Sample records for abdominal trauma index

  1. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  2. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  3. Radiology of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, R S

    1977-02-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can produce injury to any of the intra-abdominal organs. While diagnostic studies may be necessary to help determine the most appropriate therapy, all these procedures take time, which in some instances can be better used to treat the patient actively. The condition of the patient and the clinical findings take precedence in the handling of the injured patient. Certain skeletal injuries are often a first clue and can help focus further investigations. Plain films and regular contrast examinations are adequate to evaluate most intra-abdominal injuries. When time is available, a variety of other radiologic techniques are available in most hospitals. Nuclear imaging is of considerable value in studying the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Thus far, ultrasound techniques have left much to be desired although theoretically of considerable potential. Angiography can be of great diagnostic and potentially of some therapeutic value. No diagnostic test beats a good history and careful examination. Radiologic studies, ideally, should be done to confirm a clinical suspicion, not just for the sake of "completeness." PMID:558659

  4. Recognising and assessing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Anthony; Whiting, Dean

    2015-03-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is common following major traumatic injury but may not be recognised quickly enough and is therefore a cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Emergency department nurses have a major role to play in reducing the incidence of unrecognised abdominal trauma by enhancing their knowledge and skills. They can do this by attending trauma-related courses, taking on more expanded roles, carrying out full and comprehensive physical assessments, and ensuring that members of the multidisciplinary team use the wide range of diagnostic adjuncts available to them. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal cavity, explains abdominal trauma, gives an overview of advanced abdominal assessment techniques and diagnostic adjuncts, and reviews some management strategies for uncontrolled haemorrhage that have been adopted in the UK. PMID:25746888

  5. Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD

    E-print Network

    Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 2315 Stockton Blvd., PSSB 2100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA Ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal trauma has evolved over the past 30 years. The use of ultrasound for abdominal trauma

  6. Small bowel stricture following abdominal trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, G. H.; Anderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A case of small bowel stricture developing 2 months after blunt abdominal trauma from a lap seat belt is presented. The cause of the stricture was probably a small perforation sustained at the time of the injury but overlooked clinically. At operation an abscess around the terminal ileum was found. The patient made an uneventful recovery following resection of the strictured small bowel. Images Figure 1 PMID:4095056

  7. [Current diagnostics for intra-abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Nast-Kolb, D; Bail, H J; Taeger, G

    2005-10-01

    In case of suspected intra-abdominal injury, fast transport of the patient to a suitable hospital is of high priority. The initial clinical examination aims at identifying patients with potentially life-threatening bleeding that require emergency surgery. In patients with penetrating trauma, laparoscopy is favoured to exclude suspected perforation of the peritoneum. If a peritoneal perforation is identified, exploratory laparotomy is recommended to exclude or treat lacerations of the hollow viscus. Although clinical examination should be performed its sensitivity and specificity of up to 82% and 45%, respectively, are not sufficient as the sole screening method. For the further diagnostic workup, diagnostic peritoneal lavage has been completely replaced by abdominal ultrasound examination in Germany and many other countries. Focussing not only on the detection of free abdominal fluid but also searching for parenchymal organ lesions and performing repeated examinations increases accuracy up to 96%, with specificity of 99.8% and sensitivity of 72.1%. Computed abdominal tomography with a helical scanner with and without intravenous contrast media is currently the gold standard of imaging techniques to identify traumatic abdominal injuries. A sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 94.7% can be achieved. False negative findings must be expected with hollow organ injuries. Serial clinical and ultrasound examinations as well as lab testing in conjunction with repeated CT may help to identify such lesions. Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with consecutive abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction is a delayed complication from conditions such as severe intra-abdominal bleeding, major bleeding from pelvic ring fractures, and profuse fluid resuscitation. The IAP should be measured routinely in patients at risk, and decompression laparotomy may be indicated with pressures of higher than 20 mmHg. PMID:16170502

  8. Laparoscopic diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hasegawa; Y. Miki; Y. Yoshioka; S. Mizutani; T. Sasaki; J. Sumimura

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the safety and role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma in children. Laparoscopy was performed in five patients aged 3 to 13 years because of persistent abdominal pain after blunt trauma. A laparotomy was not indicated from the physical examination, laboratory data, or radiologic findings. With the patient under general anesthesia, a 10-mm trocar

  9. Abdominal trauma due to road traffic accidents in Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Helmi; Abdulazim Hussein; Abdel Hafeez Ali Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the incidence and severity of abdominal trauma due to road traffic accidents (RTA) in Qatar.Patient and methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients admitted with documented abdominal trauma to the only acute General Hospital in the state of Qatar in the period 1991–1995.Results: In the 5-year period, 3744 patients were admitted following an RTA. Of these, 667 (17.8%)

  10. Abdominal Wall Reconstruction in a Trauma Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sathnur B. Pushpakumar; Brandon J. Wilhelmi; Vera C. van-Aalst; Joseph C. Banis Jr; John H. Barker

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization “Global burden of disease study”, future demographics of trauma are expected to\\u000a show an increase in morbidity and mortality. In the past few decades, the field of trauma surgery has evolved to provide global\\u000a and comprehensive care of the injured. While the modern day trauma surgeon is well trained to deal with multitrauma patients

  11. Death due to isolated jejunal tear following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Yajaman, Girishchandra P; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2014-09-01

    Small intestinal injury following blunt abdominal trauma has been widely reported. Isolated jejunal tear which is caused by blunt abdominal trauma is rare and is most often seen in road traffic accidents. Here, we report a case of isolated jejunal tear in a 24-year-old male truck driver. He was admitted to a tertiary care hospital in a South Indian Metropolitan city with complaints of acute abdominal pain and tiredness following alleged accidental blunt trauma sustained to abdomen due to steering wheel impact. An isolated jejunal tear and adjacent mesenteric contusion and tear were missed by the treating physician even after preliminary investigations, and thus, the conservative management was instituted. The condition deteriorated gradually, and he succumbed to death. The autopsy revealed transverse tear of jejunum almost involving whole of its circumference on the antimesenteric border and peritonitis. Proper use of radio-diagnostic techniques and timely undertaken explorative laparotomy would have saved the life. PMID:24547969

  12. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  13. The duration of antibiotic administration in penetrating abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Bozorgzadeh; Walter F Pizzi; Philip S Barie; Satish C Khaneja; Henry R LaMaute; Neil Mandava; Neil Richards; Hamid Noorollah

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of penetrating abdominal trauma is changing to reflect an increasing incidence of multiple injuries. Not only do multiple injuries increase the risk of infection, a very high risk of serious infection is conferred by immunosuppression from hemorrhage and transfusion and the high likelihood of intestinal injury, especially to the colon. Optimal timing and choice of presumptive antibiotic

  14. Isolated common bile duct avulsion following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sandeep; Jain, Ajay; Shrivastava, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Isolated injuries to common bile duct following blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare. Delayed presentation and diagnosis is common and results in significant morbidity and mortality. We present here a case with such an injury. Emphasis on mechanism of injury and clinico-radiological signs with use of diagnostic laparoscopy can help in making a timely diagnosis. PMID:24426563

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. Objectives: To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Results: Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Conclusions: Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid.

  16. Pediatric nonaccidental abdominal trauma: what the radiologist should know.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kousari, Yeamie M; Hulett, Rebecca L; Menias, Christine O

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal injury in nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is an increasingly recognized cause of hospitalization in abused children. Abdominal injuries in NAT are often severe and have high rates of surgical intervention. Certain imaging findings in the pediatric abdomen, notably bowel perforation and pancreatic injury, should alert the radiologist to possible abuse and incite close interrogation concerning the reported mechanism of injury. Close inspection of the imaging study is warranted to detect additional injury sites because these injuries rarely occur in isolation. When abdominal injury is suspected in known or speculated NAT, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast material is recommended for diagnostic and forensic evaluation. Although the rate of bowel injury is disproportionately high in NAT, solid organs, including the liver, pancreas, and spleen, are most often injured. Adrenal and renal trauma is less frequent in NAT and is generally seen with multiple other injuries. Hypoperfusion complex is a constellation of abdominal CT findings that indicates current or impending decompensated shock and is most often due to severe neurologic impairment in NAT. Although abdominal injuries in NAT are relatively uncommon, knowledge of injury patterns and their imaging appearances is important for patient care and protection. PMID:24428287

  17. 2. Newer aids in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, B.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of a case of blunt abdominal trauma can be complicated by many factors, and the resultant inaccurate or delayed diagnoses have contributed to the unacceptable mortality for this type of injury. Recently several useful diagnostic techniques have been developed that, if applied intelligently, may be instrumental in decreasing the high mortality among patients who present with ambiguous abdominal signs after sustaining blunt trauma. Although hematologic investigation and routine radiography have facilitated detection of intraperitoneal injury, peritoneal lavage has become the single most helpful aid. Scanning procedures are sometimes useful in recognizing splenic and hepatic defects especially; these may be confirmed or clarified by angiography. Although ultrasonography may be no more valuable than scintigraphy in outlining splenic and hepatic abnormalities, it is an important technique, especially in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses of traumatic origin. Laparoscopy also may be helpful in investigation if surgeons become more familiar with the procedure. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:608158

  18. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of treatment of penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Burgess, D S

    1992-03-01

    The hospital, pharmacy, and antibiotic costs for patients with penetrating abdominal trauma were compared with reimbursement received; these costs were also analyzed to assess the potential impact of a total prospective pricing system (PPS). During a four-year period, 46 patients admitted solely for penetrating abdominal trauma were retrospectively evaluated: their discharge summaries indicated that, for 9 patients, reimbursement was based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) under the PPS; 9 patients had private insurance; and 28 were classified as "self-paying/no insurance." All costs, corrected for inflation, were reported in 1989 dollars. Antibiotics represented 22.5%, 1.7%, and 0.5% of pharmacy, hospital, and DRG reimbursement, respectively; pharmacy costs were 8.5% of hospital costs and 2.3% of DRG reimbursement. For all 46 patients, a net loss of $295 per patient was incurred. Four patients accounted for 43% of the hospital costs. If the hospital had been reimbursed for all of these patients by prospective pricing and DRGs, it would have had a median profit of $9730 in 42 of 46 patients. Costs exceeded DRG reimbursement in the remaining four patients by a median of $8210. Antibiotic costs and pharmacy costs represent a small portion of hospital costs and DRG reimbursement for patients with penetrating abdominal trauma; thus, cost containment efforts in these patients should be directed at other ancillary services and length of stay. PMID:1598932

  19. Role of plasma ammonia level in detecting intra-abdominal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Davood; Fadaki, Ali Akbar Khademi; Kianmehr, Nahid; Abbasi, Saeed; Rezai, Mahdi; Marashi, Mohammad; Mofidi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Materials and Methods: In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. Results: A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4%) had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 ?g/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 ?g/dL, P < 0.001). On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 ?g/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100), 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8), 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12), and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients. PMID:25657755

  20. An Experience with Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Evaluation, Management and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nikhil; Babu, Sudarshan; Venugopal, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a frequent emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in spite of improved recognition, diagnosis and management. Trauma is the second largest cause of disease accounting for 16% of global burden. The World Health Organization estimates that, by 2020, trauma will be the first or second leading cause of years of productive life lost for the entire world population. This study endeavors to evaluate 71 cases of BAT with stress on early diagnosis and management, increase use of non operative management, and time of presentation of patients. A retrospective analysis of 71 patients of BAT who were admitted in Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences hospital (KIMS, Bangalore, India) within a span of 18 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years with an M:F ratio of 3.7:1. Motor vehicle accident (53%) was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (53%) was the commonest organ injured and the most common surgery performed was splenectomy (30%). Most common extra abdominal injury was rib fracture in 20%. Mortality rate was 4%. Wound sepsis (13%) was the commonest complication. Initial resuscitation measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the most vital part of management. 70% of splenic, liver and renal injuries can be managed conservatively where as hollow organs need laparotomy in most of the cases. The time of presentation of patients has a lot to do with outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives. PMID:25332759

  1. An unusual large abdominal malakoplakia following trauma: Diagnosed on FNAC.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surbhi; Parihar, Asmita; Puri, Vandana; Sharma, Naveen; Goyal, Ankur; Arora, Vinod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease, related to immune deficiency and impaired bactericidal macrophage activity. Common sites of involvement include urinary bladder and kidney followed by gastrointestinal tract. We present an unusual case of abdominal malakoplakia diagnosed preoperatively on ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). It presented as a large locally aggressive mass with extensive involvement of multiple bowel loops in an 18-year-old boy following blunt trauma to the abdomen. The demonstration of calcified laminated intracytoplasmic Michaelis-Gutman bodies in histiocytes is a reliable diagnostic feature of malakoplakia on FNAC smears, which can guide an appropriate medical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:490-494. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25694063

  2. A rare tumor revealed by abdominal trauma: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Camelia Cristina; Arsene, Dorel; B?l?ceanu, Alice Lavinia; Barto?, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare and poorly understood form of disease characterized by mucin deposits in the peritoneum. The term includes a broad range of neoplasms with different patterns of evolution, from benign to borderline or even to malignant lesions. The disease may be asymptomatic until advanced stages. We present the case of a 65-year-old patient who presented for pain in the right hemiabdomen, after a trauma by falling from small height. Abdominal imaging studies oriented the diagnosis to a traumatic disease. At laparotomy, a mucinous tumor attached to the right colon was discovered. The main particularity of the case is that the origin of the pseudomyxoma could not be identified. PMID:25329130

  3. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n?=?70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n?=?40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeĺ from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT?trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n?=?17) as result of operative management or later (n?=?11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals. PMID:25124882

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH PENETRATING ABDOMINAL TRAUMA IN TEHRAN-IRAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Baradaran; J. Salimi; M. Nassaji-Zavareh; A. Khaji; A. Rabbani

    Trauma continues to be the most frequent cause of death in the first four decades of life and is a major public health problem in some countries. We performed an epidemiological study of penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) to describe epidemiological characteristics of patients with PAT. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated patients with PAT admitted to emergency department in six

  5. Utilization of a clinical prediction rule for abdominal-pelvic CT scans in patients with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Michael T; Sheen, Lucas; Kuramoto, Alan; Lamba, Ramit; Parthasarathy, Sudharshan; Holmes, James F

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to determine if a clinical prediction (CP) rule to identify patients at low risk for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) is being utilized in patients undergoing abdominal computed tomography (CT) following blunt abdominal trauma. A retrospective review of adult patients with blunt abdominal trauma undergoing abdominal CT scans was performed. The CP rule was positive if any of the following were present: systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg; urinalysis >25 red blood cells/high power field; Glasgow Coma Scale score <14; abdominal tenderness; costal margin tenderness; femur fracture; hematocrit <30 %; or pneumothorax or rib fracture on chest X-ray. The CP rule was negative if all variables were negative. Acute intervention was defined as therapeutic laparotomy or angiographic embolization. All variables in the CP rule were obtained in 218/262 (83 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 78, 88 %) patients. Of the 44 patients without complete CP rule assessment, 1 (2.3 %; 95 % CI, 0.1 %, 12.0 %) had an IAI but did not undergo therapeutic intervention. IAI was present in 11 (6.7 %; 95 % CI, 3.4, 11.6 %) of the 165 patients with at least one CP rule positive and 4 (36 %; 95 % CI, 11, 69 %) underwent therapeutic intervention. In the CP rule-negative patients, IAI was identified in 1/53 (1.9 %; 95 % CI, 0, 10.1 %) and no therapeutic intervention was required. An important percentage of patients undergoing abdominal CT are not assessed for or have a negative CP rule. Improved implementation of this CP rule may reduce unnecessary abdominal CT scans in patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:24838812

  6. Abdominal injuries in a major Scandinavian trauma center – performance assessment over an 8 year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Damage control surgery and damage control resuscitation have reduced mortality in patients with severe abdominal injuries. The shift towards non-operative management in haemodynamically stable patients suffering blunt abdominal trauma has further contributed to the improved results. However, in many countries, low volume of trauma cases and limited exposure to trauma laparotomies constitute a threat to trauma competence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional patient volume and performance for patients with abdominal injuries over an eight-year period. Methods Data from 955 consecutive trauma patients admitted in Oslo University Hospital Ulleval with abdominal injuries during the eight-year period 2002-2009 were retrospectively explored. A separate analysis was performed on all trauma patients undergoing laparotomy during the same period, whether abdominal injuries were identified or not. Variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) was used in order to describe risk-adjusted survival trends throughout the period and the patients admitted before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the institution of a formal Trauma Service (2005) were compared. Results There was a steady increase in admitted patients with abdominal injuries, while the number of patients undergoing laparotomy was constant exposing the surgical trauma team leaders to an average of 8 trauma laparotomies per year. No increase in missed injuries or failures of non-operative management was detected. Unadjusted mortality rates decreased from period 1 to period 2 for all patients with abdominal injuries as well as for the patients undergoing laparotomy. However, this apparent decrease was not confirmed as significant in TRISS-based analysis of risk-adjusted mortality. VLAD demonstrated a steady performance throughout the study period. Conclusion Even in a high volume trauma center the exposure to abdominal injuries and trauma laparotomies is limited. Due to increasing NOM, an increasing number of patients with abdominal injuries was not accompanied by an increase in number of laparotomies. However, we have demonstrated a stable performance throughout the study period as visualized by VLAD without an increase in missed injuries or failures of NOM. PMID:25097664

  7. Tc-99m sulfur colloid scanning in blunt trauma: detection of abdominal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronfman, H.J.; Kunkel, B.K.; Rabin, H.S.

    1981-11-01

    Tc-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy can detect and locate active lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The same principles apply to the detection and location of active intra-abdominal or pelvic hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma. We report two patients with abdominal bleeding who were correctly diagnosed by this method. As part of the routine examination of all patients having Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans for trauma, 500,000-count images should be made of the rest of the abdomen and pelvis.

  8. The pace of signs and symptoms of blunt abdominal trauma to children.

    PubMed

    Pariset, Jacquelyn M; Feldman, Kenneth W; Paris, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the types, signs, and symptoms of blunt abdominal injury. Record reviews of children <5 years old were carried out at a regional children's hospital or level 1 trauma center between 1994 and 1999. Recognized cases of child abuse, penetrating trauma, or children with an unavailable chart were excluded. The mean age was 38 months (n = 42; range 11-59). Motor vehicle trauma caused most of the injuries (72%); 64% had isolated solid organ, 14% isolated hollow viscous, and 21% both organ injuries. Multisystem trauma included closed head injury (29%) and fractures (43%). Scene reports documented that 80% of those assessed immediately had abdominal pain. Average time taken to arrive at the emergency department was 66 minutes (range 15-420). Hollow viscous perforations were symptomatic from onset. The overall mortality rate was 12%, related to multitrauma. Most children suffering unintentional blunt abdominal trauma have immediate and ongoing injury. Caretakers promptly seek emergency care, and solid organ injuries predominate. The series mortality was low compared with that for abusive abdominal injuries. PMID:19628759

  9. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation. PMID:25705289

  10. Ultrasound surface probe as a screening method for evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad; Kolahdouzan, Mohsen; Shafiei, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the causes of mortality in emergency department. Free fluid in the abdomen due to intra-abdominal blunt trauma can be determined by the surface probe of ultrasound. Since the importance of this free fluid in hemodynamic stable patients with blunt trauma is associated with the unknown outcome for surgeons, this study was performed to evaluate the role of ultrasound surface probe as a screening method in evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study was done on 45 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. The patients were evaluated twice during the three-hours, including repeated ultrasound surface probe and clinical examinations. Computerized tomography was also performed. The patients were divided based on the amount of the free fluid in the abdomen during the evaluations into two groups: Fixed or increased, and decreased free fluid. The results of the different evaluated methods were compared using the sensitivity and specificity. Results: From 17 patients with CT abnormalities, free fluid increased in 14 patients (82.4%). Free fluid was decreased in three patients who were discharged well from the surgery service without any complication. Surface probe in prognosis detection had a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 92.9%. The percentage of false positive and negative ultrasound compared with CT scan was 7.1% and 17.6%. Also, positive and negative predictive value of the ultrasound with surface probe was 87.5% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion: The use of the ultrasound with surface probe in the diagnosis of free fluid in blunt abdominal trauma in hemodynamic stable patients can be considered as a useful screening method. PMID:24672561

  11. DETECTION OF INTRA-ABDOMINAL INJURY IN TRAUMA PATIENTS: OUR EXPERIENCE WITH DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Salimi; M. Motamedi

    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is considered by many as the most important investigation for the early detection of intraperitoneal injury. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of DPL as a diagnostic method in evaluating abdominal trauma. A prospectively maintained database of all DPLs performed in the past 36 months at Sina Hospital was analyzed. Information relative

  12. Selective Nonoperative Management of Abdominal Injuries in Polytrauma Patients: a Protocol only for Experienced Trauma Centers

    PubMed Central

    GASPAR, Bogdan; NEGOI, Ionut; PAUN, Sorin; HOSTIUC, Sorin; GANESCU, Roxana; BEURAN, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays we are facing a steep increase in non-operative management throughout the injured body areas, with a continuous increase in the injuries' grade. Objective: To evaluate the safety and applicability of non-operative management in major trauma patients. Methods: Prospective observational study, in a level I trauma center, during 30 months. Inclusion criteria: major trauma patients with abdominal visceral lesions. Results: There were 207 major trauma patients whose average age was 35.8 ± 17.2 years, male being 69.6%. The most severe abdominal injuries were in the spleen (32.9%), the liver (19.2%) and the small bowel (11.6%). For the spleen lesions, the non-operative management was successful in 57.9% cases , with a failure rate of 11.6%. Non operative management was successful in 50% of liver injuries, its rate of success being independent of the hepatic injury grade. Conclusions: Selective non operative management of abdominal visceral injuries is safe and effective in major trauma patients. Nevertheless, we should stress that this type of protocol should be applied only by highly trained surgeons, able to early convert this management to difficult surgical strategies. PMID:25705273

  13. Temporary intravenous bag silo closure in severe abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L; Norwood, S; Roettger, R; Wilkins, H E

    1996-02-01

    Several temporary abdominal wall closure techniques have been described in the literature. We present our experience with an inexpensive and efficient method of temporary abdominal closure when bowel edema and distension preclude safe primary closure. Our technique is a variation of the silon (silo) closure used in the repair of gastroschisis and omphalocele, using a pre-gas-sterilized, soft 3-L plastic cystoscopy fluid irrigation bag cut to an oval shape and stapled or sutured to the skin edges of the wound. PMID:8637075

  14. Relationship between abdominal trauma or surgery and mesenteric panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Taylan; Canyigit, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare disease characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation of mesenteric fat tissue. Several etiologic and/or associated factors have been reported in the literature so far. Although trauma or surgery is one of the potential etiologic factors for mesenteric panniculitis, to the best of our knowledge, no strong correlation has been shown in the literature until now. PMID:20027693

  15. Use of abdominal computed tomography in blunt trauma: Do we scan too much?

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Bryan G.; Bigelow, Eric; Yelle, Jean-Denis; Pagliarello, Guiseppe

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine what proportion of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans ordered after blunt trauma are positive and the applicability and accuracy of existing clinical prediction rules for obtaining a CT scan of the abdomen in this setting. Setting A leading trauma hospital, affiliated with the University of Ottawa. Design A retrospective cohort study. Patients and methods All patients with blunt trauma admitted to hospital over a 1-year period having an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 who underwent CT of the abdomen during the initial assessment. Recorded data included age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, ISS, type of injuries, number of abdominal CT scans ordered, and scan results. Two clinical prediction rules were found in the literature that identify patients likely to have intra-abdominal injuries. These rules were applied retrospectively to the cohort. The predicted proportion of positive CT scans was compared with the observed proportion, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were estimated. Results Of the 297 patients entered in the study, 109 underwent abdominal CT. The median age was 32 years, 71% were male and the median ISS was 24. In only 36.7% (40 of 109) of scans were findings suggestive of intra-abdominal injuries. Application of one of the clinical prediction rules gave a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 25.5% but excluded 23% of patients because of a GCS score less than 11. The second prediction rule tested could be applied to all patients and was highly sensitive (92.5%) and specific (100.0%). Conclusions The assessment of the abdomen in blunt trauma remains a challenge. Accuracy in predicting positive scans in equivocal cases is poor. Retrospective application of an existing clinical prediction rule was found to be highly accurate in identifying patients with positive CT findings. Prospective use of such a rule could reduce the number of CT scans ordered without missing significant injuries. PMID:10714252

  16. Bacteriology and drug susceptibility analysis of pus from patients with severe intra-abdominal infection induced by abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHAOYI; REN, LELE; LI, YOUSHENG; WANG, JIAN; YU, WENKUI; LI, NING; LI, JIESHOU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the bacteriology and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal trauma patients with severe intra-abdominal infection (SIAI). A total of 41 patients with SIAI induced by abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study, from which 123 abdominal pus samples were obtained. The results from laboratory microbiology and drug sensitivity were subjected to susceptibility analysis using WHONET software. A total of 297 strains were isolated in which Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 53.5 (159/297), 44.1 (131/297) and 0.7% (2/297), respectively. Anaerobic bacteria accounted for 1.7%. The five predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). E. coli was highly susceptible to cefoperazone (91%) and imipenem (98%), while Gram-positive cocci were highly susceptible to teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%). S. aureus was 100% susceptible to vancomycin and K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and amikacin (79%). P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (90%). Gram-negative bacterial infection was present in the majority of cases of SIAI. However, a large number of patients were infected by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus that exhibited significant resistance to penicillin (100%), oxacillin (100%) and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime (95%). Amongst the pathogenic bacteria that cause SIAI, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria account for a high proportion, so high-level and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initially used. PMID:24940451

  17. Investigation of childhood blunt abdominal trauma: a practical approach using ultrasound as the initial diagnostic modality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Filiatrault; D. Longpré; H. Patriquin; G. Perreault; A. Grignon; J. Pronovost; J. Boisvert

    1987-01-01

    During a 5.5-year retrospective study (1979–84) 170 children with blunt abdominal trauma were investigated with intravenous\\u000a urography (IVU), ultrasound (US) and scintigraphy. For the investigation of the last 71 children (after 1982) a 4th generation\\u000a CT scanner was available in the same department. The results of radiologic investigations were compared with clinical outcome\\u000a in 157 and results at laparotomy in

  18. Peritoneal Tap and Lavage in Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Their Contribution to Surgical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pacey, J.; Forward, A. D.; Preto, A. F.

    1971-01-01

    In a study of 51 patients with a history of blunt abdominal trauma, peritoneal tap and lavage made a positive contribution to the diagnostic process in 15 cases. Thirteen patients had early definitive operation on the basis of tap and lavage evidence which overruled the clinical evaluation, and two patients were managed conservatively when a negative tap and lavage contradicted the clinical decision. PMID:5162323

  19. Use of abdominal ultrasonography to assess pediatric splenic trauma. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krupnick, A S; Teitelbaum, D H; Geiger, J D; Strouse, P J; Cox, C S; Blane, C E; Polley, T Z

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography (US) for screening and grading pediatric splenic injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The use of abdominal US has increased rapidly as a method of evaluating organ damage after blunt abdominal trauma. Despite US's increasing use, little is known about its accuracy in children with splenic injury. METHODS: Children (N = 32) suffering blunt abdominal trauma who were diagnosed with splenic injury by computerized tomography (CT) scan prospectively were enlisted in this study. Degree of splenic injury was evaluated by both CT and US. The ultrasounds were evaluated by an initial reading as well as by a radiologist who was blinded as to the results of the CT. RESULTS: Twelve (38%) of the 32 splenic injuries found on CT were missed completely on the initial reading of the US. When the ultrasounds were graded in a blinded fashion, 10 (31%) of the splenic lacerations were missed and 17 (53%) were downgraded. Seven (22%) of the 32 splenic fractures were not associated with any free intraperitoneal fluid on the CT scan. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that US has a low level of sensitivity (62% to 78%) in detecting splenic injury and downgrades the degree of injury in the majority of cases. Reliance on free intraperitoneal fluid may be inaccurate because not all patients with splenic injury have free intra-abdominal fluid. Based on these findings, US may be of limited use in the initial assessment, management, and follow-up of pediatric splenic trauma. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9114800

  20. Blunt abdominal trauma. A 5-year analysis of 870 patients requiring celiotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, E F

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen of patients from a major regional trauma center. Eight hundred and seventy patients with blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed, representing 12.89% of the total admissions over a 5-year period. The motor vehicle continues to be the major cause (89.5%) of injury to these patients. Thirty per cent had positive blood alcohol. Intra-abdominal injuries in this group necessitating operative intervention were based on the use of peritoneal lavage. Negative celiotomies occurred in 10.2% of these patients. Of the injuries incurred, the spleen was involved 42%, the liver 35.6%, the serosa, diaphragm, bowel, and blood vessels were involved to a lesser extent. Only 0.4% of the patients suffered direct injury to the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas, data which should preclude routine exploration of retroperitoneal structures unless by obvious retroperitoneal injury is noted. Additional surgical intervention for associated injuries was seen in 50.54% of this patient group. PMID:6712323

  1. Small bowell perforation and mesentery injury after an unusual blunt abdominal trauma–Case report

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta de Castro, J.; Gomes, G.; Mateus, N.; Escrevente, R.; Pereira, L.; Jácome, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In blunt abdominal trauma, lesions of the small bowell and mesentery are often underdiagnosed; although unusual, they represent the third most injured organ, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Presentation of case The authors present the case of a 68 years old male, admitted to the emergency department after being hit by a bale of straw, weighing around 300 kg, in the abdomen. After successful ressuscitation, a CT scan was performed, suggesting hemoperitoneum because of vascular lesion of the right colon bleeding. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, confirming the presence of blood in the abdominal cavity and identifying jejunal perforation, an apparently innocent hematoma of the small bowel mesentery (beside the bowel wall) distally to the first lesion and a laceration of the sigmoid serosa; a segmental jejunal resection and suture of the colon serosa were performed. In the early post-operative period, an enteric discharge was noticed, mandating surgical reexploration; a previously unnoticed bowel perforation, in the mesenteric border where the hematoma was identified, justified an additional enterectomy, after what the patients recovery progressed uneventfully. Discussion In this case, a sudden increase in abdominal pressure could explain that missed rupture of the mesenteric border of the jejunum, also causing the mesenteric hematoma, or, in spite of that, a state of low perfusion could have lead to total wall ischemia of an already irrigation compromised segment. Only noted after surgical exploration, despite prior evaluation with a computed tomography. Small bowell and mesenteric injuries are potentially missed due to decreased exploratory laparotomies for blunt abdominal trauma. Conclusion Although uncommon, small bowel and mesenteric injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. High clinical suspicion is essential for an early diagnosis PMID:25576959

  2. Flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine and associated abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    LeGay, D A; Petrie, D P; Alexander, D I

    1990-04-01

    Recent experience with flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine associated with blunt abdominal trauma and the use of a lap belt alone has caused us to review our experience over the last 7 years. Eighteen patients were identified, with an average age of 22 years, and an average followup of 34 months. Fifteen were involved in motor vehicle accidents, with 11 being single-vehicle accidents. Of note, 12 of the 15 were rear seat passengers with lap belts only. Twelve patients suffered abdominal injury, seven requiring operative intervention, mainly for hollow viscus injury. In three patients, a delay of 24 hours or more occurred before recognition of intra-abdominal pathology requiring surgical therapy. One patient had an unrecognized spinal fracture for 2 weeks after abdominal surgery for a perforated viscus. The spinal injury was carefully assessed and analyzed for prognostic factors. Six were graded excellent, five good, four fair, and one poor. One case of paraplegia associated with avulsion of the spinal cord from distraction is reported. Prognostic factors included the amount of facet joint involvement and the degree of initial kyphosis. Those having greater than 17 degrees of kyphosis had a poor prognosis. Early recognition of the constellation of injuries involving the spine and abdomen associated with the use of the lap belt is recommended with surgery to the spinal fracture as outlined. PMID:2325176

  3. [Haemorrhagic shock after severe abdominal trauma in children: knowing when to change from conservative to surgical management].

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, R; Bourdaud, N; Cuttaree, H; Sauvat, F; Carli, P; Orliaguet, G

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal vascular injuries following a serious falling out are quite rare in children. They can lead to haemorrhagic shock whose etiological diagnosis may be difficult in children in case of multiple trauma. The current management of abdominal injuries in the child is usually conservative, surgery being indicated in haemodynamically unstable patients. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with abdominal trauma with rupture of the hepatic artery and shredding of the splenic vein following a falling out of 10 meters. Aggressive resuscitation associated with early laparotomy for haemostasis, contrary to usual practices advocated in such a context, have helped control the hemorrhagic shock and stabilize the haemodynamic status of the child. The subsequent evolution was favourable, with full recovery. While a conservative attitude usually prevails in the management of traumatic intra abdominal bleeding in children an interventional attitude with emergency surgery must be sometimes considered. PMID:20399596

  4. Abdominal wall hernia and aortic injury secondary to blunt trauma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, David H.; Kaskas, Nadine M.; Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Skweres, Justin; Youssef, Asser M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) and traumatic abdominal aortic injury (TAAI) are two uncommon complications secondary to blunt trauma. In both TAWH and TAAI, reported cases are often associated with poly-trauma. TAWH may be initially missed if more pressing issues are identified during the patient's primary survey. TAAI may be an incidental finding on imaging or, if severe, a cause of an acute abdomen and hemodynamic abnormality. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 54-year-old white male suffered a TAWH and TAAI (pseudoaneurysm) due to severe blunt trauma. TAWH was apparent on physical exam and the TAAI was suspected on computed tomography (CT). The patient's TAWH was managed with a series of abdominal explorations and the TAAI was repaired with endovascular stenting. DISCUSSION TAWH and TAAI are commonly due to severe blunt trauma from motor vehicle collisions. Diagnosis is made through physical exam, imaging studies, or surgical exploration. A variety of surgical techniques achieve technical success. CONCLUSION The patient with blunt trauma to the abdomen is at risk for TAWH and TAAI, which are often associated with other injuries. Investigations should include thorough clinical exam through secondary survey and radiologic imaging in the hemodynamically normal patient. PMID:25437685

  5. Defining the learning curve for the Focused Abdominal Sonogram for Trauma (FAST) examination: implications for credentialing.

    PubMed

    Gracias, V H; Frankel, H L; Gupta, R; Malcynski, J; Gandhi, R; Collazzo, L; Nisenbaum, H; Schwab, C W

    2001-04-01

    Focused Abdominal Sonogram for Trauma (FAST) examination is being used increasingly for the torso evaluation of injured patients. In a controlled setting using peritoneal dialysis patients as models for injured patients with free fluid we hypothesized that more experienced providers would perform FAST with greater accuracy. Twelve fellow or attending level trauma surgeons, two radiologists, and one ultrasound technician were studied for their ability to detect intraperitoneal fluid (0-1600 cm3) in nine peritoneal dialysis patients with two different volumes of dialysate/patient. FAST experience with injured patients was defined as minimal (<30 patients examinations), moderate (30-100), or extensive (>100). All surgeons had participated in a didactic/practical course before the study. Test results were reported as "+" or "-" by the participant; "+" results were further quantified by volume. The sensitivity of those in the minimal-, moderate-, and extensive-experience to detect <1 L was 45, 87, and 100 per cent, respectively; the accuracy in detecting dialysate volume within 250 cm3 was 38, 63, and 90 per cent, respectively. In this controlled setting the accuracy of FAST particularly in diagnosing smaller volumes, as well as the ability to quantify volume, improves with experience. The learning curve for FAST starts to flatten out at 30 to 100 examinations. Training and credentialing policies should consider these findings to optimize patient care. PMID:11308006

  6. Earthquake-related Crush Injury versus Non-Earthquake Injury in Abdominal Trauma Patients on Emergency Multidetector Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tian-wu; Dong, Zhi-hui; Chu, Zhi-gang; Tang, Si-shi; Deng, Wen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate features of abdominal earthquake-related crush traumas in comparison with non-earthquake injury. A cross sectional survey was conducted with 51 survivors with abdominal crush injury in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and 41 with abdominal non-earthquake injury, undergoing non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans, serving as earthquake trauma and control group, respectively. Data were analyzed between groups focusing on CT appearance. We found that injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue and fractures of lumbar vertebrae were more common in earthquake trauma group than in control group (28 vs 13 victims, and 24 vs 9, respectively; all P < 0.05); and fractures were predominantly in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae. Retroperitoneal injury in the kidney occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (29 vs 14 victims, P < 0.05). Abdominal injury in combination with thoracic and pelvic injury occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (43 vs 29 victims, P < 0.05). In conclusion, abdominal earthquake-related crush injury might be characteristic of high incidence in injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue, fractures of lumbar vertebrae in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae, retroperitoneal injury in the kidney, and in combination with injury in the thorax and pelvis. PMID:21394315

  7. [Emergency ultrasound for blunt abdominal trauma--meta-analysis update 2003].

    PubMed

    Stengel, D; Bauwens, K; Porzsolt, F; Rademacher, G; Mutze, S; Ekkernkamp, A

    2003-12-01

    Emergency ultrasound has established itself as a key procedure of primary diagnostic work-up for blunt abdominal and multiple trauma. However, in a systematic review published in 2001 ultrasonography turned out to provide an unexpectedly low sensitivity. We conducted an update of this analysis to investigate if test characteristics will be maintained including recent studies. Prospective trials published between January 1957 and January 2003 were identified using the Medline/Oldmedline, Embase and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases. The searching strategy comprised a manual search as well as a search along the world-wide web. Qualitative rating was carried out by two investigators using criteria proposed by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. We investigated a composite endpoint (i. e., free fluid and/or organ laceration) as well as the single criteria organ injury and free intraabdominal fluid collections. After calculation of two-by-two-tables, Summary Receiver Operating Characteristics (SROC) and Q* values were determined together with their 95% confidence intervals. The Q* value was proposed as the point of intersection where sensitivity equals specificity. In addition, a random effects model was employed to compute common positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR). By assessing the title and/or abstract, 349 of 957 papers contained potentially valid information for the purpose of this review. A total of 67 studies were deemed eligible, nine of which had to be excluded from meta-analysis because of dual publication. This left 58 trials allocating 16,361 subjects for statistical analysis. Despite a trend towards improved study designs observed during the past decade, the included trials were of average methodological quality. Two-thirds of all investigations fulfilled two or less of the six possible quality criteria. The diagnostic reference standard was applied independently in only 40% of all protocols. With regard to the composite endpoint and the sonographic depiction of free fluid, the Q* value was estimated at 0.91, whereas Q* equaled 0.90 for the detection of organ injury. Q* values subsequently decreased with improving study quality and fell clearly below 0.80 in methodologically proper studies. Accounting for a negative LR of 0.23 (composite endpoint) and an assumed prevalence of 35% of intraabdominal injury, a post-test probability of 11% will remain in case of a negative sonogram. In pediatric trauma, ultrasound showed even worse test characteristics (negative LR = 0.43). Thus, in case of a 35% prevalence, the post-test probability has to estimated at 19%. Emergency ultrasound provides high specificity but insufficient sensitivity to reliably rule out intraabdominal injury. PMID:14750064

  8. Pneumobilia After Penetrating Trauma Abdominal Wall with no Injury to the Biliary Tree- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sartaj Singh; Sampley, Sunil K; Chhabra, Kapil

    2013-06-01

    Pneumobilia denotes an abnormal connection between the gastrointestinal and the biliary tracts. In the absence of surgically created anastomosis between the bowel and the bile duct, the common causes for pneumobilia are gallstone obstruction, endoscopic interventions or emphysematous cholecystitis. We present the case of a young male with traumatic pneumobilia with gastric perforation and a tear in the mesentery of the small gut following penetrating trauma in the form of stab in the abdomen. PMID:24426638

  9. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use. PMID:24391124

  10. Co-Incidence of Acute Appendicitis and Appendiceal Transection after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Sam; Forootan, Hamid Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background. PMID:24293790

  11. The effect of body mass index on posttraumatic transfusion after pelvic trauma.

    PubMed

    Richards, Justin E; Morris, Brent J; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Sweeney, Kyle R; Tressler, Marc A; Obremskey, William T; Kregor, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    The impact of body mass index (BMI) on posttraumatic blood transfusion after pelvic trauma is not well known. We conducted a retrospective review of trauma registry data over a 5-year period. Patients were stratified by BMI as normal: less than 25 kg/m(2), overweight: 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese: 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), and morbidly obese: 40 kg/m(2) or greater. Fractures were identified as "likely to receive transfusion" based on literature. Multivariable logistic regression modeling evaluated the relationship between BMI and initial posttraumatic transfusion. A second regression model was created to test the effect of BMI after adjusting for fractures "less likely to receive transfusion." Sixty-six of 244 patients (27.3%) received transfusion (mean: 1.1 ± 2.3 units). Morbid obesity was associated with transfusion (less than 55.6 vs 24.8%; P < 0.05) and units of total blood transfused (2.2 ± 2.9 vs 1.0 ± 2.2 mL; P < 0.05). The average age of patients who received a blood transfusion was significantly older compared with patients who did not receive a transfusion (45.4 ± 18.8 vs 36.1 ± 16.1 years; P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, morbid obesity was a significant risk factor for transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 12.0). Adjusting by age and fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion," morbid obesity remained a risk factor for transfusion (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 12.9). Morbid obesity represented a significant risk factor for posttraumatic transfusion in isolated pelvic trauma, even for fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion." PMID:25760198

  12. Impact of Body Mass Index on Perioperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Major Intra-abdominal Cancer Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Mullen; Daniel L. Davenport; Matthew M. Hutter; Patrick W. Hosokawa; William G. Henderson; Shukri F. Khuri; Donald W. Moorman

    2008-01-01

    Background  Obesity is an increasingly common serious chronic health condition. We sought to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI)\\u000a on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective, multi-institutional, risk-adjusted cohort study of patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery\\u000a was performed from the 14 university hospitals participating in the Patient Safety in Surgery Study of the

  13. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise. PMID:24278873

  14. [Focused surgical bedside ultrasound: E-FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) - abdominal aortic aneurysm - cholecystolithiasis - acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Studer, Maria; Studer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound is an easy to learn and highly efficient diagnostic tool to complete the clinical examination and improve bedside decision-making. In the trauma room, surgeons are often required to make a quick decision as to whether or not a patient needs an emergency intervention or whether further diagnostics are required. For this reason, education of surgeons in performing focused emergency ultrasound is pivotal. The goal of ICAN is to improve and expand the education of surgeons in Switzerland. This article provides a short review of the most frequent surgical pathologies encountered in the emergency room. PMID:24894613

  15. Bullhorn Hernia: A Rare Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bimaljot; Kumar, Ashwani; Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Rachan Lal

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this condition as missed hernias in this setting pose a high risk of strangulation and gangrene.

  16. Right diaphragmatic injury and lacerated liver during a penetrating abdominal trauma: case report and brief literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaphragmatic injuries are rare consequences of thoracoabdominal trauma and they often occur in association with multiorgan injuries. The diaphragm is a difficult anatomical structure to study with common imaging instruments due to its physiological movement. Thus, diaphragmatic injuries can often be misunderstood and diagnosed only during surgical procedures. Diagnostic delay results in a high rate of mortality. Methods We report the management of a clinical case of a 45-old man who came to our observation with a stab wound in the right upper abdomen. The type or length of the knife used as it was extracted from the victim after the fight. CT imaging demonstrated a right hemothorax without pulmonary lesions and parenchymal laceration of the liver with active bleeding. It is observed hemoperitoneum and subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen, as a bowel perforation. A complete blood count check revealed a decrease in hemoglobin (7 mg/dl), and therefore it was decided to perform surgery in midline laparotomy. Conclusion In countries with a low incidence of inter-personal violence, stab wound diaphragmatic injury is particularly rare, in particular involving the right hemidiaphragm. Diaphragmatic injury may be underestimated due to the presence of concomitant lesions of other organs, to a state of shock and respiratory failure, and to the difficulty of identifying diaphragmatic injuries in the absence of high sensitivity and specific diagnostic instruments. Diagnostic delay causes high mortality with these traumas with insidious symptoms. A diaphragmatic injury should be suspected in the presence of a clinical picture which includes hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, anemia and the presence of subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen. PMID:24817907

  17. Analysis of blood trace elements and biochemical indexes levels in severe craniocerebral trauma adults with glasgow coma scale and injury severity score.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangtao; Hu, Bo; Chen, Guiqian; Yu, Xiaojun; Luo, Jianming; Lv, Junyao; Gu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the injury severity score (ISS) and serum levels of trace elements (TE) in severe trauma patients to analyze alteration of the levels of trace elements and serum biochemical indexes in the period of admission from 126 adult cases of severe brain trauma with traffic accidents. Multi-trace elements for patients in the trauma-TE groups were used. The results indicated that all patients presented an acute trace elements deficiency syndrome (ATEDs) after severe trauma, and the correlation between ISS and serum levels of Fe, Zn, and Mg was significant. Compared to the normal control group, levels of the trace elements in serum were significantly decreased after trauma, suggesting that enhancement of immunity to infection and multiple organ failure (MOF) via the monitoring and supplement of trace elements will be a good strategy to severe traumatic patients in clinics. PMID:25575666

  18. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  19. A case of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Georgina C; Claydon, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  20. A case of abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Georgina C.; Claydon, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  1. Effect of body mass index on shifts in ultrasound-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for abdominal malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehee Choi; Clifton D. Fuller; Samuel J. Wang; Ather Siddiqi; Adrian Wonge; Charles R. Thomas Jr.; Martin Fuss

    2009-01-01

    Background and purposeWe investigated whether corrective shifts determined by daily ultrasound-based image-guidance correlate with body mass index (BMI) of patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for abdominal malignancies. The utility of daily image-guidance, particularly for patients with BMI>25.0, is examined.

  2. Development and Initial Validation of the Satisfaction and Recovery Index (SRI) for Measurement of Recovery from Musculoskeletal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Walton, David M; MacDermid, Joy C; Pulickal, Mathew; Rollack, Amber; Veitch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a need for a generic patient-reported outcome (PRO) that is patient-centric and offers sound properties for measuring the process and state of recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. This study describes the construction and initial validation of a new tool for this purpose. Methods: A prototype tool was constructed through input of academic and clinical experts and patient representatives. After evaluation of individual items, a 9-item Satisfaction and Recovery Index (SRI) was subject to psychometric evaluation drawn from classical test theory. Subjects were recruited through online and clinical populations, from those reporting pain or disability from musculoskeletal trauma. The full sample (N = 129) completed the prototype tool and a corresponding region-specific disability measure. A subsample (N = 46) also completed the Short-Form 12 version 2 (SF12vs). Of that, a second subsample (N = 29) repeated all measures 3 months later. Results: A single factor ‘health-related satisfaction’ was extracted that explained 71.1% of scale variance, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95. A priori hypotheses for cross-sectional correlations with region-specific disability measures and the generic Short-form 12 component scores were supported. The SRI tool was equally responsive to change, and able to discriminate between recovered/non-recovered subjects, at a level similar to that of the region-specific measures and generally better than the SF-12 subscales. Conclusion: The new SRI tool, as a measure of health-related satisfaction, shows promise in this initial evaluation of its properties. It is generic, patient-centered, and shows overall measurement properties similar to that of region-specific measures while allowing the potential benefit of comparison between clinical conditions. Despite early promising results, additional properties need to be explored before the tool can be endorsed for routine clinical use. PMID:25320652

  3. Abdominal vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Mullins, R J; Huckfeldt, R; Trunkey, D D

    1996-08-01

    Injuries to major abdominal arteries and veins frequently are associated with exsanguinating hemorrhage and visceral ischemia. Expeditious management is the key to survival and good outcome. Knowledge of anatomic relationships between viscera and vessels forms the basis for directed dissection, optimal exposure, and lasting repair of vessels. Although penetrating mechanism of injury remains the most common cause of these injuries, trauma surgeons must be familiar with patterns of blunt trauma-mediated injury to avoid the devastating consequences of delayed management. PMID:8782475

  4. Trauma to the External Genitalia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Jabren; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    Genitourinary injuries occur in approx 10 to 15% of patients who suffer abdominal and pelvic injuries. Trauma to the external\\u000a genitalia. is uncommon. Whenever trauma to the genitalia occurs, consideration of a urethral injury is prudent. Prompt diagnosis\\u000a and treatment of external genital trauma aims to preserve organ structure and function and complications such as infection,\\u000a hemorrhage, and urinary extravasation.

  5. Temporary abdominal closure followed by definitive abdominal wall reconstruction of the open abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Howdieshell; Charles D. Proctor; Erez Sternberg; Jorge I. Cué; J. Sheppard Mondy; Michael L. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundInability to close the abdominal wall after laparotomy for trauma may occur as a result of visceral edema, retroperitoneal hematoma, use of packing, and traumatic loss of tissue. Often life-saving, decompressive laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure require later restoration of anatomic continuity of the abdominal wall.

  6. Childhood trauma is associated with increased Body Mass Index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hepgul, Nilay; Pariante, Carmine M.; Dipasquale, Salvatore; DiForti, Marta; Taylor, Heather; Marques, Tiago Reis; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Murray, Robin M.; Mondelli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Background The high incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis is mainly attributed to antipsychotic treatment. However, it has been suggested that psychological stress also plays a role, by inducing a chronic inflammatory process which may predispose to the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the association between psychosocial stress and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in subjects with first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Methods Body Mass Index (BMI), weight and waist circumference were measured in 96 first-episode psychosis patients and 99 healthy controls. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin were measured in a sub-sample of 37 patients and 49 controls. In all the subjects we collected information on childhood trauma and recent stressors. Results Only patients with childhood trauma had higher BMI (24.9±0.5 kg/m2) and higher hsCRP (0.8±0.3 mg/dl) when compared with healthy controls (23.4±0.4 kg/m2, p=0.018 and 0.2±0.1 mg/dl, p=0.043 respectively). This was specific to childhood sexual abuse; patients who had experienced childhood sexual abuse had higher BMI (26.2±1.0 kg/m2) and hsCRP (1.9±2.5 mg/dl) not only compared with controls, but also compared with patients who had not experienced childhood sexual abuse (24.3±0.5 kg/m2, p=0.055; 0.5±0.2 mg/dl, p=0.001). Conclusions Childhood trauma is cross-sectionally associated with both increased inflammation and worse metabolic profile in first-episode psychosis. Further studies need to confirm the causal relationship between childhood trauma and higher BMI, and whether this is indeed mediated by the increased inflammation. PMID:22260948

  7. Abdominal Migraine

    MedlinePLUS

    Home » Abdominal Migraine Abdominal Migraine Submitted by Admin on Wed, 2007-10-24 12:10 Abdominal migraine is one of the variants of migraine headache. This variant most typically occurs in children, ...

  8. Genitourinary Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Metcalfe; Mark P. Cain

    \\u000a Pediatric genitourinary trauma is uncommon but harbors several important differences when compared to adult trauma. Although\\u000a the fundamental principles apply for renal trauma, the urologist must appreciate the different clinical responses to trauma\\u000a in children with respect to hemodynamic stability, presence of hematuria, and the increased likelihood of underlying congenital\\u000a anomalies. Additionally, urologists must be aware that a severe pelvic

  9. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  10. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-25

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodefidiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  11. Gastric tonometry and direct intraabdominal pressure monitoring in abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Engum; B. Kogon; E. Jensen; J. Isch; C. Balanoff; J. L. Grosfeld

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate abdominal closure in patients with abdominal wall defects, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal bleeding, and infection. Increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) leads to respiratory compromise, organ hypoperfusion, and a high mortality rate. This study evaluates the efficacy of continuous direct monitoring of IAP and gastric tissue pH in detecting impending ACS. Methods: Ten mongrel puppies weighing

  12. Reconstruction after pancreatic trauma by pancreaticogastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Gonzalo Martín; Morillas, Patricia Jiménez; Pino, José C. Rodríguez; Canis, José M. Morón; Argenté, Francesc X. González

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic lesions are very infrequent after closed abdominal trauma (5% of cases) with a complication rate that affects 30–40% of patients, and a mortality rate that can reach 39%. In our experience, closed abdominal traumatisms occurring at typical popular horse-riding festivals in our region constitute a high risk of pancreatic trauma. The purpose of the present paper is to raise awareness about our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic lesions secondary to closed abdominal traumatism. Presentation of case We present the clinical cases of two young patients who, after suffering blunt abdominal trauma secondary to the impact of a horse during the celebration of typical horse-riding festival, were diagnosed with pancreatic trauma type III. The treatment was surgical in both cases and consisted in performing a pancreaticogastric anastomosis with preservation of the distal pancreas and spleen. The postoperative period was uneventful and, at present, both patients are asymptomatic. Discussion Signs and symptoms caused by pancreatic lesion are unspecific and difficult to objectify. With some limitations CT is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis and staging in the acute phase. The Wirsung section is indication for surgical treatment. The most extended surgical procedure in these cases is the resection of pancreatic body, tail, and spleen. Conclusion The identification of a pancreatic injury after closed abdominal trauma requires a high suspicion based on the injury mechanism. A safer option may be the distal pancreatic preservation with pancreaticogastric anastomosis in grade III lesions with healthy pancreatic tissue. PMID:25744560

  13. Effect of reproductive characteristics, body mass index, and anterior/posterior vaginal compartment defects on the short-term success of abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    PubMed

    Ca?lar, Mete; Erkal, Neslihan Boz; Isenlik, Bekir S?tk?; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Yavuzcan, Ali; Ustün, Yusuf; Kumru, Selahattin

    2014-10-30

    Objective. Vaginal vault prolapse is caused by the loss of apical support in the cardinal-uterosacral ligament complex. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASCP) is one means of repairing vaginal vault prolapse. In the present study, we investigated the effects of reproductive factors, body mass index (BMI), and anterior or posterior vaginal compartment defects on short-term outcomes of ASCP. Method. We retrospectively studied 70 women who had undergone ASCP between February 2012 and November 2012 in our clinic. Result. There were no significant differences in the complication rate among menopausal, nonmenopausal women, and grand multiparous patients. Operational success was not significantly affected by menopausal status. The long-term rate of grade ? 2 prolapse in the apical, anterior, or posterior vaginal wall after ASCP did not differ significantly by menopausal status. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was not associated with operational success in the early postoperative period in patients with vaginal prolapse and was not associated with the detection of grade ? 2 prolapse in apical, anterior, and posterior compartments after 1 year. Conclusion. ASCP should be the first-line treatment for obese/overweight, menopausal, or grand multiparous patients with additional anterior or posterior vaginal vault prolapse. PMID:25356618

  14. [Abdominal wall injury - risk of seat belt use].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, S; Schrem, H; Mommsen, P; Gaulke, R; Klempnauer, J; Bektas, H; Krettek, C; Zeckey, C

    2014-10-01

    Abdominal seat belt marks can be an indication of abdominal wall rupture. The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and computed tomography (CT) scanning are the diagnostic tools of choice in hemodynamically stable patients. The typical mechanism of trauma frequently leads to additional intra-abdominal injuries, spinal injuries and in some cases aortic rupture. Abdominal wall injuries of grade IV according to Dennis should be surgically treated. The increasing numbers of obese vehicle occupants and the resulting special risk of injury warrant optimization of technical restraint systems. PMID:23896762

  15. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption. PMID:25541927

  16. Radiological evaluation of internal abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Do?an; Kantarci, Fatih; O?üt, Gündüz; Korman, U?ur

    2005-06-01

    An internal abdominal herniation is the protrusion of a viscus through a normal or abnormal mesenteric or peritoneal aperture. Internal abdominal herniations can either be acquired through a trauma or surgical procedure, or constitutional and related to congenital peritoneal defects. Paraduodenal hernias are the most common type of internal abdominal hernias, accounting for over one-half of reported cases, and thus are a significant clinical entity. Other internal hernias include pericecal, transmesenteric, transomental, intersigmoid, supravesical hernias and herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Because internal abdominal herniations are rare, their diagnosis remains a challenge for both the clinician and the radiologist. Symptoms of internal abdominal herniations are nonspecific. We present our experience with the radiological evaluation of internal abdominal herniations and review the main radiologic findings on barium as well as computed tomography studies. PMID:16252193

  17. Nail Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the trauma to the nail injures the nail matrix (the tissue inside the cuticle at the base ... a ridge or split can develop. If the matrix heals normally, this deformity eventually will disappear as ...

  18. Facial trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 42. Hill JD, Hamilton III GS. Facial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck ...

  19. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a highly lethal event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter L Biffl; Ernest E Moore; Jon M Burch; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jeffrey L Johnson

    2001-01-01

    Background: Recent reports have described resuscitation-induced, “secondary” abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in trauma patients without intra-abdominal injuries. We have diagnosed secondary ACS in a variety of nontrauma as well as trauma patients. The purpose of this review is to characterize patients who develop secondary ACS.Methods: Our prospective ACS database was reviewed for cases of secondary ACS. Physiologic parameters and outcomes

  20. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsolt Balogh; Bruce A McKinley; Christine S Cocanour; Rosemary A Kozar; John B Holcomb; Drue N Ware; Frederick A Moore

    2002-01-01

    BackgroundThe term secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been applied to describe trauma patients who develop ACS but do not have abdominal injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe major trauma victims who developed secondary ACS during standardized shock resuscitation.

  1. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  2. Penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Dervelegas, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space. Currently there is increasing incidence of road traffic accidents, increasing awareness of healthcare leading to more advanced diagnostic procedures, and increasing number of admissions in intensive care units are responsible for traumatic (non iatrogenic and iatrogenic) pneumothorax. Pneumothorax has a clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patient to life-threatening situations. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination and imaging techniques. In our current work we focus on the treatment of penetrating trauma. PMID:25337403

  3. Penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Dervelegas, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space. Currently there is increasing incidence of road traffic accidents, increasing awareness of healthcare leading to more advanced diagnostic procedures, and increasing number of admissions in intensive care units are responsible for traumatic (non iatrogenic and iatrogenic) pneumothorax. Pneumothorax has a clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patient to life-threatening situations. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination and imaging techniques. In our current work we focus on the treatment of penetrating trauma. PMID:25337403

  4. Dentoalveolar trauma.

    PubMed

    Olynik, Christopher R; Gray, Austin; Sinada, Ghassan G

    2013-10-01

    Dentoalveolar injuries are an important and common component of craniomaxillofacial trauma. The dentition serves as a vertical buttress of the face and fractures to this area may result in malalignment of facial subunits. Furthermore, the dentition is succedaneous with 3 phases-primary dentition, mixed dentition, and permanent dentition-mandating different treatment protocols. This article is written for nondental providers to diagnose and treat dentoalveolar injuries. PMID:24138739

  5. Patterns of Errors Contributing to Trauma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Russell L.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; McIntyre, Lisa K.; Foy, Hugh M.; Maier, Ronald V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify patterns of errors contributing to inpatient trauma deaths. Methods: All inpatient trauma deaths at a high-volume level I trauma center from 1996 to 2004 inclusive were audited. Data were collected with daily trauma registry chart abstraction, weekly morbidity and mortality reports, hospital quality assurance reports, and annual trauma registry analyses of risk of death using TRISS and HARM methodology. Deaths that met criteria for low to medium probability of mortality or those with quality of care concerns were analyzed for errors and then subjected to 3-stage peer review at weekly departmental, monthly hospital, and annual regional forums. Patterns of errors were constructed from the compiled longitudinal data. Results: In 9 years, there were 44,401 trauma patient admissions and 2594 deaths (5.8%), of which 601 met low to medium mortality risks. Sixty-four patients (0.14% admissions, 2.47% deaths) had recognized errors in care that contributed to their death. Important error patterns included: failure to successfully intubate, secure or protect an airway (16%), delayed operative or angiographic control of acute abdominal/pelvic hemorrhage (16%), delayed intervention for ongoing intrathoracic hemorrhage (9%), inadequate DVT or gastrointestinal prophylaxis (9%), lengthy initial operative procedures rather than damage control surgery in unstable patients (8%), over-resuscitation with fluids (5%), and complications of feeding tubes (5%). Resulting data-directed institutional and regional trauma system policy changes have demonstrably reduced the incidence of associated error-related deaths. Conclusions: Preventable deaths will occur even in mature trauma systems. This review has identified error patterns that are likely common in all trauma systems, and for which policy interventions can be effectively targeted. PMID:16926563

  6. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  7. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  8. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  9. Accuracy of conventional imaging of penetrating torso injuries in the trauma resuscitation room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorien S. E. Varin; Akkie N. Ringburg; Lieshout van E. M. M; Peter Patka; Inger B. Schipper

    2009-01-01

    Chest X-ray (CXR), abdominal ultrasound, cardiac ultrasound, and abdominal X-ray are the most frequently used imaging modalities to radiologically evaluate patients with penetrating torso trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these imaging modalities. From January 2001 until January 2005, all consecutive patients with penetrating torso injuries presenting at the emergency department of a level

  10. Different immune responses to abdominal surgery in men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias W. Wichmann; Christian Müller; Günther Meyer; Michaela Adam; Martin K. Angele; Simone J. Eisenmenger; Friedrich-Wilhelm Schildberg

    2003-01-01

    Background. Animal experiments reveal significant gender differences in the immunological response to surgical trauma. This raises the possibility that gender differences may also exist in patients after major abdominal surgery. Patients and methods. This prospective study included 40 patients (20 men, 20 women) with colorectal diseases requiring surgical intervention. To evaluate the immune response to surgery circulating lymphocyte populations and

  11. Non-operative management of isolated liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yu, Wen-Kui; Wang, Xin-Bo; Ji, Wu; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Liver trauma is the most common abdominal emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Now, non-operative management (NOM) is a selective method for liver trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM for isolated liver trauma. Medical records of 81 patients with isolated liver trauma in our unit were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM were evaluated. In this series, 9 patients with grade IV-V liver injuries underwent emergent operation due to hemodynamic instability; 72 patients, 6 with grade V, 18 grade IV, 29 grade III, 15 grade II and 4 grade I, with hemodynamic stability received NOM. The overall success rate of NOM was 97.2% (70/72). The success rates of NOM in the patients with grade I-III, IV and V liver trauma were 100%, 94.4% and 83.3%. The complication rates were 10.0% and 45.5% in the patients who underwent NOM and surgical treatment, respectively. No patient with grade I-II liver trauma had complications. All patients who underwent NOM survived. NOM is the first option for the treatment of liver trauma if the patient is hemodynamically stable. The grade of liver injury and the volume of hemoperitoneum are not suitable criteria for selecting NOM. Hepatic angioembolization associated with the correction of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis is important in the conservative treatment for liver trauma. PMID:25308366

  12. Thoraco- abdominal impalement injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impalement injury is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department (ED), and penetrating thoraco-abdominal injuries demand immediate life-saving measures and prompt care. Massive penetrating trauma by impalement in a pediatric case represents a particularly challenging presentation for emergency providers in non-trauma center settings. Case presentation We report a case of 10 year old male who presented in our ED with an alleged history of fall from an approximately 15 foot tall coconut tree, landing over an upright bamboo stake approximately 50 centimeter long, resulting in a trans-abdomino, trans-thoracic injury. In addition to prompt resuscitation and hospital transfer, assessment of damage to vital structures in conjunction with surgical specialty consultation was an immediate goal. Conclusion This article describes a case study of an impalement injury, relevant review of the available literature, and highlights the peculiar strategies required in the setting of a resource limited ED. PMID:24592862

  13. Commentary: Sonography in the evaluation of children following blunt trauma: Is it to be or not be?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Sivit; R. A. Kaufman

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade CT scanning has become generally accepted in North America as the diagnostic modality of choice for the evaluation of abdominal injury in children following blunt trauma [1–5]. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of sonography as the primary screening examination in this area. Initial studies utilizing sonography in the evaluation of trauma patients

  14. [Trauma registry and injury].

    PubMed

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers. PMID:11681128

  15. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-02-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  16. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  17. Management of liver trauma in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2011-01-01

    The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs in abdominal trauma. Recent advancements in imaging studies and enhanced critical care monitoring strategies have shifted the paradigm for the management of liver injuries. Nonoperative management of both low- and high-grade injuries can be successful in hemodynamically stable patients. Direct suture ligation of bleeding parenchymal vessels, total vascular isolation with repair of venous injuries, and the advent of damage control surgery have all improved outcomes in the hemodynamically unstable patient population. Anatomical resection of the liver and use of atriocaval shunt are rarely indicated. PMID:21633579

  18. Circulating iFABP Levels as a marker of intestinal damage in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Kim; Sir, Özcan; Kox, Matthijs; Vaneker, Michiel; de Jong, Carmen; Gerretsen, Jelle; Edwards, Michael; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Both the initial trauma and the subsequent hemodynamic instability may contribute to intestinal damage, which is of great importance in (immunological) posttrauma complications. This study assesses intestinal damage using the biomarker intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (iFABP) in trauma patients during the first days of their hospital admission and the risk factors involved. Plasma iFABP levels were measured in blood samples obtained from adult multiple trauma patients (n = 93) at the trauma scene by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services, at arrival at the emergency department (ED), and at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after trauma and related to injury severity and hemodynamic parameters. Plasma iFABP concentrations showed highest levels immediately after trauma at time points Helicopter Emergency Medical Services and ED. Nonsurvivors demonstrated higher iFABP levels at the ED compared with survivors. Furthermore, iFABP values at the ED correlated with Injury Severity Scores, and patients suffering from abdominal trauma demonstrated significantly higher iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with other types of trauma or healthy controls. Also, patients presenting with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) less than 70 mmHg at the ED demonstrated significantly higher plasma iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with a normal (70-99 mmHg) or high (>100 mmHg) MAP or healthy controls. Finally, patients with a low hemoglobin (Hb) (<80% of reference value) displayed significantly higher iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with a normal Hb or healthy controls. Plasma iFABP levels, indicative of intestinal injury, are increased immediately after trauma in patients with abdominal trauma, low MAP, or low Hb and are related to the severity of the trauma. As intestinal injury is suggested to be related to late complications, such as multiorgan dysfunction syndrome or sepsis in trauma patients, strategies to prevent intestinal damage after trauma could be of benefit to these patients. PMID:25394241

  19. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

  20. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

  1. Renal trauma imaging: Diagnosis and management. A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Szmigielski, Wojciech; Kumar, Rajendra; Al Hilli, Shatha; Ismail, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this review is to illustrate and discuss the spectrum of imaging findings, particularly computed tomography (CT), of blunt and penetrating renal trauma, based on our own materials, according to the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury grading scale. The article also indicates the conditions in which interventional radiology procedures can be applied for the management of renal trauma. Material/Method Cases for this pictorial review were selected from the imaging material collected at the Radiology Department of Hamad Medical Corporation during a 14-year period from 1999 to 2012. The material includes 176 cases (164 males and 12 females) with confirmed blunt or penetrating renal trauma. Following abdominal trauma, all patients had a CT examination performed on admission to the hospital and/or during hospitalization. The most representative and illustrative cases of renal trauma were reviewed according to CT findings and were categorized according to the AAST grading system. Discusion The review describes a spectrum of imaging presentations with special emphasis on the 5 grades of renal injury on a CT according to the AAST scale. The most representative cases were illustrated and discussed with indications of possible interventional radiology treatment. Two groups of patients not included in the AAST grading system were presented separately: those with preexisting renal abnormalities and those with sustained iatrogenic renal injury. Conclusions Proper application of renal trauma grading scale is essential for selecting the patients for conservative treatment, surgery or interventional radiology procedure. PMID:24505221

  2. [Thoracic and abdominal wounds].

    PubMed

    Martinod, E; Lang-Lazdunski, L; Liard, O; Jancovici, R

    1997-05-01

    Thoracic and abdominal wounds are characterized by their diversity, their possible danger and the necessity of a successful diagnosis and therapy strategy. Management of thoracic wounds and indications of surgical treatment are conditioned by airway and hemodynamic states, paraclinical exams and chest drainage. The approach of abdominal wounds is based upon their possible penetrating character. Surgical indications, even if very discussed, are still wider. Thoraco-abdominal wounds could concern the diaphragm and are remarkable for their surgical strategy. PMID:9208685

  3. Correlation between urinalysis and intravenous pyelography in pediatric abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aijaz Hashmi; Terry Klassen

    1995-01-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the appropriate indications for intravenous pyelography (IVP) in assessing blunt renal injuries in children. Forty-one consecutive cases of suspected blunt renal injuries, who had an IVP performed between January 1988 and December 1990 at The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, were examined by a retrospective chart review. Eighty percent of the IVPs were normal. Of the eight

  4. David Baldwin's Trauma Information Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baldwin, David V.

    The Trauma Information Pages, provided by psychologist David Baldwin, provide information about traumatic stress for clinicians and researchers in the field. The pages include information on trauma symptoms, connections to trauma resources including full text articles and an EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) bibliography, general support information including grief, stress, and mental health pointers, disaster handouts and links, and links to other trauma and trauma related sites. The Trauma Pages are searchable.

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... renal disease Infertility Liver disease Needle biopsy Osteoporosis Pediatrics Pelvic pain ... Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  6. Hepatic trauma: contemporary management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D. Trunkey

    There is probably no area in trauma care that is more contentious and controversial than the contemporary management of liver trauma. The issues\\/controversies include several questions. Has the incidence of liver injuries increased? Are there more blunt injuries relative to penetrating injuries? Is the enthusiasm for nonoperative management of severe liver injuries warranted? Are the complications following nonoperative manage- ment

  7. Orthodontic procedures after trauma.

    PubMed

    Fields, Henry W; Christensen, John R

    2013-01-01

    This review considers oral trauma and its relationship to orthodontics with respect to prevention and primary, secondary, and tertiary care. The level of evidence is not high in regard to this topic, but recommendable approaches to trauma at each stage are discussed on the basis of available literature and published guidelines. Simplified biomechanics are presented to aid treatment. PMID:23635987

  8. Relationship Between Trauma Narratives and Trauma Pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Amir; Jane Stafford; Melinda S. Freshman; Edna B. Foa

    1998-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between posttrauma pathology and the level of articulation (complexity) in rape narratives recounted by victims shortly after the assault. Degree of articulation was operationalized as the reading level of the narratives as determined by a computer program. Shortly after the trauma, reading level was correlated with severity of anxiety but not with posttraumatic

  9. Assessment of workload during pediatric trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Samantha E; Carter, Elizabeth A; Waterhouse, Lauren J; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; O'Connell, Karen J; Burd, Randall S

    2012-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma resuscitations are high-pressure, time-critical events during which health care providers form ad hoc teams to rapidly assess and treat injured patients. Trauma team members experience varying levels of workload during resuscitations resulting from the objective demands of their role-specific tasks, the circumstances surrounding the event, and their individual previous experiences. The goal of this study was to determine factors influencing workload experienced by trauma team members during pediatric trauma resuscitations. METHODS: Workload was measured using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (TLX). TLX surveys were administered to four trauma team roles: charge nurse, senior surgical resident (surgical coordinator), emergency medicine physician, and junior surgical resident or nurse practitioner (bedside clinician). A total of 217 surveys were completed. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to examine the relationship between workload and patient and clinical factors. RESULTS: Bedside clinicians reported the highest total workload score (208.7), followed by emergency medicine physicians (156.3), surgical coordinators (144.1), and charge nurses (129.1). Workload was higher during higher-level activations (235.3), for events involving intubated patients (249.0), and for patients with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 (230.4) (p, 0.001 for all). When controlling for potential confounders using multiple linear regression, workload was increased during higher level activations (79.0 points higher, p = 0.01) and events without previous notification (38.9 points higher, p = 0.03). Workload also remained significantly higher for the bedside clinician compared with the other three roles (p ? 0.005 for all). CONCLUSION: Workload during pediatric trauma resuscitations differed by team role and was increased for higher-level activations and events without previous notification. This study demonstrates the validity of the TLX as a tool to measure workload in trauma resuscitation. PMID:23032804

  10. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis complicating abdominal penetrating injury: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is a rare condition usually associated with endocarditis or spinal surgery. However, it may also occur following abdominal penetrating trauma with associated gastrointestinal perforation. Diagnosis might be challenging and appropriate treatment is essential to ensure a positive outcome. In trans-abdominal trauma, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotics is generally recommended for prophylaxis of secondary infections. A case report of vertebral osteomyelitis complicating trans-colonic injury to the retroperitoneum is presented and clinical management is discussed in the light of literature review. PMID:24373134

  11. Review of pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, K E

    1989-01-01

    In reviewing the literature on pancreatic trauma (1,984 cases), I found that it resulted from penetrating trauma in 73% and blunt trauma in 27% of cases. Associated injuries were common (average 3.0 per patient). Increased mortality was associated with shotgun wounds, an increasing number of associated injuries, the proximity of the injury to the head of the pancreas, preoperative shock, and massive hemorrhage. High mortality was found for total pancreatectomy, duct reanastomosis, and lack of surgical treatment, with lower mortality for Roux-en-Y anastomoses, suture and drainage, distal pancreatectomy, and duodenal exclusion and diverticulization techniques. Most patients required drainage only. The preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic trauma is difficult, with the diagnosis usually made during surgical repair for associated injuries. Blood studies such as amylase levels, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and plain radiographs are not reliable. Computed tomographic scanning may be superior, but data are limited. PMID:2669347

  12. Immunoparalysis after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Tschoeke, Sven K; Ertel, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    The immunological sequelae following multiple trauma constitute an ongoing challenge in critical care management. The overall immune response to multiple trauma is a multilevel complex interdependently involving neurohormonal, cellular and haemodynamic factors. Immunoparalysis is characterised by a reduced capacity to present antigens via downregulated HLA-DR and an unbalanced monocyte-T cell interaction. Trauma-induced death of functionally conducive immune cells in the early recovery phase is significant in the emergence of posttraumatic multiple organ dysfunction or failure. Novel findings may contribute to more appropriate immunomonitoring and improved treatment. We must consider the preservation and support of immune function as the ultimate therapeutic goal, which may override the current strategy of simply antagonising excessive pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses of the severely injured person. This review focuses on the injury-induced conduct of key immune effector cells and associated effects promoting immunoparalysis after multiple trauma. PMID:18048039

  13. [Pediatric multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Auner, B; Marzi, I

    2014-05-01

    Multiple trauma in children is rare so that even large trauma centers will only treat a small number of cases. Nevertheless, accidents are the most common cause of death in childhood whereby the causes are mostly traffic accidents and falls. Head trauma is the most common form of injury and the degree of severity is mostly decisive for the prognosis. Knowledge on possible causes of injury and injury patterns as well as consideration of anatomical and physiological characteristics are of great importance for treatment. The differences compared to adults are greater the younger the child is. Decompression and stopping bleeding are the main priorities before surgical fracture stabilization. The treatment of a severely injured child should be carried out by an interdisciplinary team in an approved trauma center with expertise in pediatrics. An inadequate primary assessment involves a high risk of early mortality. On the other hand children have a better prognosis than adults with comparable injuries. PMID:24811223

  14. Imaging in orbital trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken Y.; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C.; Tao, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

  15. Trauma program development.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    The development of a strong trauma program is clearly one of the most important facets of successful business development. Several recent publications have demonstrated that well run trauma services can generate significant profits for both the hospital and the surgeons involved. There are many aspects to this task that require constant attention and insight. Top notch patient care, efficiency, and cost-effective resource utilization are all important components that must be addressed while providing adequate physician compensation within the bounds of hospital financial constraints and the encompassing legal issues. Each situation is different but many of the components are universal. This chapter addresses all aspects of trauma program development to provide the graduating fellow with the tools to create a new trauma program or improve an existing program in order to provide the best patient care while optimizing financial reward and improving care efficiency. PMID:24918830

  16. Advances in forefoot trauma.

    PubMed

    Clements, J Randolph; Schopf, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Forefoot traumas, particularly involving the metatarsals, are commonly occurring injuries. There have been several advances in management of these injuries. These advances include updates in operative technique, internal fixation options, plating constructs, and external fixation. In addition, the advances of soft tissue management have improved outcomes. This article outlines these injuries and provides an update on techniques, principles, and understanding of managing forefoot trauma. PMID:23827495

  17. [Ultrasound for abdominal lymphadenopathy].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C

    2013-05-01

    This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Bailey; Marc J Shapiro

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention

  19. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  20. Isolated renal pelvis rupture secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Taken, Kerem; Oncü, Mehmet Re?it; Ergün, Müslüm; Ery?lmaz, Recep; Güne?, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated rupture of the renal pelvis is a very rare condition and thus causes delays in the diagnosis of the rupture. It is most commonly seen in the setting of obstructive ureteric calculus. Other rare causes include neoplasms, trauma, and iatrogenic procedures. Diagnosis is usually established on computed tomography (CT) which demonstrates the extravasation of the contrast in the peripelvic, perinephric, or retroperitoneal collections. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to multiple traumas associated with motor vehicle accidents. The patient had clear urine output. A large pelvic rupture was detected by abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and after consulting with other departments, emergency repair of the renal pelvis was performed and a ureteral stent was implanted. Discussion Only a few isolated cases of pelvis rupture with resultant extravasation have been reported in the literature. The treatment of pelvic rupture should be preceded by the removal of underlying causes, followed by conservative management. However, surgical intervention should be warranted in the emergency cases presenting with the symptoms that may impede the decision-making process and in the cases whose diagnosis cannot be clarified by radiological techniques. Conclusion Renal pelvic injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis of blunt trauma. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. We present a case who underwent surgery due to isolated renal pelvis rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:25734319

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  2. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

  3. Normal Abdominal CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  4. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  5. Intra-abdominal hypertension: pulmonary and cerebral complications.

    PubMed

    Vegar-Brozovic, V; Brezak, J; Brozovic, I

    2008-05-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension causes many physiologic changes, primarily by reducing thoracic compliance and secondarily causing organ failure, which is the body's normal response to trauma or acute inflammatory response. Compartment syndrome as a cause of abdominal hypertension has adverse effects on the circulation, threatening the function and viability of tissues. Intra-abdominal hypertension with the clinical picture of compartment syndrome is a reperfusion injury that is a cyclic event. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure due to whatever mechanism affects all intra-abdominal viscera, including the abdominal wall. Due to edema reducing thoracic compliance, producing severe encephalopathy and leading to severe ischemia with generation of significant quantities of reactive oxygen free radicals as well peroxidation products released from the intestine, liver and spleen. Elevated intracranial pressure causes encephalopathy and the risk of neuronal damage due to the sharp decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure. Elevated intracranial pressure is due to restriction of outflow from the lumbar venous plexus. The etiology of the sudden increase in capillary permeability remains unclear. Decompressive laparotomy leads to a rapid improvement in pulmonary parameters and oxygen delivery. The clinical state after decompression is an example of ischemia-reperfusion injury requiring therapy with inotropes and other agents to improve cardiac, respiratory, renal and cerebral hemodynamics with life saving effects. PMID:18555146

  6. Toxicological screening in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, T; Field, H; Illingworth, R; Gaffney, P; Hamer, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use in patients with major trauma. Methods—Consecutive trauma patient enrolment, 24 hours a day, was envisaged with anonymised patient data on gender, age band, and mechanism of injury collected. The study group had surplus plasma quantitatively analysed for ethanol concentration, and urine samples were initially screened, via immunoassay, for opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and methadone. Confirmation and specification of individual positive results was then performed using thin layer or gas-liquid chromatography. Drugs of treatment given in the resuscitation room, if subsequently detected in the urine samples, were excluded from the final results. Results—There were 116 eligible trauma patients assessed and treated in the resuscitation room over a six month period, of which 93 (80%) were enrolled. Altogether 27% of this trauma population had plasma ethanol concentrations greater than 80 mg/dl. There was a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol intoxication in the group not involved in a road traffic accident (RTA) compared with the group who were involved in a RTA. Initial screening of urine for drugs revealed a prevalence of 51%. After 12 exclusions due to iatrogenic administration of opiates, the final confirmed prevalence was 35% in this trauma population. The individual drug prevalence was 13% for cannabinoids, 11% for codeine, 8% for morphine, 6% for amphetamine, 6% for benzodiazepines, 3% for cocaine, 1% for dihydrocodeine, and 1% for methadone. Conclusions—There is a notable prevalence of drug and alcohol use in this British accident and emergency trauma population. A significantly higher prevalence for alcohol intoxication was found in the non-RTA group compared with the RTA group. The patterns of drug usage detected reflect local influences and less cocaine use is seen compared with American studies. The association between alcohol, drugs, and trauma, together with ethically acceptable methods of screening, are discussed. PMID:10658989

  7. Abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ERCOLAK, VEHBI; PAYDAS, SEMRA; ERGIN, MELEK; ATES, BERNA T.; DUMAN, BERNA B.; GUNALDI, MERAL; AFSAR, CIGDEM U.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, for which immune suppression is a predisposing factor. In unusual cases, this disease may present as an abdominal wall involvement simulating a soft tissue tumor as seen in the present case. The presented patient had no signs of trauma or surgical approach and the pathology was considered to be a primary abdominal wall actinomycosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the nonspecific nature of clinical presentation, radiographic and laboratory findings. Surgery combined with antibiotic treatment is a curative approach for this relatively rare infection. Surgeons must be aware of this disease in order to ensure correct diagnosis and to prevent performing any unnecessary procedures. The present study describes a case of abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma, together with a review of important points related to this disease. PMID:25202429

  8. Image and trauma.

    PubMed

    Leys, Ruth

    2006-03-01

    In 1980, when the diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), survivor guilt--a symptom long associated with trauma of the Holocaust and other extreme experiences--was included in the list of symptom criteria. But in the revised edition of the manual of 1987 (DSM-IIIR), survivor guilt was demoted to the status of merely an "associated feature" of the condition. Now that survivor guilt has disappeared from the official lexicon of trauma, shame has come to take its place as the emotion that most defines the traumatic state. This paper examines the rationale for the shift from survivor guilt to shame in the context of the American Psychiatric Association's revisions. It argues that the shift can be understood as yet another manifestation of the oscillation between mimetic and antimimetic theories of trauma that, I have argued in my book Trauma: A Genealogy (2000), has structured the understanding of trauma from the start. PMID:17147219

  9. Trauma is danger

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in young adult patients. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies attempt to investigate the immunological pathways involved, however the true mediators remain to be elucidated. Herein, we attempt to describe the immunologic response to systemic trauma in the context of the Danger model. Data Sources A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma. Conclusions Our knowledge of Danger signals in relation to traumatic injury is still limited. Danger/alarmin signals are the most proximal molecules in the immune response that have many possibilities for effector function in the innate and acquired immune systems. Having a full understanding of these molecules and their pathways would give us the ability to intervene at such an early stage and may prove to be more effective in blunting the post-injury inflammatory response unlike previously failed cytokine experiments. PMID:21676213

  10. Transfusion practices in trauma.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

    2014-09-01

    Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

  11. Assuring optimal trauma care: the role of trauma centre accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Optimal care of the injured patient requires the delivery of appropriate, definitive care shortly after injury. Over the last 30 to 40 years, civilian trauma systems and trauma centres have been developed in the United States based on experience gained in military conflicts, particularly in Korea and Vietnam. A similar process is evolving in Canada. National trauma committees in the US and Canada have defined optimal resources to meet the goal of rapid, appropriate care in trauma centres. They have introduced programs (verification or accreditation) to externally audit trauma centre performance based on these guidelines. It is generally accepted that implementing trauma systems results in decreased preventable death and improved survival after trauma. What is less clear is the degree to which each facet of trauma system development contributes to this improvement. The relative importance of national performance guidelines and trauma centre audit as integral steps toward improved outcomes following injury are reviewed. Current Trauma Association of Canada guidelines for trauma centres are presented and the process of trauma centre accreditation is discussed. PMID:12174987

  12. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140

  13. Secondary Trauma: How Working with Trauma Survivors Affects Therapists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy R. Hesse

    2002-01-01

    Secondary trauma, a relatively recent topic that has emerged in the field of social work, includes the emotional and psychological effects that working with traumatized clients has on therapists. Secondary trauma can seriously impact therapists' personal and professional well-being. Trauma therapists face major ethical dilemmas if their reactions to being traumatized enter into the therapeutic relationship, exposing clients to psychological

  14. Advances in prehospital trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773

  15. Cirrhosis in the trauma victim. Effect on mortality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkoff, G; Rhodes, M; Diamond, D; Lucke, J

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the impact cirrhosis has on survival the records of 40 cirrhotic trauma victims from the registries of two Level 1 trauma centers were reviewed and probability of survival calculated using the TRISS methodology. Mechanism of injury, anatomic location, involvement of single or multiple sites, presence of ascites, elevations in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), and hypoalbuminemia were tabulated for each patient. Contingency tables were created for injury and hepatic parameters, as related to survival, and subjected to chi square analysis. Loglinear analysis was performed on all significant parameters to evaluate the independent effects of injury characteristics and hepatic insufficiency on survival. Predicted survival was 93%; observed survival was 70% (Z = -6.92; p less than 0.001). Cause of death was multiple-system organ failure (9) and closed head injury (3). Admission markers of poor outcome included one or more of the following: ascites, elevated PT or bilirubin, history of motor vehicle accident, multiple trauma, or blunt abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy. Loglinear analysis revealed that the presence of ascites, elevated PT, or bilirubin, further diminished the rate of survival for any individual injury characteristic. We concluded that survival among cirrhotic trauma victims was significantly lower than predicted. In addition the presence of hepatic insufficiency further diminishes survival, regardless of the injury sustained. PMID:2301996

  16. Laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL): A method for evaluation of penetrating abdominal stab wounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M Krausz; Benyamine Abbou; Dan D Hershko; Ahmad Mahajna; Daniel S Duek; Bishara Bishara; Shlomo H Israelit

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds has been the subject of continued reappraisal and controversy. In the present study a novel method which combines the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and DPL, termed laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) is described METHOD: Five trauma patients with penetrating injuries to the lower chest or abdomen were included. Standard videoscopic equipment is

  17. Adverse consequences of internal iliac artery occlusion during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Karch; Kim J. Hodgson; Mark A. Mattos; William T. Bohannon; Don E. Ramsey; Robert B. McLafferty

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) may be performed during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair if aneurysmal disease of the common iliac artery precludes graft placement proximal to the IIA orifice. The IIA may also be unintentionally occluded because of iliac trauma or coverage by the endograft. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence,

  18. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  19. Trends in trauma transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhananker, Sanjay M; Ramaiah, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and acute blood loss contributes to a large portion of mortality in the early post-trauma period. The recognition of lethal triad of coagulopathy, hypothermia and acidosis has led to the concepts of damage control surgery and resuscitation. Recent experience with managing polytrauma victims from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars has led to a few significant changes in clinical practice. Simultaneously, transfusion practices in the civilian settings have also been extensively studied retrospectively and prospectively in the last decade. Early treatment of coagulopathy with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells (FFP:platelet:RBC), prevention and early correction of hypothermia and acidosis, monitoring of hemostasis using point of care tests like thromoboelastometry, use of recombinant activated factor VII, antifibrinolytic drugs like tranexamic acid are just some of the emerging trends. Further studies, especially in the civilian trauma centers, are needed to confirm the lessons learned in the military environment. Identification of patients likely to need massive transfusion followed by immediate preventive and therapeutic interventions to prevent the development of coagulopathy could help in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled hemorrhage in trauma patients. PMID:22096774

  20. Acute abdominal complications following hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Deleanu, B; Prejbeanu, R; Vermesan, D; Haragus, H; Icma, I; Predescu, V

    2014-01-01

    Hip surgeries are some of the most common and successful orthopedic procedures. Although rarely, abdominal complications do occur and are associated with unfavorable outcomes.We aimed to identify and describe the severe abdominal complications that appear in patients under-going elective or traumatic hip surgery. A four year retrospective electronic database research identified 408 elective primary hip replacements,51 hip revisions and 1040 intra and extracapsular proximal femur fractures. Out of these, three males and 4 females between 64 - 84 years old were identified to have developed acute abdominal complications: perforated acute ulcer (3),acute cholecystitis (2), volvulus (1), toxic megacolon with peritonitis (1) and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (1).Complications debuted 3 - 10 days after index orthopedic surgery. Acute perioperative abdominal complications are rarely encountered during orthopedic surgery. When these do occur, they do so almost exclusively in patients with hippathology, comorbidities and most often lead to life threatening situations. We thus emphasize the need for early identification and appropriate management by both orthopedic and general surgery doctors in order to improve patient safety. PMID:24742414

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  2. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  3. Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Wexner; Olaf B. Johansen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of laparoscopy upon the outcome of total abdominal colectomy (TAC). Specifically, patients underwent standard laparotomy with TAC and ileoproctostomy (TAC + IP), TAC and ileoanal reservoir (TAC + IAR), laparoscopically assisted TAC + IP (L-TAC + IP), or laparoscopically assisted TAC + IAR (L-TAC + IAR). Parameters studied included

  4. Ultrasonography of scrotal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Schaffer

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasound has emerged as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of patients with scrotal trauma. Most\\u000a studies of testicular rupture show great accuracy with virtually no instances of false-positive or false-negative diagnoses.\\u000a Ultrasonography is capable of differentiating between scrotal hematoma, extratesticular fluid collections, posttraumatic torsion\\u000a testis, posttraumatic epididymitis, epididymal hematoma, as well as testicular rupture. The differentiation

  5. The trauma team--a system of initial trauma care.

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, O. A.; Driscoll, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of death under the age of 35 years. England and Wales lost 252,000 working years from accidental deaths, including poison, in 1992. In this country, preventable deaths from trauma are inappropriately high. In many hospitals there are not enough personnel; in the majority, there are no recognisable trauma care systems, which can reduce preventable deaths to a minimum. The appropriateness of trauma centres for this country is being assessed in Stoke-on-Trent, and a report is due out later this year. Even if the recommendation is made to establish such centres, it is unlikely that many will be set up. Consequently most hospitals will have to rely on their own resources to set up and run a trauma team. This type of trauma care system is the subject of this article. PMID:8977939

  6. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily A. Holmes; Chris R. Brewin; Richard G. Hennessy

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions and recorded any spontaneous intrusive memories of the film over the following

  7. Imaging of laryngeal trauma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed. PMID:24238937

  8. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  9. [The Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma 2009].

    PubMed

    Kühne, C A; Mand, C; Sturm, J; Lackner, C K; Künzel, A; Siebert, H; Ruchholtz, S

    2009-10-01

    In 2009, 3 years after the foundation of the Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma (TraumaNetzwerkD DGU), the majority of German hospitals participating in the treatment of seriously injured patients is registered in regional trauma networks (TNW). Currently there are 41 trauma networks with more than 660 hospitals in existence, 18 more are registered but are still in the planning phase. Each Federal State has an average of 39 trauma centres of different levels taking part in the treatment of seriously injured patients and every trauma network has an average catchment area of 8708 km(2). The most favourable geographical infrastructure conditions exist in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the least favourable in Sachsen-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. A total of 95 hospitals have already fulfilled the first audit of the structural, personnel and qualitative requirements by the certification bodies. Examination of the check lists of 26 hospitals showed shortcomings in the clinical structure so that these hospitals must be rechecked after correction of the shortcomings. A total of 59 hospitals throughout Germany were successfully audited and only one failed to fulfil the requirements. Because of the varying sizes of the trauma networks there are differences in the areas covered by each trauma network and trauma centre. Concerning the process of certification and auditing (together with the company DIOcert) it could be seen that by careful examination of the check lists of each hospital unforeseen problems during the audit could be avoided. The following article will present the current state of development of the Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma and describe the certification and auditing process. PMID:19756455

  10. [Classification of complications of combined injuries of abdominal organs and long tubular bones in traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Popov, I F; Berezka, N I; Gnedushkin, Iu N; Iavdak, A K

    1992-01-01

    The outcomes of treatment of 386 victims with abdominal trauma and fractures of the long tubular bones were studied. The authors systematized the typical complications developing after the trauma, both on the part of the injured organs of the abdominal cavity and true pelvis and the fractures of the long tubular bones. This allowed the developed complications to be divided according to time into early, late, and sequelae of trauma. The early complications of injuries to the organs of the abdomen and true pelvis are as follows: suppuration of postoperative wounds, postoperative wound dehiscence with or without eventration, recurrent intracavitary hemorrhage, progressing local peritonitis, incompetence of anastomoses, intestinal obstruction, abdominal abscesses and infiltrates, abscesses and infiltrates in the true pelvis, intestinal paresis, large hematomas, phlegmons of the anterior abdominal wall. The late complications are: sluggish wounds of the anterior abdominal wall, formation of ligature fistulas, postoperative ventral hernias, suppuration of intraorganic and interstitial hematomas, subclinical forms of sepsis and sepsis, thrombophlebitic complications, chronic venous insufficiency, persistent wounds, and other complications. The sequelae of injury to the organs of the abdominal cavity and true pelvis are: intestinal fistulas, functional intestinal disorders, gastric disease, the dumping syndrome, cicatricial changes of the anterior abdominal wall, posttraumatic disease, venous insufficiency, pneumosclerosis, chronic pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, chronic vascular insufficiency, etc. The early complications in fractures of long tubular bones in the group of studied patients: suppuration of osteomuscular wounds, recurrent displacement of bone fragments, bone necrosis in open type IIIC, IIID fractures, gangrene of the limb consequent upon crushing of skin and subcutaneous tissue, subluxations, secondary subluxations of limbs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1469878

  11. Capturing Intrusive Re-experiencing in Trauma Survivors’ Daily Lives Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories are common following traumatic events and among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most studies assess summarized accounts of intrusions retrospectively. We used an ecological momentary approach and index intrusive memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD using electronic diaries. Forty-six trauma survivors completed daily diaries for 7 consecutive days recording a total of 294 intrusions. Participants with PTSD experienced only marginally more intrusions than those without PTSD, but experienced them with more “here and now quality,” and responded with more fear, helplessness, anger, and shame than those without PTSD. Most frequent intrusion triggers were stimuli that were perceptually similar to stimuli from the trauma. Individuals with PTSD experienced diary-prompted voluntary trauma memories with the same sense of nowness and vividness as involuntary intrusive trauma memories. The findings contribute to a better understanding of everyday experiences of intrusive reexperiencing in trauma survivors with PTSD and offer clinical treatment implications. PMID:24364602

  12. Biomarkers in abdominal imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard E. Van Beers; Valérie Vilgrain

    2009-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers are parameters measurable with imaging methods used to detect, stage or grade disease or assess the response\\u000a to treatment. Compared with biochemical or histological markers, imaging biomarkers have the advantage of remaining non-invasive\\u000a and being spatially and temporally resolved. Imaging biomarkers are used in multiple abdominal diseases, including cancer.\\u000a Anatomical imaging biomarkers such as the RECIST criteria are

  13. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  14. Development of a murine model of blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A; Hwang, Haejin; Hampel, Joseph A; Yu, Bi; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2013-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of blunt hepatic trauma in humans, there are few rodent models of blunt trauma that can be used to study the associated inflammatory responses. We present a mouse model of blunt hepatic trauma that was created by using a cortical contusion device. Male mice were anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine and placed in left lateral recumbency. A position of 2 mm ventral to the posterior axillary line and 5 mm caudal to the costal margin on the right side was targeted for impact. An impact velocity of 6 m/s and a piston depth of 12 mm produced a consistent pattern of hepatic injury with low mortality. All mice that recovered from anesthesia survived without complication for the length of the study. Mice were euthanized at various time points (n = 5 per group) until 7 d after injury for gross examination and collection of blood and peritoneal lavage fluids. Some mice were reanesthetized for serial monitoring of hepatic lesions via MRI. At 2 h after trauma, mice consistently displayed laceration, hematoma, and discoloration of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, with intraabdominal hemorrhage but no other gross injuries. Blood and peritoneal lavage fluid were collected from all mice for cytokine analysis. At 2 h after trauma, there were significant increases in plasma IL10 as well as peritoneal lavage fluid IL6 and CXCL1/KC; however, these levels decreased within 24 h. At 7 d after trauma, the mice had regained body weight, and the hepatic lesions, which initially had increased in size during the first 48 h, had returned to their original size. In summary, this technique produced a reliable, low mortality, murine model that recreates features of blunt abdominal liver injury in human subjects with similar acute inflammatory response. PMID:24210016

  15. Grade IV renal trauma in a 17–year–old patient

    PubMed Central

    Thimary, Felix; Pummer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Renal trauma occurs in 1–5% of all trauma cases. The kidney is the most commonly injured genitourinary and abdominal organ. In this case we present a 17–year–old patient with a grade IV trauma of the left kidney with renal rupture, hematoma, and urinoma. He was referred to our hospital in hemodynamic stability; therefore, a conservative approach was chosen. One year after the accident the patient was free from symptoms, and the renal function was normal; CT–scan revealed neither hematoma nor urinoma. Since nothing is known on the long–term outcomes in patients with severe renal traumas, long–term follow up studies are highly recommended. PMID:24579037

  16. OR resuscitation for trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth-Fridlund, P; Bernal Hall, J; Dias, J B

    1993-01-01

    1. The results of multiple studies have shown evidence that immediate access to the operating room has significantly contributed to improved outcome in several categories of trauma patients. 2. "Walk through" table top exercises were held in the OR suite to identify problems. These mock resuscitations were particularly helpful in solving logistical and equipment problems. 3. Prehospital care providers were given classes regarding triage criteria and operating room logistics. 4. Continuing education for OR and trauma nurses included videotape review and critique of ORR, trauma-specific inservice programs presented by the trauma coordinators and physicians, and attendance at weekly videotape review and trauma conference presented by the Division of Trauma. Easy recognition of individual team members, an important issue, required the use of name badges. PMID:8342227

  17. Unemployment Rates and Trauma Admissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul K. Madan; Julie Sapozhnik; Areti Tillou; Aml Raafat; Norman E McSwain

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we tested the hypothesis that the number and demographic characteristics of admissions to our trauma center\\u000a were related to unemployment rates. The correlation study was conducted at The American College of Surgeons-verified level\\u000a I trauma center in our area (New Orleans, Louisiana). It included all trauma admissions. Monthly unemployment rate data from\\u000a our area were obtained from

  18. Trauma Admission CT as a Road Map for IVC Filters.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Kyle; Boneva, Dessilava; Deeter, Matthew; Barquist, Erik; Ang, Darwin; Kaye, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine if admission abdominal/pelvic CT on trauma patients can be used as a novel method to evaluate the inferior vena cava (IVC) anatomy and facilitate potential IVC filter placement. Consecutive trauma admission CT's were reviewed. The potential landing zone for filters was determined by the IVC mid portion between the renal and iliac veins. The IVC landmarks were described anatomically using the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies as reference points. The IVC diameter and anatomic anomalies which would affect filter placement were also evaluated from the CT. The records of 610 Trauma patients were reviewed. There were 518 (84.9%) that had an admission CT, forming the basis of the study. The CT for 500 of 518 (96.5%) was of sufficient quality to accurately evaluate the IVC. The third lumbar location of the IVC was a safe landing zone in 476 of 500 (95.2%). Anatomic anomalies were present in 47 of 500 (9.4%). We had the following three conclusions. The admission CT in over 96% of trauma patients can be used to determine the IVC filter landing zone. The third lumbar region of the IVC was a safe landing zone in over 95%. Anatomical anomalies affecting IVC filter placement were revealed in 9.4%. PMID:25437580

  19. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T., E-mail: constant@pol.net; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip [New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Section of Vascular and Interventional, Department of Radiology (United States); Schubert, Johanna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapies (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery.

  20. Sleep and trauma: an overview.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barbara A; Redeker, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common after traumatic events of various types, such as combat, physical trauma, and sexual abuse, and closely intertwined with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a common outcome of severe and prolonged trauma. This paper reviews the current literature on the significance and characteristics of sleep disturbance occurring in the context of trauma, examines the relationship between sleep disturbance and PTSD, identifies gaps in knowledge relative to the role of sleep disturbance in trauma and PTSD, and discusses the implications of this body of knowledge for clinical practice. PMID:16126648

  1. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612

  2. Rural Trauma: Is Trauma Designation Associated with Better Hospital Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…

  3. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth with Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…

  4. Sexual abuse trauma among professional women: validating the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40).

    PubMed

    Elliott, D M; Briere, J

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the usefulness of the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC-40) in measuring the long-term sequelae of sexual abuse. In a national survey of 2,963 professional women, the TSC-40 was found to be reliable and to display predictive validity with regard to childhood sexual victimization. Women who reported a sexual abuse history scored significantly higher than did women with no history of abuse on each of the six subscales and on the overall TSC-40 score. Various aspects of childhood victimization were associated with the subscale scores, with the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index and Dissociation subscales being more sensitive to the specific components of the abuse. PMID:1617473

  5. Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma Mimicking Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.

  6. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  7. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have demonstrated better cosmetic results, shorter recovery times, and an earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. PMID:21765684

  8. Trauma scoring systems and databases.

    PubMed

    Lecky, F; Woodford, M; Edwards, A; Bouamra, O; Coats, T

    2014-08-01

    This review considers current trauma scoring systems and databases and their relevance to improving patient care. Single physiological measures such as systolic arterial pressure have limited ability to diagnose severe trauma by reflecting raised intracranial pressure, or significant haemorrhage. The Glasgow coma score has the greatest prognostic value in head-injured and other trauma patients. Trauma triage tools and imaging decision rules-using combinations of physiological cut-off measures with mechanism of injury and other categorical variables-bring both increased sophistication and increased complexity. It is important for clinicians and managers to be aware of the diagnostic properties (over- and under-triage rates) of any triage tool or decision rule used in their trauma system. Trauma registries are able to collate definitive injury descriptors and use survival prediction models to guide trauma system governance, through individual patient review and case-mix-adjusted benchmarking of hospital and network performance with robust outlier identification. Interrupted time series allow observation in the changes in care processes and outcomes at national level, which can feed back into clinical quality-based commissioning of healthcare. Registry data are also a valuable resource for trauma epidemiological and comparative effectiveness research studies. PMID:25038159

  9. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  10. Trauma, gender, and mental health symptoms in individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Alvanzo, Anika; Rieckmann, Traci; Thacker, Leroy; Sepulveda, Allison; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Islam, Leila Z; Leisey, Monica; Stitzer, Maxine; Svikis, Dace S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are often plagued by psychiatric comorbidities and histories of physical and/or sexual trauma. Males and females, although different in their rates of expressed trauma and psychiatric symptomatology, experience comparable adverse consequences, including poorer substance abuse treatment outcomes, diminished psychosocial functioning, and severe employment problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between trauma history, lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms, and gender in a sample of individuals participating in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Study participants (N = 625) from six psychosocial counseling and five methadone maintenance programs were recruited as part of a larger study conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). Study measures included lifetime trauma experience (yes/no), type of trauma experienced (sexual, physical, both), lifetime depression/anxiety, and lifetime suicidal thoughts/attempts (as measured by the Addiction Severity Index-Lite [ASI-Lite]). Lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms was compared between individuals with and without trauma history. The role of gender was also examined. Results indicated that the experience of trauma was associated with an increase in lifetime report of psychiatric symptoms. Experience of physical and combined physical and sexual trauma consistently predicted positive report of psychiatric symptoms in both males and females, even when controlling for demographic and treatment-related variables. Employment outcomes, however, were not predicted by self-reported history of lifetime trauma. PMID:24811286

  11. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  12. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  13. Aversive Imagery in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Recurrence, Comorbidity, and Physiological Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; Shumen, Joshua R.; Bradley, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized as a disorder of exaggerated defensive physiological arousal. The novel aim of the present research was to investigate within PTSD a potential dose-response relationship between past trauma recurrence and current comorbidity and intensity of physiological reactions to imagery of trauma and other aversive scenarios. Methods A community sample of principal PTSD (n = 49; 22 single-trauma exposed, 27 multiple-trauma exposed) and control (n = 76; 46 never-trauma exposed, 30 trauma exposed) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and the eye-blink response (orbicularis occuli) was recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. Results Overall, PTSD patients exceeded control participants in startle reflex, autonomic responding, and facial expressivity during idiographic trauma imagery and, though less pronounced, showed heightened reactivity to standard anger, panic, and physical danger imagery. Concerning subgroups, control participants with and without trauma exposure showed isomorphic patterns. Within PTSD, only the single-trauma patients evinced robust startle and autonomic responses, exceeding both control participants and multiple-trauma PTSD. Despite greater reported arousal, the multiple-trauma relative to single-trauma PTSD group showed blunted defensive reactivity associated with more chronic and severe PTSD, greater mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity, and more pervasive dimensional dysphoria (e.g., depression, trait anxiety). Conclusions Whereas PTSD patients generally show marked physiological arousal during aversive imagery, concordant with self-reported distress, the most symptomatic patients with histories of severe, cumulative traumatization show discordant physiological hyporeactivity, perhaps attributable to sustained high stress and an egregious, persistent negative affectivity that ultimately compromises defensive responding. PMID:19875104

  14. Childhood and adult trauma experiences of incarcerated persons and their relationship to adult behavioral health problems and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000). Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense). Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood) to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood). Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical. PMID:22754481

  15. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  16. Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. PMID:22080869

  17. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Penetrating Trauma on Retrospective Multi-Center Data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bilal A.; Matheny, Michael E.; Rice, Phillip L.; Clarke, John R.; Ogunyemi, Omolola I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective TraumaSCAN-Web (TSW) is a computerized decision support system for assessing chest and abdominal penetrating trauma which utilizes 3D geometric reasoning and a Bayesian network with subjective probabilities obtained from an expert. The goal of the present study is to determine whether a trauma risk prediction approach using a Bayesian network with a predefined structure and probabilities learned from penetrating trauma data is comparable in diagnostic accuracy to TSW. Methods Parameters for two Bayesian networks with expert-defined structures were learned from 637 gunshot and stab wound cases from three hospitals, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed using 10-fold cross validation. The first network included information on external wound locations, while the second network did not. Diagnostic accuracy of learned networks was compared to that of TSW on 194 previously evaluated cases. Results For 23 of the 24 conditions modeled by TraumaSCAN-Web, 16 conditions had Areas Under the ROC Curve (AUCs) greater than 0.90 while 21 conditions had AUCs greater than 0.75 for the first network. For the second network, 16 and 20 conditions had AUCs greater than 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. AUC results for learned networks on 194 previously evaluated cases were better than or equal to AUC results for TSW for all diagnoses evaluated except diaphragm and heart injuries. Conclusions For 23 of the 24 penetrating trauma conditions studied, a trauma diagnosis approach using Bayesian networks with predefined structure and probabilities learned from penetrating trauma data was better than or equal in diagnostic accuracy to TSW. In many cases, information on wound location in the first network did not significantly add to predictive accuracy. The study suggests that a decision support approach that uses parameter-learned Bayesian networks may be sufficient for assessing some penetrating trauma conditions. PMID:18929685

  18. Nonaccidental head trauma in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

    2007-01-01

    Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

  19. Secondary Trauma in Children and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    A review of childhood secondary trauma is presented. Secondary trauma involves the transfer and acquisition of negative affective and dysfunctional cognitive states due to prolonged and extended contact with others, such as family members, who have been traumatized. As such, secondary trauma refers to a spread of trauma reactions from the victim…

  20. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Animesh A.; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  1. Minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Weight, D G

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the persisting difficulty and the importance of the diagnosis of minor head trauma. The diagnosis has been complicated by pervasive disagreement regarding diagnostic criteria. This is primarily a result of the fact that evidence for actual injury is hard to obtain in minor cases because most symptoms tend to be subjective and have high base rates in the normal, uninjured population. At the same time, the diagnostic decision has important implications for patients in terms of treatment, expectancy for future function and lifestyle, and compensation for injuries. Decision theory leads us to the awareness of diagnostic errors. In addition to correct determination, the clinician can make an error of not diagnosing an injury when it has in fact occurred or making a positive diagnosis where there is no injury. The optimal strategy is to set the cutoff at the midpoint of these two error probabilities. The clinician may be willing to make one error rather than the other depending on the cost and bias involved. The second error is more likely to be made when the clinician stands as a strong advocate for the patient and willing to provide any help necessary to encourage treatment, give patients a rationale for understanding their symptoms, and help them obtain compensation for injuries. This can also lead to significant overdiagnosis of injury. The first error is more likely to be made when the clinician recognizes the potential for increasing costs to the health-care industry, the court system, and increasing personal injury claims. He or she may also recognize the vulnerability to the risk for symptom invalidity, the perpetuation of patient symptoms through suggestion, and the need for a biologic explanation for life stressors and preexisting emotional and personality constraints. It can be argued that the most objective diagnostic opinion, uninfluenced by the above biases, should ultimately be in the best interest of the patient, the clinician, legal consultants, and society. Based on the findings in this chapter, at least four symptom constellations can be identified. These have differing probabilities for residual symptoms of minor head trauma and include the following: 1. These patients' symptoms clearly meet the criteria from Table 2. This includes several findings from 1 to 10 of Table 1, together with abnormal neuropsychologic testing on the AIR, General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale, or other indicators of diminished cortical integrity. This group of patients shows a very strong probability of having experienced a brain injury and for showing residual symptoms of minor head trauma. 2. These patients have experienced concussional symptoms (e.g., headache, mild confusion, and balance and visual symptoms) that were documented at the time of injury but sustained no or brief (< 15 seconds) LOC or PTA and, therefore, do not qualify for the diagnosis in Table 2. They may still have several symptoms from Table 1, including objective findings from neuroscanning and variable neuropsychologic testing, especially in measures of attention and delayed recall. This group also shows a high probability for residual, unresolved concussional, and related symptoms. 3. These patients may have shown evidence of concussional symptoms at the time of injury, with no or brief LOC, PTA, or other symptoms from Table 1 (1-10). They continue to show persistent symptoms after 6 months to 1 year. With this group, there is a strong probability that emotional, motivational and premorbid personality factors are either causing or supporting these residual symptoms. 4. In these patients, clearly identifiable postconcussive symptoms at the time of injury are not easy to identify, and perhaps headache is the only reported symptom. There was no LOC or PTA, and virtually none of symptoms 1 to 10 in Table 1 are observed. These patients show strong evidence of symptom invalidity on MMPI-2 or other measures, and marked somatoform, depression, anx PMID:9774799

  2. Sexual trauma, spirituality, and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Krejci, Mark J; Thompson, Kevin M; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchelle, James E

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder Examination, the PTSD Symptom Scale, and the SCID-I/P. The data showed that the two groups did not differ in terms of spiritual well-being. Sexual trauma status was associated with most of the psychopathology outcomes, but its impact on psychopathology was largely unmoderated by spirituality. Among sexual trauma victims, the level of spiritual well-being did not alter the probability of current psychopathology. However, increased spiritual well-being was generally associated with lower psychopathology for the entire sample. PMID:15388413

  3. Macroscopic characteristics of screwdriver trauma.

    PubMed

    Croft, Alexandra M; Ferllini, Roxana

    2007-11-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the type of macroscopic trauma created by a flat-tipped and a cross-tipped screwdriver. The second objective was to determine if the trauma inflicted by the two screwdrivers could be macroscopically differentiated. Three tests were conducted, each by a male volunteer. Each test consisted of 12 samples of fleshed pig ribs; six were stabbed with a flat-tipped screwdriver and the remaining six with a cross-tipped screwdriver (Phillips). Each sample received 15 stab wounds during the process. The stabbings were conducted at perpendicular and oblique angles, with fabric variables being utilized. Results illustrate two main categories of macroscopic skeletal trauma, fractures, and puncture wounds. By studying the macroscopic appearance in tandem with differing trauma frequencies, these two screwdriver types can be differentiated. PMID:17868266

  4. [Psychological aspects of facial trauma].

    PubMed

    Kosakevitch-Ricbourg, L

    2006-09-01

    The anatomic lesions resulting from facial trauma have serious psychological implications. The topic can be divided into three parts. First, the psychological trauma begins by a simple conception of the psychic structure. Secondly, an external crust protects an inner structure whose role is to maintain a vital function and a pleasure function. Thirdly, the face materializes these two functions. Facial trauma totally disrupts the external crust with staggering psychic implications, releasing the archaic process of survival. After this initial event, a second step is required where the trauma is interiorized leading to a highly variable clinical course which involves recovery, disturbed memory, and a depressive syndrome. The clinical manifestations and possibilities for preventing the post-commotional syndrome are also discussed together with the psychological disorders implied with facial traumatism: disorders linked to the perception of the face, esthetic damage, neurological and sensorial disorders. The course is basically linked to the personality of the patient. PMID:17003762

  5. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  6. Abdominal Mondor's disease presenting as acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Creta, Michele; Riva, Michele; Di Comite, Vincenzo; Buttarelli, Lorenzo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    We describe here the case of 41 yrs old male patient, who was admitted to the emergency department complaining for abdominal pain lasting for two days. The patient self-reported a history of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis five yrs before the visit. A subcutaneous cordlike induration, tender and painful, was clearly palpable in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Routine blood tests did not reveal any substantial abnormality, except increased D-dimer concentration. Ultrasound evaluation of the abdominal wall revealed diffuse thrombosis of the left superficial inferior epigastric vein, involving several small tributaries branches, extended until 1.5 cm from the confluence with the common femoral vein, which was finally classified as an atypical case of Abdominal Mondor's disease. Complete thrombophilia screening was negative. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy 48 hours from admission. At 30 days follow-up, the patient self-reported a nearly complete recovery. PMID:24165464

  7. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Krejci; Kevin M. Thompson; Heather Simonich; Ross D. Crosby; Mary Ann Donaldson; Stephen A. Wonderlich; James E. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder Examination, the PTSD Symptom Scale, and the SCID-I\\/P. The data showed that

  8. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-11-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  9. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  10. Hepatic trauma: contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Trunkey, Donald D

    2004-04-01

    In the introduction, I posed several questions that were issues/controversies. The answers will probably be interpreted as equally controversial. I do not believe there is strong evidence that the incidence of liver injuries has increased. Diagnostic modalities have contributed to this seeming increase, as well as population increases and the concentration of severe liver injuries in trauma centers, now present in 35 states. I believe there are more blunt injuries now, relative to penetrating injuries. The peak of penetrating injuries occurred in the 1970s and 1980s and lasted almost 2 decades. I believe some authors are overly enthusiastic for nonoperative management. I am particularly critical of authors who do not include all components of the surgical armamentarium into their treatment of severe liver injuries. I also believe that the complications following nonoperative management are currently unacceptable, as documented in the references. I have shared with you the strategies for operative management, but there are equally good or better strategies in the surgical literature. PMID:15062654

  11. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  12. Aneurysms: abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) cause approximately 16,000 deaths per year in the United States. Smoking, male sex, advanced age, hypertension, and family history are risk factors. AAAs suspected on physical examination should be evaluated with ultrasonography. In addition, ultrasonography screening for AAA is recommend for men ages 65 to 75 years with smoking histories. For men ages 65 to 75 years who have never smoked, screening should be performed selectively, such as for those with family histories of AAA. Screening women currently is not recommended, regardless of smoking status. Surgical repair is indicated for men with AAA diameters of 5.5 cm or greater. The common practice for women is to repair AAAs with diameters of 5.0 cm or greater. For patients with smaller AAAs, cardiac risk factor management is recommended along with interval ultrasonography monitoring. Surgery is indicated if monitoring shows that an AAA is enlarging (by 1 cm or more per year) or reaches the noted limits. Repair of AAA (ruptured or unruptured) is accomplished with open surgery or endovascular procedures (eg, transcatheter placement of a stent graft). Endovascular procedures are now used more frequently than open surgery and have similar outcomes. PMID:25860135

  13. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  14. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain. PMID:24880799

  15. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  16. Thromboembolic prophylaxis in head trauma and multiple-trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Latronico, N; Berardino, M

    2008-10-01

    The association between trauma and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well recognized. VTE consists mainly of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, a complication that leads to mortality in nearly 50% of cases. Without thromboprophylaxis, the risk of DVT exceeds 50%, but even with routine use of prophylaxis,one third of patients may develop DVT. Despite these findings, appropriate DVT prophylaxis is often not prescribed in trauma patients, mainly because of fear that VTE prophylaxis increases bleeding in injured tissues. Pharmacological VTE prophylaxis is based on the use of low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Once-daily or twice-daily LMWH protocols started within 36 h of trauma and continued throughout the hospital stay, or once-daily LMWH followed by a twice-daily protocol are possible options. Mechanical VTE prophylaxis by graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression provides suboptimal protection, and its use is recommended only in combination with LMWH prophylaxis unless active bleeding is not controlled. The routine use of VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients is a standard of care. The use of LMWH, started once primary hemostasis has been accomplished, is safe, efficacious and cost-effective in the majority of trauma patients, including TBI patients. PMID:18475247

  17. Pyloric exclusion in the treatment of severe duodenal injuries: results from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Joseph J; Inaba, Kenji; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Shiflett, Anthony; Putty, Bradley; Green, D J; Plurad, David; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-10-01

    Pyloric exclusion (PEX) has traditionally been used in the management of complicated duodenal injuries to temporarily protect the duodenal repair and prevent septic abdominal complications. We used the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (v 5.0) to evaluate adult patients with severe duodenal injuries [American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade > or = 3] undergoing primary repair only or repair with PEX within 24 hours of admission. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for relevant confounding factors during outcomes comparison. Among 147 patients with severe duodenal injuries, 28 (19.0%) underwent PEX [15.9% (11/69) Grade III vs 34.0% (17/50) Grade IV-V]. Despite similar demographics, PEX was associated with a longer mean hospital stay (32.2 vs 22.2 days, P = 0.003) and was not associated with a mortality benefit. There was a trend toward increased development of septic abdominal complications (intra-abdominal abscess, wound infection, or dehiscence) with PEX that was not statistically significant. After multivariable analysis using propensity score, no statistically significant differences in mortality or occurrence of septic abdominal complications was noted between those patients undergoing primary repair only or PEX. The use of PEX in patients with severe duodenal injuries may contribute to longer hospital stay and confers no survival or outcome benefit. PMID:18942615

  18. ACGME case logs: Surgery resident experience in operative trauma for two decades

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Frederick Thurston; Van Eaton, Erik G.; Huntington, Ciara R.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Aarabi, Shahram; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgery resident education is based on experiential training, which is influenced by changes in clinical management strategies, technical and technologic advances, and administrative regulations. Trauma care has been exposed to each of these factors, prompting concerns about resident experience in operative trauma. The current study analyzed the reported volume of operative trauma for the last two decades; to our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of nationwide trends during such an extended time line. METHODS The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) database of operative logs was queried from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2009–2010 to identify shifts in trauma operative experience. Annual case log data for each cohort of graduating surgery residents were combined into approximately 5-year blocks, designated Period I (AY1989–1990 to AY1993–1994), Period II (AY1994–1995 to AY1998–1999), Period III (AY1999–2000 to AY2002–2003), and Period IV (AY2003–2004 to AY2009–2010). The latter two periods were delineated by the year in which duty hour restrictions were implemented. RESULTS Overall general surgery caseload increased from Period I to Period II (p < 0.001), remained stable from Period II to Period III, and decreased from Period III to Period IV (p < 0.001). However, for ACGME-designated trauma cases, there were significant declines from Period I to Period II (75.5 vs. 54.5 cases, p < 0.001) and Period II to Period III (54.5 vs. 39.3 cases, p < 0.001) but no difference between Period III and Period IV (39.3 vs. 39.4 cases). Graduating residents in Period I performed, on average, 31 intra-abdominal trauma operations, including approximately five spleen and four liver operations. Residents in Period IV performed 17 intra-abdominal trauma operations, including three spleen and approximately two liver operations. CONCLUSION Recent general surgery trainees perform fewer trauma operations than previous trainees. The majority of this decline occurred before implementation of work-hour restrictions. Although these changes reflect concurrent changes in management of trauma, surgical educators must meet the challenge of training residents in procedures less frequently performed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV. PMID:23188243

  19. Prognostic models of abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clinton Webster; Leigh Neumayer; Randall Smout; Susan Horn; Jennifer Daley; William Henderson; Shukri Khuri

    2003-01-01

    Background. Portions of the prospective, multi-institutional National Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program were used to develop and validate a perioperative risk index to predict abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy.Methods. Perioperative data from 17,044 laparotomies resulting in 587 (3.4%) wound dehiscences performed at 132 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers between October 1, 1996, and September 30, 1998, were used to develop

  20. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  1. Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a substantial donation from William Dart of Mason, Michigan, the Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma started its work at Michigan State University, and has grown significantly over the past decade and a half. Currently located at the University of Washington, the Center is a â??global network of journalists, journalism educators and health professionals dedicated to improving media coverage of trauma, conflict and tragedy.â?ť On their site, visitors can learn about fellowship opportunities, read fact sheets about trauma research, and peruse their in-house blog. Journalists will appreciate the â??Quick Tipsâ?ť section on the homepage, as it covers a broad range of subjects, such as how to cover disasters, murder, suicide, and domestic violence in a sensitive manner. The site also has a rather impressive series of case studies on reporting on such events as the Columbine massacre and the genocide in Rwanda.

  2. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  3. Trauma and diverse child populations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Toi Blakley; Carlisle, L Lee; Sargent, John; Primm, Annelle B

    2010-10-01

    It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of American youth experience a potentially life-threatening event before 18 years of age and that half have experienced multiple potentially traumatic events. Race, ethnicity, and culture influence the frequency and nature of these traumas and also the ways in which children react to traumatic events. The authors discuss the varied influences of cultural background on these reactions to trauma, the varying presentations of diverse children experiencing troubling reactions, and the need to provide treatment to children and their families in a fashion that is culturally sensitive and acceptable to diverse families. PMID:21056351

  4. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.

  5. Primary Closure without Diversion in Management of Operative Blunt Duodenal Trauma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Katherine; Wright, Tiffany; Skinner, Sean; Iocono, Joseph A.; Draus, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Operative blunt duodenal trauma is rare in pediatric patients. Management is controversial with some recommending pyloric exclusion for complex cases. We hypothesized that primary closure without diversion may be safe even in complex (Grade II-III) injuries. Methods. A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center database for the years 2003–2011 was performed to identify operative blunt duodenal trauma at our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. Inclusion criteria included ages <14 years and duodenal injury requiring operative intervention. Duodenal hematomas not requiring intervention and other small bowel injuries were excluded. Results. A total of 3,283 hospital records were reviewed. Forty patients with operative hollow viscous injuries and seven with operative duodenal injuries were identified. The mean Injury Severity Score was 10.4, with injuries ranging from Grades I–IV and involving all duodenal segments. All injuries were closed primarily with drain placement and assessed for leakage via fluoroscopy between postoperative days 4 and 6. The average length of stay was 11 days; average time to full feeds was 7 days. No complications were encountered. Conclusion. Blunt abdominal trauma is an uncommon mechanism of pediatric duodenal injuries. Primary repair with drain placement is safe even in more complex injuries. PMID:23213560

  6. Trauma Recovery Services for Psychiatric Inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David McDuff; Monya Cohen; Lyndyl Blais; Wendy Stevenson; Elaina McWilliams

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the creation, operation, patient characteristics, and outcomes of a new hospital-wide, trauma-recovery service in a Maryland state psychiatric hospital. We identified psychiatric admissions who had trauma, causing current distress. Our assessments included a structured clinical interview, the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40, and the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Outcomes included service utilization, average group attendance, and patient satisfaction. During the

  7. Training critical care nurses in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris; Cumming, Jayne

    Trauma is the commonest cause of death in people aged under 40 years. Despite review and debate, the quality of trauma training and care varies. This article examines the literature relating to trauma training in UK military and civilian environments to identify current practice and recommendations for training. It also discusses the British Association of Critical Care Nurses Military Region's one-dayraum trauma critical care skills workshop. PMID:24984371

  8. A Theoretical Understanding of Refugee Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam George

    2010-01-01

    The effects of trauma on refugees are long-lasting, both physically and mentally. The primary objective of this paper is to\\u000a broaden the scope of theoretical knowledge on refugee trauma by building on refugee, Post-Colonial, Trauma and Feminist theories,\\u000a and emphasizing refugee trauma as a consequence of multiple historical, social and political constraints which are embedded\\u000a in the personal experiences of

  9. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  10. Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges. PMID:23526186

  11. Recollection of childhood abdominal pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    CHITKARA, DENESH K.; TALLEY, NICHOLAS J.; SCHLECK, CATHY; ZINSMEISTER, ALAN R.; SHAH, NILAY D.; LOCKE, G. RICHARD

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is hypothesized that adults who can recall abdominal pain as children are at risk of experiencing a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), but this is not specific to any particular FGID. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recollecting abdominal pain as a child and experiencing a FGID. Material and methods A valid self-reported questionnaire of GI symptoms was mailed to a random population-based sample in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), somatization, and other factors were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for having a FGID in individuals recalling bouts of stomach or abdominal pain in childhood (before age 15). Results Overall, 2298 (55%) of a total of 4194 eligible adult subjects returned a completed questionnaire. Of the respondents, 213 (9%) recalled experiencing abdominal pain as children. Adults who recalled experiencing abdominal pain in childhood had greater odds for reporting symptoms of a FGID (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4–2.7). Recalling abdominal pain in childhood was significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.6) but not gastroesophageal reflux, dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, somatic symptoms, marital status, and education. Conclusions Recollection of childhood abdominal pain is specifically associated with IBS in adults. This suggests that a proportion of adults with IBS may have onset of symptoms of abdominal pain during childhood. PMID:19016078

  12. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  13. University of Virginia Health System TRAUMA CENTER

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    University of Virginia Health System LEVEL I TRAUMA CENTER TRAUMA HANDBOOK Final Editing by with a particular patient remains with that patient's physician, nurse or other health care professional, taking of patients we serve. Vision Statement The Trauma Center at the University of Virginia seeks a world free

  14. Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vedat Sar; Okan Taycan; Nurullah Bolat; Mine Özmen; Alaattin Duran; Erdinç Öztürk; Hayriye Ertem-Vehid

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study is concerned with relationships between childhood trauma history, dissociative experiences, and the clinical phenomenology of chronic schizophrenia. Sampling and Methods: Seventy patients with a schizophrenic disorder were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scales, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Childhood trauma scores were correlated

  15. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  16. Mast cell tryptase and hemolysis after trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Edston; Marianne van Hage-Hamsten

    2003-01-01

    Background: We have previously found increased mast cell tryptase in accidental deaths due to trauma, indicating that mast cell degranulation had occurred. The present study was designed to confirm the previous observation and to determine if tryptase release after trauma is acute or delayed. Furthermore, the importance of hemolysis and direct trauma to the mast cells was investigated.Materials and methods:

  17. A PATIENT GUIDE TO ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Proxy 4 Office of Patient Advocacy 4 THE TEAM 5-8 Orthopaedic Trauma Professional Staff 5 The MGHA PATIENT GUIDE TO ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA CARE AT MGH expert care for trauma patients Phalanges Carpals HOSPITAL #12;1 INTRODUCTION 3 PATIENT RIGHTS 4-5 Patient Rights and Responsibilities 4 Ethics 4 Health Care

  18. Managing Mental Health Disorders Resulting from Trauma through Yoga: A Review.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    There are many and varied types of trauma. The extent to which trauma influences the mental health of an individual depends on the nature of trauma, as well as on the individual's coping capabilities. Often trauma is followed by depression, anxiety, and PTSD. As the pharmacological remedies for these conditions often have undesirable side-effects, nonpharmacological remedies are thought of as a possible add-on treatment. Yoga is one such mind-body intervention. This paper covers eleven studies indexed in PubMed, in which mental health disorders resulting from trauma were managed through yoga including meditation. The aim was to evaluate the use of yoga in managing trauma-related depression, anxiety, PTSD and physiological stress following exposure to natural calamities, war, interpersonal violence, and incarceration in a correctional facility. An attempt has also been made to explore possible mechanisms underlying benefits seen. As most of these studies were not done on persons exposed to trauma that had practiced yoga, this is a definite area for further research. PMID:22778930

  19. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  1. Trauma Center Staffing, Infrastructure, and Patient Characteristics that Influence Trauma Center Need

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Mark; Sasser, Scott M.; Lairet, Julio; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Sugerman, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most effective use of trauma center resources helps reduce morbidity and mortality, while saving costs. Identifying critical infrastructure characteristics, patient characteristics and staffing components of a trauma center associated with the proportion of patients needing major trauma care will help planners create better systems for patient care. Methods We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank-Research Dataset to determine the proportion of critically injured patients requiring the resources of a trauma center within each Level I–IV trauma center (n=443). The outcome variable was defined as the portion of treated patients who were critically injured. We defined the need for critical trauma resources and interventions (“trauma center need”) as death prior to hospital discharge, admission to the intensive care unit, or admission to the operating room from the emergency department as a result of acute traumatic injury. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) was used to determine how hospital infrastructure, staffing Levels, and patient characteristics contributed to trauma center need. Results Nonprofit Level I and II trauma centers were significantly associated with higher levels of trauma center need. Trauma centers that had a higher percentage of transferred patients or a lower percentage of insured patients were associated with a higher proportion of trauma center need. Hospital infrastructure characteristics, such as bed capacity and intensive care unit capacity, were not associated with trauma center need. A GLM for Level III and IV trauma centers showed that the number of trauma surgeons on staff was associated with trauma center need. Conclusion Because the proportion of trauma center need is predominantly influenced by hospital type, transfer frequency, and insurance status, it is important for administrators to consider patient population characteristics of the catchment area when planning the construction of new trauma centers or when coordinating care within state or regional trauma systems. PMID:25671017

  2. Intravenous urography and childhood trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Okorie; A. E. MacKinnon

    1982-01-01

    Results of intravenous urography (IVU) in 33 patients suspected of suffering from renal trauma were reviewed. It was concluded that when haematuria is only detected microscopically and clears within 24 hr then an IVU is not necessary, in the absence of other evidence of significant urinary tract injury.

  3. Medicating Relational Trauma in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…

  4. Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gregory Lande; Vanita Tarpley; Jennifer L. Francis; Rebecca Boucher

    2010-01-01

    This study correlated an art therapy descriptive technique originally applied to adolescent burn victims with adult combat-related victims in an effort to identify art themes and graphic elements associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. The designed rating instrument, referred to as the Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale (CTATS), consisted of 62 items aimed to detect common themes associated with war time

  5. Head trauma in the child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Pascucci

    1988-01-01

    Head injury, either alone or in combination with multiple injuries, is common in children. Its pattern is different in children compared to adults, with diffuse cerebral swelling rather than localized hematoma being most common. The pathophysiology of pediatric head trauma is not yet clearly elucidated, but may be closely related to changes in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. The

  6. Physician Extenders Impact Trauma Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Britton Christmas; Jennifer Reynolds; Samantha Hodges; Glen A. Franklin; Frank B. Miller; J. David Richardson; Jorge L. Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Background: The implementation of revised surgical resident work hours has led many teaching hospitals to integrate health care extenders into the trauma ser- vice. We undertook this review to assess the effectiveness of these individuals in meeting the goals of the work hour restric- tions and whether they impact other hos- pital and patient outcomes. Methods: During the year 2002,

  7. The management of liver trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite advances in the management of liver trauma during the past 40 years, haemorrhage has remained the commonest cause of death. This article outlines the diversity of opinion between the desire to determine the extent of damage and resect devitalised tissue with its attendant risk of exacerbating haemorrhage, and the alternative of a more conservative approach. PMID:3895205

  8. Elderly trauma: they are different

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Gillies

    1999-01-01

    The elderly currently represent 11 per cent of the Australian population. By the year 2051 it has been estimated that 24 per cent of the population will be older than 65 years. One of the hazards facing the elderly is the risk of trauma. With this in mind, this paper has two major aims: one is to review the incidence

  9. The Effect of Postoperative Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Intra-Abdominal Adhesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Jenn; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal adhesions, whether caused by peritoneal trauma, radiation, infection, or a congenital condition, are associated with a wide range of complications. These complications include chronic abdominal or pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesive small bowel obstruction. Such adhesions render re-operation difficult, with attendant risks of inadvertent enterostomy and increased operation time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in the prevention of abdominal adhesions in an experimental animal study. A laparotomy was performed on Wistar rats to induce the formation of adhesions on the cecum and the intra-abdominal area (1 × 2 cm). A superficial layer of the underlying muscle from the right abdominal wall was also shaved and prepared for aseptic surgery. The rats were divided into four groups according to the duration of HBO therapy; five additional groups were designated according to the conditions of HBO therapy. When the rats were evaluated according to adhesion area and grade, a statistically significant difference was observed between the control and HBO treatment groups (p < 0.005). Results from this study suggest that HBO treatment could reduce adhesion formation; and further suggest that HBO therapy may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postoperative peritoneal adhesion. PMID:23202894

  10. CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification

    PubMed Central

    Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases. PMID:23573333

  11. Minor Trauma Causing Stroke in a Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old Caucasian male presented with sudden dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and clumsiness lasting for a couple of hours. He had a subtle trauma during a wrestling match 2 days prior to the presentation. A CT Angiogram (CTA) and MRI showed left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with anticoagulation with heparin drip in the ICU. The patient was discharged home on the third day on Lovenox-warfarin bridging. This case underscores the importance of considering VAD as a differential diagnosis in patients with sports-related symptoms especially in activities entailing hyperextension or hyperrotation of neck. Due to a varied latent period, often minor underlying trauma, and subtle presentation, a low index of suspicion is warranted in timely diagnosis and treatment of VAD. Considering recent evidence in treatment modality, either antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation may be used for treatment of VAD.

  12. Varicose vein trauma: a risk for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  13. Varicose Vein Trauma: A Risk for Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  14. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

  15. [Unusual cause of abdominal lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Halevy, D; Schöntag, S; Küper-Steffen, R; Lobmann, R

    2011-06-01

    A 72 year old HIV-negative patient without relevant immunosuppression presented with abdominal lymphomas and inflammatory signs in the colon. Mycobacterium intracellulare was grown from colonic biopsies and stool. There was no sign of malignancy or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. We diagnosed an atypical, gastrointestinal mycobacteriosis und treated the patient accordingly. This led to a good response. PMID:20945056

  16. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Comparing a Clinical Decision Rule Versus Usual Care to Risk Stratify Children for Intraabdominal Injury After Blunt Torso Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Yang, Zhuo; Clark, John A.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Holmes, James F.; Melnikow, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recently a clinical decision rule (CDR) to identify children at very low risk for intraabdominal injury needing acute intervention (IAI) following blunt torso trauma was developed. Potential benefits of a CDR include more appropriate abdominal computed tomography (CT) use and decreased hospital costs. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of implementing the CDR compared to usual care for the evaluation of children with blunt torso trauma. The hypothesis was that compared to usual care, implementation of the CDR would result in lower CT use and hospital costs. Methods A cost-effectiveness decision analytic model was constructed comparing the costs and outcomes of implementation of the CDR to usual care in the evaluation of children with blunt torso trauma. Probabilities from a multicenter cohort study of children with blunt torso trauma were derived; estimated costs were based on those at the study coordinating site. Outcome measures included missed IAI, number of abdominal CT scans, total costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Sensitivity analyses varying imputed probabilities, costs, and scenarios were conducted. Results Using a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 children with blunt torso trauma, the base case model projected that the implementation of the CDR would result in 0.50 additional missed IAIs, a total cost savings of $54,527, and 104 fewer abdominal CT scans compared to usual care. The usual care strategy would cost $108,110 to prevent missing one additional IAI. Findings were robust under multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Compared to usual care, implementation of the CDR in the evaluation of children with blunt torso trauma would reduce hospital costs and abdominal CT imaging, with a slight increase in the risk of missed intraabdominal IAI. PMID:24238315

  17. The increasing incidence of snowboard-related trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John R.; Groner, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate injuries among children and adolescents who participate in downhill sports. Methods We collected trauma registry data (January 1999–May 2006) from a level 1 pediatric trauma center with an average snowfall of 28 in (71 cm)/y. Cases were analyzed for injury mechanism, injury type, organ injured, Injury Severity Score, age, sex, and whether or not an operation was required. Results There were 57 snowboarders and 22 skiers admitted during the study period. Forty-one (72%) of snowboarders and 16 (73%) of skiers required operations; 32 (56%) of snowboarders and 9 (41%) of skiers sustained fractures; and 14 (25%) of snowboarders and 6 (27%) of skiers sustained abdominal injuries. (P = NS for all comparisons). Serious splenic injuries were more common in snowboarders (14% vs 4%), but the difference was not statistically significant. All skiing injuries occurred at recreational facilities (commercial skiing areas), whereas 12% of snowboard injuries occurred at home, other residence, or public parks (P = .08). The most striking finding is the rising number of snowboarding injuries and the relatively stable rate of skiing injuries (see graph). Conclusions As the popularity of snowboarding rises, snowboarding injuries in children are increasing. Pediatric surgeons should be wary of the “snowboard spleen.” PMID:18485968

  18. [Dialysis for severe rhabdomyolysis 7 days after multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Malin, A; Freyhoff, J; Nobis, W; Bone, H G

    2012-03-01

    A case report of severe rhabdomyolysis in a 33-year-old motorcyclist after multiple trauma is described. The injuries included severe thoracic and abdominal trauma as well as injuries to the extremities and spinal column. During the first 3 days of treatment a forced volume therapy was performed because of increased levels of creatine kinase during which the patients condition stabilized both hemodynamically and respiratorily. On day 10 the patient developed a rise in temperature to 42°C with no evidence of a re-infection and the creatine kinase levels rose to 109,830 U/l. A continuous hemofiltration was started because of acute renal failure. The creatine kinase levels declined significantly and renal function also returned to normal with adequate diuresis up to day 20. After intensive questioning of the relatives a history of long-term use of anabolic steroids, clenbuterol as well as the intake of testosterone enanthate was conceded. Cocaine and amphetamines were also taken regularly by the patient. PMID:22430552

  19. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in the Open Abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente H. Gracias; Benjamin Braslow; Jon Johnson; John Pryor; Rajan Gupta; Patrick Reilly; C. William Schwab

    2002-01-01

    Background: Multiple methods exist to manage in the intensive care unit the patient with an open abdomen. An increasingly common method is the vacuum packed technique. This method accommodates considerable ex- pansion of intra-abdominal contents and should obvi- ate the potential development of the abdominal com- partment syndrome (ACS). Despite this, some patients with these temporary abdominal dressings will go

  1. [The early abdominal pregnancy--case report].

    PubMed

    Posadzka, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Pity?ski, Kazimierz; Matyszkiewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The abdominal ectopic pregnancies are 1-1.4% of all ectopic pregnancies. In this article we presents the case of 27-year-old patient in early abdominal pregnancy, situated in parietal peritoneum. This case justifies the need to take into account possibility of abdominal pregnancy in case of suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25344980

  2. The juvenile head trauma syndrome: a trauma triggered migraine?

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Emma M J; Oosterhoff, Matthijs; Vos, Pieter E; Hageman, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Background?The underlying mechanism of the juvenile head trauma syndrome (JHTS) is still uncertain, but it has been suggested that there is a role in cortical spreading depression, a phenomenon that is assumed to be a part of the pathophysiology of migraine. Hypothesis?We postulate that children affected by the JHTS are more susceptible to cortical spreading depression, caused by a genetic etiology similar to genetic factors in migraine. Methods?Children with the JHTS were selected and evaluated retrospectively in an observational case-control study in two Dutch trauma centers in the period between January 2008 and July 2012. Results?We included 33 patients with the JHTS, who were accounted for approximately 2.5% of the total number (1,342) of children seen at the emergency department with a mild head trauma. The prevalence of migraine in cases compared with controls did not differ. The proportion of patients with a first-degree relative with migraine was significantly higher in cases compared with controls (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-6.22; p?=?0.010). Conclusion?The JHTS is a relatively rare phenomenon, seen in approximately 2.5% of all children seen at the emergency department with mild brain injury. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between the JHTS and a positive history of migraine in first-degree relatives. PMID:25757095

  3. Childhood trauma, trauma in adulthood, and psychiatric diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohn, Robert; Vicente, Benjamin; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence rates of various psychiatric disorders in persons with first onset of a potentially traumatic event (PTE) in childhood, persons with first onset of a PTE in adulthood, and those with no history of a PTE in a representative sample of Chileans. The Diagnostic of Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), posttraumatic stress disorder, and antisocial personality disorder modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and modules for a range of DSM-III-R diagnoses from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to 2390 Chileans. The study found that exposure to a lifetime PTE was associated with a higher probability of psychiatric morbidity than no PTE exposure. A PTE with childhood onset relative to adult onset was related to lifetime panic disorder, independent of the number of lifetime and demographic differences between the 2 groups. Childhood interpersonal trauma compared with interpersonal trauma in adulthood was significantly associated with lifetime panic disorder, agoraphobia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Our findings suggest that specific disorders are linked to interpersonal trauma and PTEs that occur in childhood rather than later in life. PMID:18243889

  4. Abdominal stab wounds: self-inflicted wounds versus assault wounds.

    PubMed

    Venara, Aurélien; Jousset, Nathalie; Airagnes, Guillaume; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde

    2013-05-01

    Intentional penetrating wounds, self inflicted or inflicted by others, are increasingly common. As a result, it can be difficult for the forensic examiner to determine whether the cause is self-inflicted or not. This type of trauma has been studied from a psychological perspective and from a surgical perspective but the literature concerning the forensic perspective is poorer. The objective of this study was to compare the epidemiology of abdominal stab wounds so as to distinguish specific features of each type. This could help the forensic scientist to determine the manner of infliction of the wound. We proposed a retrospective monocentric study that included all patients with an abdominal wound who were managed by the visceral surgery department at Angers University Hospital. Demographic criteria, patient history, circumstances and location of the wound were noted and compared. A comparison was drawn between group 1 (self inflicted wound) and group 2 (assault). This study showed that the only significant differences are represented by the patient's prior history and the circumstances surrounding the wound, i.e. the scene and time of day. In our study, neither the site, nor the injuries sustained reveal significant clues as to the origin of the wound. According to our findings, in order to determine the cause, the forensic examiner should thus carefully study the circumstances and any associated injuries. PMID:23622473

  5. Life-threatening subcutaneous hemorrhage following minor blunt trauma in an elderly patient taking ticlopidine and aspirin: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiyoshi Hagiwara; Takeaki Matsuda; Shuji Shimazaki

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case in which life-threatening subcutaneous hemorrhage following minor blunt trauma developed in an elderly\\u000a patient taking ticlopidine and aspirin. An 82-year-old woman taking ticlopidine and aspirin tripped on a road. She noted only\\u000a mild pain at the left lower abdomen. However, the hematoma gradually enlarged, and she developed hemorrhagic shock. Emergently\\u000a performed contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

  6. Burden of maxillofacial trauma at level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Ruchi Pathak; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Maneesh; Kumar, Abhishek; Jaipuria, Jiten; Misra, Mahesh

    2014-06-01

    There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide. This study was performed to evaluate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures, associated injuries, and treatment used at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, between January 2007 and June 2010. The study provides basis for establishment of trauma as major etiology of maxillofacial injuries and planning for preventive strategies. A retrospective study of patients seen and treated at JPNATC, AIIMS, New Delhi, between January 2007 and June 2010 was performed. Data extracted from patient records included etiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality, and concomitant injuries. There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (RTA) (56.8%) was the most common etiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 to 75 years (mean, 34.7 years) with a peak incidence in the third decade with a male-to-female ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615 (77%) and middle third 180 (23%). With regard to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the most common site, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%), and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 84 (10.8%) with orthopedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated in 16.3% of cases. RTA was the major etiologic factor of maxillofacial injuries in our setting and the young adult males were the main victims. Henceforth, establishment of regionalized, efficient, and focused trauma centers in various parts of the country particularly for acute trauma should be emphasized. Also, the laws regarding the precautions such as seat belts, speed limits, and traffic rules must be observed strictly to reduce the incidence of RTA. PMID:25071877

  7. Critical care issues in managing complex open abdominal wound.

    PubMed

    Dutton, William D; Diaz, Jose J; Miller, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, surgical specialties have introduced and expanded the role of open abdominal management in complicated operative cases, necessitating an intensivist's understanding of the indications and unique intensive care unit (ICU) issues related to the open abdomen. When presented with the open abdomen, resuscitation to correct shock is of primary concern. This is accomplished by correction of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy in trauma and adequate resolution of intra-abdominal hypertension or source control in general surgery. These patients typically require deep sedation and often paralysis and benefit from low-volume ventilatory strategies to prevent and treat acute lung injury. Antibiotics must be tailored to the clinical situation, but in most cases, 24 hours of perioperative treatment is all that is required. In cases of gross contamination and peritonitis, a 5- to 7-day course of broad-spectrum antibiotics may be of benefit.Adequate source control has been demonstrated to have the greatest impact on outcome and when the patient's clinical milieu dictates, bedside washouts. Enteral nutrition should be instituted as early as possible after intestinal continuity has been reestablished. Additional protein is required to account for losses from the open abdomen. Reconstruction may require staging, but in general, should proceed following resolution of shock and control of sepsis. Elevated multiorgan dysfunction score, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), and a rise in peak inspiratory pressure portend poor source control and could result in failure of fascial closure. If unable to proceed to fascial closure, then considerations should be made for planned ventral hernia and subsequent abdominal wall reconstruction. PMID:21436165

  8. Severe and fatal childhood trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Souminen; A. Kivioja; J. Öhman; R. Korpela; R. Rintala; K. T. Olkkola

    1998-01-01

    We wanted to study epidemiology and the outcome of severe childhood trauma. A retrospective study was carried out of 347 severely injured children under 16 years of age, who required intensive care or died during a 10-year period in southern Finland. Of the severely injured children, 65.4 per cent were male. Blunt injuries were the most common (83.0 per cent)

  9. Current epidemiology of genitourinary trauma.

    PubMed

    McGeady, James B; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. The authors briefly explain databases that have been recently used to study this patient population and then discuss each genitourinary organ individually, utilizing the most relevant and up-to-date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  10. Trauma-induced linear scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, C T; Gibbs, N F

    1999-01-01

    Linear scleroderma (linear morphea) is a form of localized scleroderma characterized by sclerotic lesions distributed in a linear, band-like pattern. Despite its benign course, the disease can cause severe cosmetic, orthopedic, and psychologic problems. The cause is unknown. Many cases are preceded by a history of trauma. We describe a case in which linear scleroderma occurred following a laceration to the affected site. We review the treatment options and discuss the current theories regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:9951591

  11. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  12. Conflict theory/trauma theory.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fred

    2005-01-01

    There has been a tendency in psychoanalysis to view the effects of trauma, and our ways of working with it, as something separate from our understanding and techniques of working with intrapsychic conflict. While appreciating certain differences, the author explores, primarily via clinical examples, how an integrated perspective may be most helpful to our patients, especially in the area of the patient's capacity to reclaim feelings. PMID:15766035

  13. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  14. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  15. Trauma care systems in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tadashi; Kitamura, Nobuya; Shindo, Masateru

    2003-09-01

    The trauma care system in Japan was set up in the 1960s in response to social problems caused by traffic accidents and has since been altered extensively. First-aid and patient transfer are performed by emergency personnel belonging to a fire station. Instead of 'western-style trauma centres', three types of facilities exist: (1) primary emergency care facilities for treating mild cases not requiring hospitalisation; (2) secondary emergency hospitals directed to treating moderately severe disease or injury; (3) tertiary emergency hospitals corresponding to the emergency departments of university hospitals, or lifesaving emergency centres, able to manage the most severe cases such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and polytrauma. Although the quantity of emergency facilities and hospitals appears sufficient, the quality of emergency care needs to be improved. This could be accomplished by the unification of small hospitals to create larger hospitals, and/or by the establishment of trauma centres, as well as by improvements in relevant education and training. PMID:12951296

  16. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: The RAPTOR (resuscitation with angiography percutaneous treatments and operative resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting existing ones, to address the need for single-site flexible haemorrhage control. This manuscript therefore describes the many considerations in the design and refinement of the physical build, equipment selection, human factors evaluation of new combined treatment paradigms, and the final introduction of a RAPTOR protocol in order that others may learn from our initial efforts. PMID:24560091

  17. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; DePrince, Anne P.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor’s relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed. PMID:23542882

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. W. Millar; R. D. Gilbert; R. A. Brown; E. J. Immelman; D. A. Burkimsher; S. Cywes

    1996-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are rare in children. Causes include mycotic aneurysms, vasculitides (eg, Takayasu's arteritis), connective tissue diseases (eg, Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis) and traumatic false aneurysms. Four cases are described. Case 1 was a 12-year-old boy who presented with an acute unheralded rupture of the subdiaphragmatic aorta accompanied by lower limb paralysis and ischemia. Attempted repair

  19. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  20. Psychotic-like experiences, appraisals, and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, Anna; Mason, Oliver; Brett, Caroline; Peters, Emmanuelle

    2010-11-01

    This study examined some of the predictions made by cognitive models of psychosis, specifically the potential contribution of appraisals and trauma to the development of "need for care." Two groups reporting psychotic-like experiences with and without a "need for care" were compared on types of experiences, appraisals of these experiences, distress, and trauma. Both groups reported similar overall levels of psychotic-like experiences, but were characterized by distinct types of experiences. The clinical group was more distressed, endorsed more externalizing and personalizing appraisals, and fewer psychological/normalizing apraisals of their experiences than the nonclinical group. Both groups showed high rates of trauma, and interpersonal trauma was associated with more personalizing and fewer psychological/normalizing appraisals. These results suggest that "need for care" is characterized by distress and personalizing appraisals, but not by a higher incidence of trauma. The role of interpersonal trauma, specifically, may be to predispose to a "paranoid" world view. PMID:21048472

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infection after trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Brook; Edith H Frazier

    1998-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data from 1973 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed to study the microbiology of infection following trauma. A total of 368 specimens obtained from 340 trauma patients showed bacterial growth. The traumas included lacerations (163), blunt trauma (76), penetrating trauma (65), bites (20), and open fractures (10). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 119 (32%) specimens, aerobic bacteria

  2. Some observations relating to behind-body armour blunt trauma effects caused by ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lidén, E; Berlin, R; Janzon, B; Schantz, B; Seeman, T

    1988-01-01

    Live, anesthetised pigs were used to assess behind-armour blunt trauma effects. The thoraco-abdominal body region was covered with varying thicknesses of Kevlar fabric packets. This soft body armour was applied, either in direct contact with the thoracic wall of the animals, or with different plastic foam sheets, so-called trauma packs, between the armour and the skin. The live animals were surgically evaluated, and then sacrificed. Blocks of soft soap were subjected to equal tests and the behind-armour indentations were measured. The results indicate that serious injury to the body armour-protected chest may be caused by the impact of nonpenetrating bullets and shotgun pellets. Severe pulmonary contusions and lacerations were found when the energy transferred through the body armour was estimated to be high. PMID:3339677

  3. Introduction of a Simple Technique for Partial Splenectomy in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarlou, Mehdi; Derakhshanfar, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background: The spleen is the most commonly injured intraperitoneal organ in multiple trauma patients. Total splenectomy results in immunodeficiency and predisposes patients to certain infections. Objectives: Performing partial splenectomy with a safe, simple, and definite technique in trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and accompanying intra-abdominal injury could play an important role in the preservation of immune function and reducing morbidity. Patients and Methods: From 2006 to 2009, a total of 20 patients underwent partial splenectomy, at Mobasher and Be’sat hospitals. Patients with splenic injuries of up to stage IV and grade 3 shocks underwent partial splenectomy. The operations were performed without vascular isolation and by wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair with chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Three months later, patients were evaluated by a Tc99 liver-spleen scan, complete blood count, and blood smear. Results: There were 16 male and four female patients with an age range of 4 to 54 years old. Ten patients had additional intra and extra abdominal injuries. The salvaged spleen tissue was approximately 30% in nine patients, 40 to 50% in two, and more than 50% in another nine patients. The operation time was less than three hours and hospital stay was 3 to 15 days for 90% of the patients. No complications occurred after the surgery or during the follow up. For all patients, the complete blood count, peripheral smear, and liver-spleen scan were normal after six months. Conclusions: Partial splenectomy with preserving at least 30% of the splenic tissue can be performed for trauma patients using wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair by chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Using this technique, there is no need for vascular isolation or hemostatic materials. Splenic function is presented and associated intra and extra abdominal injuries are not contraindications for partial splenectomy. PMID:24693413

  4. Enhancing trauma education worldwide through telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies are changing the delivery of trauma care and education. Telemedicine is a tool that can be used to deliver expert trauma care and education anywhere in the world. Trauma is a rapidly-evolving field requiring access to readily available sources of information. Through videoconferencing, physicians can participate in continuing education activities such as Grand Rounds, seminars, conferences and journal clubs. Exemplary programs have shown promising outcomes of teleconferences such as enhanced learning, professional collaborations, and networking. This review introduces the concept of telemedicine for trauma education, and highlights efforts of programs that are utilizing telemedicine to unite institutions across the world. PMID:23531408

  5. [Does scrotal blunt trauma require surgical treatment?].

    PubMed

    Paparel, Philippe; Badet, Lionel; Voiglio, Eric; Colombel, Marc; Rouviere, Olivier; Caillot, Jean-Louis; Martin, Xavier

    2003-09-01

    Blunt trauma to the scrotum is increasingly frequent and is mainly due to motor vehicle accidents, especially with direct trauma from a motorbike petrol tank or falling astride a bicycle frame. The surgical exploration of these cases of trauma remains a controversial issue. However, according to the authors, the presence of haematocele on clinical examination justifies systematic early surgical exploration, which shortens the patient's length of hospital stay allowing more rapid return to work. Ultrasound is only really indicated in the case of scrotal trauma without haematocele, looking for rupture of the tunica albuginea or intratesticular haematoma. PMID:14650283

  6. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Symptoms in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Foynes, Melissa Ming

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred thirty-three members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se. PMID:24660048

  7. Enhancing trauma education worldwide through telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Marttos, Antonio C; Kuchkarian, Fernanda M; Abreu-Reis, Phillipe; Pereira, Bruno Mt; Collet-Silva, Francisco S; Fraga, Gustavo P

    2012-08-22

    Advances in information and communication technologies are changing the delivery of trauma care and education. Telemedicine is a tool that can be used to deliver expert trauma care and education anywhere in the world. Trauma is a rapidly-evolving field requiring access to readily available sources of information. Through videoconferencing, physicians can participate in continuing education activities such as Grand Rounds, seminars, conferences and journal clubs. Exemplary programs have shown promising outcomes of teleconferences such as enhanced learning, professional collaborations, and networking. This review introduces the concept of telemedicine for trauma education, and highlights efforts of programs that are utilizing telemedicine to unite institutions across the world. PMID:23531408

  8. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Idoguchi, Koji, E-mail: idoguchi@ares.eonet.ne.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Nomura, Yoshikatsu [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Okita, Yutaka [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  9. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2014-09-10

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  10. Trauma focused CBT for children with co-occurring trauma and behavior problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Cohen; Lucy Berliner; Anthony Mannarino

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveChildhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of trauma-focused evidence-based treatment (EBT) using a commonly implemented EBT for traumatized children.

  11. Risking Connection Trauma Training: A Pathway Toward Trauma-Informed Care in Child Congregate Care Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Brown; Courtney N. Baker; Patricia Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of traumatic experiences and attachment disruptions among clients in child congregate care treatment settings, until recently there has been little formal training on trauma for staff serving this population. Staff trauma training is one important intervention for agencies aiming to implement trauma-informed care (TIC), a term describing an international trend in mental health care whereby treatment

  12. Trauma management incorporating focused assessment with computed tomography in trauma (FACTT) - potential effect on survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Georg Kanz; April O Paul; Rolf Lefering; Michael V Kay; Uwe Kreimeier; Ulrich Linsenmaier; Wolf Mutschler; Stefan Huber-Wagner

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immediate recognition of life-threatening conditions and injuries is the key to trauma management. To date, the impact of focused assessment with computed tomography in trauma (FACTT) has not been formally assessed. We aimed to find out whether the concept of using FACTT during primary trauma survey has a negative or positive effect on survival. METHODS: In a retrospective, multicentre

  13. Vicarious Trauma in Social Workers: The Role of Trauma History, Social Support, and Years of Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn M. Michalopoulos; Elizabeth Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    Vicarious trauma, a disruption in schemas and worldview often accompanied by symptoms similar to those of posttraumatic stress disorder, occurs as a result of chronic secondary exposure to traumatic material. The aim of this study was to examine the role of personal trauma history, social support, and experience level in the development of vicarious trauma among licensed social workers in

  14. Pediatric Craniofacial Trauma: Challenging Pediatric Cases—Craniofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Craig R.; Manson, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    The pediatric population, as well as the adult population, is subject to similar injuries and traumatic events involving the craniofacial skeleton. Although less frequent than adult injuries, the craniofacial injuries sustained by children are considered separately in textbooks and the literature because of the special unique problems associated with their treatment and the effects they might have on growth and development that can arise as a result of their management. Some of the more challenging cases that I have seen involve the very young with cranial bone fractures and cranial base fractures and those that involve the nasal and/or orbital-ethmoidal areas in young children and their secondary reconstruction. Some of these types of cases are not always clearly and thoroughly addressed in textbooks or articles because of their infrequent occurrence. Often, surgeons differ in approaches to treatment because of certain anatomic or physiological factors specifically related to childhood, facial growth, and the timing of treatment. Some of the cranial and facial developmental malformations seen in older children or adults can be attributed to trauma sustained in early childhood. This is because trauma may have a deleterious effect on the growth and development of facial structures in the postnatal life similar to that seen resulting from a genetic mutation. PMID:22655118

  15. Trauma radiology: Part V. Imaging of acute cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, S E; Shanmuganathan, K

    1995-01-01

    Cervical spine injury constitutes a major cause of morbidity resulting from trauma. The consequences of a missed "significant" injury can be devastating for the patient and can create potential medical legal consequences for involved physicians. Multiple imaging modalities can be applied to imaging of the cervical spine after trauma, including radiography, computed tomography (CT), myelography, CT myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Controversy exists concerning the appropriate number of radiographic views required for the screening assessment of cervical spine injuries. CT clarifies uncertain radiological findings, identifies subtle fractures in patients with neck pain or with neurological deficits but with normal radiographs, determines details of injury, and assists in operative planning. MRI has virtually replaced myelography and CT myelography in evaluating the traumatized cervical spine. MRI is more accurate than CT with intrathecal contrast in delineating epidural pathology, ligament injury, soft-tissue edema, and cord parenchymal injury. Information derived from MRI guides appropriate management and has value in predicting injury outcome. We consider indications for and relative merits of these various diagnostic modalities, and we describe imaging features of major patterns of cervical spine injury. PMID:10155167

  16. Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals. PMID:21331361

  17. Rural trauma challenges in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Artuso, Christie E

    2012-12-01

    Rural trauma during winter months in Alaska requires a coordinated highly skilled approach for rescue, recovery, resuscitation, and transport to distant tertiary care centers. Clinicians in this state face travel delays, extreme weather conditions, and unique transport scenarios. Early assessment and resuscitation may focus more on minimizing delays than on the traditional ABCs of emergency medicine. Clinical evaluation and treatment is also impacted by subzero temperatures, hypothermia, and prolonged exposure. Mechanical and equipment malfunctions can complicate decisions and further add to the challenges faced by medical teams who respond and deliver care in the vast wilderness of this state. PMID:23089663

  18. Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

  19. Sonographic findings in abdominal hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Sofia, S; Casali, A; Bolondi, L

    1999-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) may suffer from abdominal pain severe enough to prompt unnecessary surgical intervention. The diagnostic approach to abdominal pain during HAE attacks is not established. We describe abdominal sonographic findings during severe colic in 2 patients with known HAE. Sonography demonstrated marked mucosal thickening and edema of the bowel wall with a variable amount of free peritoneal fluid. These findings are not specific but are consistent with the hypothesized mechanism of attack and resolve after therapy. Abdominal sonography is useful for evaluating acute abdominal pain in patients with known HAE to prevent unnecessary surgery. Conversely, if the described sonographic findings appear in a case of abdominal colic of unknown origin, HAE should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:10525217

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  1. The Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Aortic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M Loftus; M. M Thompson

    2003-01-01

    Background: multi-organ failure is a leading cause of death following aneurysm surgery, especially in the emergency setting. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an important factor in the development of multi-organ failure. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome may reduce mortality following aneurysm surgery.Methods: a descriptive review of the literature from a Medline search.Results and

  2. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LaTulippe, Steven

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  4. Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... revised November 2012 Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Highlight Body Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on November 17, 2014 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  5. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukasinovi?, Zoran; Spasovski, Dusko; Zivkovi?, Zorica

    2008-10-01

    Serbia, a middle-income country, is located in southeastern Europe, with territory of 88,361 km(2) and 9,400,000 inhabitants. Average month salary is US$542 and the registered unemployment rate is 22%. The country is administratively divided into 30 districts (193 municipalities). The healthcare system is territorially organized. In the state capital there are five clinical hospitals with musculoskeletal traumatology departments, as well as one in each of the four university centers. In addition, there are orthopaedic departments in 40 smaller hospitals throughout the country and in three military hospitals, along with several pediatric surgical departments involved in managing musculoskeletal trauma. There are 524 orthopaedic trauma surgeons (1:18,000 people), with a minor number of additionally trained general and pediatric surgeons who care for musculoskeletal problems. Bonesetters are neither recognized nor included in the healthcare system. Orthopaedic traumatology services are well organized, with variable accessibility depending on the distance between injury site and nearest medical facility. Preventive strategies are well developed and mainly consider agricultural, industrial, and traffic injuries. Distribution of medical institutions is satisfactory. Future activities should include continuing medical education of specialists, exclusion of inappropriate specialists, improvement of preventive strategies and medical transport facilities, as well as standardization of medical equipment, diagnostics, and treatment protocols. PMID:18622666

  6. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  7. Accumulated childhood trauma and symptom complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Briere; Stacey Kaltman; Bonnie L. Green

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between accumulated exposure to different types of traumatic events (cumulative trauma) in childhood and the total number of different types of symptomatology reported (symptom complexity) in adulthood was examined in a sample of 2,453 female university students. There was a linear relationship between the number of trauma types experienced by participants before 18 and symptom complexity. This effect

  8. Biology, childhood trauma, and murder: Rethinking justice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Heide; Eldra P. Solomon

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings in the developmental neurophysiology of children subjected to psychological trauma. Studies link extreme neglect and abuse with long-term changes in the nervous and endocrine systems. A growing body of research literature indicates that individuals with severe trauma histories are at higher risk of behaving violently than those without such histories. This article links these two

  9. Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus Presenting after Head Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hariprasad S. Trivedi; Karl D. Nolph

    1994-01-01

    Water diuresis after head trauma is most often due to central diabetes insipidus (DI). We report a patient with a history of a bipolar disorder and past lithium use who was noted to have polyuria and hypernatremia after head trauma. Inappropriate high sodium and volume replacement resulted in an increase in the polyuria. A lack of response to antidiuretic hormone\\/antidiuretic-hormone-like

  10. Perforating globe injury from Taser trauma.

    PubMed

    Teymoorian, Savak; San Filippo, Ashley N; Poulose, Abraham K; Lyon, David B

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a blinding, perforating globe injury from Taser trauma. There have been other instances involving similar circumstances, but this traumatic event resulted in the loss of all meaningful vision and eventual enucleation. Despite meticulous planning and intervention, however, Taser trauma can result in devastating ocular injury. PMID:20551855

  11. The Biology of Trauma: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…

  12. Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

  13. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  14. Trauma Therapy for Death Row Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter C. Long

    2011-01-01

    The family members of death row inmates undergo unique suffering that includes disenfranchised grief and intense psychological trauma. In Texas, where executions occur at a rate of one every two weeks, this class of trauma victims presumably is large: a fact that should generate public mental health concern. Yet, the class remains virtually unknown to the therapeutic community. Very little

  15. Anabolic steroid accelerated multicompartment syndrome following trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bahia, H; Platt, A; Hart, N; Baguley, P

    2000-01-01

    The case is reported of a 23 year old male body builder who was involved in a road traffic accident after taking anabolic steroids. The resulting trauma caused a severe life threatening acute multicompartment syndrome resulting in the need for urgent multiple fasciotomies. Key Words: anabolic steroids; body builder; trauma; multicompartment syndrome PMID:10953907

  16. Central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to trauma

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Thomas E.; Sood, Vaneeta; Haigh, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The first case of central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to blunt trauma is presented. Optical coherence tomography performed on presentation, 3 days after trauma, demonstrated a neurosensory detachment of the macular, thus confirming clinical findings. At 3 months after injury, the retina had spontaneously flattened at the macular and vision had returned to normal. PMID:22557878

  17. Implementation of a combat casualty trauma registry.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Michael Alan; Martin, Kathleen D; Monzon, Diana; Nettles, William; Rodriquez, Vicky M; Lovasz, Daniel; Defeo, Tracy A; Flaherty, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Theater Trauma Registry is a standardized, retrospective data collection system for all echelons of combat casualty care. Military-specific data elements include expanded demographic data to include military branch, service, rank, military occupation, and personal protective equipment. Varying data from each echelon are entered into the Joint Theater Trauma Registry, version 3. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry, version 3 at the echelon 4 medical treatment facility requires routine collection of 367 data elements for each casualty, but casualties sustaining burns, deaths, or those with performance improvement issues may have more than 450 data elements recorded. Trauma registries are powerful tools for process improvement. Collaboration between civilian and military trauma programs may foster improvements in registry design and data collection for both groups. PMID:19092507

  18. Building a successful trauma practice in academics.

    PubMed

    Stannard, James P

    2011-12-01

    Building a successful trauma practice in the academic medicine sector requires planning, contemplation, and continuous reevaluation. Although there are no rigid formulas, there are some common sense approaches that can help you start along the path toward a successful academic trauma career. This article outlines a blueprint that I have found helpful in establishing my academic practice. There are 4 major areas of emphasis that we will discuss: (1) the importance of a definable career path and goals; (2) developing a small understanding of the business aspects of medicine and trauma; (3) the value of developing a niche within the practice of trauma; and (4) The importance of developing complementary orthopaedic skills outside the realm of conventional trauma. Occasionally, the third and fourth areas may overlap. PMID:22089846

  19. Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

  20. Is estimated bullet trajectory a reliable predictor of severe injury? Case report of a thoraco-abdominal gunshot with a protracted trajectory managed nonoperatively

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Operative management of all gunshot’s traumas carries a high rate of unwarranted interventions that are known to cause serious complications. Selective nonoperative management is thus being increasingly practiced which has reduced these avoidable interventions. Physical examination and computed tomography scans are most sensitive in assessing need of laparotomy. Assessment of internal injuries on the basis of an estimated bullet trajectory is often practiced but has seldom been studied. We report a case of conservative management of a thoraco abdominal gun shot patient where an estimated bullet trajectory was indicative of serious injuries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a thoraco abdominal gunshot that, despite of a protracted trajectory, had no sequelae and was thus managed nonoperatively. Case presentation A 30 year old male patient having height of 180 cm and weight of 70 kg (Body Mass Index 21.6) presented with complaint of a penetrating injury at left side of upper torso. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination a 1 cm?×?1 cm entry wound at the left 3rd intercostal space in the mid clavicular line was identified. The chest and abdomen were otherwise unremarkable on examination. The chest radiograph displayed clear lung fields. The abdominal radiographs displayed a bullet in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the spine. The bullets estimated trajectory from 3rd intercostal space and its lodgment in the abdomen lateral to the spine indicated severe visceral injury. The computed tomography scan showed that the bullet was lodged postero-medially to the left kidney. All thoracic, intra peritoneal and retroperitoneal visceral structures were identified to be normal. The patient remained clinically and vitally stable, hence was managed nonoperatively being discharged after 48 h of observation. Conclusion From this case we conclude that decision for managing gun shot patients should be based on objective clinical and diagnostic findings. We recommend further investigation of the predictability of estimated trajectory for visceral injuries and consequent operative intervention as we found it to be misleading in this case. PMID:23414905

  1. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p?=?0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p?=?0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p?=?0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p?=?0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  2. Prospective comparison of helical CT of the abdomen and pelvis without and with oral contrast in assessing acute abdominal pain in adult Emergency Department patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Y. Lee; Bret Coughlin; Jeannette M. Wolfe; Joseph Polino; Fidela S. Blank; Howard A. Smithline

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  This prospective study compares the agreement of nonenhanced helical computed tomography (NECT) with oral contrast-enhanced\\u000a computed tomography (CECT) in Emergency Department (ED) patients presenting with acute abdominal pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  One hundred eighteen patients presenting to the ED with acute abdominal pain undergoing CT were enrolled over a 13-month period\\u000a using convenience sampling. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, pregnancy, unstable

  3. Public Mental Health Clients with Severe Mental Illness and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Exposure and Correlates of Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Kularatne, Thanuja; Dove-Williams, Stephanie; Paterno, Danielle; Hawthorne, Danielle; Giacobbe, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are at greatly increased risk for trauma exposure and for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study reports findings from a large, comprehensive screening of trauma and PTSD symptoms among public mental health clients in a statewide community mental health system. In 851 individuals with SMI and probable PTSD, childhood sexual abuse was the most commonly endorsed “indextrauma, followed closely by the sudden death of a loved one. Participants had typically experienced an average of 7 types of traumatic events in their lifetime. The number of types of traumatic events experienced and Hispanic ethnicity were significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity. Clients reported experiencing PTSD in relation to events which occurred on average 20 years earlier, suggesting the clinical need to address trauma and loss throughout the lifespan, including their prolonged after-effects. PMID:23508645

  4. Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

  5. Motor programs for abdominal positioning in crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Larimer; Alan C. Eggleston

    1971-01-01

    Using chronically implanted suction electrodes (Fig. 2), records were obtained from the tonic abdominal flexor motor neurons of crayfish while they were undergoing various self-generated movements (Fig. 3). The main behavior examined in this study was one of abdominal extension (Fig. 1), a response which could be evoked repeatedly. Other stereotyped movements were also observed. Each class of behavior we

  6. Wellness outcomes of trauma psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Michael J; Moller, Mary D

    2006-04-01

    A program evaluation study was conducted to determine if a group psychoeducation course would improve wellness scores in subjects with trauma-related disorders. The sample consisted of 10 men age 20-65 years and 44 women age 20-66 years. Levels of wellness were evaluated using the Wellness Assessment Tool [International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research, 3(1) (1996), 308-317] that evaluates 10 wellness items in each of the four domains: health, attitudes/behavior, environment/relationship, and spirituality. Paired sample correlations showed statistically significant correlations among 37 of the 50 pairs, ranging from .524 in the health scores to .830 in spirituality. The paired t tests also showed significant differences at P = .05 in each of the wellness domains. Subjects felt an improvement in overall health, a decrease in interpersonal conflict, a stronger sense of spirituality, and improvement in environmental control and interpersonal relationships. PMID:16549246

  7. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

  12. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS), per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1%) or charge estimate (25.9%) for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701). However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied and the cost methods employed are the primary drivers for the treatment costs. Targeted research into the costs of trauma care is required to facilitate informed health service planning. PMID:22909225

  13. Pulmonary thromboembolism presenting with abdominal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Mansmann, Erin H.; Singh, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Abdominal pain is rarely reported as the presenting complaint of pulmonary thromboembolism. Case Report: We report a case of a 42 year old white male with no known past medical problems except a left humeral fracture two weeks prior who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of right flank and lower abdominal pain. Initial evaluation including abdominal CT suggested cholecystitis. Lack of improvement with empiric antibiotics and symptomatic therapy prompted further evaluation revealing the patient to have a pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Conclusions: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) can be effectively treated once diagnosed. Abdominal pain as a presenting complaint in PTE is rarely reported as a cause of PTE. We believe that clinicians should consider PTE in their differential of abdominal pain in patients with risk factors for VTE. PMID:23569510

  14. Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context

    PubMed Central

    Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

  15. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  16. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Clara

    2014-03-01

    The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171

  17. Continuous regional arterial infusion and laparotomic decompression for severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Yin; Yin, Zhen-Yu; Peng, You-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal decompression plus continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) via a drug delivery system (DDS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We presented our recent experience in 8 patients with SAP. The patients developed clinical ACS, which required abdominal decompression. During the operation, a DDS was inserted into the peripancreatic artery (the catheter was inserted from the right gastroepiploic artery until it reached the junction between the pancreaticoduodenal and gastroduodenal artery). Through this DDS, a protease inhibitor, antibiotics and octreotide were infused continuously. The duration of the regional artery infusion ranged from 8 to 41 d. The outcomes and the changes in the APACHE II score, computed tomography (CT) severity index and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of the patients were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Eight patients with an initial APACHE IIscore of 18.9 (range, 13-27) and a Balthazar CT severity index of 9.1 (range, 7-10) developed severe local and systemic complications. These patients underwent subsequent surgical decompression and CRAI therapy because of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). After a mean interval of 131.9 ± 72.3 d hospitalization, 7 patients recovered with decreased APACHE II scores, CT severity indexes and IAP. The mean APACHE II score was 5.4 (range, 4-8), the CT severity index was 2.3 (range, 1-3), and IAP decreased to 7.7 mmHg (range, 6-11 mmHg) 60 d after operation. One patient died of multiple organ failure 1 wk after surgery. CONCLUSION: CRAI and laparotomic decompression might be a therapeutic option for SAP patients with ACS. PMID:22171133

  18. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  19. Characteristics of the trauma recidivist: An exploratory descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki Keough; Dorothy Lanuza; Judith Jennrich; Meg Gulanick; Karyn Holm

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics and perceptions of trauma recidivists. Information obtained from this study will help health care professionals better understand trauma patients and design more effective trauma prevention programs. Methods: An exploratory descriptive, correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 100 trauma patients entering a midwestern university medical center were studied. A

  20. Inter-hospital transfer: the crux of the trauma system, a curse for trauma registries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Morten Lossius; Thomas Kristiansen; Kjetil G Ringdal; Marius Rehn

    2010-01-01

    The inter-hospital transfer of patients is crucial to a well functioning trauma system, and the transfer process may serve as a quality indicator for regional trauma care. However, the assessment of the transfer process requires high-quality data from various sources. Prospective studies and studies based on single-centre trauma registries may fail to capture an appropriate width and depth of data.

  1. The Influence of 4G\\/5G Polymorphism in the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor1 Gene Promoter on the Incidence, Growth and Operative Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jones; J. Powell; L. Brown; R. Greenhalgh; S. Jormsjö; P. Eriksson

    2002-01-01

    Background: a single base pair deletion\\/insertion (4G\\/5G) polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) promoter appears to influence PAI-1 synthesis (increased PAI-1 and inhibition of fibrinolysis with the 4G allele) and survival after severe trauma.Objective: to identify whether the 4G\\/5G polymorphism influences the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).Methods: Four hundred and sixty patients with small AAA were genotyped

  2. The effectiveness of a trauma focused spiritually integrated intervention for veterans exposed to trauma.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Irene; Erbes, Christopher R; Engdahl, Brian E; Thuras, Paul; Murray-Swank, Nichole; Grace, Dixie; Ogden, Henry; Olson, Raymond H A; Winskowski, Ann Marie; Bacon, Russ; Malec, Catherine; Campion, Kelsey; Le, TuVan

    2011-04-01

    Building Spiritual Strength (BSS) is an 8-session, spiritually integrated group intervention designed to address religious strain and enhance religious meaning making for military trauma survivors. It is based upon empirical research on the relationship between spirituality and adjustment to trauma. To assess the intervention's effectiveness, veterans with histories of trauma who volunteered for the study were randomly assigned to a BSS group (n = 26) or a wait-list control group (n = 28). BSS participants showed statistically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms based on self-report measures as compared with those in a wait-list control condition. Further research on spiritually integrated interventions for trauma survivors is warranted. PMID:21294116

  3. Childhood Trauma May Raise Odds of Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Childhood Trauma May Raise Odds of Asthma Study finds divorce, death and violence appear linked ... Dotinga Friday, April 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma in Children Child Mental Health FRIDAY, April 3, ...

  4. Globe avulsion secondary to maxillofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Norazah, A R; Akmal, H Z; Hashima, H; Vasantha, T; Samsudin, A

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of globe avulsion secondary to maxillofacial trauma and propose potential mechanisms of injury. This case highlights the importance of wearing proper safety attire, especially during motorcycling. PMID:22299558

  5. Etiology of shock in blunt trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, P L; McLellan, B A; Johns, P D

    1985-01-01

    Patients who have suffered blunt trauma and present in shock of uncertain cause represent a problem frequently encountered by emergency physicians. A retrospective review of the charts of 879 patients who had suffered blunt trauma and presented to a regional trauma unit over a 44-month period revealed that 154 of the patients had presented to either a hospital or the trauma unit in shock. The most common causes of shock when a single source of hemorrhage was identified were, in order of decreasing frequency, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, pelvic or other musculoskeletal fractures, thoracic hemorrhage, severe head injury and spinal cord injury. Severe head injuries accounted for only 8% of the single-source cases and contributed to shock in only seven of the remaining cases. PMID:4016623

  6. [Surgical management of liver trauma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klosoris, E; Siedek, M; Kühr, J; Kozuschek, W

    1977-07-13

    Surgical management and follow up of 85 patients with liver trauma are reported. 20 patients had only liver trauma, all others were polytraumatised. Letality was 20% in patients with sole liver trauma, the overall letality was 43%. In most cases death resulted from prolonged circulatory shock. Most of the other casualities resulted from septical complications of biliary peritonitis. Prognosis was mainly correlated with the interval between trauma and surgical treatment as well as with the amount of blood lost. The main features of the operative technic were access to the liver through a subcostal and sometimes transdiaphragmal incision, temporary tamponade of the bleeding source, compression of the hepatoduodenal ligament, of the vena cava (intrapericardial) to minimize blood loss. Instead of hemihepatectomy, resection of liver tissue was limited to the smallest amount possible, and followed by extensive drainage. PMID:895302

  7. Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an hour. Teenagers exposed to such high-intensity sound can and do experience transient hearing loss characterized by ear ringing. The effects of such brief duration acoustic trauma usually resolves ...

  8. “What’s the Story?” Information Needs of Trauma Teams

    PubMed Central

    Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Burd, Randall S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on information needs of trauma teams based on an ethnographic study in an urban teaching hospital. We focus on questions posed by trauma team members during ten trauma events. We identify major categories of questions, as well as information seekers and providers. In addition to categories known from other critical care settings, we found categories unique to trauma settings. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for information technology support for trauma teams. PMID:18999288

  9. The Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels with General and Abdominal Obesity Among Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Khorvash, Fariborz; Mottaghi, Tayebeh; Askari, Gholamreza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Iraj, Bijan; Nejad, Mohammad Adib

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a common health problem around the world. Studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels with obesity among patients and healthy population. The aim of this present study is to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with general and abdominal obesity among migraine patients. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional and 66 migraine patients aged 19-61 years were included for analysis. Partial correlation was performed to assess association between serum 25-OH-D with general and abdominal obesity. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, and education. Results: No relationship was found between serum levels of vitamin D with general and abdominal obesity. However, a significant association was shown between waist circumferences (WC) with body mass index (BMI). Conclusions: Serum levels of 25-OH-D were not associated with WC and BMI. Furthermore, after adjustment for confounder variables, no association was observed. PMID:23776744

  10. Trauma in the workplace: grief counseling 101.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R

    2014-01-01

    Trauma in the workplace can be precipitated by a number of tragedies, but death of an employee is the most common occurrence. Bereavement, mourning, and grief are common reactions. In most cases, people successfully cope with the death within two months, but some develop chronic grief, which is also referred to as complicated grief. Principles of grief counseling are outlined along with the need for employee training on trauma. PMID:24413016

  11. Trauma imaging in the thorax and abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, A.; Adler, O.

    1987-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers the radiologic diagnosis of traumatic injuries of the thorax and abdomen with special consideration given to the physical principles governing blunt, blast, and penetrating trauma and to the pathophysiology which they cause. The clinical experience forming the major data base for this book is drawn from the Ramban Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, the major trauma center for the Middle East wars.

  12. Acetabular and pelvic fractures in multiple trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Euler; D. Nast-Kolb; L. Schweiberer

    1997-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a We see pelvic fractures in about 50 % of all multiple trauma patients. In many cases, these pelvic fractures are complicated\\u000a by complex pelvic traumata, i. e., a pelvic fracture with pelvic vessel damage, neurological, visceral or soft-tissue damage,\\u000a and therefore have the character of life-threatening lesions. The incidence of complex pelvic trauma is extremely high in\\u000a cases of

  13. Examination of Trauma in a Neandertal Ulna

    E-print Network

    Eddie, Diane Marie

    2013-12-31

    : ................................................................................................................................ 86 vii Table of Figures Figure 1: Chronic osteomyelitis case. Note the change in the morphology at the distal end of the bone and the necrosis caused by the infection (Ortner 2003: 184). .............................................. 14 Figure... amputations have become infected, which has affected the way the trauma callus has healed similar to Specimen 1268 (discussed in Chapter V), in which the bone has atrophied and the pathology from the infection has affected the pathology of the trauma making...

  14. The Role of Thrombelastography in Multiple Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Jeger, Victor; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhage and traumatic coagulopathyis are major causes of early death in multiply injured patients. Thrombelastography (TEG) seems to be a fast and accurate coagulation test in trauma care. We suggest that multiply injured trauma patients would benefit the most from an early assessment of coagulation by TEG, mainly RapidTEG, to detect an acute traumatic coagulopathy and especially primary fibrinolysis, which is related with high mortality. This review gives an overview on TEG and its clinical applications. PMID:22046550

  15. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  16. Major surgical trauma differentially affects T-cells and APC.

    PubMed

    Albertsmeier, Markus; Quaiser, Dominik; von Dossow-Hanfstingl, Vera; Winter, Hauke; Faist, Eugen; Angele, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages have been reported to initiate immunosuppression following trauma and hemorrhage, and recent experimental studies suggest a pivotal role of T-cells in maintaining immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of APC and T-cells in humans following major surgery. First, APC and T-cells from 14 surgical patients were isolated, counted and characterized by their specific surface marker profile 2 and 24?h postoperatively. Then, these cells were co-incubated with cells of the other type, which had been isolated pre-operatively. Chemokine secretion from pre-operative cells as measured by enzyme immunoassay served as a bioassay for the function of the stimulating postoperative cells. CD3(+) T-cells and surface marker CD28 were markedly suppressed postoperatively, while CD3(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)Tregs were not suppressed. CD14(+)APC counts were increased with the most significant increase observed in CD14(+)HLA-DR(-) myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In co-cultures, APC showed increased postoperative secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 independently of whether they had been co-incubated with pre- or postoperative T-cells. T-cells incubated with CD14(+) cells 2?h postoperatively secreted diminished amounts of IFN-?. The results of the study suggest that T-cells play a pivotal role in mediating immunosuppression after major abdominal surgery. PMID:24398860

  17. Imaging of trauma in the pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Raptis, Constantine A; Mellnick, Vincent M; Raptis, Demetrios A; Kitchin, Douglas; Fowler, Kathryn J; Lubner, Meghan; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Menias, Christine O

    2014-01-01

    The pregnant trauma patient presents an important and challenging encounter for the clinical team and radiologist. In this article, we present several key aspects of the imaging workup of pregnant trauma patients, beginning with a review of the modalities that are used in this setting. Ultrasonography plays an important role in initial evaluation of the fetus but a limited role in evaluation of maternal injuries. Given that conventional radiography and computed tomography are the "workhorse" modalities for evaluation of pregnant trauma patients, radiologists must pay particular attention to radiation dose concerns. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used after the initial evaluation and for follow-up imaging, and safety concerns related to its use in pregnant patients are addressed. At imaging interpretation, radiologists must contend not only with the typical spectrum of injuries that can be seen in any trauma patient but also with pregnancy-specific injuries, such as placental abruption and uterine rupture. Particularly unusual situations, such as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a trauma patient, are presented. Although pregnant trauma patients are infrequently encountered, familiarity with imaging findings of injuries in these patients is essential to providing the best care for the mother and fetus. PMID:24819793

  18. Animal Models of Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cernak, Ibolja

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are used to elucidate primary and secondary sequelae underlying human head injury in an effort to identify potential neuroprotective therapies for developing and adult brains. The choice of experimental model depends upon both the research goal and underlying objectives. The intrinsic ability to study injury-induced changes in behavior, physiology, metabolism, the blood/tissue interface, the blood brain barrier, and/or inflammatory- and immune-mediated responses, makes in vivo TBI models essential for neurotrauma research. Whereas human TBI is a highly complex multifactorial disorder, animal trauma models tend to replicate only single factors involved in the pathobiology of head injury using genetically well-defined inbred animals of a single sex. Although such an experimental approach is helpful to delineate key injury mechanisms, the simplicity and hence inability of animal models to reflect the complexity of clinical head injury may underlie the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical trials of neuroprotective therapeutics. Thus, a search continues for new animal models, which would more closely mimic the highly heterogeneous nature of human TBI, and address key factors in treatment optimization. PMID:16389305

  19. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  20. Resilience, trauma, context, and culture.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2013-07-01

    This article reviews the relationship between factors associated with resilience, and aspects of the individual's social ecology (environment) that promote and protect against the negative impact of exposure to traumatic events. It is shown that the Environment × Individual interactions related to resilience can be understood using three principles: (1) Resilience is not as much an individual construct as it is a quality of the environment and its capacity to facilitate growth (nurture trumps nature); (2) resilience looks both the same and different within and between populations, with the mechanisms that predict positive growth sensitive to individual, contextual, and cultural variation (differential impact); and (3) the impact that any single factor has on resilience differs by the amount of risk exposure, with the mechanisms that protect against the impact of trauma showing contextual and cultural specificity for particular individuals (cultural variation). A definition of resilience is provided that highlights the need for environments to facilitate the navigations and negotiations of individuals for the resources they need to cope with adversity. The relative nature of resilience is discussed, emphasizing that resilience can manifest as either prosocial behaviors or pathological adaptation depending on the quality of the environment. PMID:23645297

  1. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  2. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  3. Influence of mechanical trauma of blood and hemolysis on PFA-100 testing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Fontana, Rossana; Avanzini, Paola; Aloe, Rosalia; Ippolito, Luigi; Sandei, Franca; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-01-01

    Although the appropriate quality of samples is essential for platelet function testing, information is lacking on interference from mechanical trauma of blood and hemolysis on PFA-100 analyzer. Citrated blood collected from nine healthy volunteers was divided into three aliquots. The first aliquot ('A') was processed without further manipulation, whereas the second and third were subjected to mechanical trauma by two ('aliquot B') or four passages ('aliquot C') through a very fine needle (30 gauge) to produce hemolysis and cell trauma mimicking poor sample collection. Samples were tested on PFA-100 and Advia 2120, and plasma then separated and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemolysis index. Negligible hemolysis was present in aliquot A (hemolysis index 0.2 ± 0.1, cell-free hemoglobin 0-0.5 g/l), whereas an increasing amount was present in aliquots B (hemolysis index of 13.1 ± 1.8, cell-free hemoglobin 6.0-6.5 g/l) and C (hemolysis index 24.0 ± 1.1, cell-free hemoglobin 11.5-12.0 g/l). Increases in LDH, and concomitant reductions in platelet and red blood cell counts were observed in aliquots B and C. In hemolyzed aliquots B, four out of nine samples yielded 'flow obstruction' with both PFA-100 agonist cartridges, whereas the closure times were dramatically prolonged in the remaining five samples. In hemolyzed aliquots C, flow obstruction was recorded in six of nine samples for collagen and ADP and all samples for collagen and epinephrine, whereas closure times of collagen and ADP in the remaining three samples were dramatically prolonged. Mechanical trauma of blood causing hemolysis makes PFA-100 testing unreliable. When flow obstructions are observed, the potential presence of hemolysis should be investigated. PMID:22123286

  4. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  5. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  6. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7?d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4?micromol·kg?1, infusion rate: 6?micromol·kg?1·min?1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to control values during convalescence. PMID:24460539

  7. Observations on intra-abdominal pressure and patterns of abdominal intra-muscular activity in man.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A G; Grundström, H; Thorstensson, A

    1992-04-01

    The aim was to investigate possible relationships between activities of the individual muscles of the ventrolateral abdominal wall and the development of pressure within the abdominal cavity. Intra-muscular activity was recorded bilaterally from transversus abdominis, obliquus internus, obliquus externus and rectus abdominis with fine-wire electrodes guided into place using real-time ultrasound. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured intragastrically using a micro tip pressure transducer. Six males were studied during loading and movement tasks with varied levels of intra-abdominal pressure. During both maximal voluntary isometric trunk flexion and extension, transversus abdominis activity and intra-abdominal pressure remained constant, while all other abdominal muscles showed a marked reduction during extension. When maximal isometric trunk flexor or extensor torques were imposed upon a maximal Valsalva manoeuvre, transversus abdominis activity and intra-abdominal pressure remained comparable within and across conditions, whereas obliquus internus, obliquus externus and rectus abdominis activities either markedly increased (flexion) or decreased (extension). Trunk twisting movements showed reciprocal patterns of activity between the left and right sides of transversus abdominis, indicating an ability for torque development. During trunk flexion--extension, transversus abdominis showed less distinguished changes of activity possibly relating to a general stabilizing function. In varied pulsed Valsalva manoeuvres, changes in peak intra-abdominal pressure were correlated with mean amplitude electromyograms of all abdominal muscles, excluding rectus abdominis. It is concluded that the co-ordinative patterns shown between the muscles of the ventrolateral abdominal wall are task specific based upon demands of movement, torque and stabilization. It appears that transversus abdominis is the abdominal muscle whose activity is most consistently related to changes in intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:1534959

  8. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your doctor if ...

  9. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) in adult male. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Al Ani, Amer Hashim; Al Zayani, Najah; Najmeddine, Mohammad; Jacob, Sunitha; Nair, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Abdominal cocoon (sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis) (SEP) is a rare condition, mostly affecting adolescent girls living in tropical/subtropical region. Its etiology is unknown. It may cause acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report here a 39 year old male who complained of long standing colicky abdominal pain, with significant weight loss. Abdomen CT scan showed clumping of ileal loops at the level of umbilicus, with a thin capsule surrounding it. Laparoscopy revealed abdominal cocoon, biopsy of which showed dense hypocellular fibro-collagenous tissue with no neoplastic or granulomatous process. Excision of fibrous tissue and release of adhesions was done. Patient was symptoms free after five months follow up. DISCUSSION Abdominal exploration is usually needed for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cocoon. A thick fibrotic peritoneal wrapping of the bowel is usually found. Complete recovery is the result in majority of cases after surgical removal of the wrap causing the cocoon. CONCLUSION Primary sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (cocoon abdomen) diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion, as signs and symptoms are nonspecific and imaging findings are not always conclusive. Careful excision of the accessory peritoneal sac and lysis of adhesions between bowels is the best treatment. Prognosis is generally good. PMID:25217877

  10. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  11. Postoperative gastric dilatation causing abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Mahajna; Sharon Mitkal; Michael M Krausz

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of postoperative gastric dilatation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single case report from a primary teaching hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 72-year-old woman demonstrated a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse following resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma. This collapse was caused by abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric dilatation. RESULTS: The patient was re-explored,

  12. Giant Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of all superficial soft tissue malignancies. Although they may arise anywhere in the body, they most frequently occur in the lower extremities. The incidence of subcutaneous LMS affecting the anterior abdominal wall is very rare. We herein report the case of a patient with a giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in the anterior abdominal wall. It was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and treated accordingly. PMID:25506027

  13. Trauma Adapted Family Connections: Reducing Developmental and Complex Trauma Symptomatology to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Strieder, Frederick H.; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A.; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and…

  14. The Aftermath of Road Trauma: Survivors' Perceptions of Trauma and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Louise; Talbot, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    For many survivors of serious road trauma, the physical and psychological consequences are complex and lifelong. The longer-term psychosocial recovery experience for survivors, however, is rarely documented in the social work literature. This article reports on findings from a study of road trauma recovery experiences. The findings are presented…

  15. The role of trauma scoring in developing trauma clinical governance in the Defence Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R. J.; Hodgetts, T. J.; McLeod, J.; Starkey, K.; Mahoney, P.; Harrison, K.; Bell, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses mathematical models of expressing severity of injury and probability of survival following trauma and their use in establishing clinical governance of a trauma system. There are five sections: (i) Historical overview of scoring systems—anatomical, physiological and combined systems and the advantages and disadvantages of each. (ii) Definitions used in official statistics—definitions of ‘killed in action’ and other categories and the importance of casualty reporting rates and comparison across conflicts and nationalities. (iii) Current scoring systems and clinical governance—clinical governance of the trauma system in the Defence Medical Services (DMS) by using trauma scoring models to analyse injury and clinical patterns. (iv) Unexpected outcomes—unexpected outcomes focus clinical governance tools. Unexpected survivors signify good practice to be promulgated. Unexpected deaths pick up areas of weakness to be addressed. Seventy-five clinically validated unexpected survivors were identified over 2 years during contemporary combat operations. (v) Future developments—can the trauma scoring methods be improved? Trauma scoring systems use linear approaches and have significant weaknesses. Trauma and its treatment is a complex system. Nonlinear methods need to be investigated to determine whether these will produce a better approach to the analysis of the survival from major trauma. PMID:21149354

  16. Potentially perilous pedagogies: teaching trauma is not the same as trauma-informed teaching.

    PubMed

    Carello, Janice; Butler, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why and how trauma theory and research are currently used in higher education in nonclinical courses such as literature, women's studies, film, education, anthropology, cultural studies, composition, and creative writing. In these contexts, traumatic material is presented not only indirectly in the form of texts and films that depict traumatic events but also directly in the form of what is most commonly referred to in nonclinical disciplines as trauma studies, cultural trauma studies, and critical trauma studies. Within these areas of study, some instructors promote potentially risky pedagogical practices involving trauma exposure or disclosure despite indications that these may be having deleterious effects. After examining the published rationales for such methods, we argue that given the high rates of trauma histories (66%-85%), posttraumatic stress disorder (9%-12%), and other past event-related distress among college students, student risk of retraumatization and secondary traumatization should be decreased rather than increased. To this end, we propose that a trauma-informed approach to pedagogy-one that recognizes these risks and prioritizes student emotional safety in learning-is essential, particularly in classes in which trauma theories or traumatic experiences are taught or disclosed. PMID:24313321

  17. Availability of orthopaedic trauma lists in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, C P; Paschalides, K; Gunedran, T; Tryfonidis, M; Hirst, P

    2005-10-01

    National guidelines recommend that hospitals dealing with acute orthopaedic trauma should have daily, consultant led trauma lists, performed in dedicated trauma theatres. This study examined the availability and organisation of orthopaedic trauma lists in the United Kingdom using a postal survey. Of 228 responding hospitals, only 29% had daily trauma lists. In 17%, elective cases were cancelled to accommodate trauma whilst up to 20% of hospitals had a high proportion of their trauma lists not being consultant led. Twenty-one percent of responding hospitals did not have a dedicated trauma theatre. Our results suggest that most units have a long way to go in meeting national standards regarding the availability of orthopaedic trauma lists. PMID:16214461

  18. The Effect of Trauma Center Designation and Trauma Volume on Outcome in Specific Severe Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Demetriades, Demetrios; Martin, Mathew; Salim, Ali; Rhee, Peter; Brown, Carlos; Chan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of American College of Surgeons (ACS) trauma center designation and trauma volume on outcome in patients with specific severe injuries. Background: Trauma centers are designated by the ACS into different levels on the basis of resources, trauma volume, and educational and research commitment. The criteria for trauma center designation are arbitrary and have never been validated. Methods: The National Trauma Data Bank study, which included patients >14 years of age and had injury severity score (ISS) >15, were alive on admission and had at least one of the following severe injuries: aortic, vena cava, iliac vessels, cardiac, grade IV/V liver injuries, quadriplegia, or complex pelvic fractures. Outcomes (mortality, intensive care unit stay, and severe disability at discharge) were compared among level I and II trauma centers and between centers within the same level designation but different volumes of severe trauma (<240 vs ?240 trauma admissions with ISS >15 per year). The outcomes were adjusted for age (<65 ?65), gender, mechanism of injury, hypotension on admission, and ISS (?25 and >25). Results: A total of 12,254 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, level I centers had significantly lower mortality (25.3% vs 29.3%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.94; P = 0.004) and significantly lower severe disability at discharge (20.3% vs 33.8%, adjusted OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44–0.69; P < 0.001) than level II centers. Subgroup analysis showed that cardiovascular injuries (N = 2004) and grades IV–V liver injuries (N = 1415) had a significantly better survival in level I than level II trauma centers (adjusted P = 0.017 and 0.023, respectively). Overall, there was a significantly better functional outcome in level I centers (adjusted P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed level I centers had significantly better functional outcomes in complex pelvic fractures (P < 0.001) and a trend toward better outcomes in the rest of the subgroups. The volume of trauma admissions with ISS >15 (<240 vs ?240 cases per year) had no effect on outcome in either level I or II centers. Conclusions: Level I trauma centers have better outcomes than lower-level centers in patients with specific injuries associated with high mortality and poor functional outcomes. The volume of major trauma admissions does not influence outcome in either level I or II centers. These findings may have significant implications in the planning of trauma systems and the billing of services according to level of accreditation. PMID:16192811

  19. Predicting outcomes after blunt chest wall trauma: development and external validation of a new prognostic model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 15% of all trauma admissions to Emergency Departments worldwide. Reported mortality rates vary between 4 and 60%. Management of this patient group is challenging as a result of the delayed on-set of complications. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model that can be used to assist in the management of blunt chest wall trauma. Methods There were two distinct phases to the overall study; the development and the validation phases. In the first study phase, the prognostic model was developed through the retrospective analysis of all blunt chest wall trauma patients (n?=?274) presenting to the Emergency Department of a regional trauma centre in Wales (2009 to 2011). Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the model and identify the significant predictors for the development of complications. The model’s accuracy and predictive capabilities were assessed. In the second study phase, external validation of the model was completed in a multi-centre prospective study (n?=?237) in 2012. The model’s accuracy and predictive capabilities were re-assessed for the validation sample. A risk score was developed for use in the clinical setting. Results Significant predictors of the development of complications were age, number of rib fractures, chronic lung disease, use of pre-injury anticoagulants and oxygen saturation levels. The final model demonstrated an excellent c-index of 0.96 (95% confidence intervals: 0.93 to 0.98). Conclusions In our two phase study, we have developed and validated a prognostic model that can be used to assist in the management of blunt chest wall trauma patients. The final risk score provides the clinician with the probability of the development of complications for each individual patient. PMID:24887537

  20. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishibash@aichi-med-u.ac.j [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Japan); Kamei, Seiji [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  1. Autopsies and death certification in deaths due to blunt trauma: What are we missing?

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nicole Fink; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Girotti, Murray J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency, body region and severity of injuries missed by the clinical team in patients who die of blunt trauma, and to examine the accuracy of the cause of death as recorded on death certificates. Design A retrospective review. Setting London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. Patients One hundred and eight deaths due to blunt trauma occurring during the period Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1997. Two groups were considered: clinically significant missed injuries were identified by comparing patient charts only (group1) and more detailed injury lists from the autopsies and charts of the patients (group 2). Outcome measures Chart and autopsy findings. Results Of the 108 patients, 78 (72%) were male, and they had a median age of 39 years (range from 2 to 90 years). The most common cause of death was neurologic injury (27%), followed by sepsis (17%) and hemorrhage (15%). There was disagreement between the treating physicians and the causes of death listed on the death certificate in 40% of cases and with the coroner in 7% of cases. Seventy-seven clinically significant injuries were missed in 51 (47%) of the 108 patient deaths. Injuries were missed in 29% of inhospital deaths and 100% of emergency department deaths. Abdominal and head injuries accounted for 43% and 34% of the missed injuries, respectively. Conclusions The information contained on the death certificate can be misleading. Health care planners utilizing this data may draw inaccurate conclusions regarding causes of death, which may have an impact on trauma system development. Missed injuries continue to be a concern in the management of patients with major blunt trauma. PMID:10812348

  2. Objective and personalized longitudinal assessment of a pregnant patient with post severe brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elizabeth B.; Lande, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following severe trauma to the brain (whether internally generated by seizures, tumors or externally caused by collision with or penetration of objects) individuals may experience initial coma state followed by slow recovery and rehabilitation treatment. At present there is no objective biometric to track the daily progression of the person for extended periods of time. Objective: We introduce new analytical techniques to process data from physically wearable sensors and help track the longitudinal progression of motions and physiological states upon the brain trauma. Setting and Participant: The data used to illustrate the methods were collected at the hospital settings from a pregnant patient in coma state. The patient had brain trauma from a large debilitating seizure due to a large tumor in the right pre-frontal lobe. Main Measures: We registered the wrist motions and the surface-skin-temperature across several daily sessions in four consecutive months. A new statistical technique is introduced for personalized analyses of the rates of change of the stochastic signatures of these patterns. Results: We detected asymmetries in the wrists’ data that identified in the dominant limb critical points of change in physiological and motor control states. These patterns could blindly identify the time preceding the baby’s delivery by C-section when the patient systematically brought her hand to her abdominal area. Changes in temperature were sharp and accompanied by systematic changes in the statistics of the motions that rendered her dominant wrist’s micro-movements more systematically reliable and predictable than those of the non-dominant writst. Conclusions: The new analytics paired with wearable sensing technology may help track the day-by-day individual progression of a patient with post brain trauma in clinical settings and in the home environment. PMID:25852516

  3. [Penetrating trauma of the neck: prospective study of 53 cases].

    PubMed

    Lourencao, J L; Nahas, S C; Margarido, N F; Rodrigues Junior, A J; Birolini, D

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of penetrating injuries of the neck is still controversial nowadays, especially when there is doubt concerning the existence of any anatomic structure lesion. The delay to indicate surgical cervical exploration may predispose the patient to have serious sequels when the esophagus or the trachea are injured. The infection which may occur in this eventuality progresses rapidly to the mediastinum, determining the patient's death. The purpose of this work was to identify and to analyze the parameters which suggest the best treatment indicated for patients with penetrating injuries of the neck. This is a non-randomized prospective study which gathered 53 patients, victims of penetrating wounds of the neck, treated at the Emergency Surgical Service of the Hospital das Clínicas, University of Săo Paulo School of Medicine, during a three-year period, starting in October, 1990. All the patients were evaluated by the surgical team on call who elected the selective exploration approach for the cases that did not present clear evidence of injuries in the cervical structures nor hemodynamic alterations. For the fifteen carriers of evident injuries, immediate surgical exploration was the treatment adopted. All the patients had epidemiologic data, evaluation results, hospitalization period, complications, morbidity and mortality rates, besides trauma indexes, collected. For patients whose clinical observation was allowed, endoscopic studies were also performed and compared. In order to evaluate variable correlations, statistical analysis were performed using Q square test, Student test and Z statistics, which leaded to the following conclusions: 1. Penetrating wounds of the neck were most frequent in white people aged from 20 to 30 years. They were mostly located in the right side of cervical zone II and were caused by gunshot. 2. Trauma indexes correlated with patients' clinical evolution. 3. In cases when there was doubt about the effective presence of injuries, complementary digestive and respiratory evaluations were indicated. These exams contributed for reducing the rate of unnecessary surgical explorations. PMID:10436632

  4. Evaluating trauma center process performance in an integrated trauma system with registry data

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynne; Lavoie, André; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Amini, Rachid; Belcaďd, Amina; Sampalis, John S

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evaluation of trauma center performance implies the use of indicators that evaluate clinical processes. Despite the availability of routinely collected clinical data in most trauma systems, quality improvement efforts are often limited to hospital-based audit of adverse patient outcomes. Objective: To identify and evaluate a series of process performance indicators (PPI) that can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. Materials and Methods: PPI were identified using a review of published literature, trauma system documentation, and expert consensus. Data from the 59 trauma centers of the Quebec trauma system (1999, 2006; N = 99,444) were used to calculate estimates of conformity to each PPI for each trauma center. Outliers were identified by comparing each center to the global mean. PPI were evaluated in terms of discrimination (between-center variance), construct validity (correlation with designation level and patient volume), and forecasting (correlation over time). Results: Fifteen PPI were retained. Global proportions of conformity ranged between 6% for reduction of a major dislocation within 1 h and 97% for therapeutic laparotomy. Between-center variance was statistically significant for 13 PPI. Five PPI were significantly associated with designation level, 7 were associated with volume, and 11 were correlated over time. Conclusion: In our trauma system, results suggest that a series of 15 PPI supported by literature review or expert opinion can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. We have provided evidence of their discrimination, construct validity, and forecasting properties. The between-center variance observed in this study highlights the importance of evaluating process performance in integrated trauma systems. PMID:23723617

  5. Effectiveness of a regional trauma system in reducing mortality from major trauma: before and after study.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J.; Turner, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the development of an experimental trauma centre and regional trauma system on the survival of patients with major trauma. DESIGN: Controlled before and after study examining outcomes between 1990 and 1993, spanning the introduction of the system in 1991-2. SETTING: Trauma centre in North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary and five associated district general hospitals in the North West Midlands regional trauma system, and two control regions in Lancashire and Humberside. SUBJECTS: All trauma patients taken by the ambulance services serving the regions or arriving other than by ambulance with injury severity scores > 15, whether or not they had vital signs on arrival at hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival rates standardised for age, severity of injury, and revised trauma score. RESULTS: In 1990, 33% of major trauma patients in the experimental region were taken to the trauma centre, and by 1993 this had risen to only 39%. Crude death rates changed by the same amount in the control regions (46.5% in 1990-1 to 44.4% in 1992-3) as in the experimental region (44.8% to 41.3%). After standardisation, the estimated change in the probability of dying in the experimental region compared with the control regions was -0.8% per year (95% confidence interval -3.6% to 2.2%); for out of hours care, the change was 1.6% per year (-2.3% to 5.6%), and, for multiply injured patients, the change was -1.6% (-6.1% to 2.6%). CONCLUSION: Any reductions in mortality from regionalising major trauma care in shire areas of England would probably be modest compared with reports from the United States. PMID:9402777

  6. Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Ahmed, Najma; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery

    2011-01-01

    Background Owing to their constant readiness to treat injured patients, trauma centres are essential to regional responses to mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Reviews of recent MCIs suggest that trauma centre preparedness has frequently been limited. We set out to evaluate Canadian trauma centre preparedness and the extent of their integration into a regional response to MCIs. Methods We conducted a survey of Canadian level-1 trauma centres (n = 29) to characterize their existing disaster-response plans and to identify areas where pre-paredness could be improved. The survey was directed to the medical director of trauma at each centre. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Results Twenty-three (79%) trauma centres in 5 provinces responded. Whereas most (83%) reported the presence of a committee dedicated to disaster preparedness, only half of the medical directors of trauma were members of these committees. Almost half (43%) the institutions had not run any disaster drill in the previous 2 years. Only 70% of trauma centres used communications assets designed to function during MCIs. Additionally, more than half of the trauma directors (59%) did not know if their institutions had the ability to sustain operations for at least 72 hours during MCIs. Conclusion The results of this study suggest important opportunities to better prepare Canadian trauma centers to respond to an MCI. The main areas identified for potential improvement include the need for the standardization of MCI planning and response at a regional level and the implementation of strategies such as stockpiling of resources and novel communication strategies to avoid functional collapse during an MCI. PMID:21251427

  7. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  8. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

  9. The tip of the iceberg: Post caesarean wound dehiscence presenting as abdominal wound sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bharatam, Kaundinya Kiran; Sivaraja, P.K.; Abineshwar, N.J.; Thiagarajan, Vasundhara; Thiagarajan, D.A.; Bodduluri, Sudeep; Sriraman, K.B.; Vasantha Ragavan, A.; Priya, Shanmuga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uterine scar dehiscence can complicate caesarean section with complications like post partum hemorrhage, endomyometritis, localized/generalized peritonitis, and sepsis. Presentation of case Our patient had abdominal wound infection after LSCS surgery and features of sepsis. The wound infection was actually the presentation of a uterine scar dehiscence and localized peritonitis. Discussion Incidence of uterine scar dehiscence is around 0.6%. Presentation can be post partum hemorrhage, endomyometritis, and generalized/localized peritonitis. Peritonitis caused by uterine incisional necrosis must be dealt surgically. A high index of suspicion with appropriate investigations can highlight such problems for early treatment and cure with least morbidity especially related to further pregnancies. Conclusion Uterine scar dehiscence with infection requires high index of suspicion as rare cause for post partum localized/generalized peritonitis with sepsis. Severe abdominal wound infection after caesarean section may be associated with uterine wound dehiscence, which poses a grave risk to the mother in a future pregnancy. PMID:25728672

  10. In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

    2015-01-21

    The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5 cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient. PMID:25497379

  11. Trauma networks: present and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In England, trauma is the leading cause of death across all age groups, with over 16,000 deaths per year. Major trauma implies the presence of multiple, serious injuries that could result in death or serious disability. Successive reports have documented the fact that the current ad hoc unstructured management of this patient group is associated with considerable avoidable death and disability. The reform of trauma care in England, especially of the severely injured patient, has already begun. Strong clinical leadership is embraced as the way forward. The present article summarises the steps that have been made over the last decade that led to the recent decision to move towards a long anticipated restructure of the National Health Service (NHS) trauma services with the introduction of Regional Trauma Networks (RTNs). While, for the first time, a genuine political will and support exists, the changes required to maintain the momentum for the implementation of the RTNs needs to be marshalled against arguments, myths and perceptions from the past. Such an approach may reverse the disinterest attitude of many, and will gradually evolve into a cultural shift of the public, clinicians and policymakers in the fullness of time. PMID:22078223

  12. Fat necrosis of abdominal pannus following caesarean section in a woman with morbid obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Chiswick; ES Cooper; JE Norman; FC Denison

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first case report of a patient with morbid obesity who developed fat necrosis of the abdominal pannus following caesarean section. The patient was a 40-year-old primigravida with a body mass index of 44 kg\\/m2. After a relatively uncomplicated antenatal course, she underwent an emergency caesarean section for delay in first stage of labour at 2 cm

  13. Kimura's Disease Involving Thoracic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sik; Jung, Su Jin; Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kang, Myoung Jae

    2005-01-01

    We report the first observed case of Kimura's disease occurring during hemodialysis, involving the thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes, which spontaneously resolved nearly completely after two months. Early diagnosis and recognition of Kimura's disease may spare both the patient and doctor from the need for unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. Therefore, we emphasize that we need to have a high index of suspicion regarding Kimura's disease. PMID:16134772

  14. [Ultrasonic duplex scanning in occlusion of abdominal aorta, arteries of iliac segment and of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Novosad, E M; Vla?kov, G G

    2000-12-01

    The regional hemodynamics peculiarities were studied in patients with various types of occlusive-stenotic affection of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, using ultrasonic duplex scanning. The character of the blood flow peculiarity along main arteries and collateral branches was determined depending on the affection level. The quantitative indexes of blood flow along the most significant collaterals were studied as well as their role in the compensation process of the disordered distal blood flow. PMID:11247478

  15. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

  16. Abdominal wall and intra-peritoneal abscess by Propionibacterium avidum as a complication of abdominal parietoplasty.

    PubMed

    Janvier, F; Delacour, H; Larréché, S; Abdalla, S; Aubert, P; Mérens, A

    2013-10-01

    Propionibacteria are organisms of low pathogenicity and only a minority of clinical Propionibacterium isolates is clinically significant. Herein, we report a rare case of Propionibacterium avidum abdominal wall and intra-peritoneal abscess that developed in 46-year-old woman after abdominal parietoplasty. PMID:23415274

  17. Trauma nursing development in England: insight from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Barleycorn, Donna

    2013-07-01

    National data found that patients with major trauma receive inadequate care. The effectiveness of regional trauma networks in improving mortality and outcomes for patients presenting with major trauma has been recognised and being established. In parallel, it is recognised that trauma training for nurses must be further developed. An observational study tour to South Africa trauma units, to document trauma practice was sponsored by the Florence Nightingale Foundation and General Nursing Council (GNC). Despite significant cultural and contextual differences, South Africa's trauma centres have a worldwide reputation in managing trauma and can offer valuable insights and experience. Recommendations are made which acknowledge the role of regional trauma networks, improved accessibility to formal trauma training and the use of local professional development resources in improving the content of and access to trauma education for nurses. A development programme for trauma nurses is suggested. The benefits of international learning are detailed and a transferable local training package for trauma training for nurses is explained. PMID:23006532

  18. Tranexamic acid for trauma-related hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Abby M; Baker, Stephanie N; Weant, Kyle A

    2014-01-01

    Trauma-related deaths represent a leading cause of mortality among persons younger than 45 years. A significant percentage of these are secondary to hemorrhage. In trauma, massive and rapid loss of blood creates an imbalance in hemostasis. Mainstays of resuscitation include surgical interventions, restoring intravascular volume, and pharmacologic interventions. Providers continue to search for improved pharmacologic options for achieving hemostasis. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic and inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the lysine-binding sites on plasminogen. Tranexamic acid works to stabilize and inhibit the degradation of existing clots. Tranexamic acid has been prospectively proven to reduce mortality in trauma-related hemorrhage. Its use will likely expand into such areas as resuscitation and massive transfusion protocols and the prehospital setting. Therefore, it is critical for emergency medicine providers to be familiar with appropriate use of tranexamic acid in order to maximize efficacy and decrease the potential adverse events. PMID:24785665

  19. Diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    De Rango, P; Farchioni, L; Fiorucci, B; Lenti, M

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that patients with diabetes may have a lower incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); however, the link between diabetes and AAA development and expansion is unclear. The aim of this review is to analyze updated evidence to better understand the impact of diabetes on prevalence, incidence, clinical outcome, and expansion rate of AAA. A systematic review of literature published in the last 20 years using the PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Studies reporting appropriate data were identified and a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. Sixty-four studies were identified. Methodological quality was "fair" in 16 and "good" in 44 studies according to a formal assessment checklist (Newcastle-Ottawa). In 17 large population prevalence studies there was a significant inverse association between diabetes and AAA: pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.80; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.90 (p = .0009). An inverse association was also confirmed by pooled analysis of data from smaller prevalence studies on selected populations (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.35-0.99; p = .05), while no significant results were provided by case-control studies. A significant lower pooled incidence of new AAA in diabetics was found over six prospective studies: OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.91; p = .03. Diabetic patients showed increased operative (30-day/in-hospital) mortality after AAA repair: pooled OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.44; p = .0008. The increased operative risk was more evident in studies with 30-day assessment. In the long-term, diabetics showed lower survival rates at 2-5 years, while there was general evidence of lower growth rates of small AAA in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetics. There is currently evidence to support an inverse relationship between diabetes and AAA development and enlargement, even though fair methodological quality or unclear risk of bias in many available studies decreases the strength of the finding. At the same time, operative and long-term survival is lower in diabetic patients, suggesting increased cardiovascular burden. The higher mortality in diabetics raises the question as to whether AAA repair should be individualized in selected diabetic populations at higher AAA rupture risk. PMID:24447529

  20. Outcomes after severe trauma at a northern Canadian regional trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David M.; Hicks, Glenda; Bota, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate outcomes of trauma patients at a northern community trauma referral centre that does not meet several of the guidelines for a trauma centre. Design A retrospective study. Setting Sudbury General Hospital in northern Ontario. Participants All trauma patients admitted between 1991 and 1994 who had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12. Outcome measures Actual survival to discharge was compared to survival predicted by TRISS analysis. Z, W and M scores were calculated by standard TRISS techniques. Results Of 526 patients with an ISS greater than 12, 416 (79%) were suitable for TRISS analysis. Of these 416 patients, 310 (74%) were men. The mean age was 39 years. Two hundred and sixty-one (63%) patients were admitted directly to the Sudbury General Hospital, whereas 155 (37%) were transferred from other hospitals. The leading causes of injury were motor vehicle–traffic accidents in 48%, motor vehicle–nontraffic in 21% and falls in 8%. Overall, there were more unexpected survivors than patients who died. The Z score for survivors was 4.95, and the W score was 5.66. Conclusions In the setting of a geographically isolated, medium-volume trauma centre where blunt injuries predominate, excellent trauma survival can be achieved without meeting all trauma centre guidelines for staffing and facilities. Relaxing stringent requirements for the availability of physicians may facilitate surgical recruitment and retention. PMID:9492748

  1. Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) in the trauma population: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff, Bryan F; Thompson, Nia J; Hastings, Michael A; Nazir, Niaman; Moncure, Michael; Cannon, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) is an attenuated version of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and has utility in predicting mortality in non-surgical patients, but has yet to be tested among the trauma population. The objective was to evaluate REMS as a risk stratification tool for predicting in-hospital mortality in traumatically injured patients and to compare REMS accuracy in predicting mortality to existing trauma scores, including the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Shock Index (SI). Design and setting Retrospective chart review of the trauma registry from an urban academic American College of Surgeons (ACS) level 1 trauma centre. Participants 3680 patients with trauma aged 14?years and older admitted to the hospital over a 4-year period. Patients transferred from other hospitals were excluded from the study as were those who suffered from burn or drowning-related injuries. Patients with vital sign documentation insufficient to calculate an REMS score were also excluded. Primary outcome measures The predictive ability of REMS was evaluated using ORs for in-hospital mortality. The discriminate power of REMS, RTS, ISS and SI was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Higher REMS was associated with increased mortality (p<0.0001). An increase of 1 point in the 26-point REMS scale was associated with an OR of 1.51 for in-hospital death (95% CI 1.45 to 1.58). REMS (area under the curve (AUC) 0.91±0.02) was found to be similar to RTS (AUC 0.89±0.04) and superior to ISS (AUC 0.87±0.01) and SI (AUC 0.55±0.31) in predicting in-hospital mortality. Conclusions In the trauma population, REMS appears to be a simple, accurate predictor of in-hospital mortality. While REMS performed similarly to RTS in predicting mortality, it did outperform other traditionally used trauma scoring systems, specifically ISS and SI. PMID:24793256

  2. [Psychology and psychobiology of childhood trauma].

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, B A

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to overwhelming stress often determines how people subsequently organize their perceptions of themselves and of others. Traumatic experiences at different developmental levels have different effects on cognitive, affective and biological self-organization. Acute or chronic exposure to trauma may be expressed as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), dissociative disorders, somatic disturbances and alterations in perception of self and others. These disorders involve (a) the involuntary repetitive re-living of the trauma in thoughts, images, somatic states or behaviors, (b) attempts to avoid dealing with reminders of the past, (c) problems with the modulation of physiological responses to subsequent stress, and (d) a loss of capacity to engage in love and work with pleasure and satisfaction. The display of extremes of emotional distress, or of bizarre or disorganized behaviors, easily obscures the fact that current problems may have their origins in past trauma. The recognition that many psychiatric patients organize much of their lives around repetitive patterns of re-living and warding off traumatic memories, reminders and affective states, may help clinicians understand their symptoms as misguided attempts to regain a sense of control and safety, rather than as bizarre behaviors that need to be merely controlled. Since safe attachments appear to be the primary way in which children learn to regulate internal state changes, the negotiation of interpersonal safety needs to be the first focus of treatment. Since the labeling and categorization of emotional states is one of the principal areas of functioning that is disrupted by developmental trauma, treatment needs to include learning how to use words to understand and interpret feelings in general and stressful events, in particular. Since distrust and lack of social safety are critical parts of developmental trauma, structure and predictability are essential. Identifying specific trauma-based perceptions and expectations and learning how to negotiate the fulfillment of one's emotional needs are critical aspects of effective treatment. PMID:9522593

  3. Illinois trauma centers and community violence resources

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Bennet; Agubuzu, Ogo; Hansen, Luke; Crandall, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN), intimate partner violence (IPV), and street-based community violence (SBCV) are significant public health problems, which frequently lead to traumatic injury. Trauma centers can provide an effective setting for intervention and referral, potentially interrupting the cycle of violence. Aims: To assess existing institutional resources for the identification and treatment of violence victims among patients presenting with acute injury to statewide trauma centers. Settings and Design: We used a prospective, web-based survey of trauma medical directors at 62 Illinois trauma centers. Nonresponders were contacted via telephone to complete the survey. Materials and Methods: This survey was based on a survey conducted in 2004 assessing trauma centers and IPV resources. We modified this survey to collect data on IPV, EAN, and SBCV. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and bivariate statistics were performed using STATA statistical software. Results: We found that 100% of trauma centers now screen for IPV, an improvement from 2004 (P = 0.007). Screening for EAN (70%) and SBCV (61%) was less common (P < 0.001), and hospitals thought that resources for SBCV in particular were inadequate (P < 0.001) and fewer resources were available for these patients (P = 0.02). However, there was lack of uniformity of screening, tracking, and referral practices for victims of violence throughout the state. Conclusion: The multiplicity of strategies for tracking and referring victims of violence in Illinois makes it difficult to assess screening and tracking or form generalized policy recommendations. This presents an opportunity to improve care delivered to victims of violence by standardizing care and referral protocols. PMID:24550624

  4. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  5. Immigration Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.

  6. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    The modern era for splenic surgery for injury began in 1892 when Riegner reported a splenectomy in a 14-year-old construction worker who fell from a height and presented with abdominal pain, distension, tachycardia, and oliguria. This report set the stage for routine splenectomy, which was performed for all splenic injury in the next two generations. Despite early reports by Pearce and by Morris and Bullock that splenectomy in animals caused impaired defenses against infection, little challenge to routine splenectomy was made until King and Schumacker in 1952 reported a syndrome of "overwhelming postsplenectomy infection" (OPSI). Many studies have since demonstrated the importance of the spleen in preventing infections, particularly from the encapsulated organisms. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection occurs in about 0.6% of children and 0.3% of adults. Intraoperative splenic salvage has become more popular and can be achieved safely in most patients by delivering the spleen with the pancreas to the incision, carefully repairing the spleen under direct vision, and using the many adjuncts to suture repair, including hemostatic agents and splenic wrapping. Intraoperative splenic salvage is not indicated in patients actively bleeding from other organs or in the presence of alcoholic cirrhosis. The role of splenic replantation in those patients requiring operative splenectomy needs further study but may provide significant long-term splenic function. Although nonoperative splenic salvage was first suggested more than 100 years ago by Billroth, this modality did not become popular in children until the 1960s or in adults until the latter 1980s. Patients with intrasplenic hematomas or with splenic fractures that do not extend to the hilum as judged by computed tomography usually can be observed successfully without operative intervention and without blood transfusion. Nonoperative splenic salvage is less likely with fractures that involve the splenic hilum and with the severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  7. Thoracic meningioma masquerading as chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mark; Windgassen, Elizabeth; Kinney, Carolyn; Johnson, Daniel; Birch, Barry; Boucher, Orland

    2012-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain without a structural or metabolic gastroenterological etiology can be extremely challenging to diagnose. Patients presenting with an associated radicular pattern of pain may alert the clinician to a possible structural neurological cause of the symptoms. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented to our institution with an 18-month history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She had no associated symptoms or provoking factors. She underwent an extensive gastroenterology evaluation, including colonoscopy that was unrevealing. Ultrasound demonstrated gallstones and she was evaluated for cholecystectomy. She subsequently developed right costal margin pain. Her symptoms remained stable over the course of the next year. Follow-up general surgical evaluation was still unconvincing that the gallstones were the etiology of her symptoms. A thoracic spinal MR demonstrated a large intradural extramedullary mass at T8. The patient's neurological exam was normal. She underwent a thoracic laminectomy and resection of meningioma with intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. Her abdominal pain resolved. Patients can present with months to years of elusive abdominal symptoms only to be eventually found to be harboring an undiagnosed spinal tumor. We discuss the case and review the literature reports of spinal tumors masquerading as chronic abdominal pain. PMID:22665009

  8. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25778080

  9. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25888993

  10. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, J; Corsi, C E; Rebelo, M V; Vieira, V T; Bromberg, S H; dos Santos, P A; Monteiro, R

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:10602548

  11. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  12. Assessment of maxillofacial trauma in emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence and epidemiological causes of maxillofacial (MF) trauma varies widely. The objective of this study is to point out maxillofacial trauma patients’ epidemiological properties and trauma patterns with simultaneous injuries in different areas of the body that may help emergency physicians to deliver more accurate diagnosis and decisions. Methods In this study we analyze etiology and pattern of MF trauma and coexisting injuries if any, in patients whose maxillofacial CT scans was obtained in a three year period, retrospectively. Results 754 patients included in the study consisting of 73.7% male and 26.3% female, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Mean age was 40.3?±?17.2 years with a range of 18 to 97. 57.4% of the patients were between the ages of 18–39 years and predominantly male. Above 60 years of age, referrals were mostly woman. The most common cause of injuries were violence, accounting for 39.7% of the sample, followed by falls 27.9% and road traffic accidents 27.2%. The primary cause of injuries were violence between ages 20 and 49 and falls after 50. Bone fractures found in 56,0% of individuals. Of the total of 701 fractured bones in 422 patients the most frequent was maxillary bone 28,0% followed by nasal bone 25,3%, zygoma 20,2%, mandible 8,4%, frontal bone 8,1% and nasoethmoidoorbital bone 3,1%. Fractures to maxillary bone were uppermost in each age group. 8, 9% of the patients had brain injury and only frontal fractures is significantly associated to TBI (p?trauma patients was violence (47, 8%). 158 of the 754 patients had consumed alcohol before trauma. No statistically significant data were revealed between alcohol consumption gender and presence of fracture. Violence is statistically significant (p?traumas yield various etiologic factors, demographic properties and fracture patterns probably due to social, cultural and governmental differences. Young males subjected to maxillofacial trauma more commonly as a result of interpersonal violence. PMID:24484727

  13. The fractured rib in chest wall trauma.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, J C; Trunkey, D D

    1997-05-01

    Chest wall trauma and rib fractures are significant sources of morbidity and mortality in countries in which motor vehicle accidents are prevalent. Physicians who care for injured patients should realize that patients with thoracic trauma are at significant risk for mortality, deterioration, and associated injuries. Care must be taken to avoid underestimation of the effect of the injury on subsequent respiratory mechanics. Armed with an understanding of chest injury epidemiology, biomechanics, and pain control, physicians can better serve these high-risk patients. PMID:9156291

  14. Trauma Treatment Graduate Certificate (TTGC) students recognize symptoms of trauma and respond with sound trauma-informed practice techniques.

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    practice, the UT College of Social Work has introduced the graduate certificate program in trauma treatment. The program, which began in the fall semester of 2013, is open to currently admitted social work graduate this program over the course of several years, has written extensively in the area of child welfare and child

  15. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms Among Runaway Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. McCarthy; Sanna J. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12–18 years of age and currently domiciled in youth emergency shelters. Results showed that trauma symptoms were not

  16. Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  17. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  18. The Role of Childhood Interpersonal Trauma in Depersonalization Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne Simeon; Orna Guralnik; D. James Schmeidler; D. Beth Sirof; M. A. Margaret Knutelska

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In contrast to trauma's rela- tionship with the other dissociative disor- ders, the relationship of trauma to deper- sonalization disorder is unknown. The purpose of this study was to systemati- cally investigate the role of childhood in- terpersonal trauma in depersonalization disorder. Method: Forty-nine subjects with DSM-IV depersonalization disorder and 26 healthy comparison subjects who were free of life-

  19. Grief and Trauma Group Therapy for Children After Hurricane Katrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Salloum; Laura W. Garside; C. Louis Irwin; Adrian D. Anderson; Anita H. Francois

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and evidence-based group therapy models that address the interplay of grief and trauma are needed for children postdisaster. This article describes a theoretically informed 10-week grief and trauma group model that was evaluated with children in schools after Hurricane Katrina. The foundation of the grief and trauma intervention includes utilizing developmentally specific methods, an ecological perspective, and culturally relevant

  20. Role of Appraisals in Expressed Anger after Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Diane; Bryant, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Anger is a common problem in trauma-exposed individuals. This study investigated factors that contribute to post-traumatic anger in civilian trauma survivors. Fifty-one trauma-exposed individuals were assessed for expressed anger, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), daily hassles, maladaptive cognitions and blame. PTSD and non-PTSD participants…

  1. Cardiac TraumaDiagnosis, Management, and Current Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary R. Olsovsky; Andrew S. Wechsler; On Topaz

    1997-01-01

    In cardiac trauma the two main mechanisms of injury are blunt and penetrating trauma. Common cardiac effects of trauma include myocardial rupture, contusion, laceration, pericardial insult, coronary injury, valvular damage, arrhythmias, and conduction abnor malities. Hemodynamic instability can develop rapidly and pose marked risk to patient survival. An adequate level of clinical awareness and timely use of diagnostic techniques such

  2. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  3. Multidimensional Model of Trauma and Correlated Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Willem H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have revealed an important relationship between psychosocial trauma and antisocial personality disorder. A multidimensional model is presented which describes the psychopathological route from trauma to antisocial development. A case report is also included that can illustrate the etiological process from trauma to severe antisocial…

  4. Writing out the Storm: Trauma and the Work of Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    The discourses of "trauma" and "post-trauma" have become pervasive in representations of life as it is lived in contemporary globalized culture. As new media technologies make the world more accessible, we become accustomed to overwhelming social, political, and personal circumstances, and we come to see "trauma" everywhere, all the time. My…

  5. Understanding Attrition in Sexuai Assauit: Do Trauma Memory and

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Paper (a joint project with the Maddox (2008) study, "The Role of Shame, Self-Blame and PTSD in Trauma Memory 35 Summary: Trauma Memory Formation and Retrieval 36 PTSD 37 Re-experiencing Symptoms 38 Prevalence of PTSD 39 Risk Factors 40 Theories of PTSD 41 Summary: PTSD 44 How may Trauma Memory and Post

  6. Autobiographical memory for trauma: Update on four controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris R. Brewin

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research since the year 2000 on trauma and autobiographical memory in adults is reviewed and related to four enduring controversies in the field: Whether traumatic memories are inherently different from other types of autobiographical memory; whether memory for trauma is better or worse than memory for non-traumatic events; whether traumas can be forgotten and then recalled later in life;

  7. Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Trauma in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Carlton E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides comprehensive definition of psychological trauma and offers guidance to practitioners who are increasingly needed to treat traumatized children. Key therapy considerations are organized around the role of dissociation and repetition compulsion in trauma. Presents treatments in connection with aloneness of trauma experience, dream and…

  8. Trauma, Binge Eating, and the "Strong Black Woman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ellen F.; Crowther, Janis H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to test a culturally specific model of binge eating in African American female trauma survivors, investigating potential mechanisms through which trauma exposure and distress were related to binge eating symptomatology. Method: Participants were 179 African American female trauma survivors who…

  9. Assessing clinical handover between paramedics and the trauma team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue M. Evans; Angela Murray; Ian Patrick; Mark Fitzgerald; Sue Smith; Nick Andrianopoulos; Peter Cameron

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThe aim of effective clinical handover is seamless transfer of information between care providers. Handover between paramedics and the trauma team provides challenges in ensuring that information loss does not occur. Handover is often time-pressured and paramedics’ clinical notes are often delayed in reaching the trauma team. Documentation by trauma team members must be accurate. This study evaluated information loss

  10. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

  11. Abdominal Implantation of Testicles in the Management of Intractable Testicular Pain in Fournier Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cyrus C.; Shahrour, Khaled; Collier, Ronald D.; Welch, Marlene; Chang, Shiliang; Williams, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection involving the superficial and fascial planes of the perineum. In many cases of FG, debridement of the scrotum is necessary, leaving definitive management of the exposed testicles a significant surgical challenge. Frequent incidental trauma to the testicles can cause severe pain, especially in laborers. Practical surgical solutions are few and not well detailed. Various options exist, including creating a neoscrotum with adjacent thigh tissue, split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs), or even creating a subcutaneous thigh pocket. We describe a case of abdominal implantation of bilateral testicles for persistent testicular pain in a case where STSGs did not provide adequate protection, adjacent thigh skin was not available for creation of a neoscrotum, and significant cord contracture occurred. We detail the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly described techniques, including this approach, and how in select individuals this may be a suitable alternative. PMID:24229025

  12. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-08-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

  13. Treating abdominal pain in young people.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Grace; Cardwell, Pauline

    2015-02-01

    A common complaint in children, abdominal pain can be clinically challenging for healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat. Accurate assessment and thorough investigations, combined with the measurement and monitoring of vital signs, are essential to eliminate any underlying conditions. Self-reporting tools can be used to aid communication with children, who may have difficulties articulating their thoughts and feelings. This article refers to a case study to discuss the care of children who present to emergency departments (EDs) with abdominal pain. It suggests that children's nursing students can be valuable assets in busy EDs because they have the knowledge and skills required to care for young people. PMID:25659796

  14. Effective Bullying-Trauma Intervention Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many sectors of society in trauma intervention. School yard bullying has been getting a lot of attention as of late. It is widely reported and analyzed repeatedly in the media. As a clinical psychologist and adjunct psychology professor for over 30 years, the author has had occasion to see bullying in many forms…

  15. Managing the Difficult Airway in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Securing the airway in the patient with craniomaxillofacial trauma can be an extremely difficult challenge for health care practitioners. This article provides several approaches to airway management. Presented here are several options for securing the airway under a variety of conditions and scenarios. PMID:22110831

  16. Ocular injuries in people with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Kane, Claire; Whiting, Dean; McGrath, Anthony; Mathew, David; Cocker, Sarah; Rintakorpi, Esa

    2014-06-01

    About 8% of all major trauma patients have eye injuries, which can have serious implications for the patients and their families. This article outlines a practical approach to the recognition, assessment and management in emergency departments of common ocular traumatic injuries. It also provides an overview of the applied anatomy, and discusses common complications. PMID:24894292

  17. LSCI in Trauma-Informed Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecser, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that many children who present behavioral challenges have experienced relational trauma. These youngsters are not well served by traditional interventions in schools, treatment settings, and communities. Adults responsible for these young people often get drawn into conflict cycles and coercive interventions that only…

  18. Trauma in Early Childhood: A Neglected Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    Infants, toddlers and preschoolers are a high risk group for exposure to trauma. Young children are also vulnerable to experiencing adverse outcomes as they are undergoing a rapid developmental period, have limited coping skills and are strongly dependent on their primary caregiver to protect them physically and emotionally. However, although…

  19. An update on the coagulopathy of trauma.

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc; Schöchl, Herbert; Cohen, Mitchell J

    2014-05-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of death with bleeding as the primary cause of preventable mortality during the first 24 h following trauma. When death occurs, it happens quickly, typically within the first 6 h after injury. One of four patients to arrive in the emergency department after trauma is already in the state of acute traumatic coagulopathy and shock. The principal drivers of acute traumatic coagulopathy have been characterized by tissue hypoperfusion, inflammation, and the acute activation of the neurohumoral system. Hypoperfusion leads to an activation of protein C with cleavage of activated factors V and VIII and the inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with subsequent hyperfibrinolysis. Endothelial damage and activation result in Weibel-Palade body degradation and glycocalyx shedding associated with autoheparinization. In contrast, there is an iatrogenic coagulopathy that occurs secondary to uncritical volume therapy leading to acidosis, hypothermia, and hemodilution. This coagulopathy then may be an integral part of the "vicious cycle" when combined with acidosis and hypothermia. The present article summarizes an update on the principal mechanisms and triggers of the coagulopathy of trauma including traumatic brain injury. PMID:24192549

  20. [Videothoracospy in thoracic trauma and penetrating injuries].

    PubMed

    Lang-Lazdunski, L; Chapuis, O; Pons, F; Jancovici, R

    2003-03-01

    Videothoracoscopy represents a valid and useful approach in some patients with blunt chest trauma or penetrating thoracic injury. This technique has been validated for the treatment of clotted hemothorax or posttraumatic empyema, traumatic chylothorax, traumatic pneumothorax, in patients with hemodynamic stability. Moreover, it is probably the most reliable technique for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury. It is also useful for the extraction of intrathoracic projectiles and foreign bodies. This technique might be useful in hemodynamically stable patients with continued bleeding or for the exploration of patients with penetrating injury in the cardiac area, although straightforward data are lacking to confirm those indications. Thoracotomy or median sternotomy remain indicated in patients with hemodynamic instability or those that cannot tolerate lateral decubitus position or one-lung ventilation. Performing video-surgery in the trauma setting require expertise in both video-assisted thoracic surgery and chest trauma management. The contra-indications to videothoracoscopy and indications for converting the procedure to an open thoracotomy should be perfectly known by surgeons performing video-assisted thoracic surgery in the trauma setting. Conversion to thoracotomy or median sternotomy should be performed without delay whenever needed to avoid blood loss and achieve an adequate procedure. PMID:12657542

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa H. Jaycox; Sheryl H. Kataoka; Bradley D. Stein; Audra K. Langley; Marleen Wong

    2012-01-01

    Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the program, with its emphasis on student diversity and school culture. The authors describe

  2. Vestibular Neurectomy for Dizziness after Head Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Sanna; Jukka Ylikosky

    1983-01-01

    28 patients with dizziness after head trauma were treated by vestibular neurectomy. Comparisons between the results of surgery and preoperative symptoms and findings showed that the best results were achieved in patients with episodic true vertigo and profound hearing loss. Patients who suffered from constant unsteadiness and\\/or postural vertigo usually improved, if both audiological and vestibular tests had shown clear

  3. Early Trauma, Societal Oppression and Coming Out

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeleine F. Price

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a journey into a relatively uncharted clinical landscape. The terrain in question is located at the intersection of three factors: early and cumulative trauma (where it exists), societal and familial stigma and oppression (an inescapable reality), and the normal developmental process of coming out as a bisexual female. In the bisexual or lesbian client, moreover, the clinical

  4. User's perceptions of remote trauma telesonography.

    PubMed

    Al-Kadi, Azzam; Dyer, Dianne; Ball, Chad G; McBeth, Paul B; Hall, Robert; Lan, Steve; Gauthier, Chuck; Boyd, Jeff; Cusden, Jane; Turner, Christopher; Hamilton, Douglas R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    We established a pilot tele-ultrasound system between a rural referring hospital and a tertiary care trauma centre to facilitate telementoring during acute trauma resuscitations. Over a 12-month period, 23 tele-ultrasound examinations were completed. The clinical protocol examined both the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and the Extended FAST (EFAST) for pneumothoraxes. Twenty of the examinations were conducted during acute trauma resuscitations and three during live patient simulations. FAST examinations were completed in all 23 cases and EFAST examinations in 17 cases. There were 18 clinical users, of whom 14 completed a survey (76% response rate). Overall, 93% of respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with the telemedicine interaction and agreed or strongly agreed that the technology could potentially benefit injured patients in the far north of Canada. In addition, 93% of the respondents felt that the project had improved collegiality between the two institutions involved. The majority of respondents (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that the project had improved their ultrasound skills. We believe that as further experience is obtained, tele-ultrasound will prove to be an important aid to the care of remotely injured and ill patients. PMID:19590031

  5. Trauma in pregnancy: assessment, management, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Neil J; Quinlan, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-15

    Trauma complicates one in 12 pregnancies, and is the leading nonobstetric cause of death among pregnant women. The most common traumatic injuries are motor vehicle crashes, assaults, falls, and intimate partner violence. Nine out of 10 traumatic injuries during pregnancy are classified as minor, yet 60% to 70% of fetal losses after trauma are a result of minor injuries. In minor trauma, four to 24 hours of tocodynamometric monitoring is recommended. Ultrasonography has low sensitivity, but high specificity, for placental abruption. The Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed after major trauma to determine the degree of fetomaternal hemorrhage, regardless of Rh status. To improve the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, clinicians should perform left lateral uterine displacement by tilting the whole maternal body 25 to 30 degrees. Unique aspects of advanced cardiac life support include early intubation, removal of all uterine and fetal monitors, and performance of perimortem cesarean delivery. Proper seat belt use reduces the risk of maternal and fetal injuries in motor vehicle crashes. The lap belt should be placed as low as possible under the protuberant portion of the abdomen and the shoulder belt positioned off to the side of the uterus, between the breasts and over the midportion of the clavicle. All women of childbearing age should be routinely screened for intimate partner violence. PMID:25403036

  6. Trauma Exposure and the Social Work Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didham, Steve; Dromgole, Laura; Csiernik, Rick; Karley, Mary Lou; Hurley, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 58 undergraduate and graduate students at 1 Canadian school of social work voluntarily completed a survey at the conclusion of their academic year consisting of open- and closed-ended questions intended to examine their exposure to trauma during the course of their field practice. The authors discovered that the majority of students…

  7. Understanding and Addressing Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garro, Adrienne; Brandwein, David; Calafiore, Tara; Rittenhouse, Nicolette

    2011-01-01

    The notion that development influences children's responses to traumatic stress is not novel. Chronological age and maturity level interact with environmental factors to mediate responses to trauma. Clinicians and researchers have confirmed that children can experience the full range of traumatic stress reactions seen in adults, and many youth…

  8. Changes in Religious Beliefs Following Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry A. Falsetti; Patricia A. Resick; Joanne L. Davis

    2003-01-01

    Information processing theorists propose that traumatic events can lead to disruptions in the processing of information and to changes in beliefs. This study examined the relationships among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and religious beliefs. Participants included 120 individuals from community and clinical samples who participated in the DSM-IV Field Trial Study on PTSD. Results indicated that the PTSD group

  9. Advanced Trauma Life Support aboard RFA Argus.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, G L; Taylor, R H

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system was adopted for casualty reception and resuscitation. ATLS permitted well-informed triage decisions to be made, coupled with appropriate initial, possibly life-saving, treatment. The training given on board has continued to benefit patients treated by ex-Argus staff in their peacetime roles. PMID:1453364

  10. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  11. Targeting the neurovascular unit in brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Lok, Josephine; Wang, Xiao-Shu; Xing, Chang-Hong; Maki, Taka-Kuni; Wu, Li-Min; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Noviski, Natan; Arai, Ken; Whalen, Michael J; Lo, Eng H; Wang, Xiao-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Although the neurovascular unit was originally developed as a conceptual framework for stroke, it is now recognized that these cell-cell interactions play critical roles in many other CNS disorders as well. In brain trauma, perturbations within the neurovascular unit may be especially important. Changes in neurovascular coupling may disrupt blood flow and metabolic regulation. Disruption of transmitter release-reuptake kinetics in neurons and astrocytes may augment excitotoxicity. Alterations in gliovascular signaling may underlie blood-brain barrier disruptions and traumatic edema. Perturbations in cell-cell signaling between all neuronal, glial, and vascular compartments may increase susceptibility to cell death. Finally, repairing the brain after trauma requires the integrated restoration of all neural, glial, and vascular connectivity for effective functional recovery. Just as in stroke, saving neurons alone may also be insufficient for treating brain trauma. In this minireview, we attempt to briefly highlight some of these pathways to underscore the importance of rescuing the entire neurovascular unit in brain trauma. PMID:25475543

  12. American Indian Youth: Current and Historical Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolores Subia BigFoot

    2007-01-01

    The impact of current and historical trauma on American Indian and Alaska Native(AI\\/AN) youth can not be fully understood without a careful retrospective study of the multiple layers that undermined the social and emotional fabric that once supported intact American Indian and Alaskan Native families. A brief review on federal policy is necessary to build an understanding of the complexity

  13. The transgenerational transmission of holocaust trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fonagy

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines an attachment-theory based model of transgenerational trauma inspired by the successful psychoanalytic treatment of a severely disturbed adolescent with obsessive-compulsive disorder who was the first child of the first daughter of a holocaust survivor. It is proposed that the transmission of specific traumatic ideas across generations may be mediated by a vulnerability to dissociative states established in

  14. Correlation of Head Trauma and Traumatic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Nakstad, P.Hj.; Gjertsen, Ř.; Pedersen, H.Kr.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Subarachnoid hemorrhage following severe trauma to the head is relatively common. In most cases the bleed originates from superficial veins and occasionally from arteries. Following the replacement of cerebral angiography with CT in the diagnostic evaluation of head traumas fewer traumatic aneurysms have been observed. This may indicate that some traumatic aneu-rysms are missed if angiographic procedures are not performed in patients with severe head injury. Trauma patients admitted to our institution are submitted to CT including a bone algorithm. In case of subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in the basal cisterns, CT- angiography is performed. Digital subtraction angiography is performed as well in cases with uncertain interpretations. During one year 81 patients were admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage following head trauma. Thirteen (16%) of them underwent CT-angiography and in five (6.2%) with SAH in the basal cistern traumatic aneurysms were found. Four of these cases had a skull base fracture including fractures through the clivus. Four cases were embolized and one very small extradural aneurysm is still not treated. One small pericallosal aneurysm was operated. A traumatic aneurysm should always be suspected n patients with skull base fractures and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. PMID:20557783

  15. The Effects of Trauma on Acculturative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Nicholson; Tali K. Walters

    1998-01-01

    There has been an influx of Southeast Asian refugees to the United States over the past 20 years, many of whom have experienced severe trauma. In their new country they face the formidable task of acculturation into a new, unfamiliar culture, often separated from their families and ethnic groups. This study sought to answer the question of whether the severity

  16. Vicarious Trauma: Proposed Factors That Impact Clinicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview about vicarious traumatization (VT) seen in military (and civilian) therapists working with combat veterans. Special focus is placed on the impact of VT on therapists on personal and professional levels. In addition, 8 important factors that impact the VT symptom severity are described: (a) the number of combat veterans and severity of combat trauma assigned\\/seen

  17. Coping with Unexpected Events: Depression and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association, Chicago, IL.

    Witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event affects everyone mentally and emotionally. Each person has a different way of responding emotionally, and this is a normal part of the healing process. This document discusses some of the ways people respond to trauma and how to deal with it. It lists ways to cope with depression, how to help others…

  18. Personality and Adaptation to Military Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Rademaker

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to increase understanding of individual differences in vulnerability for and resilience to trauma in military personnel. Specifically, the studies in this dissertation examined clinical symptoms and personality profiles of Dutch peacekeepers and sought to elucidate how personality may moderate risk and resilience to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers and veterans. \\u000aPersonality affects the

  19. Trauma Exposure and the Social Work Practicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Didham; Laura Dromgole; Rick Csiernik; Mary Lou Karley; Dermot Hurley

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 58 undergraduate and graduate students at 1 Canadian school of social work voluntarily completed a survey at the conclusion of their academic year consisting of open- and closed-ended questions intended to examine their exposure to trauma during the course of their field practice. The authors discovered that the majority of students entered the program having already experienced

  20. Epidemiology of major trauma and trauma deaths in Los Angeles County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetrios Demetriades; James Murray; Bonnie Sinz; Deidre Myles; Linda Chan; Lakshmanan Sathyaragiswaran; Thomas Noguchi; Frederick S Bongard; Gill H Cryer; Donald J Gaspard

    1998-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to study population-based trauma-related injuries and deaths in the county of Los Angeles and to identify trends and progress towards meeting the “Year 2000 National Health Objectives.”Study Design: We did a retrospective study for the year 1996. Data were obtained from the Trauma Registry of the Emergency Medical Services of the Department of Health Services, and

  1. Performance of advanced trauma life support procedures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L 3rd; Muller, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical operations on the International Space Station will emphasize the stabilization and transport of critically injured personnel and so will need to be capable of advanced trauma life support (ATLS). METHODS: We evaluated the ATLS invasive procedures in the microgravity environment of parabolic flight using a porcine animal model. Included in the procedures evaluated were artificial ventilation, intravenous infusion, laceration closure, tracheostomy, Foley catheter drainage, chest tube insertion, peritoneal lavage, and the use of telemedicine methods for procedural direction. RESULTS: Artificial ventilation was performed and appeared to be unaltered from the 1-G environment. Intravenous infusion, laceration closure, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, and Foley catheter drainage were achieved without difficulty. Chest tube insertion and drainage were performed with no more difficulty than in the 1-G environment due to the ability to restrain patient, operator and supplies. A Heimlich valve and Sorenson drainage system were both used to provide for chest tube drainage collection with minimal equipment, without the risk of atmospheric contamination, and with the capability to auto-transfuse blood drained from a hemothorax. The use of telemedicine in chest tube insertion was demonstrated to be useful and feasible. Peritoneal lavage using a percutaneous technique, although requiring less training to perform, was found to be dangerous in weightlessness due to the additional pressure of the bowel on the anterior abdominal wall creating a high risk of bowel perforation. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of ATLS procedures in microgravity appears to be feasible with the exception of diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Minor modifications to equipment and techniques are required in microgravity to effect surgical drainage in the presence of altered fluid dynamics, to prevent atmospheric contamination, and to provide for the restraint requirements. A parabolic simulation system was developed for equipment and procedure verification, physiological research, and possible crew medical officer training in the future.

  2. A comparison of rural versus urban trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Ari M; Karsteadt, Larry L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Hartmans, Sharon; Bongard, Frederick S.; Cryer, Henry Gill; Ekhardt, Patricia B; Loffredo, Anthony J; Farmer, Patricia D; Whitney, Susan C; Lewis, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We compared the survival of trauma patients in urban versus rural settings after the implementation of a novel rural non-trauma center alternative care model called the Model Rural Trauma Project (MRTP). Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study of all trauma patients brought to eight rural northern California hospitals and two southern California urban trauma centers over a one-year period (1995-1996). Trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of >10 were included in the study. We used logistic regression to assess disparities in odds of survival while controlling for Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) parameters. Results: A total of 1,122 trauma patients met criteria for this study, with 336 (30%) from the rural setting. The urban population was more seriously injured with a higher median ISS (17 urban and 14 rural) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (GCS 14 urban and 15 rural). Patients in urban trauma centers were more likely to suffer penetrating trauma (25% urban versus 9% rural). After correcting for differences in patient population, the mortality associated with being treated in a rural hospital (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.39) was not significantly different than an urban trauma center. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that rural and urban trauma patients are inherently different. The rural system utilized in this study, with low volume and high blunt trauma rates, can effectively care for its population of trauma patients with an enhanced, committed trauma system, which allows for expeditious movement of patients toward definitive care. PMID:24550630

  3. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. PMID:22317753

  4. Optimal use of blood in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, John B.; Spinella, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Injury is rapidly becoming the leading cause of death worldwide, and uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death. In addition to crystalloid and/or colloid based resuscitation, severely injured trauma patients are routinely transfused RBCs, plasma, platelets, and in some centers either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrates or whole blood. Optimal timing and quantity of these products in the treatment of hypothermic, coagulopathic and acidotic trauma patients is unclear. The immediate availability of these components is important, as most hemorrhagic deaths occur within the first 3–6 h of patient arrival. While there are strongly held opinions and longstanding traditions in their use, there are little data within which to logically guide resuscitation therapy. Many current recommendations are based on euvolemic elective surgery patients and incorporate laboratory data parameters not widely available in the first few minutes after patient arrival. Finally, blood components themselves have evolved over the last 30 years, with great attention paid to product safety and inventory management, yet there are surprisingly limited clinical outcome data describing the long term effects of these changes, or how the components have improved clinical outcomes compared to whole blood therapy. When focused on survival of the rapidly bleeding trauma patient, it is unclear if current component therapy is equivalent to whole blood transfusion. In fact data from the current war in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest otherwise. All of these factors have contributed to the current situation, whereby blood component therapy is highly variable and not driven by long term patient outcomes. This review will address the issues raised above and describe recent trauma patient outcome data utilizing predetermined plasma:platelet:RBC transfusion ratios and an ongoing prospective observational trauma transfusion study. PMID:20074980

  5. Penetrating Neck Trauma: Review of 192 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodie, Mohsen; Sanei, Behnam; Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad; Namgar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The neck region contains a high density of vital organ structures within a relatively small and unprotected anatomic region, making it one of the most vulnerable areas of the body for all types of injuries. Objectives In this article, we studied penetrating neck trauma cases in Alzahra Hospital over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods In this retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, penetrating neck trauma cases admitted to Alzahra Hospital between April 2000 and April 2010 were analyzed for epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, zone of trauma, therapeutic method, injuries to other organs, complications, and mortality. Results Among 192 penetrating neck injuries, the mean age at the time of injury was 25.08 ± 15.02 years. Of these cases, 96.4% occurred in men. The most common mechanisms of trauma was stab wounds (85.93%). In 56.3% of penetrating neck injuries, zone 2 was involved. Neck exploration was positive in 84.4% of cases, and 52.1% of patients underwent surgery. Vascular exploration was the most common cause of surgery (67.2% of patients). The most common surgical intervention was vein ligation (50.8% of cases). In 11.98% of cases, another organ injury occurred simultaneously, and chest injury was the most common coexisting problem (65.2%). Complications were reported in 9.3% of patients, and the need for intubation was the most common complication (5.2% of patients). Mortality rate was 1.5%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the most common cause of penetrating neck injuries was stab wounds, and the majority of patients were young men, therefore, preventive measures should be implemented. Because of fatal complications associated with neck injuries, we recommend early neck exploration in unstable cases or when injuries are deeper than the platysma. PMID:24719835

  6. Multiple organ failure after trauma affects even long-term survival and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Ulvik, Atle; Kvĺle, Reidar; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Flaatten, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of organ failure in trauma patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU), and to study the relationship between organ failure and long-term survival and functional status. Methods This is a cohort study of all adult ICU trauma patients admitted to a university hospital during 1998 to 2003. Organ failure was quantified by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. A telephone interview was conducted in 2005 (2 to 7 years after trauma) using the Karnofsky Index to measure functional status, and the Glasgow Outcome Score to measure recovery. Results Of the 322 patients included, 47% had multiple organ failure (MOF), and 28% had single organ failure. In a Cox regression, MOF increased the overall risk of death 6.0 times. At follow-up, 242 patients (75%) were still alive. Patients with MOF had 3.9 times greater odds for requiring personal assistance in activities of daily living compared to patients without organ failure. Long-term survival and functional status were the same for patients suffering single organ failure and no organ failure. Complete recovery occurred in 52% of survivors, and 87% were able to look after themselves. Conclusion Almost half of the ICU trauma patients had MOF. While single organ failure had no impact on long-term outcomes, the presence of MOF greatly increased mortality and the risk of impaired functional status. MOF expressed by SOFA score may be used to define trauma patients at particular risk for poor long-term outcomes. PMID:17784940

  7. Minimizing genital tract trauma and related pain following spontaneous vaginal birth.

    PubMed

    Albers, Leah L; Borders, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    Genital tract trauma is common following vaginal childbirth, and perineal pain is a frequent symptom reported by new mothers. The following techniques and care measures are associated with lower rates of obstetric lacerations and related pain following spontaneous vaginal birth: antenatal perineal massage for nulliparous women, upright or lateral positions for birth, avoidance of Valsalva pushing, delayed pushing with epidural analgesia, avoidance of episiotomy, controlled delivery of the baby's head, use of Dexon (U.S. Surgical; Norwalk, CT) or Vicryl (Ethicon, Inc., Somerville, NJ) suture material, the "Fleming method" for suturing lacerations, and oral or rectal ibuprofen for perineal pain relief after delivery. Further research is warranted to determine the role of prenatal pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises, general exercise, and body mass index in reducing obstetric trauma, and also the role of pelvic floor and general exercise in pelvic floor recovery after childbirth. PMID:17467591

  8. The validation of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) in a sample of inpatients.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, C; Shea, M T; Begin, A; Pearlstein, T; Simpson, E; Costello, E

    1996-06-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40; Elliot & Briere, 1992) in a sample of 130 female psychiatric inpatients. Consistent with other findings, the TSC-40 displayed criterion-related validity in relation to childhood sexual abuse. Survivors of sexual abuse obtained significantly higher scores than those without such a history on the overall TSC-40 and on each of the six subscales, except the Depression subscale. Convergent validity of three subscales was demonstrated, and divergent validity on the total TSC-40 and each of its subscales was established. Further, among a range of abuse-effects measures, the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale was the most powerful predictor of sexual abuse. The SATI and Dissociation subscales were the subscales most sensitive to the specific features of the sexual abuse. PMID:8800525

  9. Traumatic hypovolemic shock revisited: the spectrum of contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography findings and clinical implications for its management.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Hiroki; Kanki, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Akira; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Higaki, Atsushi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Hypovolemic shock is often seen in patients with severe blunt trauma who have suffered from blood circulation inadequate to maintain oxygen delivery to multiple organs. The early recognition and prompt management of hypovolemic shock in patients with multiple injuries are mandatory to improving prognosis and patient conditions. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) as a primary diagnostic tool is well established. The abdominal organs show several common and classic appearances on contrast-enhanced CT in patients with trauma. The hypovolemic shock complex is reported in the previous literature as decreased enhancement of the viscera, increased mucosal enhancement and luminal dilation of the small bowel, mural thickening and fluid-filled loops of the small bowel, the halo sign and flattening of the inferior vena cava, reduced aortic diameter, and peripancreatic edema. However, there have been controversial CT reports with contradictory appearances. Physicians understanding these findings could prompt alternative approaches to the early assessment and management of hypovolemic shock. The aim of this article is to illustrate common and well-known abdominal CT features in patients with traumatic hypovolemic shock, to discuss controversial CT signs in the pancreas and adrenal gland, and to describe CT findings' clinical implications when managing hypovolemic shock. PMID:25173684

  10. Childhood trauma, borderline personality, and eating disorders: a developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the nature and role of trauma in relationship to borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. As is clinically evident, trauma can result in a variety of psychological consequences. These consequences include both Axis I and II disorders. Among the Axis II disorders, trauma appears to heighten the risk for the development of borderline, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, and even schizotypal personality disorders. Likewise, trauma may heighten the risk for developing an eating disorder. There appear to be complex inter-relationships among trauma, borderline personality disorder, and eating disorders. In this article, we attempt to summarize these inter-relationships. PMID:17710570

  11. The Increase of Intra-Abdominal Pressure Can Affect Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ece, Ilhan; Vatansev, Celalettin; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Okka, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to explore the usage of intraocular pressure measurements as the early indicator of the increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Methods. In this prospective study, 40 patients undergoing elective surgery were included. Patients were divided into four groups of 10 patients. The control group (Group C) was not subjected to laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopic surgery was, respectively, performed with an intra-abdominal pressure of 9, 12, and 15?mmHg in Groups L (low), M (medium), and H (high pressure). Intraocular pressure was measured binocularly in each patient at three different times (before, during, and end of surgery) using a contact tonometer. Results. Patients' gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and operative times were not different among the groups. No complications occurred with either the surgery or measurement of intraocular pressure. Intubation was associated with a severe rise in IOP (P < 0.05). An increase in intraocular pressure was seen in groups M and H (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Intraocular pressure was increased in the groups with an intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mmHg or more. Measuring the intraocular pressure might be a useful method to estimate the intra-abdominal pressure. This trial is registered with NCT02319213. PMID:25648230

  12. Porcine Abdominal Wall Simulator for Laparotomy Incision and Closure.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaf; Cipriano, Cassie; Marks, Jeffrey M; Schomisch, Steve J

    2014-11-01

    We describe an economical and simple abdominal wall model that provides a realistic experience for trainees as they develop the skills of creating an abdominal incision through the midline, followed by closure of the fascia and skin. PMID:25377215

  13. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aortic Aneurysm Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The Basics Take Action! Ver en espańol Content ... with your doctor about your risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  14. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  15. Rib index.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the double rib contour sign (DRCS) and the rib index (RI). The analyzed topics are 1. the history of presentations - publication of DRCS-RI, 2. the study source origin: school screening for idiopathic scoliosis (IS), 3. what the DRCS and the RI are- Description, 4. the quantification of the DRCS - RI, 5. a reliability study for RI 6. how much the rib index is affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated individual, 7. the implications on IS aetiology, 8. the applications of Rib index for a. documentation of the deformity, b. assessment of physiotherapy, c. assessment of brace treatment and d. pre- and post-operative assessment; assessment of the rib-cage deformity correction on the transverse plane, 9. the use of RI and implications for screening policies 10. the reference of the RI method in spinal textbooks and finally 11. the citations in Google Scholar. PMID:25635184

  16. Laparoscopic Management of an Abdominal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057?mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

  17. Abdominal wall repair using human acellular dermis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Bellows; Daniel Albo; David H. Berger; Samir S. Awad

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe surgical repair of abdominal wall defects that cannot be closed primarily in contaminated fields is a difficult problem. The use of nonabsorbable synthetic materials usually is contraindicated in this setting because of the risk for colonization and chronic infection of the mesh. In this study we sought to determine the safety and efficacy of implanted human acellular dermal graft

  18. Acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Surowiec; Halit Isiklar; Suha Sreeram; Victor J. Weiss; Alan B. Lumsden

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute aortic occlusion most commonly results from aortic saddle embolus or thrombosis of an atherosclerotic abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study was to review the experience at a university hospital to better define the diagnosis and management of this uncommon process.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from patients admitted to Emory University Hospital with acute occlusion of

  19. Variability in measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Lederle; Samuel E. Wilson; Gary R. Johnson; Donovan B. Reinke; Fred N. Littooy; Charles W. Acher; Louis M. Messina; David J. Ballard; Howard J. Ansel

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report interobserver and intraobserver variability of computed tomography (CT) measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter and agreement between CT and ultrasonography observed in the course of a large, multicenter, randomized trial on the management of small AAAs.Methods: CT measurements of AAA diameter from participating centers were compared with measurements made from

  20. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.

  1. Percutaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Morasch; Melina R Kibbe; Mary E Evans; Wendy S Meadows; Mark K Eskandari; Jon S Matsumura; William H Pearce

    2004-01-01

    ObjectivePercutaneous treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is feasible, but is associated with a unique set of risks. A comparison of Excluder endograft deployment with femoral artery cutdown (FAC) versus percutaneous femoral access (PFA) for treatment of infrarenal AAA was undertaken.

  2. Relational trauma in the context of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K; Garcia, Antonia M; Smagur, Kathryn E; Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2014-12-01

    The relational model of trauma (Scheeringa & Zeanah, 2001) proposes that infants' trauma symptoms may be influenced by their mothers' trauma symptoms and disruptions in caregiving behavior, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are less well understood. In this research, we examined the direct and indirect effects of a traumatic event (maternal intimate partner violence [IPV]), maternal trauma symptoms, and impaired (harsh and neglectful) parenting on infant trauma symptoms in a sample of mother-infant dyads (N=182) using structural equation modeling. Mothers completed questionnaires on IPV experienced during pregnancy and the child's first year of life, their past-month trauma symptoms, their child's past-month trauma symptoms, and their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that the effects of prenatal IPV on infant trauma symptoms were partially mediated by maternal trauma symptoms, and the relationship between maternal and infant trauma symptoms was fully mediated by neglectful parenting. Postnatal IPV did not affect maternal or infant trauma symptoms. Findings support the application of the relational model to IPV-exposed mother-infant dyads, with regard to IPV experienced during pregnancy, and help identify potential foci of intervention for professionals working with mothers and children. PMID:25455216

  3. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  4. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  5. Fatal dog bite in the absence of significant trauma: Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection and unexpected death.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Denise; Gilbert, John D; Warner, Morgyn S; Byard, Roger W

    2010-06-01

    Sudden and unexpected nontraumatic death in individuals with asplenia or hyposplenia is usually due to fulminant bacterial sepsis, most often involving Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Hemophilus influenzae. We report a case of a previously well 40-year-old man who died 5 hours after hospital admission. At autopsy Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome was identified and Capnocytophaga canimorsus was subsequently isolated on antemortem blood cultures. Infection of humans with this organism is most often due to dog bite or contact. Upon specific inquiry it was ascertained that 2 days before admission the deceased had suffered a superficial bite to his hand by his pet Staffordshire Bullterrier dog. His relevant history included a previous splenectomy following blunt abdominal trauma. Asplenia and hyposplenia at autopsy should prompt microbiological testing with consideration of unusual organisms such as C. canimorsus. Although histories of animal contact or injury are often not available at the time of autopsy, this should also be considered in cases of apparent fulminant sepsis. In individuals with asplenia or hyposplenia, dog bites do not have to involve excessive tissue trauma, vascular compromise, or blood loss to be lethal. PMID:20407357

  6. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

  7. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal wall muscular function: spinal unloading mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The roles of antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and of intra-abdominal pressurization remain enigmatic, but are thought to be associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization in activities such as lifting. Biomechanical analyses are needed to understand the function of intra-abdominal pressurization because of the anatomical and physiological complexity, but prior analyses have been over-simplified. METHODS To test whether increased intra-abdominal pressure was associated with reduced spinal compression forces for efforts that generated moments about each of the principal axis directions, a previously published biomechanical model of the spine and its musculature was modified by the addition of anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia to the spine. Published values of muscle cross-sectional areas and the active and passive stiffness properties were assigned. The muscle activations were calculated assuming minimized muscle stress and stretch for the model loaded with flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation moments of up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressurization of 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mmHg) and partial bodyweight (340 N). FINDINGS The analysis predicted a reduction in spinal compressive force with increase in intra-abdominal pressurization from 5 to 10 kPa. This reduction at 60 Nm external effort was 21% for extension effort, 18% for flexion effort, 29% for lateral bending and 31% for axial rotation. INTERPRETATION This analysis predicts that intra-abdominal pressure produces spinal unloading, and shows likely muscle activation patterns that achieve this. PMID:20655636

  8. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  9. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Feyler; V Williamson; D King

    2002-01-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was

  10. Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth R. Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

    2001-01-01

    Sapsford RR, Hodges PW. Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1081-8. Objective: To determine whether voluntary abdominal muscle contraction is associated with pelvic floor muscle activity. Design: Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded during contractions of the abdominal muscles at 3 different intensities in supine and standing positions. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Six

  11. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  12. Pulse Wave Imaging of Human Abdominal Aortas Jianwen Luo1

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    , NY, USA JL2767@columbia.edu Abstract-- Vascular diseases (e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysm or, AAA on the mechanical properties of the aortic wall in vivo. Keywords-abdominal aortic aneurysm; pulse wave; pulse wave. Various vascular diseases including abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are known to change the tissue

  13. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    E-print Network

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model Ch. Stamatopoulos1 School, Univ. of Crete, Greece Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic by a rapid prototyping machine (3D printer). The manufactured transparent model includes the abdominal aorta

  14. Intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Cholewicki; Krishna Juluru; Stuart M. McGill

    1999-01-01

    Currently, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is thought to provide stability to the lumbar spine, but the exact principles have yet to be specified. A simplified physical model was constructed and theoretical calculations performed to illustrate a possible intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the spine. The model consisted of an inverted pendulum with linear springs representing abdominal and erector spinae muscle groups.

  15. The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris

    E-print Network

    Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

    The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris Teresita C. Insausti ­ Universite´ Franc¸ois Rabelais, Tours, France ABSTRACT The abdominal cerci of the wood cricket, Nemobius WORDS: cricket; neuroanatomy; giant interneurons; mechanoreceptor projections; terminal abdominal

  16. Geriatric trauma: resource use and patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McKevitt, Elaine C.; Calvert, E.; Ng, A.; Simons, Richard K.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Appleton, Leanne; Brown, D. Ross G.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Elderly patients who suffer trauma have a higher mortality and use disproportionately more trauma resources than younger patients. To compare these 2 groups and determine the outcomes and characteristics of elderly patients, we reviewed patients in these 2 groups admitted and treated in our tertiary care provincial trauma centre. Methods From the provincial trauma registry we selected a cohort of 40 geriatric patients (group 1) (? 65 yr of age) with an ISS of16 or more who were admitted to and spent time in our trauma service for more than 48 hours and compared them with a similar randomly selected cohort of 44 patients (group 2) aged 20–30 years. Family physicians were contacted for follow-up of these patients 2 years after discharge. We considered length of hospital stay, complications, disposition of the patients and use of consultation services. esults Patients in group 1 had a mean age of 72.1 years (range from 65–98 yr) and a mean ISS of 27.3 (range from 17–50). Patients in group 2 had a mean age of 26.3 years (range from 22–29 yr) and a mean ISS of 26.3 (range from 17–54). Hospital stay was significantly longer in the group 1: 34.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24–44 d) versus 21.6 days (95% CI: 15–28 d). More elderly patients experienced complications (35 v. 13, p < 0.001) and required medical consultations (35 v. 26, p < 0.001). In-hospital death rates were 8% (3 of 40) and 4% (2 of 44) respectively (p = 0.3). Fewer geriatric patients could be discharged home (35% [14 of 40] v. 27% [22 of 44], p = 0.056) or to rehabilitation facilities (28% [11 of 40] v. 34% [15 of 44], p = 0.3). Five geriatric patients were discharged to nursing homes (p = 0.007). Of the geriatric patients discharged to rehabilitation facilities or home, 75% were independent 2 years after discharge. Conclusions Aggressive care for geriatric trauma patients is warranted, and resources should be directed toward rehabilitation. Based on our findings, we expect that creating a directed care pathway for these patients, targetting complications and earlier discharge, will further improve their outcomes. PMID:12812248

  17. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, ?rfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model. PMID:25859871

  18. Actinomyces-induced inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the colon: A rare cause of an abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Gumus, Serdar; Sogutcu, Nilgun; Demircan, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMFTs) are neoplastic lesions that are either benign or have low-grade malignancy potential. Although the etiopathogenesis is not entirely clear, many factors play a role in their development, including trauma, autoimmune disorders, and infectious and inflammatory processes. However, IMFTs caused by Actinomyces spp. infection are rare, with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Presentation of case A 30-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumoral lesion (11 × 10 × 7 cm) in the right colon. A right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis were performed, during which almost complete obstruction of the lumen by the 7.5 × 7.0 × 5.0 cm tumor was observed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical findings revealed that the tumor was consistent with an IMFT that developed from an Actinomyces infection. The patient was then placed on amoxicillin and doxycycline therapy. Conclusion This case demonstrates that the development of IMFT secondary to actinomycosis is difficult to predict in the preoperative period. Once an exact diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologic examination, affected patients should receive prolonged antibiotherapy. PMID:25704558

  19. Population Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

  20. Abdominal compartment syndrome: does intra-cystic pressure reflect actual intra-abdominal pressure? A prospective study in surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Johna; Edward Taylor; Charlie Brown; Grenith Zimmerman

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as the adverse physiologic effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure. Prolonged, unrelieved pressure may lead to respiratory compromise, renal impairment, cardiac failure, shock, and death. Abdominal compartment syndrome is diagnosed by measuring intra-cystic pressure as a reflection of intra-abdominal pressure. To examine the validity of the technique, we conducted a prospective study in surgical patients

  1. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Marleen; Langeland, Willemien; Smit, Jan H.; Draijer, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex) trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1) quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2) compare the two study groups. Method A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program) in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design. PMID:24711888

  2. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  3. Pain and emotional processing in psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Walter, Steffen; Leissner, Nicole; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Hrabal, Vladimir; Traue, Harald C

    2010-09-01

    Extreme psychological and physical traumas cause dramatic symptom patterns which are insufficiently described by the psychiatric diagnostic criteria of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Additionally, due to the neurobiological proximity and similarity of processing mechanisms of physical and psychological pain stimulation and extremely negative emotions, the patients often suffer from persistent pains even after the somatic healing process is completed. Epidemiological studies confirm the joint occurrence of pain and PTSD. The close relationship and the etiological and behavioral similarities of both disorders have led to the development of joined vulnerability and mutual maintenance models. The particular suffering of patients with PTSD due to chronic pain necessitates pain-therapeutic interventions. On the other hand, in chronic pain patients, the etiological role of severe traumas should be considered. PMID:20856194

  4. Designing clinical trials in trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Perry, D. C.; Griffin, X. L.; Parsons, N.; Costa, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The surgical community is plagued with a reputation for both failing to engage and to deliver on clinical research. This is in part due to the absence of a strong research culture, however it is also due to a multitude of barriers encountered in clinical research; particularly those involving surgical interventions. ‘Trauma’ amplifies these barriers, owing to the unplanned nature of care, unpredictable work patterns, the emergent nature of treatment and complexities in the consent process. This review discusses the barriers to clinical research in surgery, with a particular emphasis on trauma. It considers how barriers may be overcome, with the aim to facilitate future successful clinical research. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:123–9. PMID:24764547

  5. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence. PMID:12560012

  6. On trauma, perversion, and "multiple personality".

    PubMed

    Brenner, I

    1996-01-01

    The role of perverse sexuality as an organizing influence in "multiple personality" is explored in this paper. Following a brief review of psychoanalytic thinking on sexual trauma and perversion, the author discusses his own views on dissociation and "multiple personality." A clinical case is then presented in which transsexualism, homosexuality, and sadomasochistic heterosexual practices were manifested during altered ego states. Analysis of the transference revealed the centrality of sadomasochism in this patient. It is hypothesized that various perverse structures may be formed within these seemingly autonomous, amnestic states, in order to contain anxiety and encapsulate the aggression which resulted from early psychic trauma. Issues relating to diagnosis, countertransference, reconstruction, and psychoanalytic technique are discussed also. PMID:8892188

  7. Bone morphogenetic proteins in orthopaedic trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    Argintar, Evan; Edwards, Scott; Delahay, John

    2011-08-01

    Fracture healing describes the normal post-traumatic physiologic process of bone regeneration. Commonly, this complicated process occurs without interruption, however, certain clinical situations exist that may benefit from the usage of bone healing enhancement agents. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) assist in the process of bone healing by recruiting bone-forming cells to the area of trauma. The usage of BMP currently has two FDA-approved indications: (1) treatment of acute tibial fractures treated with intramedullary fixation and (2) treatment of long bone non-union. Despite this limited scope, off-label BMP usage continues to push the envelope for new applications. Although proven to be clinically successful, BMP use must be balanced with the large costs associated with their application. Regardless, more prospective randomised clinical trials must be conducted to validate and expand the role of BMP in the setting of trauma. PMID:21145058

  8. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption. PMID:9550069

  9. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  10. Spirituality and Resilience in Trauma Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio F. P. Peres; Alexander Moreira-Almeida; Antonia Gladys Nasello; Harold G. Koenig

    2007-01-01

    The way people process stressors is critical in determining whether or not trauma will be experienced. Some clinical and neuroimaging\\u000a findings suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder patients experience difficulty in synthesizing the traumatic experience\\u000a in a comprehensive narrative. Religiousness and spirituality are strongly based on a personal quest for understanding of questions\\u000a about life and meaning. Building narratives based on

  11. Reno Orthopaedic Trauma Fellowship business curriculum.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Bray, Timothy J; Hill, Austin D

    2014-07-01

    The Reno Orthopaedic Center (ROC) Trauma Fellowship business curriculum is designed to provide the fellow with a graduate level business practicum and research experience. The time commitments in a typical 12-month trauma fellowship are significant, rendering a traditional didactic master's in business administration difficult to complete during this short time. An organized, structured, practical business education can provide the trauma leaders of tomorrow with the knowledge and experience required to effectively navigate the convoluted and constantly changing healthcare system. The underlying principle throughout the curriculum is to provide the fellow with the practical knowledge to participate in cost-efficient improvements in healthcare delivery. Through the ROC Trauma Fellowship business curriculum, the fellow will learn that delivering healthcare in a manner that provides better outcomes for equal or lower costs is not only possible but a professional and ethical responsibility. However, instilling these values without providing actionable knowledge and programs would be insufficient and ineffective. For this reason, the core of the curriculum is based on individual teaching sessions with a wide array of hospital and private practice administrators. In addition, each section is equipped with a suggested reading list to maximize the learning experience. Upon completion of the curriculum, the fellow should be able to: (1) Participate in strategic planning at both the hospital and practice level based on analysis of financial and clinical data, (2) Understand the function of healthcare systems at both a macro and micro level, (3) Possess the knowledge and skills to be strong leaders and effective communicators in the business lexicon of healthcare, (4) Be a partner and innovator in the improvement of the delivery of orthopaedic services, (5) Combine scientific and strategic viewpoints to provide an evidence-based strategy for improving quality of care in a cost-efficient manner, (6) Understand the political, economic, and strategic basics of private practice orthopaedics. PMID:24918829

  12. [Abusive head trauma: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Grana, M; Nazar, M; de Luca, S; Casalini, E; Eyheremendy, E

    2015-01-01

    The abusive head trauma is a form of child abuse. The most frequent injuries are intracranial lesions, such as subdural hematoma, as well as retinal hemorrhages, usually without other external injuries. Due to its complexity, this problem requires a multidisciplinary medical team, where the role of the radiologist is important, since there are multiple diagnostic methods that are complementary in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:24853831

  13. TRAUMA AND DISSOCIATIVE EXPERIENCES IN EATING DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Dalle Grave; M. D. Manuela Oliosi; Patrizia Todisco; Claudia Bartocci

    This study investigates the relationship between trauma, dissocia- tive experiences, and eating psychopathology in a group of eating disorder patients. TheDissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q) and a semi- structured interview were used to assess 106 eating disorder patients at the start of an inpatient treatment program. DIS-Q scores were evaluated for the eating disorder patients and compared with the scores of 20

  14. Acute knee trauma: role of ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Bonnefoy; Benoît Diris; Maryse Moinard; Stéphane Aunoble; François Diard; Olivier Hauger

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of high spatial resolution ultrasonography (US) in the\\u000a detection of lipohemarthrosis of the knee and to evaluate this sign as criteria of intra-articular fracture. Forty-eight patients\\u000a with clinical suspicion of knee fracture were prospectively examined by conventional radiography, sonography examination and\\u000a computed tomography (CT) within 48 h after trauma in

  15. Bone Adhesives in Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Heiss; Ralf Kraus; Dominique Schluckebier; Ann-Christin Stiller; Sabine Wenisch; Reinhard Schnettler

    2006-01-01

    Adhesives, especially bone adhesives, are resorbed and degraded to non-toxic products after fulfilling their function in contact\\u000a with the living organism. The use of such bone adhesives has found growing interest in all fields of medicine in the last\\u000a 50 years. The dream of trauma and orthopedic surgeons for alternatives to osteosynthesis and pins is reflected in the development\\u000a of

  16. Redesigning the response to patients with trauma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carla; Seggie, Julie; Murphy, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    In 2008, a multidisciplinary team of nurses, doctors, clerical staff, a social worker and paramedic at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, began a project to redesign the composition and practice of the hospital's trauma team. This article describes the process involved and explains why staff collaboration, the involvement of stakeholders and the sponsorship of the hospital executive team were crucial to the success of the project. These principles can be transferred to other hospitals. PMID:22876507

  17. Purposeful Variable Selection and Stratification to Impute Missing FAST Data in Trauma Research

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Paul A.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Wade, Charles A.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Myers, John G.; Muskat, Peter; Phelan, Herb A.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam is an important variable in many retrospective trauma studies. The purpose of this study was to devise an imputation method to overcome missing data for the FAST exam. Due to variability in patients’ injuries and trauma care, these data are unlikely to be missing completely at random (MCAR), raising concern for validity when analyses exclude patients with missing values. Methods Imputation was conducted under a less restrictive, more plausible missing at random (MAR) assumption. Patients with missing FAST exams had available data on alternate, clinically relevant elements that were strongly associated with FAST results in complete cases, especially when considered jointly. Subjects with missing data (32.7%) were divided into eight mutually exclusive groups based on selected variables that both described the injury and were associated with missing FAST values. Additional variables were selected within each group to classify missing FAST values as positive or negative, and correct FAST exam classification based on these variables was determined for patients with non-missing FAST values. Results Severe head/neck injury (odds ratio, OR=2.04), severe extremity injury (OR=4.03), severe abdominal injury (OR=1.94), no injury (OR=1.94), other abdominal injury (OR=0.47), other head/neck injury (OR=0.57) and other extremity injury (OR=0.45) groups had significant ORs for missing data; the other group odds ratio was not significant (OR=0.84). All 407 missing FAST values were imputed, with 109 classified as positive. Correct classification of non-missing FAST results using the alternate variables was 87.2%. Conclusions Purposeful imputation for missing FAST exams based on interactions among selected variables assessed by simple stratification may be a useful adjunct to sensitivity analysis in the evaluation of imputation strategies under different missing data mechanisms. This approach has the potential for widespread application in clinical and translational research and validation is warranted. Level of Evidence Level II Prognostic or Epidemiological PMID:23778515

  18. [Research and promotion of severe trauma rescue standard].

    PubMed

    Kou, Y H; Yin, X F; Wang, T B; Jiang, B G

    2015-04-18

    Trauma is a global social problem, with the number of deaths up to 5.8 million all over the world annually. Currently, severe trauma has become the first cause of death in young adults in China. Nowadays, there are many problems in the trauma rescue system, including long pre-hospital transfer period, several secondary transfers, no information exchange between pre-hospital and in-hospital care, and the poor integrated treatment, which results in the situation that the overall treatment level of severe trauma in China is relatively low. In order to solve these problems, we carried out the research and promotion of severe trauma rescue standard, involving completing severe trauma information database, providing local rescue medical workers with standard training, and building up the information system for the linkage and warning of severe trauma. In addition, we developed and promoted the new standard system for severe trauma in 15 cities with 124 medical centers. Due to our research, the treatment ability of severe trauma in the pilot areas was enhanced, and the mortality and morbidity of severe trauma were reduced significantly. To sum up, we had got the expected results after implementing the project. PMID:25882931

  19. [Professor WU Xu's clinical experiences on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Bin; Sun, Jian-Hua; Ai, Bing-Wei; Bao, Chao; Wu, Wen-Zhong; Li, Jian-Bing; Liu, Lan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Yun; Pei, Li-Xia; Zhou, Jun-Ling; Li, Yan-Cai; Qin, Shan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical experiences and proven cases of distinguished doctor of TCM, professor WU Xu, on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain is introduced. Professor WU's manipulation characteristics of acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain, including acute cholecystitis, kidney stone, acute stomach pain, are one-hand shape but both hands in nature, moving like Tai Chi, force on the tip of needle, movement of qi mainly. The main technique posture is one-hand holding needle with middle finger for pressing, the needle is hold by thumb and index finger, and is assisted by middle finger. The special acupuncture experience of emergency is treatment according to syndrome differentiation, combination of acupuncture and moxibustion, selecting acupoint based on experience, blood-letting acupuncture therapy and so on. PMID:24843977

  20. The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to emergency department discharge and to the operating room. These benefits are demonstrated by improved survival rates, particularly for the most severely injured patients, both within and outside of dedicated trauma centres. In order to ensure the best possible performance of the team, the leadership skills of the trauma team leader are essential and their non-technical skills have been shown to be particularly important. Team performance can be enhanced through a process of audit and assessment of the workings of the team and the evidence currently available suggests that this is best facilitated through the process of video review of the trauma resuscitation. The use of human patient simulators to train and assess trauma teams is becoming more commonplace and this technique offers a safe environment for the future education of trauma team staff. Trauma teams are a key component of most programmes which set out to improve trauma care. This article reviews the background of trauma teams, the evidence for benefit and potential techniques of performance assessment. The review was written after a PubMed, Ovid, Athens, Cochrane and guideline literature review of English language articles on trauma teams and their performance and hand searching of references from the relevant searched articles. PMID:21144035