some instructors promote potentially risky pedagogical practices involving trauma exposure or disclosure despite indications that these may be having deleterious effects. After examining the published rationales for such methods, we argue that given the high rates of trauma histories (66%-85%), posttraumatic stress disorder (9%-12%), and other past event-related distress among college students, student risk of retraumatization and secondary traumatization should be decreased rather than increased. To this end, we propose that a trauma-informed approach to pedagogy-one that recognizes these risks and prioritizes student emotional safety in learning-is essential, particularly in classes in which trauma theories or traumatic experiences are taught or disclosed. PMID:24313321

  11. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  12. Trauma Deserts: Distance From a Trauma Center, Transport Times, and Mortality From Gunshot Wounds in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Douglas; Unger, Erin; Straus, David; Brasel, Karen; Hsia, Renee; Esposito, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether urban patients who suffered gunshot wounds (GSWs) farther from a trauma center would have longer transport times and higher mortality. Methods. We used the Illinois State Trauma Registry (1999–2009). Scene address data for Chicago-area GSWs was geocoded to calculate distance to the nearest trauma center and compare prehospital transport times. We used multivariate regression to calculate the effect on mortality of being shot more than 5 miles from a trauma center. Results. Of 11?744 GSW patients during the study period, 4782 were shot more than 5 miles from a trauma center. Mean transport time and unadjusted mortality were higher for these patients (P?trauma center was associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio?=?1.23; 95% confidence interval?=?1.02, 1.47; P?=?.03). Conclusions. Relative “trauma deserts” with decreased access to immediate care were found in certain areas of Chicago and adversely affected mortality from GSWs. These results may inform decisions about trauma systems planning and funding. PMID:23597339

  13. The role of trauma scoring in developing trauma clinical governance in the Defence Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R. J.; Hodgetts, T. J.; McLeod, J.; Starkey, K.; Mahoney, P.; Harrison, K.; Bell, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses mathematical models of expressing severity of injury and probability of survival following trauma and their use in establishing clinical governance of a trauma system. There are five sections: (i) Historical overview of scoring systems—anatomical, physiological and combined systems and the advantages and disadvantages of each. (ii) Definitions used in official statistics—definitions of ‘killed in action’ and other categories and the importance of casualty reporting rates and comparison across conflicts and nationalities. (iii) Current scoring systems and clinical governance—clinical governance of the trauma system in the Defence Medical Services (DMS) by using trauma scoring models to analyse injury and clinical patterns. (iv) Unexpected outcomes—unexpected outcomes focus clinical governance tools. Unexpected survivors signify good practice to be promulgated. Unexpected deaths pick up areas of weakness to be addressed. Seventy-five clinically validated unexpected survivors were identified over 2 years during contemporary combat operations. (v) Future developments—can the trauma scoring methods be improved? Trauma scoring systems use linear approaches and have significant weaknesses. Trauma and its treatment is a complex system. Nonlinear methods need to be investigated to determine whether these will produce a better approach to the analysis of the survival from major trauma. PMID:21149354

  14. Objective and personalized longitudinal assessment of a pregnant patient with post severe brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elizabeth B.; Lande, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following severe trauma to the brain (whether internally generated by seizures, tumors or externally caused by collision with or penetration of objects) individuals may experience initial coma state followed by slow recovery and rehabilitation treatment. At present there is no objective biometric to track the daily progression of the person for extended periods of time. Objective: We introduce new analytical techniques to process data from physically wearable sensors and help track the longitudinal progression of motions and physiological states upon the brain trauma. Setting and Participant: The data used to illustrate the methods were collected at the hospital settings from a pregnant patient in coma state. The patient had brain trauma from a large debilitating seizure due to a large tumor in the right pre-frontal lobe. Main Measures: We registered the wrist motions and the surface-skin-temperature across several daily sessions in four consecutive months. A new statistical technique is introduced for personalized analyses of the rates of change of the stochastic signatures of these patterns. Results: We detected asymmetries in the wrists’ data that identified in the dominant limb critical points of change in physiological and motor control states. These patterns could blindly identify the time preceding the baby’s delivery by C-section when the patient systematically brought her hand to her abdominal area. Changes in temperature were sharp and accompanied by systematic changes in the statistics of the motions that rendered her dominant wrist’s micro-movements more systematically reliable and predictable than those of the non-dominant writst. Conclusions: The new analytics paired with wearable sensing technology may help track the day-by-day individual progression of a patient with post brain trauma in clinical settings and in the home environment. PMID:25852516

  15. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Han, Youngjin; Son, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Aortic complications of giant cell arteritis are a rare cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we describe a case of a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a patient with giant call arteritis (GCA) who was preoperatively suspected of having an infectious aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative inspection revealed infectious granulation tissue on the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. GCA was finally confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Our findings suggest that the surgical and postoperative treatment of nonatheromatous aortic aneurysm should be based on accurate diagnosis. PMID:26448922

  17. Suture granuloma of the abdominal wall with intra-abdominal extension 12 years after open appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Goran; Korolija, Dragan; Skegro, Mate; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka

    2009-01-01

    Most complications after appendectomy occur within ten days; however, we report the unusual case of a suture granuloma 12 years after open appendectomy. The afebrile 75-year-old woman presented with a slightly painful palpable mass in the right lower abdomen. There was no nausea or vomiting and bowel movements were normal. She lost 10 kg during the 3 mo before presentation. The patient had undergone an appendectomy 12 years previously. Physical examination revealed a tender mass, 10 cm in diameter, under the appendectomy scar. The preoperative laboratory findings, tumor markers and plain abdominal radiographs were normal. Multi-slice computed tomography scanning showed an inhomogenous abdominal mass with minimal vascularization in the right lower abdomen 8.6 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm in size which communicated with the abdominal wall. The abdominal wall was thickened, weak and bulging. The abdominal wall mass did not communicate with the cecum or the ascending colon. Complete excision of the abdominal wall mass was performed via median laparotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a granuloma with a central abscess. This case report demonstrates that a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal wall mass after open appendectomy warrants the use of a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities and consequently different treatment options. PMID:19705509

  18. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  19. Risk factors for surgical site infection after instrumented fixation in spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kevin; Glenn, Chad A; Martin, Michael; Stoner, Julie; Li, Ji; Puckett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) represents a significant complication after instrumented fixation in spine trauma. Institutional practice changes have emphasized early fracture correction, shortened intraoperative times, early ambulation, and prompt nutritional supplementation. This retrospective study evaluates the senior author's experience of instrumented spinal trauma SSI occurring at a single Level I trauma center over two equal and contiguous time periods, 2005-2007 (before nutritional supplementation was added to the institutional protocol) and 2008-2010 (after nutritional supplementation was added). This study assessed whether SSI varied depending on the primary surgical site and/or by the chosen approach. Lastly, the incidence of SSI among demographic and other clinical variables was evaluated. In total, 358 patients underwent an index procedure for spinal trauma correction. Fourteen patients developed a SSI requiring reoperation for an incidence of 4.0%. In assessing nutritional supplementation, the probability of infection tended to be lower in the supplemented group (3.7%) than the pre-supplement group (4.3%), but this did not reach significance. The difference in approach for the cervical spine was statistically significant (p=0.045) with rates of infection via posterior approach at 8.1% and no infections via anterior approach. Presence of comorbidities (p=0.03) and time to surgery >3days (p=0.006) were predictors of developing SSI. Benefit is shown from early surgical correction of spinal trauma patients in the reduction of postoperative SSI. Nutritional supplementation may provide a small reduction in infections in the spine trauma population. PMID:26498090

  20. Institutionally shared trauma rotations are viable solutions to deficiencies in trauma training.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J D; Freeark, R J; Miller, F B; Baker, W H; Polk, H C

    1989-09-01

    Numerous national trauma leaders have expressed concern about the lack of uniformity of trauma training in this country. In 1984 we instituted a trauma rotation between the University of Louisville (U.L.), with a large trauma volume, and Loyola University (L.U.) in the planning stages of trauma center development. Third year L.U. residents rotated at U.L. in 3-month blocks with an increased level of responsibility monthly, culminating in major decision-making roles and operative treatment under the chief resident's direction. The L.U. residents functioned as full members of the team and not as passive observers. Fifteen L.U. residents and 12 U.L. residents rotated during this period. Yearly major trauma visits, helicopter flights, and trauma service admissions average 1,908, 700, and 1,520, respectively. U.L. chief residents averaged 136 major operative trauma cases and 115 nonoperative trauma cases each were managed during this time period (RRC records greater than 85th percentile for all U.L. residents). L.U. residents performed an average of 30 major operative cases, nine as teaching assistant, in 3 months. Each managed more than 75 nonoperative cases. Several elements are critical in such a multi-institutional rotation: 1) active communication among the program directors, 2) commitment to one sharing arrangement only, 3) financing and malpractice for off-site residents, 4) housing, and 5) the ability to assimilate off-site residents as true trauma team members. The resident-to-resident interplay is crucial and has succeeded because both residency staffs have had excellent early training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2769805

  1. Evaluating trauma center process performance in an integrated trauma system with registry data

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynne; Lavoie, André; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Amini, Rachid; Belcaïd, Amina; Sampalis, John S

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evaluation of trauma center performance implies the use of indicators that evaluate clinical processes. Despite the availability of routinely collected clinical data in most trauma systems, quality improvement efforts are often limited to hospital-based audit of adverse patient outcomes. Objective: To identify and evaluate a series of process performance indicators (PPI) that can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. Materials and Methods: PPI were identified using a review of published literature, trauma system documentation, and expert consensus. Data from the 59 trauma centers of the Quebec trauma system (1999, 2006; N = 99,444) were used to calculate estimates of conformity to each PPI for each trauma center. Outliers were identified by comparing each center to the global mean. PPI were evaluated in terms of discrimination (between-center variance), construct validity (correlation with designation level and patient volume), and forecasting (correlation over time). Results: Fifteen PPI were retained. Global proportions of conformity ranged between 6% for reduction of a major dislocation within 1 h and 97% for therapeutic laparotomy. Between-center variance was statistically significant for 13 PPI. Five PPI were significantly associated with designation level, 7 were associated with volume, and 11 were correlated over time. Conclusion: In our trauma system, results suggest that a series of 15 PPI supported by literature review or expert opinion can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. We have provided evidence of their discrimination, construct validity, and forecasting properties. The between-center variance observed in this study highlights the importance of evaluating process performance in integrated trauma systems. PMID:23723617

  2. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  8. Abdominal cocoon: a unique presentation in an immunodeficient infant.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lorna P; Patel, Jigar; Guillerman, R Paul; Hanson, Imelda C; Cass, Darrell L

    2012-02-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare disorder that may pose a diagnostic conundrum in patients presenting with intermittent symptoms of small bowel obstruction. We describe the imaging findings of a unique case of abdominal cocoon that presented in infancy. PMID:21713442

  9. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function. PMID:17877281

  10. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation. PMID:25458969

  11. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  12. [Trauma research net of the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery].

    PubMed

    Huber-Lang, M; Flohé, S B; Marzi, I

    2011-09-01

    A first meeting of the recently founded "Trauma Research Net" of the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery (DGOU e.V.) took place at the Reisensburg Castle, Günzburg, from 24 to 26 February 2011. Numerous representatives of trauma-related Research Institutes and University Hospitals in Germany demonstrated their main research foci. There was also an open discussion of current problems in trauma research, especially the lack of junior researchers and nationwide collaborations as well as limited information about the research topics of individual research groups. The overall research efforts of the "Trauma Research Net" apparently focus on fracture, multiple injury and inflammation on an organ and cellular level. Furthermore, an up-to-date matrix of the existing methods has been generated which is now provided for the networker. The common middle-term goal of the "Trauma Research Net" is the inclusive, intensive scientific exchange as well as the generation and workup of common hypotheses using standard operating procedures. In the long term, the resulting clustered research activities are intended to address and resolve clinically relevant questions in the field of trauma research. PMID:21826494

  13. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  14. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  15. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  16. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  17. Diabetes insipidus secondary to penetrating thoracic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Machiedo, G; Bolanowski, P J; Bauer, J; Neville, W E

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of diabetes insipidus following non-cranial trauma are presented. They are believed to be the first of their kind reported. The etiology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus are discussed. The literature if briefly reviewed and similarities between patients with DI due to long bone trauma with fat embolism, post open heart surgery hypotension, Sheehan's syndrome following postpartum hemorrhage, DI and our own patients are discussed. It is concluded that the diabetes insipidus is caused by selective disruption of posterior pituitary circulation due to fat globules, thrombi and hypovolemia resulting in hypoxia and tissue necrosis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1119865

  18. Assessment of maxillofacial trauma in emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence and epidemiological causes of maxillofacial (MF) trauma varies widely. The objective of this study is to point out maxillofacial trauma patients’ epidemiological properties and trauma patterns with simultaneous injuries in different areas of the body that may help emergency physicians to deliver more accurate diagnosis and decisions. Methods In this study we analyze etiology and pattern of MF trauma and coexisting injuries if any, in patients whose maxillofacial CT scans was obtained in a three year period, retrospectively. Results 754 patients included in the study consisting of 73.7% male and 26.3% female, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Mean age was 40.3?±?17.2 years with a range of 18 to 97. 57.4% of the patients were between the ages of 18–39 years and predominantly male. Above 60 years of age, referrals were mostly woman. The most common cause of injuries were violence, accounting for 39.7% of the sample, followed by falls 27.9% and road traffic accidents 27.2%. The primary cause of injuries were violence between ages 20 and 49 and falls after 50. Bone fractures found in 56,0% of individuals. Of the total of 701 fractured bones in 422 patients the most frequent was maxillary bone 28,0% followed by nasal bone 25,3%, zygoma 20,2%, mandible 8,4%, frontal bone 8,1% and nasoethmoidoorbital bone 3,1%. Fractures to maxillary bone were uppermost in each age group. 8, 9% of the patients had brain injury and only frontal fractures is significantly associated to TBI (p?trauma patients was violence (47, 8%). 158 of the 754 patients had consumed alcohol before trauma. No statistically significant data were revealed between alcohol consumption gender and presence of fracture. Violence is statistically significant (p?traumas yield various etiologic factors, demographic properties and fracture patterns probably due to social, cultural and governmental differences. Young males subjected to maxillofacial trauma more commonly as a result of interpersonal violence. PMID:24484727

  19. Contemporary management of blunt aortic trauma.

    PubMed

    Dubose, J J; Azizzadeh, A; Estrera, A L; Safi, H J

    2015-10-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a common cause of death following blunt mechanisms of trauma. Among patients who survive to reach hospital care, significant advances in diagnosis and treatment afford previously unattainable survival. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) guidelines provide current best-evidence suggestions for treatment of BTAI. However, several key areas of controversy regarding optimal BTAI care remain. These include the refinement of selection criteria, timing for treatment and the need for long-term follow-up data. In addition, the advent of the Aortic Trauma Foundation (ATF) represents an important development in collaborative research in this field. PMID:25868973

  20. Emergency Medical Services and Trauma Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trauma systems. How can local EMS agencies be integrated into the local and regional systems of trauma ... Urban/Rural Comparison 2013 , characteristics of fatal motor vehicle crashes differ between urban and rural areas. Urban ...

  1. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (? 23, ? 27 and ? 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (? 80, ? 90 and ? 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ? 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ? 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the optimal threshold of waist circumference in rural settings. The present local cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference could be appropriate for the identification of Africans at risk of obesity-related disorders, and indicate the need to implement interventions to reverse increasing levels of obesity. PMID:17985031

  2. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  3. Multidimensional Model of Trauma and Correlated Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Willem H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have revealed an important relationship between psychosocial trauma and antisocial personality disorder. A multidimensional model is presented which describes the psychopathological route from trauma to antisocial development. A case report is also included that can illustrate the etiological process from trauma to severe antisocial…

  4. Trauma, Binge Eating, and the "Strong Black Woman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ellen F.; Crowther, Janis H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to test a culturally specific model of binge eating in African American female trauma survivors, investigating potential mechanisms through which trauma exposure and distress were related to binge eating symptomatology. Method: Participants were 179 African American female trauma survivors who…

  5. Writing out the Storm: Trauma and the Work of Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    The discourses of "trauma" and "post-trauma" have become pervasive in representations of life as it is lived in contemporary globalized culture. As new media technologies make the world more accessible, we become accustomed to overwhelming social, political, and personal circumstances, and we come to see "trauma" everywhere, all the time. My…

  6. Role of Appraisals in Expressed Anger after Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Diane; Bryant, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Anger is a common problem in trauma-exposed individuals. This study investigated factors that contribute to post-traumatic anger in civilian trauma survivors. Fifty-one trauma-exposed individuals were assessed for expressed anger, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), daily hassles, maladaptive cognitions and blame. PTSD and non-PTSD participants…

  7. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms among Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12-18 years of age…

  8. Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Trauma in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Carlton E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides comprehensive definition of psychological trauma and offers guidance to practitioners who are increasingly needed to treat traumatized children. Key therapy considerations are organized around the role of dissociation and repetition compulsion in trauma. Presents treatments in connection with aloneness of trauma experience, dream and…

  9. Leading by example: the role of international trauma organizations in global trauma initiatives.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Ross

    2014-01-01

    As road traffic fatalities have emerged among the leading global threats to human health and safety, there is an imminent need for the mobilization of large medical organizations and private companies. Collectively, these partnerships can have a tremendous impact on road traffic safety through garnering funding for important initiatives, lobbying governments for policy reforms, and implementing organizational frameworks that foster the transfer of health-care knowledge to optimize trauma care in developing countries. In particular, concerted efforts by major orthopaedic associations can directly enable overwhelmed health-care systems to improve upon their prehospital care, emergency triage systems, trauma care protocols, and rehabilitation programs. The "SIGN" and "Broken Earth" programs serve as prime examples of the powerful impact international trauma organizations can have on global trauma initiatives. PMID:24857992

  10. Performance of advanced trauma life support procedures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L 3rd; Muller, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical operations on the International Space Station will emphasize the stabilization and transport of critically injured personnel and so will need to be capable of advanced trauma life support (ATLS). METHODS: We evaluated the ATLS invasive procedures in the microgravity environment of parabolic flight using a porcine animal model. Included in the procedures evaluated were artificial ventilation, intravenous infusion, laceration closure, tracheostomy, Foley catheter drainage, chest tube insertion, peritoneal lavage, and the use of telemedicine methods for procedural direction. RESULTS: Artificial ventilation was performed and appeared to be unaltered from the 1-G environment. Intravenous infusion, laceration closure, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, and Foley catheter drainage were achieved without difficulty. Chest tube insertion and drainage were performed with no more difficulty than in the 1-G environment due to the ability to restrain patient, operator and supplies. A Heimlich valve and Sorenson drainage system were both used to provide for chest tube drainage collection with minimal equipment, without the risk of atmospheric contamination, and with the capability to auto-transfuse blood drained from a hemothorax. The use of telemedicine in chest tube insertion was demonstrated to be useful and feasible. Peritoneal lavage using a percutaneous technique, although requiring less training to perform, was found to be dangerous in weightlessness due to the additional pressure of the bowel on the anterior abdominal wall creating a high risk of bowel perforation. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of ATLS procedures in microgravity appears to be feasible with the exception of diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Minor modifications to equipment and techniques are required in microgravity to effect surgical drainage in the presence of altered fluid dynamics, to prevent atmospheric contamination, and to provide for the restraint requirements. A parabolic simulation system was developed for equipment and procedure verification, physiological research, and possible crew medical officer training in the future.

  11. The Trauma Deep The Epigenetics of PTSD

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    The Trauma Deep Within the Genes: The Epigenetics of PTSD Nadia Smati Genomics and Medicine 2012 #12;Clinical Understanding of PTSD -Mental Health Disorder TRIGGERED by Traumatic Event -Adaptive Response #12;Scientific Understanding of PTSD: The Brain Key Players: Hippocampus Prefrontal Cortex

  12. LSCI in Trauma-Informed Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecser, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that many children who present behavioral challenges have experienced relational trauma. These youngsters are not well served by traditional interventions in schools, treatment settings, and communities. Adults responsible for these young people often get drawn into conflict cycles and coercive interventions that only…

  13. Trauma Exposure and the Social Work Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didham, Steve; Dromgole, Laura; Csiernik, Rick; Karley, Mary Lou; Hurley, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 58 undergraduate and graduate students at 1 Canadian school of social work voluntarily completed a survey at the conclusion of their academic year consisting of open- and closed-ended questions intended to examine their exposure to trauma during the course of their field practice. The authors discovered that the majority of students…

  14. Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanscom, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors…

  15. Understanding and Addressing Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garro, Adrienne; Brandwein, David; Calafiore, Tara; Rittenhouse, Nicolette

    2011-01-01

    The notion that development influences children's responses to traumatic stress is not novel. Chronological age and maturity level interact with environmental factors to mediate responses to trauma. Clinicians and researchers have confirmed that children can experience the full range of traumatic stress reactions seen in adults, and many youth…

  16. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  17. The concept and treatment of psychological trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kudler, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large and rapidly expanding literature on psychological trauma, many fundamental questions remain about its basic nature: Is it a psychological problem or a biological one?; Is it a past event somehow stuck in the present or is it something new which has been triggered and shaped by that event?; Does it reside only within the patient or does it live between the patient and other people (including within the therapeutic relationship)? This presentation will review the history of the concept of psychological trauma and explore the theoretical bases for current evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD, each of which will be shown to describe psychological trauma as a problem in bringing the past and the present together in memory and cognition. These theories primarily differ on the question of whether a traumatic memory becomes pathogenic, because it cannot be biologically processed or because it must be psychologically avoided. Psychoanalytic concepts of transference and countertransference will be shown to be of practical importance regardless of the type of treatment chosen. If researchers and clinicians can build on what they hold in common rather than become divided by their differences, we can improve our ability to understand and alleviate the effects of psychological trauma. PMID:25511719

  18. Effective Bullying-Trauma Intervention Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many sectors of society in trauma intervention. School yard bullying has been getting a lot of attention as of late. It is widely reported and analyzed repeatedly in the media. As a clinical psychologist and adjunct psychology professor for over 30 years, the author has had occasion to see bullying in many forms…

  19. Biomedical Techniques for Post Head Trauma Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doney, Judith V.

    The nature and effects of head trauma are discussed. Among the most common deficits noted are impaired cognition, difficulties in oral and written communication, sensory problems, and marked personality changes. Suggestions are offered for dealing with each type of deficit, such as using alarm clocks and other tools to remind the individual about…

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support aboard RFA Argus.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, G L; Taylor, R H

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system was adopted for casualty reception and resuscitation. ATLS permitted well-informed triage decisions to be made, coupled with appropriate initial, possibly life-saving, treatment. The training given on board has continued to benefit patients treated by ex-Argus staff in their peacetime roles. PMID:1453364

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…

  2. Management of pediatric penetrating oropharyngeal trauma.

    PubMed

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Roy, Amy D; Walsh, Susan A

    2008-03-01

    Penetrating oropharyngeal trauma (OPT) is common in young children. Complications are rare but can be severe and with delayed onset. Controversy exists about the evaluation and management of OPT, although most injuries in the stable child can be managed in the outpatient setting. Two pediatric OPT cases and a brief review of the literature are presented. PMID:18347498

  3. Young Children and Trauma: Intervention and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in knowledge about the effects of exposure to psychological trauma on young children from birth to age 5. This volume brings together leading experts to address practical considerations in working with traumatized young children and their caregivers. State-of-the-art assessment and treatment approaches…

  4. The sequential trauma score - a new instrument for the sequential mortality prediction in major trauma*

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS) that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006), we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P), prehospital phase (A), early (B1), and late (B2) trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P), logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63). Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A) showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82). Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1) showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85). Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2) detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS) of the head ? 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90). The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma score is available at: http://www.sequential-trauma-score.com Conclusions This score is the first sequential, dynamic score to provide a prognosis for patients with blunt major trauma at several points in time. With every additional piece of information the precision increases. The medical team has a simple, useful tool to identify patients at high risk and to predict the prognosis of an individual patient with major trauma very early, quickly and precisely. PMID:20562057

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome after hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Owens, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur. We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular impingement. He had not had previous surgeries to that hip, and arthroscopy was performed in the supine position. After adequate distraction, arthroscopy was performed with an automated pressure- and flow-controlled pump with the pressure maintained between 40 and 60 mm Hg. We performed debridement of a degenerative tear of the anterosuperior labrum, removal of a pincer lesion, and a psoas tenotomy through a capsular window. A distended abdomen was noted on drape removal, and the patient required decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Extravasation of arthroscopy fluid is a potentially devastating complication during hip arthroscopy, and there should be careful monitoring by the surgeons, anesthesiologists, and operating room staff. PMID:20117637

  6. ["Arteriosclerotic" aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Stein, S D; Baldi, T; Uthoff, H; Jäger, K A

    2010-09-01

    We present a patient with an aortic aneurysm and the epidemiology, etiology, screening, symptoms and therapeutic options of abdominal aortic aneurysms are discussed. A widening of the abdominal aorta >3 cm is termed aortic aneurysm. As patients with aortic aneurysm are mostly oligosymptomatic until rupture occurs and an estimated 30,000 patients annually die from ruptured aortic aneurysm in the US a screening of the population at greatest risk (smokers, familial predisposition) is recommended. Screening is best done by ultrasound. Noninvasive therapy is limited to antiplatelet therapy and optimal adjustment of risk factors. For definitive treatment endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered an established alternative to open surgery with lower 30 days mortality but higher reintervention rate. PMID:20824610

  7. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, S.; Danesino, G.M.; Danesino, V.; Castellani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations. PMID:23396814

  8. [Professor WU Xu's clinical experiences on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Bin; Sun, Jian-Hua; Ai, Bing-Wei; Bao, Chao; Wu, Wen-Zhong; Li, Jian-Bing; Liu, Lan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Yun; Pei, Li-Xia; Zhou, Jun-Ling; Li, Yan-Cai; Qin, Shan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical experiences and proven cases of distinguished doctor of TCM, professor WU Xu, on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain is introduced. Professor WU's manipulation characteristics of acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain, including acute cholecystitis, kidney stone, acute stomach pain, are one-hand shape but both hands in nature, moving like Tai Chi, force on the tip of needle, movement of qi mainly. The main technique posture is one-hand holding needle with middle finger for pressing, the needle is hold by thumb and index finger, and is assisted by middle finger. The special acupuncture experience of emergency is treatment according to syndrome differentiation, combination of acupuncture and moxibustion, selecting acupoint based on experience, blood-letting acupuncture therapy and so on. PMID:24843977

  9. Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Clark A.

    2010-07-14

    Quick Head of Department, Gerard Cot? May 2009 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. (May 2009) Clark Andrew Meyer, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair.... .......................................................................... 68? Figure 16. Hydraulic diameters (calculated normal to the centerline and normal to axial direction) as functions of axial distance from top of neck. ................ 69? Figure 17. Endograft, with nodes used in hydraulic diameter normal...

  10. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  11. Abdominal wall reconstruction using biological tissue grafts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic mesh products have been used to repair abdominal wall defects (eg, hernias) for many years. Biological mesh products are now available as an option when synthetic mesh products are not appropriate. To correctly prepare biological tissue grafts for use in the OR, perioperative nurses must understand the types of grafts available. Biological tissue grafts may be harvested from human, porcine, bovine, or equine hosts and from skin, pericardium, or small intestine submucosa. PMID:19860033

  12. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (?25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (?88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  13. A comparison of rural versus urban trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Ari M; Karsteadt, Larry L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Hartmans, Sharon; Bongard, Frederick S.; Cryer, Henry Gill; Ekhardt, Patricia B; Loffredo, Anthony J; Farmer, Patricia D; Whitney, Susan C; Lewis, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We compared the survival of trauma patients in urban versus rural settings after the implementation of a novel rural non-trauma center alternative care model called the Model Rural Trauma Project (MRTP). Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study of all trauma patients brought to eight rural northern California hospitals and two southern California urban trauma centers over a one-year period (1995-1996). Trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of >10 were included in the study. We used logistic regression to assess disparities in odds of survival while controlling for Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) parameters. Results: A total of 1,122 trauma patients met criteria for this study, with 336 (30%) from the rural setting. The urban population was more seriously injured with a higher median ISS (17 urban and 14 rural) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (GCS 14 urban and 15 rural). Patients in urban trauma centers were more likely to suffer penetrating trauma (25% urban versus 9% rural). After correcting for differences in patient population, the mortality associated with being treated in a rural hospital (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.39) was not significantly different than an urban trauma center. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that rural and urban trauma patients are inherently different. The rural system utilized in this study, with low volume and high blunt trauma rates, can effectively care for its population of trauma patients with an enhanced, committed trauma system, which allows for expeditious movement of patients toward definitive care. PMID:24550630

  14. [Memory and trauma impact: a development approach].

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria; Estrada, José

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the main neuroanatomic structures and the neurotransmission process involved at memory. Memory is dynamic based on the reunion of aspects of neuronal activation, in a process based on the individual experiences. It will be described the importance of limbic regions and their interaction during processing, codification and consolidation of a memory - each one related with neuronal rebuild. Further the authors describe the memory types known (explicit and implicit memories); the characteristics and their progress during normal development. It will be addressed other issues like child amnesia, retrieval and trauma. Forgetting is one of the essential features at explicit memory. Many studies describe a U inverted effect at memories with emotional value. Events with moderate or elevated emotional intensity are printed as important (by limbic structures like amygdala and orbito-frontal cortex) being more easily recorded. If the experience is very intense the explicit memory codification processing at hippocampus will be inhibited and as a consequence also does the retrieval. Meanwhile the implicit memory will remain and may constitute pathologic memories. The psychological trauma blocks the explicit memory processing which will jeopardize the cortical consolidation of the traumatic experience. Focus on trauma an important question is memory precision and the impact of trauma, on a neurophysiologic and psychopathologic way. Trauma and stress aren't inoffensive because their presence will induce pathological neuronal rebuilding (myelination, synapse formation, neurogenesis) at main memory structures like amygdala or hippocampus. When the nature of the changes is irreversible the explicit memory processing, learning and Psychiatry syndromes may arouse, for example: Mood and Anxiety disorders (including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder); Personality Disorders; Dissociative disorders; Psychosis. PMID:20654262

  15. Evaluation of a regional trauma registry

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Indraneel; Findlay, Christi; Kortbeek, John B.; Hameed, S. Morad

    2007-01-01

    Background For decades, trauma registries have been the primary source of data for resource allocation, quality improvement efforts and hypothesis-generating research in trauma care. Surprisingly, the quality and completion of data in these registries has rarely been reported. In preparation for a research program on population-based epidemiology of severe trauma, we evaluated the Calgary component of the Alberta Trauma Registry (ATR). Methods We identified the ATR records of all adult trauma patients (aged ? 16 yr) admitted to hospitals in the Calgary Health Region (CRH) between April 1, 2001 and March 31, 2002 with severe injuries (Injury Severity Score ? 12). From these registry data, we randomly selected 100 patient records, and we compared 14 fields, sampling parameters from prehospital care to discharge, with information from the hospital chart. Results Only 9 of 100 records were found to be incomplete. Of these, none had more than 1 field incomplete. Of the approximately 1400 data fields assessed, only 9 were missing data, resulting in a 99% (1391/1400) completion rate. Of 100 records, 22 were found to have inaccurate data; of these, 18 had 1 incorrect field, 2 had 2 incorrect fields and 2 had 3 incorrect fields. Overall, the ATR is 98% accurate. Conclusions The Calgary component of the ATR can be considered accurate and complete. Some of its inaccuracy is attributable to a change in the way time to operating room was recorded. Data from all other fields collected in a standard manner can continue to be used with confidence for administrative and research purposes. PMID:17568493

  16. Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. Results 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. Conclusions The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks. PMID:25177363

  17. Optimal use of blood in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Spinella, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    Injury is rapidly becoming the leading cause of death worldwide, and uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death. In addition to crystalloid and/or colloid based resuscitation, severely injured trauma patients are routinely transfused RBCs, plasma, platelets, and in some centers either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrates or whole blood. Optimal timing and quantity of these products in the treatment of hypothermic, coagulopathic and acidotic trauma patients is unclear. The immediate availability of these components is important, as most hemorrhagic deaths occur within the first 3-6h of patient arrival. While there are strongly held opinions and longstanding traditions in their use, there are little data within which to logically guide resuscitation therapy. Many current recommendations are based on euvolemic elective surgery patients and incorporate laboratory data parameters not widely available in the first few minutes after patient arrival. Finally, blood components themselves have evolved over the last 30 years, with great attention paid to product safety and inventory management, yet there are surprisingly limited clinical outcome data describing the long term effects of these changes, or how the components have improved clinical outcomes compared to whole blood therapy. When focused on survival of the rapidly bleeding trauma patient, it is unclear if current component therapy is equivalent to whole blood transfusion. In fact data from the current war in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest otherwise. All of these factors have contributed to the current situation, whereby blood component therapy is highly variable and not driven by long term patient outcomes. This review will address the issues raised above and describe recent trauma patient outcome data utilizing predetermined plasma:platelet:RBC transfusion ratios and an ongoing prospective observational trauma transfusion study. PMID:20074980

  18. [An unusual cause of severe abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Egger, M; Binder, M; Wewalka, F; Dieplinger, B; Kastler, M; Lenz, K

    2008-09-01

    A 33-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the hospital with a 6-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and constipation. He was afebrile, looked unwell with a pale skin and displayed an elevated blood pressure. He had no peritoneal sign, and bowel sounds were normal. Blood tests were remarkable for a hematocrit of 26 % and mean cell volume of 83 fl, bilirubin levels were slightly elevated. Abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed stool throughout the colon with a non-specific bowel gas pattern. Moreover, colonoscopy and gastroscopy provided no information on the underlying cause of the patient's severe pain. He was treated with fluids and spasmolytic drugs until the result of the urinary porphyrin level was received, which showed an elevated concentration of 1608 microg/d. Consequently, the plasma lead concentration was determined showing an elevated level of 92.3 microg/d. The examination of blood slides revealed erythrocytes with basophile stippling. On physical examination, a bluish discoloration could be seen along the gums. After starting the detoxication therapy with DMPS - 1800 mg p. o. for the first two days followed by 600 mg DMPS daily - the complaints disappeared. In spite of an extensive anamnestic exploration the source of the lead intoxication could not be found until now. PMID:18810673

  19. Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.

    PubMed Central

    Addison, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

  20. Complete dissection of a hepatic segment after blunt abdominal injury successfully treated by anatomical hepatic lobectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Kawashita, Yujo; Kawahara, Daisuke; Kuba, Sayaka; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Toru; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A 21-year-old male patient was transferred to the emergency room of our hospital after suffering seat belt abdominal injury in a traffic accident. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a massive hematoma in the abdominal cavity associated with deep hepatic lacerations in the right lobe. The presence of a solid tissue possibly containing pneumobilia was observed above the greater omentum. These findings were consistent with a tentative diagnosis of hepatic laceration due to blunt trauma; therefore, this prompted us to perform emergency laparotomy. The operative findings revealed a massive hematoma and pulsatile bleeding from the lacerated liver and a retroperitoneal hepatoma, which was most likely due to subcapsular injury of the right kidney. In accordance with the preoperative imaging studies, a pale liver fragment on the greater omentum was observed, which was morphologically consistent with the defect in the posterior segment of the liver. Since the damaged area of the liver broadly followed the course of the middle hepatic vein, we carefully inspected and isolated the inflow vessels and eventually performed a right hepatic lobectomy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was doing well at 10 months after surgery. PMID:21512618

  1. Management of the tense abdomen or difficult abdominal closure after operation for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are important clinical problems after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and are reviewed here. IAP >20 mm Hg occurs in approximately 50% of patients treated with open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair after rupture, and approximately 20% develop organ failure or dysfunction, fulfilling the criteria for ACS. Patients selected for endovascular aneurysm repair are often more hemodynamically stable, perhaps related to not handling the viscera or more favorable anatomy, resulting in less bleeding and, consequently, decreased risk of developing ACS. Centers that treat most patients with endovascular aneurysm repair tend to have the same proportion of ACS as after open repair. There are no randomized data on these aspects. Early nonsurgical therapy can prevent development of ACS. Medical therapy includes neuromuscular blockade and the combination of positive end-expiratory pressure, albumin, and furosemide. This proactive strategy can reduce the number of decompressive laparotomies, an important detail because treatment of ACS with open abdomen is a morbid procedure. When treatment with an open abdomen is necessary, it is important to choose a temporary abdominal closure that maintains sterile conditions during often prolonged treatment. In addition, it should prevent lateralization of the bowel wall and adhesions between the intestines and the bowel wall. Enteroatmospheric fistulae must be prevented. Many alternative methods have been suggested, but we prefer the combination of vacuum-assisted wound closure with mesh-mediated traction, which will be described. PMID:22595480

  2. Arytenoid Cartilage Dislocation from External Blunt Laryngeal Trauma: Evaluation and Therapy without Laryngeal Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yaoshu; Wang, Hui-e; Lin, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background Intubation trauma is the most common cause of arytenoid dislocation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of arytenoid cartilage dislocation from external blunt laryngeal trauma in the absence of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) and to explore the role of early attempted closed reduction in arytenoids cartilage reposition. Material/Methods This 15-year retrospective study recruited 12 patients with suspected arytenoid dislocation from external blunt laryngeal trauma, who were evaluated through 7 approaches: detailed personal history, voice handicap index (VHI) test, indirect laryngoscope, flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope, video strobolaryngoscope, and/or high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and, most importantly, the outcomes after attempted closed reduction under local anesthesia. They were divided into satisfied group (n=9) and dissatisfied group (n=3) based on their satisfied with voice qualities at 1 week after the last closed reduction manipulation. Results Each patient was diagnosed with arytenoid dislocation caused by external blunt laryngeal trauma. In the satisfied group, VHI scores and maximum phonation time (MPT) at 1 week after the last reduction were significantly improved compared with those before the procedure (P<0.05). Normal or improved mobility and length of the affected vocal fold were also noted immediately after the end of the last closed reduction. The median time interval between injury and clinical intervention in satisfied group was 43.44±34.13 days, much shorter than the median time of 157.67±76.07 days in the dissatisfied group (P<0.05). Conclusions Multimodality assessment protocols are essential for suspected arytenoid dislocation after external blunt laryngeal trauma. Early attempted closed reduction should be widely recommended, especially in health facilities without LEMG, mainly, because it could be helpful for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. In addition, early closed reduction could also improve the success of arytenoid reduction. PMID:25150338

  3. [Difficulties in the assessment of trauma-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Gronau, W; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Dreßing, H

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of trauma disorders is becoming increasingly important. A major problem here is that trauma disorders are extremely heterogeneous. Moreover, they are often associated with comorbid disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. The valid diagnostic systems ICD-10 and DSM-5 poorly represent trauma disorders. The so-called complex post-traumatic stress disorder or DESNOS (disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified) are listed .in either of the ICD-10 or DSM-5. The distinctiveness is not generally scientifically accepted. In addition, the assessment of trauma disorders is complicated because there are often multiple traumas of varying degrees of severity. PMID:25971145

  4. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K.; Slavich, George M.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  5. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    PubMed

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  6. A single subcutaneous dose of tramadol for mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Alejandro; Silva, Carlos; Dominguez, Luis; Botero, Beatriz; Zambrano, Paulo; Bareno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma is a common cause for an emergency room visit, and frequent pain is one of the cardinal symptoms of consultation. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of a single subcutaneous dose of 50 mg tramadol for pain management in patients with mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma, likewise to appraise the perception of pain by subcutaneous injection. METHODS: A total of 77 patients, who met inclusion criteria, received a single subcutaneous dose of tramadol. Pain control was evaluated based on the verbal numerical pain scale (0–10) at baseline, 20 and 60 minutes; similarly, pain perception was evaluated secondary to subcutaneous injection of the analgesic. RESULTS: On admission, the average pain perceived by patients was 8; twenty minutes later, 89% of the patients reported five or less, and after sixty minutes, 94% had three or less on the verbal numerical pain scale. Of the patients, 88% reported pain perception by verbal numeric scale of 3 or less by injection of the drug, and 6.5% required a second analgesic for pain control. Two events with drug administration (soft tissue infection and mild abdominal rectus injection) were reported. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a single subcutaneous dose of tramadol is a safe and effective option for the management of patients with mild to moderate pain and musculoskeletal disease in the emergency department. PMID:25548601

  7. Relational trauma in the context of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K; Garcia, Antonia M; Smagur, Kathryn E; Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2014-12-01

    The relational model of trauma (Scheeringa & Zeanah, 2001) proposes that infants' trauma symptoms may be influenced by their mothers' trauma symptoms and disruptions in caregiving behavior, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are less well understood. In this research, we examined the direct and indirect effects of a traumatic event (maternal intimate partner violence [IPV]), maternal trauma symptoms, and impaired (harsh and neglectful) parenting on infant trauma symptoms in a sample of mother-infant dyads (N=182) using structural equation modeling. Mothers completed questionnaires on IPV experienced during pregnancy and the child's first year of life, their past-month trauma symptoms, their child's past-month trauma symptoms, and their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that the effects of prenatal IPV on infant trauma symptoms were partially mediated by maternal trauma symptoms, and the relationship between maternal and infant trauma symptoms was fully mediated by neglectful parenting. Postnatal IPV did not affect maternal or infant trauma symptoms. Findings support the application of the relational model to IPV-exposed mother-infant dyads, with regard to IPV experienced during pregnancy, and help identify potential foci of intervention for professionals working with mothers and children. PMID:25455216

  8. Thromboprophylaxis after multiple trauma: what treatment and for how long?

    PubMed

    Yenna, Zachary C; Roberts, Craig

    2009-11-01

    A review of current literature discussing thromboprophylaxis in the multiple-trauma patient to provide insight on the type of treatment and its duration of use. AMEDLINE search was conducted in May 2009 using keywords associated with thromboprophylactic measures in multiple-trauma patient care, including inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, mechanical-compression devices and anticoagulants. Abstracts were evaluated for relevance to this study and full-text articles were then examined individually. Fourteen full text articles were evaluated including guidelines published by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) and other studies dealing with multiple-trauma patients, including those in hip-fracture surgery, lower-leg trauma and head trauma. Limited research has been performed for the multiple-trauma patient and recommendations regarding the type of treatment and its duration of use cannot be suggested beyond what has been extrapolated from existing trauma and major surgery patients. IVC filters, mechanical compression devices and anticoagulants therefore remain the standard, but their duration of use in the multiple-trauma patient is not well described. New oral anticoagulants that inhibit factor Xa or thrombin directly show promising qualities but have not been evaluated for multiple-trauma applications. Therefore, optimal thromboprophylaxis and its duration after multiple trauma is largely based on rational, clinical decision making on a case-by-case basis. PMID:19895959

  9. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Marleen; Langeland, Willemien; Smit, Jan H.; Draijer, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex) trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1) quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2) compare the two study groups. Method A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program) in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design. PMID:24711888

  10. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-04-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma.

  11. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and accurately used in urban, rural, and military field settings. his demonstration will focus on the user interfaces for the hand-held computer device included in TCIMS, the Field Medic Associate (FMA). The FMA prototype is a ruggedized, water-resistant personal computer, weighing approximately 5 lbs. It has an LCD graphical user interface display for patient record input and output, pen-based and audio input, audio output, and wireless communications capabilities. Automatic recording and dynamic, graphical display of time-stamped trends in patient vital signs will be simulated during the demonstration. Means for accessing existing patient record information (e.g., allergies to particular medications) and updating the record with the nature of the injury, its cause, and the treatments that were administered will be shown. These will include use of an electronic pen to mark up anatoglyphs (standard drawings of human body appearing on computer screen) to show where injuries occurred and where treatments were applied, and to input textual descriptions of the nature of the injury, its cause, what treatments were administered, etc. Computer recognition of handwritten inputs will be shown. Likewise, voice annotation and audio playback of patient record information by medics and hospital personnel will be illustrated. These latter technologies free the care providers' hands to treat the patient; they can therefore provide inputs to the patient record while information is fresh in their minds. The audio playback option allows hospital personnel to select more detailed voice annotations of specific portions of the patient record by simply touching the electronic pen to a particular place where an electronic pen marking was made by a medic in the field and then listening to the medic's corresponding audio commentary. Finally, the FMA's means for assisting the medic in simultaneously managing several injured patients will be shown. (abstract truncated) PMID:8591545

  12. Aeromonas hydrophilia infections after penetrating foot trauma.

    PubMed

    Larka, Ulla-Britt; Ulett, Dane; Garrison, Thomas; Rockett, Matthew S

    2003-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus commonly found in natural bodies of water and can cause infection in patients who suffer water-associated trauma or in immunocompromised hosts. The authors present 5 cases of penetrating wound trauma that did not involve any aquatic environment and developed rapidly forming infections. All patients presented with severe pain, cellulitis, ascending lymphangitis, fever, and pain on range of motion of the joint near the traumatic site. Presentation of clinical symptoms mimicked that of a septic joint or of severe streptococcal infection. All patients required surgical incision and drainage, intravenous and oral antibiotics using levofloxacin or bactrim, and local wound care. Results from cultures taken intraoperatively showed only A hydrophilia in every case. Resolution of symptoms occurred rapidly after surgery, and clinical resolution was seen within 72 hours. Each patient healed uneventfully and returned to preinjury status. PMID:14566724

  13. Effect of QiShenYiQi Pill on Myocardial Collagen Metabolism in Rats with Partial Abdominal Aortic Coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on myocardial collagen metabolism in rats with partial abdominal aortic coarctation and explored its mechanism of action. A series of assays were used to detect the effect and mechanism of QSYQ on systolic blood pressure, heart mass index, left ventricle mass index, HYP, expression of PICP, PIIINT, and CTX-I in serum, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 expression in myocardium. We observed that QSYQ can reduce the rate of myocardial collagen synthesis and increase the rate of myocardial collagen degradation. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis in partial abdominal aortic rats and it had a tendency to have a greater effect with longer treatment duration, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in the myocardial rat. PMID:25861361

  14. Fatal head trauma from tree related injuries.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, C T; Shirley, S E

    2001-10-01

    Two cases of death following tree related injuries are presented. Two females, an elderly woman and a child, suffered severe head trauma from falling objects from trees--a falling coconut and a falling branch respectively. Although this mode of injury has been previously documented, there have been no prior reports of in-hospital deaths in such patients. This uncommon cause of death is reviewed and recommendations made concerning its prevention. PMID:11693223

  15. Reno Orthopaedic Trauma Fellowship business curriculum.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Bray, Timothy J; Hill, Austin D

    2014-07-01

    The Reno Orthopaedic Center (ROC) Trauma Fellowship business curriculum is designed to provide the fellow with a graduate level business practicum and research experience. The time commitments in a typical 12-month trauma fellowship are significant, rendering a traditional didactic master's in business administration difficult to complete during this short time. An organized, structured, practical business education can provide the trauma leaders of tomorrow with the knowledge and experience required to effectively navigate the convoluted and constantly changing healthcare system. The underlying principle throughout the curriculum is to provide the fellow with the practical knowledge to participate in cost-efficient improvements in healthcare delivery. Through the ROC Trauma Fellowship business curriculum, the fellow will learn that delivering healthcare in a manner that provides better outcomes for equal or lower costs is not only possible but a professional and ethical responsibility. However, instilling these values without providing actionable knowledge and programs would be insufficient and ineffective. For this reason, the core of the curriculum is based on individual teaching sessions with a wide array of hospital and private practice administrators. In addition, each section is equipped with a suggested reading list to maximize the learning experience. Upon completion of the curriculum, the fellow should be able to: (1) Participate in strategic planning at both the hospital and practice level based on analysis of financial and clinical data, (2) Understand the function of healthcare systems at both a macro and micro level, (3) Possess the knowledge and skills to be strong leaders and effective communicators in the business lexicon of healthcare, (4) Be a partner and innovator in the improvement of the delivery of orthopaedic services, (5) Combine scientific and strategic viewpoints to provide an evidence-based strategy for improving quality of care in a cost-efficient manner, (6) Understand the political, economic, and strategic basics of private practice orthopaedics. PMID:24918829

  16. Developing Orthopaedic Trauma Capacity in Uganda: Considerations From the Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program.

    PubMed

    O?Hara, Nathan N; O?Brien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Uganda, like many low-income countries, has a tremendous volume of orthopaedic trauma injuries. The Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program (USTOP) is a partnership between the University of British Columbia and Makerere University that was initiated in 2007 to reduce the consequences of neglected orthopaedic trauma in Uganda. USTOP works with local collaborators to build orthopaedic trauma capacity through clinical training, skills workshops, system support, technology development, and research. USTOP has maintained a multidisciplinary approach to training, involving colleagues in anaesthesia, nursing, rehabilitation, and sterile reprocessing. Since the program's inception, the number of trained orthopaedic surgeons practicing in Uganda has more than doubled. Many of these newly trained surgeons provide clinical care in the previously underserved regional hospitals. The program has also worked with collaborators to develop several technologies aimed at reducing the cost of providing orthopaedic care without compromising quality. As orthopaedic trauma capacity in Uganda advances, USTOP strives to continually evolve and provide relevant support to colleagues in Uganda. PMID:26356209

  17. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma. PMID:25137601

  18. Social support among releasing men prisoners with lifetime trauma experiences.

    PubMed

    Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners. PMID:24666733

  19. Abdominal cocoon: idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jason H; Price, Elizabeth E

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, or idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition characterised by the presence of a dense fibrocollagenous membrane partially or totally encapsulating the small bowel leading to recurrent intestinal obstructions. We present the case of a patient who has presented for the fourth time with a small bowel obstruction. Previous laparoscopy revealed a plaque-like reactive process encapsulating much of the small bowel and the liver. After initial adhesiolysis, the patient's obstructions continued to reoccur. Further laparotomy was performed in order to excise the entirety of the cocoon membrane and free up loops of small bowel encapsulated by the process, hopefully preventing future obstructions. PMID:25612756

  20. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia. PMID:24680210

  1. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, I.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  2. [An abdominal aortic aneurysm revealing Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Naouli, H; Zrihni, Y; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2014-12-01

    Behçet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin. Vascular lesions predominantly affect veins. Arterial involvement is rare but usually associated with poor prognosis. Aortic syndromes are usually aneurysmal and occasionally reveal Behçet's disease. We report the case of a 46-year-old man whose Behçet's disease was revealed by a sub-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm in pre-rupture state. The diagnosis of this disease was retained based on clinical, biological and radiological criteria. The surgical procedure consisted in the resection of the aneurysmal sac and the interposition of a prosthetic PTFE tube. PMID:25457357

  3. Pleural ascites without abdominal fluid: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hartz, R S; Bomalaski, J; LoCicero, J; Murphy, R L

    1984-01-01

    The presence of ascitic fluid in the pleural cavity in the absence of peritoneal fluid is rare. We have recently encountered two patients who presented with red-sided pleural effusions and no abdominal ascites. Both patients had diaphragmatic defects: One was an old traumatic diaphragmatic tear and the other a pinpoint spontaneous perforation. These cases are unique because the diagnosis of total ascitic fluid movement across the diaphragm was made during life, and the condition was surgically corrected. The literature concerning transdiaphragmatic movement of fluid is reviewed, and an operative approach is outlined. PMID:6690852

  4. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Ga?dy?ska, Maria; Bernatowicz, El?bieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digital apparatus with linear transducers (7–12 MHz) and sometimes convex type conducers (3–5 MHz). The location, size and intestine stratified wall structure were evaluated. In each case the integument thickness was measured in millimeters in the site of the greatest atrophy and it was compared with the integument thickness from the side that had not been operated which enabled the calculation of the percentage reduction of integument in the area of the scar. Results In 3 patients who underwent several laparotomies there was a total reduction of muscular mass in the operated area. In these cases we stated only skin and slightly echogenic subcutaneous strand; probably corresponding to fibrous tissue – the thickness of integument in this area was in the range from 3 to 8 mm. In the remaining 26 patients the integument atrophy on the scar level included muscles in a greater extent and covered an extensive area after classical urological procedures on the upper urinary tract: after nephrectomy and even ureter stone evacuation or kidney cyst excision by means of classical anterolateral approach with the integument incision on the length of almost 20 cm. Reduction in the integument thickness was observed on the smaller area after classical cholecystectomies, appendectomies and other surgical procedures with the incision across the integument. The integument atrophy in the operated sites expressed in absolute numbers was in the range of 7–20 mm (average 14 mm). These values are markedly lower than the comparative integument thickness on the not operated side: 17–52 mm (average 25.4 mm). The percentage value of the integument thickness reduction oscillated in the range of 32–67% (average 44.2%). In most cases the atrophy involved all layers of the abdominal wall, what demonstrated as regional prominence of the integument, mimicking the presence of hernia. Conclusions Ultrasonography allows precise evaluation of the size and extent of atrophy as well as depiction of other lesions simulating that effect. Establishing the correct diagnosis should prevent the unnecessary reconstructions of the abdominal integument. PMID:26675040

  5. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    PubMed

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours prior to exercise, especially hypertonic compounds; improving posture, especially in the thoracic region; and supporting the abdominal organs by improving core strength or wearing a supportive broad belt. Techniques for gaining relief from the pain during an episode are equivocal. This article presents a contemporary understanding of ETAP, which historically has received little research attention but over the past 15 years has been more carefully studied. PMID:25178498

  6. Head Trauma and Alcohol: A Lethal Combination.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2015-12-01

    There has been much recent attention regarding "concussions" and the role they may play in death. As most medical professionals are aware, concussions exist on a spectrum ranging from minimal or no loss of consciousness with no residual sequelae to diffuse axonal injury and sudden death. The location on the spectrum depends not only on the nature of the impact or blow but also on the state of the individual impacted. Three previous reports have illustrated 7 deaths due to blunt force head trauma with acute ethanol intoxication (postconcussive apnea). The present report describes 6 additional deaths, five of which were witnessed. The report discusses the pathophysiology of postconcussive apnea and concludes that the head trauma results in a concussion, which when combined with the ethanol, results in prolonged apnea by disruption of the cardiorespiratory centers leading to death. In addition, it is concluded that individuals dying from postconcussive apnea become immediately unresponsive after the head trauma, demonstrate no significant anatomic abnormalities at autopsy, and have blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0.168 to 0.33 g/dL (mean, 0.258 g/dL; median, 0.24 g/dL). PMID:26196270

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria head trauma--child.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura E; Palasis, Susan; Saigal, Gaurav; Singer, Adam D; Karmazyn, Boaz; Dempsey, Molly E; Dillman, Jonathan R; Dory, Christopher E; Garber, Matthew; Hayes, Laura L; Iyer, Ramesh S; Mazzola, Catherine A; Raske, Molly E; Rice, Henry E; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Sierzenski, Paul R; Strouse, Peter J; Westra, Sjirk J; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Coley, Brian D

    2014-10-01

    Head trauma is a frequent indication for cranial imaging in children. CT is considered the first line of study for suspected intracranial injury because of its wide availability and rapid detection of acute hemorrhage. However, the majority of childhood head injuries occur without neurologic complications, and particular consideration should be given to the greater risks of ionizing radiation in young patients in the decision to use CT for those with mild head trauma. MRI can detect traumatic complications without radiation, but often requires sedation in children, owing to the examination length and motion sensitivity, which limits rapid assessment and exposes the patient to potential anesthesia risks. MRI may be helpful in patients with suspected nonaccidental trauma, with which axonal shear injury and ischemia are more common and documentation is critical, as well as in those whose clinical status is discordant with CT findings. Advanced techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, may identify changes occult by standard imaging, but data are currently insufficient to support routine clinical use. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25164794

  8. [Damage control applied to severe maxillofacial trauma].

    PubMed

    Laversanne, S; Pierrou, C; Haen, P; Brignol, L; Thiéry, G

    2014-02-01

    Damage control is defined by the extreme emergency implementation of a first resuscitation and surgical step, during which there is no attempt at repairing lesions but only at restoring adequate physiological function. In recent years, "damage control" has considerably improved the management of polytrauma patients, especially in war surgery. Respiratory distress or hemorrhagic shock requirements are critical maxillofacial emergencies. We present the specificities of "damage control" management for patients with severe maxillofacial trauma. Some clinical and biological criteria have been defined to choose "damage control" strategy, in patients presenting with life-threatening facial hemorrhage after facial trauma. A rapid initial stage restores vital functions. Airways are maintained and secured: oro-tracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, surgical tracheotomy. Facial bleeding is controlled with various means: oronasal packing, angiographic embolization, selective ligation then external carotid artery if necessary. The resuscitation step stabilizes the lethal triad: hypothermia, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis. The second step that comes in later is a surgical repair of facial injuries. "Damage control" can be adequately applied to the management of patients with severe maxillofacial trauma. PMID:24507725

  9. Pediatric Computed Tomography. Radiation Dose in Abdominal Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, X.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Buenfil, A. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Dies, P

    2008-08-11

    Computed tomography is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities used in the last years. However, because is one of the techniques that delivered a considerable radiation dose, precautions should be taken into account. Pediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adults, and the probability that no desirable biological effects can occur is greater. To this, also it adds the probability that they will need more radiological studies in the future. The work consisted in determining the received dose by the pediatric patients undergoing abdominal studies in a multislice computed tomograph, according to the dosimetric quantities established by a Code of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency; using a ionization chamber and a phantom that simulates the abdomen of a pediatric patient. The weighted air kerma index (C{sub w}) was 14.3{+-}0.4 mGy, this value is lower than the published by the American College of Radiology, 25 mGy. The multiple scan average dose (MSAD), which is a quantity established by the NOM-229-SSA1-2002 was determined, finding a value of 14.2{+-}0.1 mGy, it is also below the value established, 25 mGy for an adult study.

  10. Abdominal Obesity and Mortality in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haifeng; Shin, Jun Young; Lee, Seung Ho; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Moon-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between abdominal obesity (AO) and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is controversial. Methods The prevalence of AO in 84 PD patients was assessed in a cross-section manner and followed up for 9 years at a single center. AO was defined as a waist circumference (WC) of more than 90 cm in males or more than 80 cm in females. The patients were classified as either with AO(AO group) or without AO(nAO group). Results The AO group was older, contained more diabetics, more females, and had higher Charlson comorbidity index (aCCI) scores, BMI, and triglyceride and lower serum creatinine than the non-AO subjects. The follow-up duration was 53.2±34.4 months. At the end of the follow-up, eighteen patients (21.4%) were dead; 9 died of cardiovascular causes. The five year survival rate was 40.8%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that both all-cause and cardiovascular-cause mortalities were similar in the AO and nAO groups. Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of AO not to be an independent risk factor of all-cause and cardiovascular-cause mortality. Conclusion AO itself might not be a risk factor for mortality in PD patients. Nevertheless, further prospective studies with a large number of patients will be needed to prove this. PMID:26240597

  11. Abdominal Pain Associated with an Intra-Abdominal Gonad in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Twiss, Christian; Grasso, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds management of cryptorchidism in adults. Options include orchiectomy, orchiopexy, and close observation. What about fertility if orchiectomy is chosen? How is the risk of cancer affected when observation is the choice? Follow the reasoning for the management strategy for this adult presenting with abdominal pain. PMID:16985771

  12. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (?: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (?: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity.

  14. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüsey?no?lu, Ürfettin; Ç?çek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  15. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty Management: Some Useful Observations from the Israeli Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  16. Developing and organizing a trauma system and mass casualty management: some useful observations from the israeli trauma model.

    PubMed

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  17. Utilisation of a trauma meeting handover proforma to improve trauma patient pathway

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Rachel; Parton, Felicity; Trikha, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Decision making within orthopaedic centres predominantly occurs at the trauma meeting, where all decisions are made as a part of the multidisciplinary process. This is an essential handover process. Difficulties occur when teaching and detailed case discussions detract from the actual decision making process, leading to failure in documentation and implementing treatment plans. An audit was carried out in a busy district general hospital (DGH), assessing the quality of trauma meeting documentation in patient records, and assessing whether the introduction of a proforma document would improve this. Prospective clinical reviews were performed on all patients discussed in the trauma meeting over a one month period. Following the initial audit cycle a proforma was introduced, and the audit process was repeated at a two month and six month interval. The quality of the entries were assessed and compared to the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges Standards for the clinical structure and content of patient records, and The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) of England Guidelines for Clinicians on Medical Records and Notes. Sixty three patient records during a one month period from 1 August 2014 found that only 16% had any documentation of the trauma meeting, none of which met the standard set at the beginning of the audit. Following the introduction of the proforma, 102 patient records were reviewed from October 2014, showing 70% had documentation of the trauma meeting. This improved further to 84% in February 2015. The proforma has provided an effective means of documenting and communicating management plans, and in turn also improved the trauma patient pathway to theatre or discharge.

  18. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  19. Abdominal vascular emergencies: US and CT assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic). The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury. Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn’t firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious. Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities. PMID:23902665

  20. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  1. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations. PMID:19960518

  2. Optimizing the use of blood products in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Hess, John R; Hiippala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been used to treat the injured since the US Civil War. Now, it saves the lives of tens of thousands of injured patients each year. However, not everyone who receives blood benefits, and some recipients are injured by the transfusion itself. Effective blood therapy in trauma management requires an integration of information from diverse sources, including data relating to trauma and blood use epidemiology, medical systems management, and clinical care. Issues of current clinical concern in highly developed trauma systems include how to manage massive transfusion events, how to limit blood use and so minimize exposure to transfusion risks, how to integrate new hemorrhage control modalities, and how to deal with blood shortages. Less developed trauma systems are primarily concerned with speeding transport to specialized facilities and assembling trauma center resources. This article reviews the factors that effect blood use in urgent trauma care. PMID:16221314

  3. Instruments for the assessment of childhood trauma in adults.

    PubMed

    Roy, Carmella A; Perry, J Christopher

    2004-05-01

    The relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology has been explored in the literature. The goal of this study is to compare existing instruments that measure retrospective interpersonal gross childhood trauma. A computerized search from 1985 to March 2003 was performed to locate instruments used to measure childhood trauma. These were divided into interview-rated and self-report measures and were compared on various parameters. Twenty-one observer-rated and 21 self-report instruments were identified. In a comparison, five observer-rated measures and three self-report measures stand out for having favorable characteristics such as assessing multiple types of trauma and reporting on psychometric properties. A number of instruments are designed to measure a single type of trauma, usually sexual abuse, but most of these do not report psychometric properties. A few instruments used to measure retrospective childhood trauma are particularly useful for systematic research in adult psychiatric disorders. PMID:15126888

  4. Trauma in the Developing World: The Jamaican Experience

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, JM; Ferron-Boothe, D; Meeks-Aitken, N; McDonald, AH

    2014-01-01

    Trauma remains a challenging burden on the often under-funded healthcare systems of developing countries. Ten-year data from the Jamaica Trauma Registry show that trauma accounts for 20% of surgical admissions, with close to 50% being intentional and with a 5% mortality. There is a good opportunity for various preventive programmes to be instituted to reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:25314286

  5. Trauma surgery associations and societies: which organizations match your goals?

    PubMed

    Ball, Chad G; Grondin, Sean C; Schieman, Colin; Feliciano, David V; Dixon, Elijah; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ivatury, Rao R; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Reed, Lawrence R

    2014-01-01

    This focused summary is a multi-institutional, multi-national, and multi-generational project designed to briefly summarize current academic trauma societies for both trainees and faculty alike. The co-authorship is composed of former and/or current presidents from most major trauma organizations. It has particular relevance to trainees and/or recent graduates attempting to navigate the multitude of available trauma organizations. PMID:24955111

  6. Intrathoracic esophageal rupture distal to the carina after blunt chest trauma: Case-report

    PubMed Central

    Cedeño, Alex; Echeverría, Karla; Vázquez, Jan; Delgado, Aura; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma is a very rare entity, with an incidence of 0.001%. Eighty two percent of the esophageal perforation secondary to blunt chest trauma occur above the level of the carina, with the lowest reported incidence in the intrathoracic region distal to the carina. Presentation of case We report on the case of a 48-year-old Hispanic male with intrathoracic esophageal rupture. Exploration revealed a right lateral, mid esophageal, longitudinal 1.5 cm perforation. The defect was repaired using a double-layered primary closure reinforced with an intercostal muscle flap. The patient tolerated the procedure and the recovery was complicated by a pneumonic process which was treated accordingly. No leakage was found. Discussion A five-year retrospective review (2009–2013) at our institution identified 5586 trauma cases with only one case with esophageal rupture. This represents a 0.0002% of incidence of blunt esophageal rupture. This estimate is consistent with what has been previously reported in the medical literature. Our case represents a uniquely rare presentation of traumatic esophageal rupture due to the underline mechanism of injury and its anatomical location. A high index of suspicion and early intervention are critical in assuring a favorable outcome. Conclusion Diagnosis and surgical intervention with primary repair completed in the first twenty-four hours after presentation is fundamental to achieve a good outcome after esophageal rupture. PMID:26492358

  7. Neurobiological response to EMDR therapy in clients with different psychological traumas

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Marco; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Monaco, Leonardo; Daverio, Andrea; Giannoudas, Ioannis; La Porta, Patrizia; Verardo, Anna R.; Niolu, Cinzia; Fernandez, Isabel; Siracusano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We assessed cortical activation differences in real-time upon exposure to traumatic memory between two distinct groups of psychologically traumatized clients also in comparison with healthy controls. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to compare neuronal activation throughout the bilateral stimulation phase of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) sessions. We compared activation between the first (T0) and the last (T1) session, the latter performed after processing the index trauma. The group including all clients showed significantly higher cortical activity in orbito-frontal cortex at T0 shifting at T1 toward posterior associative regions. However, the subgroup of clients with chronic exposure to the traumatic event showed a cortical firing at both stages which was closer to that of controls. For the first time EEG monitoring enabled to disclose neurobiological differences between groups of clients with different trauma histories during the reliving of the traumatic event. Cortical activations in clients chronically exposed to traumatic memories were moderate, suggesting an association between social and environmental contexts with the neurobiological response to trauma exposure and psychotherapy. PMID:26579006

  8. Comparison of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography in different grading of blunt hepatic and splenic trauma: an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Li, Wenxiu; Lv, Faqin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Junlai; Yang, Li

    2009-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for the detection of different grading of solid organ injuries in blunt abdominal trauma in animals. A self-made miniature tools were used as models to simulate a blunt hepatic or splenic trauma in 16 and 14 anesthetized dogs, respectively. Baseline ultrasound, CEUS and CECT were used to detect traumatic injuries of livers and spleens. The degree of injuries was determined by CEUS according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) scale and the results compared with injury scale based on CECT evaluation. CEUS showed 22 hepatic injury sites in 16 animals and 17 splenic injury sites in other 14 animals. According to AAST scale, 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 3 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic lesions were present in 16 animals; 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 6 grade III and 2 grade IV splenic lesions in 14 animals. On CECT scan, 21 hepatic and 17 splenic injuries were demonstrated. According to Becker CT scaling for hepatic injury, 1 grade I, 2 grade II, 4 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic injuries were present. On the basis of Buntain spleen scaling, 2 grade I, 5 grade II, 5 grade III, 2 grade IV splenic injuries were showed. After Spearman rank correlation analysis, the agreement of CEUS with CECT on the degree of hepatic and splenic injury is 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively. CT is currently considered as the reference method for grading blunt abdominal trauma, according to experiment results, CEUS grading showed high levels of concordance with CECT. CEUS can accurately determine the degree of injury and will play an important role in clinical application. PMID:19097681

  9. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Powers, Abigail; Moore, Carla; Villarreal, Stephanie; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to childhood adversity is implicated in the etiology of adverse health outcomes, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. The relationship between childhood trauma and obesity may be related to the association of childhood trauma and risk for emotional eating. One pathway between trauma exposure, psychopathology, and emotional eating may be through emotion dysregulation and depression. The current study was undertaken to characterize demographic, environmental, and psychological risk factors for emotional eating in a primarily African American, low socioeconomic status (SES), inner-city population (N?=?1110). Emotional eating was measured using the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire and the Emotional Dysregulation Scale was used to assess emotion regulation. The Beck Depression Inventory and the modified PTSD Symptom Scale were used to assess depression and PTSD, respectively. Higher levels of emotional eating were associated with body mass index, income, childhood and adulthood trauma exposure, depressive and PTSD symptoms, negative affect and emotion dysregulation. Childhood emotional abuse was the most associated with emotional eating in adulthood. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the association between childhood trauma exposure (and emotional abuse specifically) and emotional eating was fully mediated by depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation, with emotional dysregulation contributing more to the mediation effect. Together these findings support a model in which obesity and related adverse health outcomes in stress- and trauma-exposed populations may be directly related to self-regulatory coping strategies accompanying emotion dysregulation. Our data suggest that emotion dysregulation is a viable therapeutic target for emotional eating in at-risk populations. PMID:25865667

  10. Taking a History of Childhood Trauma in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    SAPORTA, JOSÉ A.; GANS, JEROME S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine the process of taking an initial history of childhood abuse and trauma in psychodynamic psychotherapy. In exploring the advantages, complexities, and potential complications of this practice, they hope to heighten the sensitivities of clinicians taking trauma histories. Emphasis on the need to be active in eliciting important historical material is balanced with discussion of concepts that can help therapists avoid interpersonal dynamics that reenact and perpetuate the traumas the therapy seeks to treat. Ensuring optimal psychotherapeutic treatment for patients who have experienced childhood trauma requires attention to the following concepts: a safe holding environment, destabilization, compliance, the repetition compulsion, and projective identification. PMID:22700250

  11. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Negele, Alexa; Kaufhold, Johannes; Kallenbach, Lisa; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346. PMID:26693349

  12. An expanding role for cardiopulmonary bypass in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Talat S.; Gilardino, Miroslav S.; Fleiszer, David M.; Evans, David C.; Brown, Rea A.; Mulder, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To analyze experience at the McGill University Health Centre with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in trauma, complemented by a review of the literature to define its role globally and outline indications for its expanded use in trauma management. Data sources All available published English-language articles from peer reviewed journals, located using the MEDLINE database. Chapters from relevant, current textbooks were also utilized. Study selection Nine relevant case reports, original articles or reviews pertaining to the use of CPB in trauma. Data extraction Original data as well as authors’ opinions pertinent to the application of CPB to trauma were extracted, incorporated and appropriately referenced in our review. Data synthesis Overall mortality in the selected series of CPB used in the trauma setting was 44.4%. Four of 5 survivors had CPB instituted early (first procedure in operative management) whereas 3 of 4 deaths involved late institution of CPB. Conclusions Although CPB has traditionally been used in the setting of cardiac trauma alone, a better understanding of its potential benefit in noncardiac injuries will likely make for improved outcomes in the increasingly diverse number of severely injured patients seen in trauma centres today. Further studies by other trauma centres will allow for standardized indications for the use of CPB in trauma. PMID:11939667

  13. Trauma History and PTSD Symptoms in Juvenile Offenders on Probation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Berent, Elizabeth; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin M; Rodriguez, Erin M; Sandesara, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Detained and incarcerated juveniles are found to have heightened rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Less is known about probation youth, who represent the majority of juveniles in the criminal justice system. This study examined trauma history and PTSD and associations with behavioral health problems among 13-17 year-old juveniles on probation (N=61). Most (93%) reported at least one traumatic event, and 12% met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms were associated with mental health problems but not substance use or risky sexual behavior. Findings underscore the importance of addressing trauma history in probation youth. PMID:24273468

  14. A review of trauma systems using the Calgary model

    PubMed Central

    Kortbeek, John Barry

    2000-01-01

    Surgeons caring for severely injured patients have witnessed tremendous change over the past 2 decades with the rapid evolution of trauma systems. This paper describes the evolution of trauma systems in Canada, using the one in Calgary as a model. Canadian system guidelines were produced by the Trauma Association of Canada in 1993. Participation in Canadian accreditation is accelerating as increasingly more centres across the country undergo external review each year. Reporting of trauma outcomes, including standardized mortality and a variety of performance measures, is becoming the norm. Injury is being treated as a disease with comprehensive control strategies aimed at reducing death and disability rates through prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:10714253

  15. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  16. Size at birth and abdominal adiposity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Araújo de França, G V; Restrepo-Méndez, M C; Loret de Mola, C; Victora, C G

    2014-02-01

    We performed a systematic literature review on the associations between birth size and abdominal adiposity in adults, while also investigating the role of the adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI). MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS and SciELO databases were searched for articles published up to February 2013. Only prospective studies were included. After screening 2,570 titles, we selected 31 publications for the narrative synthesis, of which 13 were considered to be of high methodological quality. Six main indicators of birth size were identified, and birth weight (BW) was the most extensively studied. Most studies relied on anthropometric measurements as proxies for abdominal fatness or as indicators of body fat distribution. Few studies assessed abdominal adiposity through imaging methods, generally with small sample sizes. Eleven articles could be included in the meta-analyses. BW was found to be positively associated with waist circumference in adulthood, but the association disappeared after adjustment for adult BMI. In contrast, there was no association between BW and waist-to-hip ratio, whereas a strong negative association became evident after controlling for adult BMI. In conclusion, BW seems to be associated with larger adult size in general, including both waist and hip circumferences. The marked change in coefficients after adjustment for adult BMI suggests that post-natal growth strongly affects relative central adiposity, whereas BW?per se does not play a role. Given the potential impact of post-natal growth, further research is needed to identify different growth trajectories that lead to abdominal adiposity, as well as studies on interactions of foetal and post-natal growth patterns. PMID:24112242

  17. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ? 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  18. Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, I.J.; Kaplan, H.Y.; Herson, M.; Wexler, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction.

  19. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    E-print Network

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model Ch. Stamatopoulos1 School, Univ. of Crete, Greece Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic by the flow rate ratio during the cycle. a b c Fig.2 Measured intra-aneurysmal flow patterns with: zero flow

  20. Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall T. Douglas Mast,a) Laura M 1997 Ultrasonic pulse propagation through the human abdominal wall has been simulated using a model characteristics of ultrasonic wavefront distortion in vivo. However, quantitative agreement was limited by the two

  1. Control of road trauma epidemic in Australia.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, F.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture discusses initiatives taken by the Road Trauma Committee of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons to reduce fatality and injury on Australian roads. In 1970 the Road Trauma Committee and the communications media initiated a national campaign in support of legislation for the compulsory wearing of seat belts. Public ignorance and Parliamentary inertia were countered. Victoria became the first State in the Western world to introduce this legislation. All other Australian States followed. Significant and marked reductions in fatality and injury were achieved and have been maintained. Recognising alcohol as the single most important cause of serious road crashes and injuries in Australia, the committee advocated legislation for compulsory blood alcohol tests on all adult road crash casualties. In 1973-74 legislation was enacted in South Australia and Victoria and in 1976 in Queensland. Results show that more than one-quarter of driver casualties have alcohol concentrations above the legal limit of 0.05 g%. Half of these exceed 0.15 g%. On the other hand less than 3% of the general driving population exceed the legal limit. Further advocacy led in 1976 to the enactment of random roadside breath-test legislation in Victoria. The majority of Australian convicted drinking drivers have alcohol-related social problems. A quarter incur reconvictions. The conventional penal approach has failed. At present the Road Trauma Committee is campaigning for compulsory medical assessment of convicted drinking drivers. Reissue of a driving licence would be dependent upon evidence of re-education and/or rehabilitation. Pilot re-education programmes have been shown to lessen recidivism markedly. Prevention of drink-driving behaviour is the major strategy. The tactics entail deterence, improved secondary-school and driver education, and the implementation of a national policy for control of alcohol abuse. PMID:718071

  2. Chinese Head Trauma Data Bank: Effect of Hyperthermia on the Outcome of Acute Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hyperthermia may accentuate the detrimental consequences of brain injury and worsen the outcome of patients with acute head trauma, especially severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We explored the effect of different magnitudes and durations of hyperthermia in the first 3 days after injury on the outcome of 7145 patients with acute head trauma, including 1626 with severe TBI. The differences in mortality and unfavorable outcome between the normothermia group, mild fever group, moderate fever group, and high fever group were statistically significant (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of severe TBI patients in the groups also differed significantly (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of patients with 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days of high fever were significantly increased (p<0.01). Our data strongly indicate that both degree and duration of early post-trauma hyperthermia are closely correlated with the outcome of acute TBI patients, especially severely injured ones, which indicates that hyperthermia may play a detrimental role in the delayed mechanisms of damage after acute TBI. Prevention of early hyperthermia after acute head trauma is therefore essential to the management of TBI patients. PMID:22026424

  3. Cultural Differences in the Relationship between Intrusions and Trauma Narratives Using the Trauma Film Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Jobson, Laura; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults’ autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1). In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed). The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination) and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions. PMID:25203300

  4. Trauma experience in children and adolescents: an assessment of the effects of trauma type and role of interpersonal proximity.

    PubMed

    Price, Maggi; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Kim, Sunyoung; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The psychiatric sequelae associated with childhood experience(s) of trauma is complex and distinguishable from that of adult trauma exposure. Categories of impairment associated with experiences of early trauma include internalizing and externalizing emotional and behavioral problems, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and dissociation. The present study assessed the relationship between the type of trauma experience (i.e., non-interpersonal or interpersonal) and the manifestation of a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology using prospective longitudinal data from a community sample of ethnically diverse children and adolescents (N=1676; ages 4-18). The study also examined the relationship between different types of trauma experiences (e.g., direct, vicarious, interpersonal) and levels of various symptom domains (e.g., anxiety, posttraumatic stress, conduct problems). A number of factors relevant to the relationship between early trauma experience and subsequent impairment including temperament, socioeconomic status, sex, and age were included in the analyses. Results indicated that interpersonal traumas involving significant interpersonal proximity were associated with externalizing problems (i.e., oppositional defiant and conduct problems). Direct trauma experiences and emotionality were positively associated with almost all symptom domains. Implications for the relationship between trauma and developmental psychopathology are discussed. PMID:24064334

  5. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability...entitled ``Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). Specifically, this...

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  8. Platelet satellitism in a trauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Pavic, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Platelet satellitism (PS) is a rare phenomenon observed in blood smears obtained from blood anticoagulated with EDTA. It is characterised by platelet rosetting around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and in rare cases around other blood cells. PS is a rare cause of pseudothrombocytopenia. References about the phenomenon of PS in medical literature are few. In this report we describe a case of PS fortunately noticed in one trauma patient. Furthermore, we discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of PS proposed in the literature. To our knowledge this is the first case of PS reported in Croatia. PMID:22384529

  9. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. PMID:24656579

  10. Giant duodenal diverticulum: presentation by blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, M P; Ritota, P; Swan, K G

    1999-06-01

    Most duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, small (i.e., less than 5 cm in greatest dimension), acquired, extraluminal, and false. The only report of a massive or giant duodenal diverticulum (i.e., 10 cm or more), in the current literature, included severe nocturnal diarrhea. The present case report is the incidental finding of a massive duodenal diverticulum in a 34-year-old male trauma victim. The insidious nature of this case and the patient's age suggest a congenital etiology. We believe this is the first report of such a case. PMID:10372639

  11. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  12. Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on imaging techniques for diagnosis of trauma of bones. A comparative evaluation is presented for planning of proper diagnosis and treatment. Various techniques discussed are routine radiography; computerized tomography, NMR imaging, angiography, ultrasonography; and use of radioisotopes. The mechanism of injury of bone joints of upper and lower limbs and spine is discussed after discussing the anatomy of each in the beginning of each paper. Topics titled are healing of fractures; fractures of pelvis; knee; shoulder; foot and ankle; fractures of humerus; stress fractures; and orthopedic radiology. Prosthesis use and plastic surgery of joints is also discussed.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pafili, Kalliopi; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Papanas, Nikolaos; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that risk profiles differ between coronary artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be negatively associated with AAA formation. The underlying mechanisms for this negative relationship are far from defined, but may include: increased arterial wall matrix formation via advanced glycation end products; suppression of plasmin and reduction of levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9; diminished aortic wall macrophage infiltration, elastolysis and neovascularization. In addition, the effect of pharmacological agents used for the treatment of patients with DM on AAA formation has been studied with rather controversial results. Statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, fenofibrate, antibiotics and some hypoglycemic agents are beginning to be appreciated for a potential modest protection from AAAs, but further studies are needed. PMID:26440573

  14. Endovascular grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Johnny; Lachat, Mario; Veith, Frank J; Wanhainen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, endovascular technology has revolutionized the management of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Today, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with an AAA. Randomized controlled trials provide robust evidence for the indication of AAA repair and the rationale for the use of EVAR in selected patients. However, despite that, practice varies and several areas need further elucidation. Important future challenges and areas of research include the role of medical therapy in AAA, whether the indication for repair should be any different in women and in the elderly, and long-term follow-up of patients undergoing complex EVAR with adjuncts, both for elective treatment and for ruptured AAA. Continuous rapid technical and clinical development is to be expected. In this paper, we review the current practice and evidence of stenting in AAA. PMID:26543044

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA. PMID:18980864

  16. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  17. Pharmacist's impact on acute pain management during trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kayla; Hall, A Brad; Keriazes, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    The timely administration of analgesics is crucial to the comprehensive management of trauma patients. When an emergency department (ED) pharmacist participates in trauma resuscitation, the pharmacist acts as a medication resource for trauma team members and facilitates the timely administration of analgesics. This study measured the impact of a pharmacist on time to first analgesic dose administered during trauma resuscitation. All adult (>18 years) patients who presented to this level II trauma center via activation of the trauma response system between January 1, 2009, and May 31, 2013, were screened for eligibility. For inclusion, patients must have received intravenous fentanyl, morphine, or hydromorphone in the trauma bay. The time to medication administration was defined as the elapsed time from ED arrival to administration of first analgesic. There were 1328 trauma response system activations during the study period; of which 340 patients were included. The most common analgesic administered was fentanyl (62% in both groups). When a pharmacist was participating, the mean time to first analgesic administered was decreased (17 vs 21 minutes; P = .03). Among the 78% of patients with documented pain scores, the overall mean reduction in pain scores from ED arrival to ED discharge was similar between the 2 groups. There was a 2.4 point reduction with a pharmacist versus 2.7 without a pharmacist, using a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale. The participation of a clinical pharmacist during trauma resuscitation significantly decreased the time to first analgesic administration in trauma patients. The results of this study supplement the literature supporting the integration of clinical ED pharmacists on trauma teams. PMID:25768964

  18. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    PubMed Central

    How, Moo Ing; Lee, Puah Ken; Wei, Tan See; Chong, Chua Tai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compartment syndrome isolated to the anterior thigh is a rare complication of soccer injury. Previous reports in the English literature on sports trauma-related compartment syndrome of the thigh are vague in their description of the response of thigh musculature to blunt trauma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of high-risk features of compartment syndrome, vascular injury in quadriceps trauma, and the role of vascular study in blunt thigh injury. Case report We present herein the rare case of a 30-year-old man who developed thigh compartment syndrome 8 days after soccer injury due to severe edema of vastus intermedius and large thigh hematoma secondary to rupture of the profunda femoris vein. MRI revealed “blow-out” rupture of the vastus lateralis. Decompressive fasciotomy and vein repair performed with subsequent split-skin grafting of the wound defect resulted in a good functional outcome at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome. PMID:25931302

  19. Abusive head trauma: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kan?k, Ali; ?nce, Osman Tolga; Ye?ilo?lu, ?ehriban; Eliaç?k, Kay?; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi

    2015-09-01

    Abusive head trauma is a serious form of child abuse and mostly seen in infants below the age of two years as a result of a strong shaking by the caregiver who aims to stop the infant's crying. Characteristic symptoms include subdural hematomas, encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhages and fractures of the long bones. When physically examined, there are generally no externally visible signs. For this reason, it can be underdiagnosed, if it is not considered in the differential diagnosis. When the information provided from the parents is inconsistent and contradictory with the clinical picture of the patient, this form of abuse must be suspected and retinal hemorrhages should be searched. In this article, two patients who were admitted to our emergency department and diagnosed with physical child abuse are reported. One of these patients had a history of minor head trauma after falling down from the sofa and the other one had a history of breathlessness and loss of consciousness as a result of excessive crying. PMID:26568695

  20. Abusive head trauma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Kan?k, Ali; ?nce, Osman Tolga; Ye?ilo?lu, ?ehriban; Eliaç?k, Kay?; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi

    2015-01-01

    Abusive head trauma is a serious form of child abuse and mostly seen in infants below the age of two years as a result of a strong shaking by the caregiver who aims to stop the infant’s crying. Characteristic symptoms include subdural hematomas, encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhages and fractures of the long bones. When physically examined, there are generally no externally visible signs. For this reason, it can be underdiagnosed, if it is not considered in the differential diagnosis. When the information provided from the parents is inconsistent and contradictory with the clinical picture of the patient, this form of abuse must be suspected and retinal hemorrhages should be searched. In this article, two patients who were admitted to our emergency department and diagnosed with physical child abuse are reported. One of these patients had a history of minor head trauma after falling down from the sofa and the other one had a history of breathlessness and loss of consciousness as a result of excessive crying. PMID:26568695

  1. Ballistics reviews: mechanisms of bullet wound trauma.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The location of an entrance wound (bullet placement) and the projectile path are the most important factors in causing significant injury or death following a shooting. The head followed by the torso are the most vulnerable areas, with incapacitation resulting from central nervous system (brain or cord) disruption, or massive organ destruction with hemorrhage. Tissue and organ trauma result from the permanent wound cavity caused by direct destruction by the bullet, and also from radial stretching of surrounding tissues causing a temporary wound cavity. The extent of tissue damage is influenced by the type of bullet, its velocity and mass, as well as the physical characteristics of the tissues. The latter includes resistance to strain, physical dimensions of an organ, and the presence or absence of surrounding anatomical constraints. Bullet shape and construction will also affect tissue damage and bullets which display greater yaw will be associated with increased temporary cavitation. Military bullet designs do not include bullets that will expand or flatten as these cause greater wound trauma and are regulated by convention. PMID:19644779

  2. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, S; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC]) and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches. PMID:25593358

  3. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC]) and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches. PMID:25593358

  4. Coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Hoedemaker, G.; Peters, R.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma is rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who was admitted with a subacute inferior myocardial infarction due to dissection of the right coronary artery. Ten days earlier, she had sustained a minimal chest trauma. The literature is reviewed and management is discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:25696487

  5. 'Big data' approaches to trauma outcome prediction and autonomous resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiming; Njoku, Mary; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2014-11-01

    Massive clinical digital data routinely collected by high throughput biomedical devices provide opportunities and challenges for optimal use. This article discusses how such data are used in learning prediction models at level 1 trauma centres to support decision making in trauma patients. PMID:25383434

  6. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Ricky, Ed.

    This book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. It includes theoretical models of this relationship and examinations of its most important aspects, explorations of trauma-related assessment issues, and practical therapeutic interventions for use with juvenile delinquents. Chapters include: (1) "The Role of…

  7. Inflicted Skeletal Trauma: The Relationship of Perpetrators to Their Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Suzanne P.; Sirotnak, Andrew P.; Heisler, Kurt W.; Barnes-Eley, Myra L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although inflicted skeletal trauma is a very common presentation of child abuse, little is known about the perpetrators of inflicted skeletal injuries. Studies exist describing perpetrators of inflicted traumatic brain injury, but no study has examined characteristics of perpetrators of inflicted skeletal trauma. Methods: All cases of…

  8. Relationships of Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Trauma Symptoms to Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Elizabeth J.; Waelde, Lynn C.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has found that delinquency is related to higher levels of trauma symptoms and poorer ethnic identity. The present study used a California Bay Area school-based sample of 307 adolescents to examine whether the relationship of trauma symptoms to delinquency is buffered by higher ethnic identity and whether this buffering effect is…

  9. Strategies for Teaching about Trauma to Graduate Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilin, Barbara; Kauffman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Actual exposure to the details of trauma within the classroom setting is considered to be a necessary part of preparation for social work practice with traumatized clients. This article reviews the reasons why it is important for faculty to understand students' possible reactions to exposure to trauma content. One factor believed to increase the…

  10. Therapeutic Doll Making in Art Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stace, Sonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doll making can hold diverse functions for clients in therapy, particularly for those clients who are working through complex trauma histories. Recent literature pertaining to the treatment of complex trauma suggests that talking treatments have their limits; supplementary therapeutic approaches that focus on sensory, physical,…

  11. Working with Families Experiencing Homelessness: Understanding Trauma and Its Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…

  12. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  13. Trauma and Substance Use Disorders in Rural and Urban Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, David L.; Wilkinson, Jamie; Paradis, Bryce; Kelley, Stephanie; Naseem, Ahsan; Grant, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of multiple mental health conditions have been described between rural and urban populations. However, there is limited information regarding differences in exposure to trauma and trauma-related mental health conditions in these populations. Given the number of veterans who are…

  14. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  15. Practicing What We Teach: Trauma-Informed Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carello, Janice; Butler, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the starting case for applying the elements of trauma-informed care (TIC) to education and outlines the authors' initial efforts to develop guidelines for what they call trauma-informed educational practice. To this end, the article starts with a literature review related to the potential for vicarious traumatization and…

  16. The relationship between eating disorders and sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Madowitz, Jennifer; Matheson, Brittany E; Liang, June

    2015-09-01

    Research aimed at understanding the causes and comorbidities of eating disorders (ED) identifies sexual trauma as one potential pathway to the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Based on current literature, there are two main etiological pathways between sexual trauma and ED-body perceptions and psychological difficulties. However, previously published reviews on this topic are outdated and have not yielded consistent findings. Therefore, authors completed a literature review covering years 2004-2014 to examine the relationship between sexual trauma and ED according to both proposed pathway models. Authors utilized PubMed, GoogleScholar, and PsychINFO as search engines. Search terms included "sexual assault", "sexual abuse", "sexual trauma", and "rape" in conjunction with relevant ED terminology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Current data indicate an increased prevalence of sexual trauma for individuals with ED. Although limited, recent evidence suggests that sexual trauma precedes and contributes to the development of ED. Existing literature indicates that the body perceptions pathway may impact ED through body dissatisfaction, shame, sexual dysfunction, and fear of future sexual trauma. The psychological difficulties pathway indicates a link between ED and the desire to cope with the failure of the average expected environment, psychological diagnoses, the need for control, and the regulation of emotions. However, further research is needed to assess the potential causal role that sexual trauma may play in the etiology of ED. PMID:25976911

  17. The Child Welfare Response to Serious Nonaccidental Head Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2004-01-01

    Serious nonaccidental head trauma (NHT) can leave permanent neurological damage in children who survive abuse. This study reports on child welfare's handling of NHT cases compared with cases of physical abuse and head trauma due to neglect with regard to placement in foster care, reunification with family, and safety issues. The results show that…

  18. Psychotherapy with College Student Survivors of War and Political Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kathryn; Seeman, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring to the fore a topic that has received little mention in the college student literature: conducting psychotherapy with survivors of war and political trauma who seek treatment at college and university counseling centers. Following a discussion of political trauma in relation to typical developmental…

  19. Relational Trauma and Its Impact on Late-Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes work with two children, placed for late adoption who have suffered relational trauma. The paper explores the long-term consequences of such trauma, which includes problems with affect regulation, difficulties in generalising from one experience to another and shifts between phantasies of omnipotent control and sudden…

  20. Evaluation of a Spiritually Focused Intervention with Older Trauma Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowland, Sharon; Edmond, Tonya; Fallot, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 11-session, spiritually focused group intervention with older women survivors (age 55 years and older) of interpersonal trauma (child abuse, sexual assault, or domestic violence) in reducing trauma-related depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety. Forty-three community-dwelling women…

  1. Trauma Symptoms and Life Skill Needs of Domestic Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorde, Mrugaya W.; Helfrich, Christine A.; Finlayson, Marcia L.

    2004-01-01

    This study identified the trauma symptoms and life skill needs of 84 domestic violence victims from three domestic violence programs. Women completed two self-report tools: Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and Occupational Self Assessment (OSA). Staff members participated in focus groups regarding their perceptions of the womens needs. Women scored…

  2. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  3. Pre-hospital trauma training in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Vincent; Vincent, Janette

    This article explores the development of a new model of trauma training for nursing and other emergency staff in the Falkland Islands, an isolated group of islands in the South Atlantic. The training has been successfully implemented and continues to provide staff with tailored training in emergency trauma care. PMID:17260936

  4. The Counselor's Trauma as Counseling Motivation: Vulnerability or Stress Inoculation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Mitchell, Jessica L.; Baird, Stephanie; Whitfield, Sarah Roby; Meyer, Heather Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Should counselors with interpersonal trauma histories work with similarly traumatized clients? How does the work affect them? Current research is inconsistent. This study examines 101 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors' recalled motivations for trauma work, their reported subjective personal changes, and their secondary and vicarious…

  5. A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R

    2002-02-01

    Abdominal exercises are often performed on roller or rocker mechanisms, which have been aggressively promoted through the television and print media. However, justifications are lacking as to why these devices are superior to traditional abdominal exercises such as crunches. This study sought to describe and compare the range of motion (ROM) of several joints during crunches performed on 4 different abdominal conditioning devices (2 roller and 2 pivot types) and a traditional crunch exercise. Ten men (29 +/- 5.87 years, 177.5 +/- 6.46 cm, 80.96 +/- 11.72 kg) and 10 women (33.4 +/- 10.16 years, 162.23 +/- 3.83 cm, 56.99 +/- 7.36 kg) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Subjects were videotaped in the sagittal plane (60 Hz) using standard kinematic methods. Reflective markers were placed on the right temple, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel, toe, and 2 sternum markers placed on a foam piece strapped to the subject's chest. The videotaped movements were automatically digitized (PEAK5 2-D) and the data smoothed using a Butterworth filter. Relative angular ROMs of the head (temple, auditory meatus, shoulder); neck (auditory meatus, shoulder, hip); trunk (near sternum, shoulder, hip); hip (shoulder, hip, knee); sternum/head (sternum near and sternum far with temple and auditory meatus); sternum/trunk (sternum near and sternum far with shoulder and hip); and a sum of 4 angles (head, neck, trunk, hip) were calculated. Sex by equipment repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were calculated on the angles of the 5 exercises. When no main effect for sex was found, the data were collapsed across sex and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated on the resulting data. Post hoc analyses of pairwise differences were calculated using Tukey's honestly significant difference statistic. Results showed that crunches performed with the abdominal devices resulted in less ROM in all angles measured when compared with a traditional crunch. The traditional crunch exercise was most closely simulated by the pivot-type devices. The results indicated that prescription of abdominal conditioning exercises via these devices results in training through smaller ROMs compared with a traditional crunch. The specific angle changes may require careful judgment as to appropriate application for exercisers with specific back and neck motion limitations. PMID:11834119

  6. The role of trauma symptoms in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Noelle B; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Meuret, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    Reports of traumatic events by individuals who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are common; yet, evidence for the relation between traumatic events and NSSI is inconclusive. This review explores the thesis that trauma symptoms, rather than the experience of a traumatic event per se, underlie this relation, specifically suggesting that trauma symptoms might serve as a mediator. The literature indicates that self-injury plays an important functional role in coping with trauma symptoms such that self-injury can provide an escape from intrusive thoughts and aversive emotional states, as well as end dissociation and periods of numbness through the generation of feelings. Additionally, trauma symptoms have been shown to mediate the relation between the occurrence of traumatic events and NSSI. Taken together, trauma symptoms may play an important role in the development and maintenance of NSSI. The review concludes with treatment implications and future directions for research. PMID:23878145

  7. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. PMID:24647210

  8. Cumulative Index

    E-print Network

    stream_size 22105 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Auslegung.v08.n03.317-332.pdf.txt stream_source_info Auslegung.v08.n03.317-332.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CUMULATIVE... INDEX I. Articles (i) By Author Abate, Charles J. "Has Dretske Really Refuted Skepticism?", v.4, n.3 (June, 1977), pp. 169- 175. Abugattas, Juan A. "On the Relation Between Morality and the Notion of God". v.7, n.l (November, 1979), pp. 47...

  9. Abdominal Obesity and Brain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Callisaya, Michele; Blizzard, Leigh; Sharman, James E.; Venn, Alison; Phan, Thanh G.; Beare, Richard; Forbes, Josephine; Blackburn, Nicholas B.; Srikanth, Velandai

    2015-01-01

    Aim Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with gray matter atrophy. Adiposity and physical inactivity are risk factors for T2D and brain atrophy. We studied whether the associations of T2D with total gray matter volume (GMV) and hippocampal volume (HV) are dependent on obesity and physical activity. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), mean steps/day and brain volumes in a community dwelling cohort of people with and without T2D. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined whether WHR, BMI and physical activity mediated or modified the association between T2D, GMV and HV. Results There were 258 participants with (mean age 67±7 years) and 302 without (mean age 72±7 years) T2D. Adjusting for age, sex and intracranial volume, T2D was independently associated with lower total GMV (p = 0.001) and HV (p<0.001), greater WHR (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001), and lower mean steps/day (p = 0.002). After adjusting for covariates, the inclusion of BMI and mean steps/day did not significantly affect the T2D-GMV association, but WHR attenuated it by 32% while remaining independently associated with lower GMV (p<0.01). The T2D-HV association was minimally changed by the addition of BMI, steps/day or WHR in the model. No statistical interactions were observed between T2D and measures of obesity and physical activity in explaining brain volumes. Conclusions Abdominal obesity or its downstream effects may partially mediate the adverse effect of T2D on brain atrophy. This requires confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26560876

  10. Effect of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on splanchnic circulation: Historical developments

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC. PMID:25561784

  11. Delayed dynamic abdominal wall closure following multi-visceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Satheesh; Butler, Andrew; Jamieson, Neville; Middleton, Stephen; Jah, Asif

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary closure of the abdominal wall following intestinal transplantation or multivisceral transplantation could become a challenging problem in a significant number of patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) underwent a multi-visceral transplantation for short gut syndrome. She subsequently developed acute graft rejection that proved resistant to conventional treatment. She was relisted and underwent re-transplantation along with kidney transplantation. Abdominal wall closure could not be achieved because of the large size of the graft and bowel oedema. The wound was initially managed with laparostomy followed by insertion of the delayed dynamic abdominal closure (DDAC) device (Abdominal Retraction Anchor – ABRA® system). Continuous dynamic traction to the wound edges resulted in gradual approximation and complete closure of the abdominal wound was achieved within 3 weeks. DISCUSSION Successful abdominal closure after multivisceral transplantation or isolated intestinal transplantation often requires biological mesh, vascularised flaps or abdominal wall transplantation. DDAC eliminated the need for a prosthetic mesh or skin graft and provided an excellent cosmetic result. Adjustment of the dynamic traction at the bedside minimised the need for multiple returns to the operating theatre. It resulted in a well-healed linear scar without a hernia. CONCLUSION Dynamic traction allows delayed closure of laparotomy resulting in strong and cosmetically sound wound healing with native tissue. PMID:25460454

  12. MR evaluation of synovial injury in shoulder trauma.

    PubMed

    Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Andreisek, Gustav; McFarland, Edward G; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to synovial injury of the shoulder in patients with and without acute shoulder trauma. Three hundred and nine consecutive shoulder MRI studies (185-male, 124-female, 50?±?15 years old) were retrospectively evaluated for findings suggestive of synovial injury including rupture and/or diverticulum of the joint capsule, bursa, and biceps tendon sheath (BTS), ganglion/synovial cyst, geyser phenomenon, and sequel of previous shoulder dislocation (Hill-Sachs deformity). Patients with one or more of these findings were included in the MR-positive group, whereas the remaining subjects were used as MR negatives. Based on their medical records, patients were also divided into trauma and non-trauma groups, and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the aforementioned MRI findings and history of shoulder trauma. Fifty-six patients were included in the MR-positive group and 253 in the MR-negative group. In MR-positive group, the incidence of capsular rupture (CR) and subacromial/subdeltoid (SASD) bursal rupture was higher in trauma patients, whereas the incidence of BTS diverticulum and ganglion cyst was higher in subjects without trauma. Significant association was found between the history of acute trauma and CR, SASD bursal rupture, BTS rupture, and Hill-Sachs deformity. In shoulder MR examination, presence of CR and/or SASD bursal rupture is strongly suggestive of acute shoulder trauma. In addition, BTS rupture and Hill-Sachs deformity are more prevalent in patients with acute shoulder trauma. The presence of these features should alert MRI readers to assess for additional trauma-related internal derangements, if a respective history has not been provided. PMID:21735271

  13. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to a Primary Suture for Anoperineal Trauma by Motorcycle Accident in a Healthy Adult

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Susumu; Ohi, Masaki; Imaoka, Hiroki; Uratani, Ryo; Kobayashi, Minako; Inoue, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man experienced a swollen scrotum three days after a motorcycle accident and presented to our hospital. He had had a primary suture repair for anoperineal trauma in an outside hospital at the time of the injury. He presented to us with general fatigue, low grade fevers, and perineal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed subcutaneous emphysema from the scrotum to the left chest. The sutured wound had foul-smelling discharge and white exudate. We made the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis and immediately opened the sutured wound and performed initial debridement and lavage with copious irrigation. We continued antibiotics and lavage of the wound until the infection was controlled. Fortunately, the necrotizing fasciitis did not worsen and he was discharged after 15 days. Our experience indicates that anoperineal injuries should not be closed without careful and intensive follow-up due to the potential of developing necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26347831

  14. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  15. Long-term Outcomes Following Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid; Brubaker, Linda; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Richter, Holly; Gantz, Marie; Fine, Paul; Menefee, Shawn; Ridgeway, Beri; Visco, Anthony; Warren, Lauren Klein; Zhang, Min; Meikle, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Importance Over 225,000 surgeries are performed annually in the U.S. for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about long-term effectiveness and adverse events. Objective To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy). Design, setting, participants Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year CARE trial (Colpopexy And urinary Reduction Efforts). Participants were stress continent women undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002–5 for symptomatic POP randomized to concomitant urethropexy or not. 92% (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers enrolled into this extended study with 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completing 5 and 7 years follow-up, respectively. Median follow-up was 7 years. Main Outcome Measures POP: Symptomatic failure: POP retreatment or reporting bulge on Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI); Anatomic failure: POP retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex descend below upper third of the vagina or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen. Urinary incontinence (UI): Stress UI: more than 1 stress urinary incontinence symptom on PFDI or interval treatment; Overall UI: score ? 3 on Incontinence Severity Index. Results By year 7, the estimated probabilities of failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy and no urethropexy groups respectively were were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (difference 0.050; 95% CI ?0.161, 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (0.049; ?0.060, 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (0.134; ?0.096, 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (?0.153; ?0.268, 0.030) 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (?0.064; ?0.161, 0.032). Mesh erosion probability estimated by Kaplan-Meier method was 10.5% (95% CI 6.8, 16.1) at 7 years. Conclusion and Relevance Over seven years, abdominal sacrocolpopexy failure rates increased in both randomized groups. Urethropexy prevented SUI longer than no urethropexy. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy effectiveness must be balanced with long-term risks of mesh and /or suture erosion. PMID:23677313

  16. Collagen Degradation in the Abdominal Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Soekhoe, Ratna G.V.; Weber, Ekkehard; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Kleemann, Robert; Mulder, Adri; van Bockel, J. Hajo; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Lindeman, Jan H.N.

    2007-01-01

    Growth and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) result from increased collagen turnover. Collagen turnover critically depends on specific collagenases that cleave the triple helical region of fibrillar collagen. As yet, the collagenases responsible for collagen degradation in AAAs have not been identified. Increased type I collagen degradation products confirmed collagen turnover in AAAs (median values: <1, 43, and 108 ng/mg protein in control, growing, and ruptured AAAs, respectively). mRNA and protein analysis identified neutrophil collagenase [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8] and cysteine collagenases cathepsin K, L, and S as the principle collagenases in growing and ruptured AAAs. Except for modestly increased MMP-14 mRNA levels, collagenase expression was similar in growing and ruptured AAAs (anterior-lateral wall). Evaluation of posttranslational regulation of protease activity showed a threefold increase in MMP-8, a fivefold increase in cathepsins K and L, and a 30-fold increase in cathepsin S activation in growing and ruptured AAAs. The presence of the osteoclastic proton pump indicated optimal conditions for extracellular cysteine protease activity. Protease inhibitor mRNA expression was similar in AAAs and controls, but AAA protein levels of cystatin C, the principle cysteine protease inhibitor, were profoundly reduced (>80%). We found indications that this secondary deficiency relates to cystatin C degradation by (neutrophil-derived) proteases. PMID:17322367

  17. [Abdominal pain with a microvascular cause].

    PubMed

    Slegers, Claire A D; Bloemsma, Gijsbert C; Horjus, Carmen S; Visser, Henk; Robijn, Rob J; Spillenaar Bilgen, Ernst Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain. Based on CT scan results, a perforation resulting from colitis of the transverse colon was suspected. Additional colonoscopy showed ulcerative stenosis of the transverse colon. Initially, the patient recovered on conservative treatment; however, because of persistent stenosis, an elective resection of the transverse colon was performed. A CT scan revealed free gas around the anastomosis on the fourth postoperative day. Relaparotomy revealed leakage and diffuse ischaemic changes around the anastomosis as well as perforations at different sites on the small bowel. Postoperative CT angiography showed stenosis of the proximal celiac trunk, which was successfully stented. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed luminal irregularities of the superior mesenteric, the middle colic as well as the main hepatic and splenic arteries. Eventually, the clinical presentation and surgical, radiologic and histopathological findings together led to the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Aggressive treatment with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide resulted in the resolution of symptoms and the disappearance of radiologic abnormalities. PMID:22414672

  18. Trauma Ultrasound in Civilian Tactical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Dixon, Jeff D.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The term “tactical medicine” can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509

  19. Trauma triggering thyrotoxic crisis with lactic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Jennifer S.; Quan, Dan K.

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic crisis (TC) is defined as a life-threatening exacerbation of the hyperthyroid state that causes multiple autonomic and metabolic disturbances. It is considered to be an endocrine emergency that must be urgently diagnosed and treated. We describe a case of TC precipitated by trauma with a resultant lactic acidosis. The patient is a 24-year-old male with a history of hyperthyroidism who presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was initially tachycardic and hypertensive, however, was afebrile. Initial laboratory analysis showed an anion gap of 26, lactic acid 7.6, free T4 5.61 and thyroid stimulating hormone < 0.015. A diagnosis of TC was made, and he was treated with intravenous fluids, propranolol, and methimazole with improvement of tachycardia and lactic acidosis. We discuss the features of this case, which reviews the presentations of TC as well as its metabolic sequelae.

  20. Pediatric ocular trauma--a clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, S; Mukherjee, R; Ladi, D S; Gandhi, V H; Ladi, B S

    1990-01-01

    A year long study of ocular injuries in children below the age of 15 years was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of a general hospital. Fortyfour cases were studied. Of these 45.45% were in the age group of 6-10 years. The male to female ratio was 5.28 : 1. Pointed objects viz. sticks, wires etc. were found to be the common causative agents; the recent trend being of bow and arrow injuries. Ocular perforation was observed in 28 cases. On follow up of all the cases with ocular trauma, only 12 patients were found to have a visual acuity better than 6/18; perception of light was absent in 7 patients. A need for increased parental awareness and supervision of children is stressed upon. PMID:2097350

  1. Haemophilia A in a major trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Charlotte; Spodeck, Agnes; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Swol, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilia A is a coagulopathy with an absence or functional deficiency of coagulation factor VIII. The disease can be subdivided into a congenital form (incidence 1:10?000-1:20?000) and an acquired form (incidence 1:1?000?000). Both forms present an increased risk of bleeding even in low-impact trauma in severe cases of haemophilia A. The course of a man with haemorrhagic shock after a fall from a height of more than 3?m is described. After the secondary survey in the intensive care unit, several interventions (laparotomy, mass transfusion) were performed to stop the bleeding. A history of haemophilia was belatedly reported by relatives. The activity of factor VIII was determined, and substitution was initiated. No recurrent signs of bleeding occurred. The patient survived in good condition and presented for follow-up 3?years later with no disabilities. PMID:26677147

  2. Non-operative management of splenic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Beuran, M; Gheju, I; Venter, MD; Marian, RC; Smarandache, R

    2012-01-01

    The risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) prompted the evolution toward preservation of the injured spleen. Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt injury to the spleen in adults has become the standard of care in hemodynamically stable patients. This modality of treatment began in the 1970’s in paediatric patients. It is highly successful with overall failures rates from 2% to 31% (average 10.8%) - with the majority of failures occurring in the first 24 hours. Current, NOM of splenic trauma includes splenic artery embolization. However, the criteria for NOM are controversial. In this study we present the current criteria, the evolution and failure rates of this type of management viewed through the general knowledge and, particularly, our experience. PMID:22574087

  3. Military sexual trauma research: a proposed agenda.

    PubMed

    Allard, Carolyn B; Nunnink, Sarah; Gregory, Amber M; Klest, Bridget; Platt, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is a widespread problem associated with negative psychological and physical health problems. This article presents the current state of MST research and highlights specific areas in need of more focused study. Areas that have produced the greatest body of knowledge include MST prevalence and psychological and physical health correlates. We propose a research agenda based on gaps noted in our research review and empirical and theoretical evidence of issues relevant to but not studied directly in MST populations. We present evidence that MST is qualitatively distinct from other forms of sexual maltreatment in terms of its relational and vocational context as well as the severity of associated psychological distress, examine underexplored gender and sexual issues in MST, and discuss the lack of treatment and prevention studies specific to MST. Specific recommendations are made throughout in an attempt to guide and advance the field. PMID:21534099

  4. Dynamic CT scanning of spinal column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Cann, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Dynamic sequential computed tomographic scanning with automatic table incrementation uses low milliampere-second technique to eliminate tube cooling delays between scanning slices and, thus, markedly shortens examination times. A total of 25 patients with spinal column trauma involving 28 levels were studied with dynamic scans and retrospectively reviewed. Dynamic studies were considerably faster than conventional spine examinations and yielded reliable diagnosis. Bone disruption and subluxation was accurately evaluated, and the use of intrathecal metrizamide in low doses allowed direct visualization of spinal cord or radicular compromise. Multiplanar image reformation was aided by the dynamic incrementation technique, since motion between slices (and the resulting misregistration artifact on image reformation) was minimized. A phantom was devised to test spatial resolution of computed tomography for objects 1-3 mm in size and disclosed minimal differences for dynamic and conventional computed tomographic techniques in resolving medium-to-high-contrast objects.

  5. Protecting against Noise Trauma by Sound Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NIU, X.; CANLON, B.

    2002-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that more than 12% of the world population is at risk for developing noise-induced hearing loss. At present, sound conditioning presents one means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise trauma. This phenomenon is now known to occur in a variety of mammals, including gerbils, chinchillas, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, and, of most importance, human subjects. A variety of sound conditioning paradigms have been proven successful in preventing morphological and physiological damage. Proposed mechanisms include the upregulation of endogenous antioxidants, the number of NMDA receptors, heat shock proteins, calcium buffering systems, and neurotrophic factors. Further studies are needed to understand the protective mechanisms afforded by sound conditioning. It is convincible that sound conditioning will benefit human subjects and provide a treatment for noise-induced hearing loss. The data presented in this review describe the current status and understanding of the phenomenon of sound conditioning.

  6. What is optimal timing for trauma team alerts? A retrospective observational study of alert timing effects on the initial management of trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lillebo, Borge; Seim, Andreas; Vinjevoll, Ole-Petter; Uleberg, Oddvar

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma teams improve the initial management of trauma patients. Optimal timing of trauma alerts could improve team preparedness and performance while also limiting adverse ripple effects throughout the hospital. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how timing of trauma team activation and notification affects initial in-hospital management of trauma patients. Methods Data from a single hospital trauma care quality registry were matched with data from a trauma team alert log. The time from patient arrival to chest X-ray, and the emergency department length of stay were compared with the timing of trauma team activations and whether or not trauma team members received a preactivation notification. Results In 2009, the trauma team was activated 352 times; 269 times met the inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant differences in time to chest X-ray for differently timed trauma team activations (P = 0.003). Median time to chest X-ray for teams activated 15–20 minutes prearrival was 5 minutes, and 8 minutes for teams activated <5 minutes before patient arrival. Timing had no effect on length of stay in the emergency department (P = 0.694). We found no effect of preactivation notification on time to chest X-ray (P = 0.474) or length of stay (P = 0.684). Conclusion Proactive trauma team activation improved the initial management of trauma patients. Trauma teams should be activated prior to patient arrival. PMID:22973111

  7. Management of orbital trauma and foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Holt, G R; Holt, J E

    1988-02-01

    Blunt and penetrating trauma to the orbital region can have a devastating effect both functionally and cosmetically for the orbit. Penetrating injuries to the orbit should be suspected whenever there is a history of trauma to the regions of the eyelids. Meticulous inspection of the eyelids and globe should be undertaken, and if there is any suspicion of a foreign body retained within the orbital soft tissues, then a CT scan should be obtained. It is possible that the foreign body is not opaque, and exploration of the soft tissues may be indicated. Blow-out fractures of the orbit should be explored and repaired when the evidence clearly indicates that a blow-out is present. This includes the clinical presence of diplopia, evidence of muscle entrapment with forced duction testing, and CT scan showing orbital wall fracture with explosion of the orbital contents into the paranasal sinuses. If these signs or symptoms are equivocable, then a waiting period of 10 to 14 days is indicated to rule out the presence of a nerve palsy, which should improve. However, a CT scan showing a large blow-out defect of the orbit should be repaired regardless of the clinical signs at the time because of the late sequelae of enophthalmos and hypophthalmos. It is very difficult to secondarily repair an orbit that is contracted owing to loss of volume from an orbital blow-out fracture. Procedures of this sort involve the reintroduction of autogenous fat into the orbital contents and are very difficult technically. Although orbital fractures should not be routinely explored, each should be viewed with its own merit and an aggressive approach developed if there is clinical evidence of a blow-out fracture. PMID:3277118

  8. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cirrhotic patients with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The importance of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) in cirrhotic patients with septic shock is not well studied. We evaluated the relationship between IAP and APP and outcomes of cirrhotic septic patients, and assessed the ability of these measures compared to other common resuscitative endpoints to differentiate survivors from nonsurvivors. Methods This study was a post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and IAP were measured every 6 h in 61 cirrhotic septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit. APP was calculated as MAP - IAP. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) was defined as mean IAP ? 12 mmHg, and abdominal hypoperfusion as mean APP < 60 mmHg. Measured outcomes included ICU and hospital mortality, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and ventilator- and vasopressor-free days. Results IAH prevalence on the first ICU day was 82%, and incidence in the first 7 days was 97%. Compared to patients with normal IAP, IAH patients had significantly higher ICU mortality (74.0% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.005), required more RRT (78.0% vs. 45.5%, p = 0.06) and had lower ventilator- and vasopressor-free days. On a multivariate logistic regression analysis, IAH was an independent predictor of both ICU mortality (odds ratio (OR), 12.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 77.31, p = 0.008) and need for RRT (OR, 6.78; 95% CI, 1.29 to 35.70, p = 0.02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, IAP (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74, p = 0.004), APP (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.01), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.02), but not MAP, differentiated survivors from nonsurvivors. Conclusions IAH is highly prevalent in cirrhotic patients with septic shock and is associated with increased ICU morbidity and mortality. PMID:22873420

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Early Trauma Inventory–Self Report

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory– Self Report (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas, which measures frequency, onset, emotional impact, and other variables. Validity and consistency of the ETI-SR using different methods of scoring was assessed. The ETI-SR was found to have good validity and internal consistency. No method was found to be superior to the simple method of counting the number of items endorsed as having ever occurred in terms of validity. Some items were found to be redundant or not necessary for the accurate measurement of trauma severity within specific domains. Subsequent analyses with a shortened checklist of items showed acceptable validity and internal consistency. These findings suggest that the ETI-SR is a valid measure of early trauma, and suggest future directions for a shortened version of the ETI-SR that could be more easily incorporated into clinical research studies and practice settings. PMID:17468680

  10. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edith Y; Mathy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat. PMID:24715978

  11. Computational modelling of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms 

    E-print Network

    Hardman, David

    2011-07-05

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease involves a dilation of the aorta below the renal arteries. If the aneurysm becomes sufficiently dilated and tissue strength is less than vascular pressure, rupture of the aorta ...

  12. Raised intracranial pressure following abdominal closure in a polytrauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Liza; Wilson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Lesson We report a polytrauma case requiring simultaneous neurosurgery and laparotomy. Upon abdominal closure, raised intracranial pressure occurred. This illustrates the important physiological interplay between body compartments in critical care patients. PMID:25852954

  13. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  14. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  15. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  16. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  17. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  18. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:22753961

  19. Radiographic Marker for Portable Chest and Abdominal X-Rays

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Clinical Center seeks parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop a method and apparatus that can significantly improve the diagnostic performance of portable chest (CXR) and abdominal x-rays.

  20. Response to trauma and metabolic changes: posttraumatic metabolism.

    PubMed

    ?im?ek, Turgay; ?im?ek, Hayal Uzelli; Cantürk, Nuh Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Stress response caused by events such as surgical trauma includes endocrine, metabolic and immunological changes. Stress hormones and cytokines play a role in these reactions. More reactions are induced by greater stress, ultimately leading to greater catabolic effects. Cuthbertson reported the characteristic response that occurs in trauma patients: protein and fat consumption and protection of body fluids and electrolytes because of hypermetabolism in the early period. The oxygen and energy requirement increases in proportion to the severity of trauma. The awareness of alterations in amino acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism changes in surgical patients is important in determining metabolic and nutritional support. The main metabolic change in response to injury that leads to a series of reactions is the reduction of the normal anabolic effect of insulin, i.e. the development of insulin resistance. Free fatty acids are primary sources of energy after trauma. Triglycerides meet 50 to 80 % of the consumed energy after trauma and in critical illness. Surgical stress and trauma result in a reduction in protein synthesis and moderate protein degradation. Severe trauma, burns and sepsis result in increased protein degradation. The aim of glucose administration to surgical patients during fasting is to reduce proteolysis and to prevent loss of muscle mass. In major stress such as sepsis and trauma, it is important both to reduce the catabolic response that is the key to faster healing after surgery and to obtain a balanced metabolism in the shortest possible time with minimum loss. For these reasons, the details of metabolic response to trauma should be known in managing these situations and patients should be treated accordingly. PMID:25931917

  1. Chiropractic management of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weston, JP

    1995-01-01

    Aortic dilatation is a common and potentially life-threatening condition with which a patient may present to the chiropractor. It is most often detected in males over 50, particularly in association with hypertensive disease. This case illustrates the classic clinical and radiologic features of a large (13cms) abdominal aortic aneurysm. The manipulative management of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm is discussed. ImagesFigure 1(a)Figure 1(b)

  2. [Optimization of infusion therapy in large abdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Pasechnik, I N; Smeshnoi, I A; Gubaidullin, R R; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    Volume and consist of infusion therapy determine in many respects postoperative period in patients who underwent large abdominal operations. Purposeful infusion therapy controlled according to monitoring of stroke volume variability is perspective. It was proved that evaluation of this parameter allows to optimize consist and volume of transfused solutions intraoperatively. Use of purposeful infusion therapy was accompanied by decreasing of number of postoperative complications and duration of intensive care unit stay after large abdominal operations. PMID:26031816

  3. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, George T.; Monument, Michael J.; Burt, Randall W.; Jones, Kevin B.; Randall, R. Lor

    2012-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. PMID:22701333

  4. Abdominal injuries in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Jermakian, Jessica S; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30-53 mm and 41-89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0-13.3 mm and 1.2-2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  5. Abdominal cocoon with small bowel obstruction: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chauhan, Dinesh; Dalal, Usha; Khurana, Ujjawal

    2012-04-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Treatment is surgical resection of the membrane and free the bowel. Preoperative diagnosis is possible with combination of sonography and CT scan. We report two cases where the diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was suggested preoperatively based on the sonography and CT scan of abdomen. PMID:21643736

  6. Abdominal cocoon: an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Yunus S; Gedam, B S; Sonarkar, R; Gopinath, K S S

    2013-06-01

    We report an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction in a young adolescent girl, which is a nontubercular abdominal cocoon. Barium meal follow-through revealed "cauliflower"-like appearance of small bowel. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy showing thick fibrous-like coverings which were encasing the small bowel loops to form an abdominal cocoon. Fibrocollagenous membrane was excised after adhesiolysis. Histopathological examination of membrane revealed fibrocollagenous membrane with hyaline deposition of nontubercular origin. PMID:24426626

  7. [Efficiency of preemptive intravenous paracetamol analgesia in abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Borisov, D B; Levin, A V; Vyl'iurov, I V; Sokolov, A V; Nedashkovski?, E V

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled study, 50 patients underwent elective surgery for abdominal cancer lesions under perioperative epidural analgesia. All the patients were randomized to receive paracetamol in a single intravenous dose of 1 g or placebo 30 minutes prior to the start of surgery. The use of 1 g of paracetamol as a single intravenous preemptive dose in abdominal surgery with perioperative epidural analgesia does not reduce the consumption of the analgesic and the intensity of pain in the postoperative period. PMID:18051491

  8. Pancreatic trauma: The role of computed tomography for guiding therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Malagnino, Valeria; Mappa, Laura; Ianora, Amato A Stabile; Dabbicco, Dario; Margari, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing traumatic injuries of the pancreas and guiding the therapeutic approach. METHODS: CT exams of 6740 patients admitted to our Emergency Department between May 2005 and January 2013 for abdominal trauma were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were identified through a search of our electronic archive system by using such terms as “pancreatic injury”, “pancreatic contusion”, “pancreatic laceration”, “peri-pancreatic fluid”, “pancreatic active bleeding”. All CT examinations were performed before and after the intravenous injection of contrast material using a 16-slice multidetector row computed tomography scanner. The data sets were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists in consensus searching for specific signs of pancreatic injury (parenchymal fracture and laceration, focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement/edema, pancreatic hematoma, active bleeding, fluid between splenic vein and pancreas) and non-specific signs (inflammatory changes in peri-pancreatic fat and mesentery, fluid surrounding the superior mesenteric artery, thickening of the left anterior renal fascia, pancreatic ductal dilatation, acute pseudocyst formation/peri-pancreatic fluid collection, fluid in the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, fluid in transverse mesocolon and lesser sac, hemorrhage into peri-pancreatic fat, mesocolon and mesentery, extraperitoneal fluid, intra-peritoneal fluid). RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six/Six thousand seven hundred and forty (2%) patients showed CT signs of pancreatic trauma. Eight/one hundred and thirty-six (6%) patients underwent surgical treatment and the pancreatic injures were confirmed in all cases. Only in 6/8 patients treated with surgical approach, pancreatic duct damage was suggested in the radiological reports and surgically confirmed in all cases. In 128/136 (94%) patients who underwent non-operative treatment CT images showed pancreatic edema in 97 patients, hematoma in 31 patients, fluid between splenic vein and pancreas in 113 patients. Non-specific CT signs of pancreatic injuries were represented by peri-pancreatic fat stranding and mesentery fluid in 89% of cases, thickening of the left anterior renal fascia in 65%, pancreatic ductal dilatation in 18%, acute pseudocyst/peri-pancreatic fluid collection in 57%, fluid in the pararenal spaces in 45%, fluid in transverse mesocolon and lesser sac in 29%, hemorrhage into peri-pancreatic fat, mesocolon and mesentery in 66%, extraperitoneal fluid in 66%, intra-peritoneal fluid in 41% cases. CONCLUSION: CT represents an accurate tool for diagnosing pancreatic trauma, provides useful information to plan therapeutic approach with a detection rate of 75% for recognizing ductal lesions. PMID:26644827

  9. Clinical applicability of real-time, prehospital image transmission for FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma).

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Hong, Ki Jeong; Cheon, Kyoung Woo; Shin, Ilhyoung; Song, Sung-Wook; Kim, Hee Chan

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated a real-time, prehospital ultrasound image transmission system for use in focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST). The wireless, real-time ultrasound image transmission system comprised an ultrasound scanner with a convex abdominal transducer and a notebook computer connected to a 3?G wireless network for video data transmission. In our simulation experiment, ultrasonography was performed by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) on a human body phantom with simulated haemoperitoneum. Transmitted ultrasound video clips were randomly rearranged and presented to emergency physicians to make a diagnosis of haemoperitoneum. A total of 21 ultrasound video clips was used and 13 emergency physicians participated in the study. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 83.5-94.6) and 85.3% (95% CI 78.4-90.7) respectively, and the accuracy of detecting abnormal ultrasound results was 87.7% (95% CI 83.8-91.6). Diagnosis of hemoperitonuem in trauma patients by an emergency physician based on the transmitted video images of FAST performed by an EMT is feasible, and has an accuracy of about 88%. PMID:24197401

  10. Complete heart block and asystole following blunt cardiac trauma

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, Mohamed; Efeovbokhan, Nephertiti; Jha, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac contusion is a well-recognized complication of blunt chest trauma. Various conduction system disorders have been reported in association with this condition, the most common being right bundle branch block. Complete heart block (CHB) is seen rarely. Most cases of CHB are transient. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman who developed CHB and asystole following blunt cardiac trauma. Malignant cardiac arrhythmias such as CHB can be associated with blunt cardiac trauma. In most cases, CHB is transient resolving in days to weeks. In rare cases, however, CHB leads to asystole. Close monitoring and prompt intervention is thus required. PMID:26486105

  11. [Preclinical treatment of multiple trauma : what is important?].

    PubMed

    Schweigkofler, U; Hoffmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Multiple trauma is still the most common cause of death in the age group below 40 years but rarely occurs in prehospital emergencies in Germany. Therefore, personal experience of emergency physicians in prehospital treatment of multiple trauma is often limited. Priority-based therapy according to standardized algorithms and advances in clinical and intensive care have reduced hospital mortality down to 13 %. Time factors, treatment and transport by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services seem to have had a significant impact on the outcome. The current German multiple trauma S3 guidelines provide algorithms for preclinical treatment. The underlying scientific evidence in this respect is, however, low. PMID:23942888

  12. Mechanistic similarities between trauma, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Scalea, Joseph R; Bromberg, Jonathan; Bartlett, Stephen T; Scalea, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Most human diseases, including trauma, atherosclerosis, and malignancy, can be characterized by either an overexuberant inflammatory response or an inadequate immunologic response. As our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these inflammatory aberrations improves, so should our approach to the patient. The development of novel technologies capable of exploiting inflammatory mediators will undoubtedly play a role in future patient-directed therapies. Trauma surgeons are uniquely positioned to usher in a new era of patient diagnostics and patient-directed therapies based on an understanding of the immune system's response to stimuli. These improvements are likely to affect not only trauma care but all aspects of medicine. PMID:26304513

  13. What is new in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy?

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B

    2015-12-01

    Optimal trauma care is the neglected disease of the modern era. Hemorrhage is the largest cause of potentially preventable death, and most of these patients present to the hospital with abnormal coagulation profiles. Unfortunately, research efforts have not been designed that are commiserate with the societal impact of this problem. Several encouraging studies have been recently completed that are helping to highlight these issues. High-quality studies, combining mechanistic approaches and clinical outcomes will improve our understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy and decrease trauma related mortality. PMID:26473451

  14. The changing perspectives of trauma care. The Sinkler Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L. M.

    1992-01-01

    Trauma and the management of injuries have changed considerably over the past century. A sound understanding of the factors that generate injuries and sophisticated systems that can be accessed immediately are now in place in most of the United States. The concept of a team approach to the management of multiple system injuries using specialists from all disciplines has resulted in the reduction of morbidity and mortality. Although many of the challenges of managing the trauma patient have been overcome, there are still a number of exciting areas that lend themselves to ongoing research. These changing perspectives allow for many exciting challenges for the trauma team. PMID:1507246

  15. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms “DIEP”, “deep inferior epigastric”, “TRAM”, “transverse rectus abdominis”, “perforator” and “laparotomy”, “abdominal wall”, “liposuction”, “liposculpture”, “fat graft”, “pfannenstiel”, with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Results: Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. Conclusions: We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months. PMID:25671046

  16. Trauma Experiences, Maltreatment-Related Impairments, and Resilience among Child Welfare Youth in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Coleman, Kim; Milne, Lise; Sell, Jody; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a description of the trauma experiences, trauma-related sequels, and resilience features of a sample of Canadian youth in residential care facilities, as well as to explore the impact of gender and of the number of different traumas experienced on trauma-related sequels and resilience features. A convenience…

  17. Coordination and management of multicenter clinical studies in trauma: Experience from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613

  18. Inactivity induces increases in abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Laye, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P; Stump, Craig S; Booth, Frank W

    2007-04-01

    Previously, inducing inactivity for 53 h after 21 days of voluntary running resulted in a 25 and 48% increase in epididymal and omental fat pad weights, respectively, while rats continued to eat more than a group that never had access to a running wheel (J Physiol 565: 911-925, 2005). We wanted to test the hypothesis that inactivity, independent of excessive caloric intake, could induce an increase in fat pad mass. Twenty-one-day-old rats were given access to voluntary running wheels for 42-43 days so that they were running approximately 9 km/day in the last week of running, after which wheels were locked for 5, 53, or 173 h (WL5, WL53, WL173) before the rats were killed. During the 53 and 173 h of inactivity, one group of animals was pair fed (PF) to match sedentary controls, whereas the other continued to eat ad libitum (AL). Epididymal and retroperitoneal fat masses were significantly increased in the WL173-PF vs. the WL5 group, whereas epididymal, perirenal, and retroperitoneal fat masses were all significantly increased in the WL173-AL group compared with the WL5 group. Additionally, hyperplasia, and not hypertrophy, of the epididymal fat mass was responsible for the increase at WL173-AL as demonstrated by a significant increase in cell number vs. WL5, with no change in cell diameter or volume. Thus two important findings have been elucidated: 1) increases in measured abdominal fat masses occur in both AL and PF groups at WL173, and 2) adipocyte expansion via hyperplasia occurred with an ad libitum diet following cessation of voluntary running. PMID:17122374

  19. Anatomical prognostic factors after abdominal perineal resection

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, B.J.; Green, M.R.; Lindstrom, E.R.; Butcher, H.R. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The natural history of 153 patients with rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma treated by abdominal perineal resection was retrospectively studied with emphasis on survival, clinical signs and symptoms of recurrence distantly and in the pelvis. We analyzed diagnostic factors that might predict tumor stage preoperatively and anatomical factors of the tumor itself that might predict behaviour of the lesion. Age, sex, tumor size, and distance from the anal verge were not useful in predicting stage. Constriction of the lesion tended to occur with high stage, but was not a reliable predictor. The grade or differentiation of the biopsy (when noted) did not correlate with either the grade of the resected specimen or the stage. The highest grade of the resected specimen was quite predictive of subsequent outcome. Seventy-three percent of the poorly differentiated tumors were Stage C or D, though a lower grade specimen did not rule out high stage. The Astler-Coller stage was reliable in predicting the likelihood of survival, pelvic recurrence, and distant metastases. In Stage C patients, the number of positive lymph node metastases strongly affected prognosis: if only one node was positive, survival was intermediate between Stages B and C; if more than seven nodes were positive, no patient survived. Of the evaluable cases, 48% survived clinically free of disease five or more years; 43% failed (died of the rectosigmoid tumor); 22% developed pelvic recurrence (6% pelvis only, 16% pelvis plus distant metastases). Fifty-two percent of the patients failing had tumor in the pelvis. Seven of the 56 failures (13%) occurred at or after five years; six of these seven failed locally, usually with metastases. Patients under age 40 or over age 80 and the same results as the group in general. Sixteen percent of the entire group had major complications, 52% minor. There were eight postoperative deaths (5%); 18 patients (12%) required reoperation.

  20. Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study.

    PubMed

    Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Langefeld, Carl D; Scherzinger, Ann L; Norris, Jill M; Haffner, Steven M; Saad, Mohammed F; Bergman, Richard N

    2003-10-01

    The relationship between insulin sensitivity and overall obesity is well established. However, there remains debate as to which of the fat depots, visceral abdominal tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous abdominal tissue (SAT), is of greater importance. Also, the relationship between fat distribution and insulin secretion is largely unknown. We studied SI, acute insulin response (AIR), and disposition index (DI), as obtained by minimal model analysis, in 999 Hispanic and 458 African-American men and women as part of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study. VAT and SAT were measured from computed tomography scans performed at the L4/L5 vertebral region. A mixed-model approach was used to determine the relationship between each of the glucose homeostasis measures (SI, AIR, and DI) versus abdominal fat measures. Mean values were as follows: age, 41 years; SI, 1.98 10(-4).min(-1).microU(-1).ml(-1); AIR, 840 pmol.ml(-1).min(-1); BMI, 28.5 kg/m2; VAT, 100 cm2; and SAT, 333 cm2. SAT, VAT, and their joint interaction were each inversely and significantly associated with SI, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI. SAT, but not VAT, was positively associated with AIR, except when additionally adjusting for SI, in which case VAT was inversely associated with AIR. VAT and the joint interaction of VAT and SAT were inversely associated with DI. The fat measures explained 27% of the model R2 for SI, 16% for AIR, and 16% for DI. Thus, fat distribution is an important determinant of both insulin resistance and insulin secretion. PMID:14514631

  1. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  2. Examining the sequelae of childhood trauma in forensic mental health 

    E-print Network

    MacInnes, Marlene

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The aims of this thesis were twofold. The first was to systematically review the literature, on the influence of childhood trauma on psychopathology, across a range of forensic settings. The second was to ...

  3. Pectus excavatum in blunt chest trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury. Case presentation We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found. Conclusion Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion. PMID:23320897

  4. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Hamam, Rola N; Maalouf, Fadi C

    2014-01-01

    Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age) to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. PMID:25506201

  5. Adding Insult to Injury: Nonconvulsive Seizures in Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Mary V; Greiner, Hansel M; Caré, Marguerite M; Owens, Deanna; Shapiro, Robert; Holland, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in patients with abusive head trauma who underwent electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and to describe predictive factors for this population. Children with a diagnosis of abusive head trauma were studied retrospectively to determine the rate of EEG monitoring, the rate of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and the associated neuroimaging findings. Over 11 years, 73 of 199 (36.8%) children with abusive head trauma had electroencephalography monitoring performed. Of these, 20 (27.4%) had nonconvulsive seizures and 3 (4.1%) had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical T2 / fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal abnormalities were both significantly associated with the presence of nonconvulsive seizures / nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive seizures are relatively common in abusive head trauma and may go unrecognized. Specific neuroimaging characteristics increase the likelihood of nonconvulsive seizures on EEG. PMID:25900138

  6. Laboring to Mother in the Context of Past Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robin; Hall, Jodi; Rodger, Susan; Classen, Catherine C.; Evans, Marilyn K.; Ross, Lori E.; Mulcahy, Gloria Alvernaz; Carranza, Leonarda; Al-Zoubi, Fatmeh

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of interpersonal trauma is a reality for many women, with effects that often persist long after the traumatic events end. The purpose of this feminist grounded theory study was to examine how past trauma shaped the lives of women as they became new mothers. We recruited a purposive sample of 32 women from two Canadian communities and conducted semistructured, dialogic interviews during the second trimester of pregnancy. We analyzed data using thematic content analytic methods, including open coding whereby we read transcripts line by line and applied codes to portions of text that illustrated concepts or themes. The substantive grounded theory, “laboring to mother in the context of past trauma,” describes the exceedingly difficult emotional and cognitive work undertaken by pregnant women with histories of trauma as they anticipate becoming mothers. In this article, we present key components of the theory and offer recommendations for health and social service providers. PMID:24501114

  7. A Stabilization Group Approach for Heterogeneous Populations of Trauma Clients

    PubMed Central

    Stige, Signe Hjelen

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence and long-lasting implications of human-inflicted trauma call for effective treatment approaches reaching clients in need of trauma-specific treatment. Numerous approaches exist, but often with limited empirical support. There is also a tendency toward segregating treatment approaches depending on type of exposure history and presenting symptoms. This might exclude clients in need of trauma-specific treatment; therefore, treatment approaches that can reach more heterogeneous groups of clients are needed. In this article, a group-based treatment approach adjusted to include clients with a wide range of trauma-related problems and traumatic experiences will be presented. A brief outline of the approach is presented, together with the theoretical and empirical background, to facilitate implementation by practitioners and empirical testing. PMID:22267901

  8. The Evolution of the Society of Trauma Nurses' Leadership Institute.

    PubMed

    Krichten, Amy; Kyle, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Trauma Nurses (STN) understands the increasing complexity of trauma care and the vital leadership role nurses play. In 2009, the STN took the initiative to form a Leadership Committee tasked with researching the possibility of developing a mechanism to offer trauma leaders opportunities in leadership development. Investigation and collaboration among the committee members, with input from the Board of Directors and the organization's executive director, resulted in the STN Leadership Institute. The Leadership Institute design is to equip trauma nurses with the tools needed to effectively lead from the bedside to the boardroom and beyond through web-based modules. Operationalization of the plan took intense focus and dedicated leadership. Following a pilot study, the initial cohort ran the first quarter of 2015. Because of the positive feedback and identified opportunities for improvement, the program will continue to be offered with further expansion planning underway. PMID:26574939

  9. The sensitivity and specificity of flashbacks and nightmares to trauma.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lisa A; Allen, Daniel N; Rozee, Patricia D; Bommaritto, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic events are commonly re-experienced by trauma survivors through nightmares and flashbacks. The current study examined the relative sensitivity and specificity of these two forms of re-experiencing trauma in female survivors of rape. The frequency of nightmares and flashbacks were assessed using the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ) and the Flashback Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), respectively. The FFQ was developed for this study and is designed to assess the frequency and occurrence of flashbacks in trauma survivors. The NFQ, FFQ and a variety of other measures were completed by 34 female survivors of rape and 28 female control participants. Results provided support for the construct and criterion validity of the FFQ, and demonstrated that flashbacks are more sensitive and specific indicators of the presence of trauma than are nightmares. PMID:17434287

  10. Intravenously administered nanoparticles increase survival following blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M.; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T.; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care. PMID:24982180

  11. Effects of early trauma on metacognitive functioning in psychosis 

    E-print Network

    Scherer-Dickson, Nicole

    2010-11-26

    Background: Empirical evidence suggests a relationship between early trauma and psychosis. However, the underlying mechanisms for this relationship remain unclear. Research into metacognitive functioning in psychosis indicates higher levels...

  12. Civilian versus military trauma dogma: who do you trust?

    PubMed

    Wiedeman, J E; Rignault, D P

    1999-04-01

    Combat trauma differs from its peacetime counterpart by involving a different spectrum of injuries, occurring in austere environments, dealing with mass casualties, and embodying inherent treatment delays. Thus, civilian trauma practices may be inappropriate in certain combat settings. A review of historical as well as current vivilian and military data is presented for four trauma topics (military antishock trousers, wound debridement, colon wounds, fluid resuscitation) in which civilian and military principles have clashed. The following recommendations are made. (1) Military antishock trousers are still useful in a combat setting. (2) Soft-tissue wound management should be directed by the wound rather than by the weapon. (3) Cautious avoidance of colostomy may be indicated in certain wartime colon wounds. (4) The majority of combat casualties require early vigorous fluid resuscitation. When civilian trauma experience challenges military dogma, it must be carefully considered before being applied to a combat setting. PMID:10226450

  13. Pelvic Arterial Embolisation in a Trauma Patient with a Pre-Existing Aortobifemoral Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Abulaban, Osama; Hopkins, Jonathan; Willis, Andrew P.; Jones, Robert G.

    2011-02-15

    Pelvic fractures secondary to blunt trauma are associated with a significant mortality rate due to uncontrolled bleeding. Interventional radiology (IR) can play an important and central role in the management of such patients, offering definitive minimally invasive therapy and avoiding the need for high-risk surgery. Rapid access to whole-body computed tomography has been shown to improve survival in polytrauma patients and allows rapid diagnosis of vascular injury and assessment of suitability for endovascular therapy. IR can then target and treat the specific area of bleeding. Embolisation of bleeding pelvic arteries has been shown to be highly effective and should be the treatment of choice in this situation. The branches of the internal iliac artery (IIA) are usually involved, and these arteries are accessed by way of IIA catheterisation after abdominal aortography. Occasionally these arteries cannot be accessed by way of this conventional route because of recent IIA ligation carried out surgically in an attempt to stop the bleeding or because (in the rare situation we describe here) these vessels are excluded secondary to previous aortoiliac repair. In this situation, knowledge of pelvic arterial collateral artery pathways is important because these will continue to supply pelvic structures whilst making access to deep pelvic branches challenging. We describe a rare case, which has not been previously reported in the literature, in which successful embolisation of a bleeding pelvic artery was carried out by way of the collateral artery pathways.

  14. Place of Arterial Embolization in Severe Blunt Hepatic Trauma: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Monnin, Valerie Sengel, Christian; Thony, Frederic; Bricault, Ivan; Voirin, David; Letoublon, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Ferretti, Gilbert

    2008-09-15

    This study evaluates the efficacy of arterial embolization (AE) for blunt hepatic traumas (BHT) as part of a combined management strategy based on the hemodynamic status of patients and CT findings. From 2000 to 2005, 84 patients were admitted to our hospital for BHT. Of these, 14 patients who had high-grade injuries (grade III [n = 2], grade IV [n = 9], grade V [n = 3]) underwent AE because of arterial bleeding and were included in the study. They were classified into three groups according to their hemodynamic status: (1) unresponsive shock, (2) shock improved with resuscitation, and (3) hemodynamic stability. Four patients (group 1) underwent, first, laparotomy with packing and, then, AE for persistent bleeding. Ten patients who were hemodynamically stable (group 1) or even unstable (group 2) underwent AE first, based on CT findings. AE was successful in all cases. The mortality rate was 7% (1/14). Only two angiography-related complications (gallbladder infarction) were reported. Liver-related complications (abdominal compartment syndrome and biliary complications) were frequent and often required secondary interventions. Our multidisciplinary approach for the management of BHT gives a main role to embolization, even for hemodynamically unstable patients. In this strategy AE is very efficient and has a low complication rate.

  15. Optical modeling toward optimizing monitoring of intestinal perfusion in trauma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Akl, Tony; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Cote, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Trauma is the number one cause of death for people between the ages 1 and 44 years in the United States. In addition, according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, injury results in over 31 million emergency department visits annually. Minimizing the resuscitation period in major abdominal injuries increases survival rates by correcting impaired tissue oxygen delivery. Optimization of resuscitation requires a monitoring method to determine sufficient tissue oxygenation. Oxygenation can be assessed by determining the adequacy of tissue perfusion. In this work, we present the design of a wireless perfusion and oxygenation sensor based on photoplethysmography. Through optical modeling, the benefit of using the visible wavelengths 470, 525 and 590nm (around the 525nm hemoglobin isobestic point) for intestinal perfusion monitoring is compared to the typical near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (805nm isobestic point) used in such sensors. Specifically, NIR wavelengths penetrate through the thin intestinal wall (~4mm) leading to high background signals. However, these visible wavelengths have two times shorter penetration depth that the NIR wavelengths. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the transmittance of the three selected wavelengths is lower by 5 orders of magnitude depending on the perfusion state. Due to the high absorbance of hemoglobin in the visible range, the perfusion signal carried by diffusely reflected light is also enhanced by an order of magnitude while oxygenation signal levels are maintained. In addition, short source-detector separations proved to be beneficial for limiting the probing depth to the thickness of the intestinal wall.

  16. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  17. Urinary Malondialdehyde Is Associated with Visceral Abdominal Obesity in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Min; Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Cho, A Ra; Jeon, Jeong Suk; Park, Eun-Ju; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Tak, Young Jin; Hwang, Hye Rim; Lee, Seung-Hun; Han, Junehee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate multiple anthropometric parameters used to evaluate obesity, particularly visceral abdominal fat area, and various metabolic parameters including malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker. We evaluated various measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter, fat percentages using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area, multiple biomarkers related to metabolic disease, and urinary MDA, in 73 asymptomatic middle-aged men who were not severely obese. We examined relationships between multiple measures of obesity, metabolic markers, and urinary MDA levels and evaluated associations between VFA and urinary MDA. In the visceral obesity group, ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), uric acid, and urinary MDA levels were significantly higher than in the nonvisceral obesity group (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.018). Urinary MDA (r = 0.357, P = 0.002) and uric acid (r = 0.263, P = 0.027) levels were only significantly positively correlated with VFA among measures of obesity. Urinary MDA, serum GGT, and serum CRP were significantly positively associated with VFA (P = 0.001, P = 0.046, and P = 0.023, resp.), even after adjusting for BMI and WC. PMID:26538829

  18. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  19. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-04-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  20. An unusual case of penetrating ocular trauma with metallic spoon

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Gautam; Chattopadhyay, Soumya Swarup; Ghosh, Rudra Prasad; Saurabh, Kumar; Goyal, Mukesh

    2010-01-01

    Ocular trauma is an important cause of vision loss. The agents incriminated in such injuries are diverse. We present a case of ocular trauma with a metallic spoon causing deep laceration of lid and temple region with sclerocorneal laceration. After assessment of the general condition and stabilization of the systemic parameters the operative procedure was undertaken on elective basis. Though the final visual outcome was not rewarding due to the severity of the injury, any potential hemostatic catastrophe was averted. PMID:20534927