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Sample records for abdominal trauma index

  1. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  2. [Abdominal penetrating trauma].

    PubMed

    Kring, Søren; Helligsøe, Per; Kåg, Lise

    2009-06-22

    A 19-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Room as a trauma patient. During a tilting contest she fell off the horse and was penetrated by a spear used for tilting the ring. She was respiratorically as well as haemodynamically stable. The spear was supported but not removed by the paramedics. The spear penetrated the patient near the left iliac crest pointing at the heart. Further investigation at the Emergency Room is described briefly and guidelines for penetrating, impaled foreign bodies in the (thoraco)abdominal region are outlined. PMID:19671404

  3. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  4. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant. PMID:24918875

  5. [Abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma].

    PubMed

    Frizza, J I; Fainstein, D; Lasdica, S; Ontivero, M; Mele, J I; Vilariño, E

    2007-04-01

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta with total interruption of blood flow is uncommon. When there is total obstruction of the artery, the clinical picture is dramatic. The most frequent mechanism is compression due to the safety belt during a car accident. The patients have absent femoral and distal pulses, associated to neuropathy in the lower limbs. We present a case of abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma and review the causes, presentation forms and management of the injury. PMID:17439771

  6. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

    2010-01-01

    Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

  7. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  8. A historical review of penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Blank-Reid, Cynthia

    2006-09-01

    The course of history changed because of the deaths of these two men. Although the world doesn't remember Chester Allan Arthur (JAG's Vice President), Theodore Roosevelt became one of our most popular presidents. Neither president's injuries were life-threatening, but they died of postoperative complications. The technology and treatment used for penetrating abdominal trauma have changed tremendously over the past 100 years. Both presidents would survive if they sustained their injuries today. PMID:16962459

  9. [Videoendosurgical diagnosis and treatment of abdominal injuries in combined trauma].

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, V N; Cherkasov, M F; Litvinov, B I; Sarkisian, V A; Turbin, M V

    2006-01-01

    Experience with videolaparoscopy in 1332 patients with combined abdominal trauma is analyzed. The original method of diagnosis of traumatic abdominal multitraumas in shock patients was proposed and patented. Diagnostic and treatment algorithm for hemoperitoneum in patients with abdominal multitrauma based on USE or CT data on liquid in the abdominal cavity has been developed. Videolaparoscopy helped to avoid open surgery in 73.3% patients with dominating abdominal trauma. PMID:16883252

  10. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended. PMID:26698210

  11. Splenic injury after blunt abdominal trauma during a soccer (football) game.

    PubMed

    Padlipsky, Patricia S; Brindis, Seth; Young, Kelly D

    2014-10-01

    The spleen is the most commonly injured abdominal organ in children who sustain blunt abdominal trauma, and pediatric splenic injury may result from minor mechanisms of injury, including sports participation. We present 2 cases of splenic injury in soccer goalies because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained during game play. Although abdominal organ injuries are uncommon in soccer, emergency medicine and primary care physicians must be aware of the possibility. A high index of suspicion and careful physical examination are key in making the diagnosis. PMID:25275352

  12. Acute appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. Incidence or coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Hennington, M H; Tinsley, E A; Proctor, H J; Baker, C C

    1991-01-01

    Inflammation of the appendix is a common cause of acute abdominal pain. The etiology and pathophysiology of appendicitis have been well described. The initiating factor often is obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by inspissated stool, barium, food, parasites, or hyperplastic lymphoid tissue. Two patients have been identified who developed appendicitis temporally related to blunt abdominal trauma, without other clear etiology. Although absolute documentation of trauma as an etiologic factor in these cases is difficult, theoretical mechanisms for the occurrence are discussed. In the setting of right lower quadrant pain following mild to moderate blunt abdominal trauma, acute appendicitis should be considered as a possibility. PMID:2064473

  13. Prospective evaluation of hand-held focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Sirois, Marco; Laupland, Kevin B.; Goldstein, Leanelle; Brown, David Ross; Simons, Richard K.; Dulchavsky, Scott; Boulanger, Bernard R.

    2005-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography (US) has become indispensable in assessing the status of the injured patient. Although hand-held US equipment is now commercially available and may expand the availability and speed of US in assessing the trauma patient, it has not been subjected to controlled evaluation in early trauma care. Methods A 2.4-kg hand-held (HH) US device was used to perform focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) on blunt trauma victims at 2 centres. Results were compared with the “truth” as determined through formal FAST examinations (FFAST), CT, operative findings and serial examination. The ability of HHFAST to detect free fluid, intra-abdominal injuries and injuries requiring therapeutic interventions was assessed. Results HHFAST was positive in 80% of 313 patients who needed surgery or angiography. HHFAST test performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios of positive and negative test results) were 77%, 99%, 96%, 94%, 95%, 95 and 0.2, respectively, for free fluid, and 64%, 99%, 96%, 89%, 90%, 74 and 0.4, respectively, for documented injuries. HHFAST missed or gave an indeterminate result in 8 (3%) of 270 patients with injuries who required therapeutic intervention and 25 (9%) of 270 patients who did not require intervention. FFAST performance was comparable. Conclusions HHFAST performed by clinicians detects intraperitoneal fluid with a high degree of accuracy. All FAST examinations are valuable tests when positive. They will miss some injuries, but the majority of the injuries missed do not require therapy. HHFAST provides an early extension of the physical examination but should be complemented by the selective use of CT, rather than formal repeat US. PMID:16417051

  14. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma-some uncommon indications

    PubMed Central

    Dharap, Satish B.; Noronha, Jarin; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Trauma laparotomy after blunt abdominal trauma is conventionally indicated for patients with features of hemodynamic instability and peritonitis to achieve control of hemorrhage and control of spillage. In addition, surgery is clearly indicated for the repair of posttraumatic diaphragmatic injury with herniation. Some other indications for laparotomy have been presented and discussed. Five patients with blunt abdominal injury who underwent laparotomy for nonroutine indications have been presented. These patients were hemodynamically stable and had no overt signs of peritonitis. Three patients had solid organ (spleen, kidney) infarction due to posttraumatic occlusion of the blood supply. One patient had mesenteric tear with internal herniation of bowel loops causing intestinal obstruction. One patient underwent surgery for traumatic abdominal wall hernia. In addition to standard indications for surgery in blunt abdominal trauma, laparotomy may be needed for vascular thrombosis of end arteries supplying solid organs, internal or external herniation through a mesenteric tear or anterior abdominal wall musculature, respectively.

  15. Pancreatic Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hasanovic, Jasmin; Agic, Mirha; Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Jakubovic-Cickusic, Amra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic injuries are not common after blunt and penetrating trauma, but can be challenging to diagnose and manage. Case report: Twenty-three year old man, injured during a fall from a motorcycle two days earlier, was admitted to Department of Surgery, University Clinical Centre Tuzla because of suspicion of pancreatic trauma. Immediately after hospitalization, patient underwent laboratory and radiological tests that revealed the existence of pancreatic trauma, so we opted for urgent surgical treatment. Surgery and early postoperative course were normal and the patient was discharged on the ninth postoperative day. Conclusion: Proper diagnosis and well-selected surgical treatment significantly increases the chances for recovery of these patients. PMID:26005266

  16. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  17. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. Objectives: To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Results: Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Conclusions: Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid. PMID:25763079

  19. Successful management of a combined abdominal and thoracic trauma with rectal impalement: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kasapas, Konstantinos; Daskalaki, Anna; Kaimasidis, George; Chalkiadakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Combined abdominal and thoracic impalement injuries are a rare form of penetrating trauma. Nowadays, they occur more frequently as an accident and not so often as a deliberate violent action. Case Report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with chest pain and respiratory distress after he had reportedly slipped in his bathtub. Abdominal and thoracic imaging, including computed tomography (CT), confirmed a right-sided pneumothorax and a liver laceration without bleeding or further endoperitoneal trauma. A chest tube was placed. During his hospitalization in the first 24-hour period, he complained of abdominal and right shoulder pain accompanied by fever. A new abdominal and thoracic CT scanning revealed a rupture of the rectosigmoid, a rupture of right hemidiaphragm, and a foreign body in the thoracic cavity. The patient admitted that a broomstick was violently placed through his rectum, and he underwent a thoracotomy with an exploratory laparotomy. The foreign object was removed, the diaphragmatic rupture was repaired, and a Hartmann's procedure was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion. In cases of combined thoracoabdominal trauma, high index of suspicion is required when medical history is misleading and the injuries are not obvious immediately. A coordinated team effort in a well-organized trauma center is also very important. PMID:23844309

  20. Correlation Between Intra-Abdominal Free Fluid and Solid Organ Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Talari, Hamidreza; Moussavi, Nushin; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Atoof, Fatemeh; Abedini, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, the diagnostic value of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has been evaluated but few studies have been performed on the relationship between the amount of free intra-abdominal fluid and organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma. To select patients with a higher probability of intra-abdominal injuries, several scoring systems have been proposed based on the results of FAST. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of FAST according to the Huang scoring system and to propose a cut-off point for predicting the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on the Computed Tomography (CT) scan. The correlation between age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on the CT scan was also assessed. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 200 patients with severe blunt abdominal trauma who had stable vital signs. For all patients, FAST-ultrasound was performed by a radiologist and the free fluid score in the abdomen was calculated according to the Huang score. Immediately, an intravenous contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scan was performed in all patients and abdominal solid organ injuries were assessed. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test and ROC curves. The correlation between age and GCS and the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on CT-scan was also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 ± 18.3 years and FAST was positive in 67% of the subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the FAST score and the presence of organ injury on CT scan (P < 0.001). Considering the cut-off point of 3 for the free fluid score (with a range of 0-8), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated to be 0.83, 0.98, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. Age and GCS showed no significant correlation with intra-abdominal injuries. Conclusions: It seems that FAST examination for intra-abdominal fluid in blunt trauma patients can predict intra-abdominal injuries with very high sensitivity and specificity. Using the scoring system can more accurately determine the probability of the presence of abdominal injuries with a cut-off point of three. PMID:26566511

  1. Mechanical small bowel obstruction following a blunt abdominal trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zirak-Schmidt, Samira; El-Hussuna, Alaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal obstruction following abdominal trauma has previously been described. However, in most reported cases pathological finding was intestinal stenosis. Presentation of the case A 51-year-old male was admitted after a motor vehicle accident. Initial focused abdominal sonogram for trauma and enhanced computerized tomography were normal, however there was a fracture of the tibia. Three days later, he complained of abdominal pain, constipation, and vomiting. An exploratory laparotomy showed bleeding from the omentum and mechanical small bowel obstruction due to a fibrous band. Discussion The patient had prior abdominal surgery, but clinical and radiological findings indicate that the impact of the motor vehicle accident initiated his condition either by causing rotation of a bowel segment around the fibrous band, or by formation of a fibrous band secondary to minimal bleeding from the omentum. Conclusion High index of suspicion of intestinal obstruction is mandatory in trauma patients presenting with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation despite uneventful CT scan. PMID:26566436

  2. Early laparoscopic approach to pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Adarsh; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. A timely accurate diagnosis of such injury is difficult and also the management remains controversial. Here, we reported the successful use of laparoscopy to diagnose, characterize and treat blunt pancreatic trauma in a 28-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle crash. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed peripancreatic fat stranding suggestive of pancreatic injury. With persistent clinical signs of peritonitis and laboratory investigations suggestive of pancreatitis, the patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of the lesser sac. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The management of patients with blunt pancreatic injuries should be tailored to individual situations. Our experience suggests that a timely laparoscopic management of traumatic pancreatic injury is safe approach in selected cases. PMID:25477017

  3. Single-antibiotic use for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R M; Benitez, P R; Newell, M A; Wilson, R F

    1986-02-01

    A prospective randomized study compared the use of moxalactam disodium vs clindamycin phosphate and tobramycin sulfate for treatment of 190 patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. Twenty-seven patients were disqualified because of early death or failure to follow the protocol. The patients in each group were comparable regarding the cause and severity of injury. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of intra-abdominal infection between the moxalactam-treated group (13%) and the clindamycin- and tobramycin-treated group (9%). The intra-abdominal infection rate in patients with colon injuries (21%) was significantly increased when compared with the patients without colon injuries (6%), but the antibiotic regimen did not significantly change the infection rate. No evidence of bleeding problems from moxalactam were noted. Changes in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times appeared to be related to shock rather than the use of moxalactam. The most severe coagulopathies occurred prior to moxalactam therapy and were seen only in those patients who had shock requiring 10 or more units of blood. Moxalactam is as effective as combination (clindamycin and tobramycin) antimicrobial therapy in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. PMID:3947216

  4. Outcomes for Children Hospitalized With Abusive Versus Noninflicted Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lotwin, Irwin; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) is the second leading cause of child abuse mortality. Previous outcome studies have been limited to data from trauma centers. OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were (1) to examine mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital charges among a national sample of children hospitalized for AAT; and (2) to compare these outcomes with children with noninflicted abdominal trauma. METHODS: Hospitalization data for children aged 0 to 9 years were obtained from the 2003 and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. Cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and external cause of injury codes. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare outcomes of children with AAT versus those with noninflicted injury. RESULTS: Children with AAT were younger, and more often insured by Medicaid. Among children surviving to discharge, those with AAT had longer hospitalizations (adjusted mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] length of stay: 7.9 (6.6–9.3) vs 6.4 (6.1–6.7) days, P < .01) and higher charges (adjusted mean [95% CI] costs: $24 343 [$20 952–$28 567] vs $19 341 [$18 770–$20 131]; P < .01). Among children aged 1 to 9 years, those with AAT had higher mortality (adjusted rate [95% CI]: 9.2% [5.0%–16.1%] vs 2.7% [2.2%–3.2%], P < .01). There was no significant difference in mortality for children aged younger than 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalized for AAT generally had poorer short-term outcomes compared with children with noninflicted abdominal trauma. Studies to explain these differences are needed. In addition, efforts to prevent these injuries and to assist families at risk should be supported. PMID:21555490

  5. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: does trauma center designation affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Bounoua, Farida; Schuster, Rob; Grewal, Prabhjot; Waxman, Kenneth; Cisek, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) continues to be a major cause of mortality in the United States. Rapid diagnosis and uncomplicated surgical repair remain paramount to improving survival in this population. We proposed that the addition of an organized trauma service and subsequent improved management of critically ill patients who present with RAAA would positively impact overall mortality. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients treated for RAAA at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital for the years 1985-2004. Patients treated before level II trauma center designation (1985-1999) were compared to those treated after the trauma center was instituted. A total of 76 patients were included in this analysis. The two groups were similar with regard to demographics. However, significant decreases in transport time from the emergency department to the operating room and overall 30-day mortality were seen in patients after the trauma center designation. This designation also led to an increase in the number of cases performed per year, centralizing the treatment for these critically ill patients. Institution of a well-prepared and organized service, such as trauma, improved the outcome for patients treated with RAAA, with a particular benefit in the unstable patient. PMID:17349351

  6. Role of plasma ammonia level in detecting intra-abdominal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Davood; Fadaki, Ali Akbar Khademi; Kianmehr, Nahid; Abbasi, Saeed; Rezai, Mahdi; Marashi, Mohammad; Mofidi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Materials and Methods: In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. Results: A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4%) had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 ?g/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 ?g/dL, P < 0.001). On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 ?g/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100), 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8), 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12), and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients. PMID:25657755

  7. An Experience with Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Evaluation, Management and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nikhil; Babu, Sudarshan; Venugopal, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a frequent emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in spite of improved recognition, diagnosis and management. Trauma is the second largest cause of disease accounting for 16% of global burden. The World Health Organization estimates that, by 2020, trauma will be the first or second leading cause of years of productive life lost for the entire world population. This study endeavors to evaluate 71 cases of BAT with stress on early diagnosis and management, increase use of non operative management, and time of presentation of patients. A retrospective analysis of 71 patients of BAT who were admitted in Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences hospital (KIMS, Bangalore, India) within a span of 18 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years with an M:F ratio of 3.7:1. Motor vehicle accident (53%) was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (53%) was the commonest organ injured and the most common surgery performed was splenectomy (30%). Most common extra abdominal injury was rib fracture in 20%. Mortality rate was 4%. Wound sepsis (13%) was the commonest complication. Initial resuscitation measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the most vital part of management. 70% of splenic, liver and renal injuries can be managed conservatively where as hollow organs need laparotomy in most of the cases. The time of presentation of patients has a lot to do with outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives. PMID:25332759

  8. Serial bedside emergency ultrasound in a case of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma with severe abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pershad, J; Gilmore, B

    2000-10-01

    We present a case of a teenager with isolated left renal laceration with perirenal hematoma. The patient had presented with severe left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) sustained during a sledding accident. A screening bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) rapidly excluded free fluid on two serial examinations, 30 minutes apart. It provided the pediatric emergency physician with a measure of diagnostic confidence that the patient could be safely transported to the CT suite for detailed delineation of his injury. Moreover, narcotic analgesia was liberally administered early in his illness course, without the fear of unmasking potential hypovolemia when it was known that he did not have gross intra-abdominal bleeding on his bedside ultrasound (US). It also provided a working diagnosis of the primary organ of injury. Our hospital, like many pediatric hospitals around the nation, does not have in-house 24-hour radiology support. We suggest that the use of the bedside US be extended to the stable pediatric patient in severe abdominal pain following BAT. It can serve as a valuable, rapid, noninvasive, bedside, easily repeated, fairly accurate triage tool to evaluate pediatric BAT with severe pain. PMID:11063373

  9. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pancreatitis, paediatrics, and trauma.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Ejike, Janeth C; Leppäniemi, Ari; De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Laet, Inneke; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction among patients with trauma and sepsis. However, the impact of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) among pediatric, pregnant, non-septic medical patients, and those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), obesity, and burns has been studied less extensively. The aim of this review is to outline the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) for the above patient populations. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed to identify relevant studies. There is an increasing awareness of IAH in general medicine. The incidence of IAH and, to a lesser extent, ACS is high among patients with SAP. IAH should always be suspected and IAP measured routinely. In children, normal IAP in mechanically ventilated patients is approximately 7 ± 3 mm Hg. As an IAP of 10-15 mm Hg has been associated with organ damage in children, an IAP greater than 10 mm Hg should be considered IAH in these patients. Moreover, as ACS may occur in children at an IAP lower than 20 mm Hg, any elevation in IAP higher than 10 mm Hg associated with new organ dysfunction should be considered ACS in children until proven otherwise. Monitor IAP trends and be aware that specific interventions may need to be instituted at lower IAP than the current ACS definitions accommodate. Finally, IAH and ACS can occur both in abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma patients. Early mechanical hemorrhage control and the avoidance of excessive fluid resuscitation are key elements in preventing IAH in trauma patients. IAH and ACS have been associated with many conditions beyond the general ICU patient. In adults and in children, the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and the prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early during their treatment (with a low threshold to initiate IAP monitoring). Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 20 mm Hg, especially in patients developing difficulty with ventilation. Although on-operative measures should be instituted first, one should not hesitate to resort to surgical decompression if they fail. PMID:25973660

  10. Systematic review of blunt abdominal trauma as a cause of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Zaher; Chan, Anthony; Hadfield, Matthew B; Hulton, Neil R

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords ‘appendicitis’, ‘abdominal’ and ‘trauma’. RESULTS The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:20513274

  11. Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma and Abdominal Computed Tomography Utilization in Adult Trauma Patients: Trends over the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Alexander Y.; Dalziel, Peregrine; Liteplo, Andrew S.; Fagenholz, Peter; Noble, Vicki E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We sought to describe the trend in abdominal CT use in adult trauma patients after a point-of-care emergency ultrasound program was introduced. We hypothesized that abdominal CT use would decrease as FAST use increased. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of 19940 consecutive trauma patients over the age of 18 admitted to our level one trauma center from 2002 through 2011. Data was collected retrospectively and recorded in a trauma registry. We plotted the rate of FAST and abdominal CT utilization over time. Head CT was used as a surrogate for overall CT utilization rates during the study period. Results. Use of FAST increased by an average of 2.3% (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5, P < 0.01) while abdominal CT use decreased by the same rate annually. The percentage of patients who received FAST as the sole imaging modality for the abdomen rose from 2.0% to 21.9% while those who only received an abdominal CT dropped from 21.7% to 2.3%. Conclusions. Abdominal CT use in our cohort declined while FAST utilization grew in the last decade. The rising use of FAST may have played a role in the reduction of abdominal CT performed as decline in CT utilization appears contrary to overall trends. PMID:24073336

  12. Ultrasound in the evaluation of penetrating thoraco-abdominal trauma: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Governatori, Nicholas J; Saul, Turandot; Siadecki, Sebastian D; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-12-01

    The use of ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma is well described. Evidence for the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of penetrating cardio-thoracic and abdominal trauma, however, is more limited and varied. Current literature demonstrates that ultrasound is an excellent screening tool for penetrating thoracic and cardiac injuries with a high sensitivity for detecting injury requiring acute intervention. For abdominal injuries, however, the sensitivity for detection of injury is low and thus the utility of ultrasound as a screening tool is limited. This review summarizes the existing literature addressing the clinical utility of ultrasound for penetrating trauma to the pericardium, thorax and abdomen. PMID:26649350

  13. Left External Iliac and Common Femoral Artery Occlusion Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma without Associated Bone Injury

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Park, Il Hwan; Do, Hye-jin; Bae, Keum Seok; Oh, Joong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause peripheral vascular injuries. However, blunt abdominal trauma rarely results in injuries to the external iliac and common femoral arteries, which often stem from regional bone fractures. Here, we present the case of a patient who had experienced trauma in the lower abdominal and groin area three months before presenting to the hospital, but these injuries did not involve bone fractures and had been managed conservatively. The patient came to the hospital because of left lower leg claudication that gradually became severe. Computed tomography angiography confirmed total occlusion of the external iliac and common femoral arteries. The patient underwent femorofemoral bypass grafting and was discharged uneventfully. PMID:26078931

  14. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses in patients with major trauma: the use of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, N.O.; Shatney, C.H.

    1983-04-01

    The usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing abdominal abscesses was evaluated prospectively in 69 septic patients who had suffered massive trauma. For the 82 abdominal CT scans obtained, the accuracy rate was 84%, the sensitivity was 92%, and the specificity was 79%. With the use of abdominal CT, 32 patients were spared a ''blind'' laparotomy in the search for the focus of infection. It is concluded that CT is of significant value in the diagnosis of abdominal abscess in the septic trauma patient.

  15. Frequency, causes and pattern of abdominal trauma: A 4-year descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of abdominal trauma is still underreported from the Arab Middle-East. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, clinical presentation, and outcome of the abdominal trauma patients in a newly established trauma center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at the only level I trauma center in Qatar for the patients admitted with abdominal trauma (2008-2011). Patients demographics, mechanism of injury, pattern of organ injuries, associated extra-abdominal injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale, complications, length of Intensive Care Unit, and hospital stay, and mortality were reviewed. Results: A total of 6888 trauma patients were admitted to the hospital, of which 1036 (15%) had abdominal trauma. The mean age was 30.6 ± 13 years and the majority was males (93%). Road traffic accidents (61%) were the most frequent mechanism of injury followed by fall from height (25%) and fall of heavy object (7%). The mean ISS was 17.9 ± 10. Liver (36%), spleen (32%) and kidney (18%) were most common injured organs. The common associated extra-abdominal injuries included chest (35%), musculoskeletal (32%), and head injury (24%). Wound infection (3.8%), pneumonia (3%), and urinary tract infection (1.4%) were the frequently observed complications. The overall mortality was 8.3% and late mortality was observed in 2.3% cases mainly due to severe head injury and sepsis. The predictors of mortality were head injury, ISS, need for blood transfusion, and serum lactate. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is a frequent diagnosis in multiple trauma and the presence of extra-abdominal injuries and sepsis has a significant impact on the outcome. PMID:26604524

  16. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n?=?70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n?=?40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT?trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n?=?17) as result of operative management or later (n?=?11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals. PMID:25124882

  17. The Houdini effect--an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in perforative appendicitis.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, F; Lim, K T; Hayes, B; Shields, W; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

    2012-03-01

    We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace's theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation. PMID:22558817

  18. Seat Belt Use and its Effect on Abdominal Trauma: A National Trauma Databank Study.

    PubMed

    Nash, Nick A; Okoye, Obi; Albuz, Ozgur; Vogt, Kelly N; Karamanos, Efstathios; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-02-01

    We sought to use the National Trauma Databank to determine the demographics, injury distribution, associated abdominal injuries, and outcomes of those patients who are restrained versus unrestrained. All victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were identified from the National Trauma Databank and stratified into subpopulations depending on the use of seat belts. A total of 150,161 MVC victims were included in this study, 72,394 (48%) were belted. Young, male passengers were the least likely to be wearing a seat belt. Restrained victims were less likely to have severe injury as measured by Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Score. Restrained victims were also less likely to suffer solid organ injuries (9.7% vs 12%, P < 0.001), but more likely to have hollow viscous injuries (1.9% vs 1.3%, P < 0.001). The hospital and intensive care unit length of stay were significantly shorter in belted victims with adjusted mean difference: -1.36 (-1.45, -1.27) and -0.96 (-1.02, -0.90), respectively. Seat belt use was associated with a significantly lower crude mortality than unrestrained victims (1.9% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001), and after adjusting for differences in age, gender, position in vehicle, and deployment of air bags, the protective effect remained (adjusted odds ratio for mortality 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.54). In conclusion, MVC victims wearing seat belts have a significant reduction in the severity of injuries in all body areas, lower mortality, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased length of stay in the intensive care unit. The nature of abdominal injuries, however, was significantly different, with a higher incidence of hollow viscous injury in those wearing seat belts. PMID:26874135

  19. False-positive focused abdominal sonography in trauma in a hypotensive child: case report.

    PubMed

    Imamedjian, Isabelle; Baird, Robert; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a false-positive focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST) examination in a persistently hypotensive pediatric trauma patient, performed 12 hours after the trauma, suspected to be caused by massive fluid resuscitation leading to ascites. While a positive FAST in a hypotensive trauma patient usually indicates hemoperitoneum, this case illustrates that the timing of the FAST examination relative to the injury, as well as clinical evolution including the volume of fluid resuscitation, need to be considered when interpreting the results of serial and/or late FAST examinations. PMID:26035503

  20. Intrathoracic Kidney after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Halis, Fikret; Amasyali, Akin Soner; Yucak, Aysel; Yildiz, Turan; Gokce, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal trauma is responsible for most genitourinary injuries. The incidence of renal artery injury and intrathoracic kidney is quite low in patients who present with blunt trauma experiencing damage. There are four defined etiologies for intrathoracic kidney, which include real intrathoracic ectopic kidney, eventration of the diaphragm, congenital diaphragmatic herniation, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. The traumatic intrathoracic kidney is an extremely rare case. We presented intrathoracic kidney case after traumatic posterior diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:26881170

  1. Rupture of Hydatid Liver Cyst into Peritoneal Cavity Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Abbas-zadeh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a serious parasitic infection in places, which people has a close contact with dogs or sheep. They may be found as an incidental findings during routine clinical examination or even followed by radiographic or ultrasonography evaluation. The disease becomes more complicated if rupture of the cysts occurs due to blunt trauma or spontaneously increases of intra-cystic pressure. Here, we reported a case of hydatid liver cyst that ruptured into the peritoneal cavity after blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:26512369

  2. Delayed Rupture of Gallbladder Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    MOHANTY, Debajyoti; AGARWAL, Himanshu; AGGARWAL, Krittika; GARG, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation. PMID:25705289

  3. Mitochondrial DAMPS released by abdominal trauma suppress pulmonary immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cong; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Gupta, Alok; Odom, Stephen; Sandler, Nicola; Hauser, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Historically fever, pneumonia and sepsis after trauma are ascribed to pain and poor pulmonary toilet. No evidence supports that assertion however, and no known biologic mechanisms link injury to infection. Our studies show injured tissues release mitochondria (MT). Mitochondrial danger-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) however, can mimic bacterial pathogen-associated danger molecules (PAMPs) and attract neutrophils (PMN). We hypothesized mtDAMPs from traumatized tissue divert neutrophils from the lung, causing susceptibility to infection. Methods Anesthetized rats (6–10/group) underwent pulmonary contusion (PC) by chest percussion. Modeling traumatic MT release, some rats had MT isolated from liver (equal to 5% liver necrosis) injected intra-peritoneal (IPMT). Negative controls had PC plus buffer IP. Positive controls underwent PC plus cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 16h bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavages were performed. Bronchial and peritoneal lavage fluids (BALF, PLF) were assayed for PMN count, albumin, IL-? and CINC-1. Assays were normalized to BUN to calculate absolute concentrations. Results PC caused alveolar IL-1? and CINC production and a 34-fold increase in BALF neutrophils. As expected, IPMT increased peritoneal IL-1? and CINC and attracted PMN to the abdomen. But remarkably, IPMT after PC attenuated BALF cytokine accumulation and decreased BALF PMN. CLP had no direct effect on BALF PMNs, but like IPMT blunted BALF leukocytosis after PC. Conclusions Rather than acting as a 'second hit' to enhance PMN-mediated lung injury, mtDAMPs from trauma and PAMPs from peritoneal infection diminish PMN accumulation in contused lung. This may make the lung susceptible to pneumonia. This paradigm provides a novel mechanistic model of the relationship between blunt tissue trauma, systemic inflammation and pneumonia that can be studied to improve trauma outcomes. PMID:24747452

  4. The Accuracy of Urinalysis in Predicting Intra-Abdominal Injury Following Blunt Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaei, Anita; Shojaee, Majid; Safari, Saeed; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Shirvani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of blunt abdominal traumas, predicting the possible intra-abdominal injuries is still a challenge for the physicians involved with these patients. Therefore, this study was designed, to evaluate the accuracy of urinalysis in predicting intra-abdominal injuries. Methods: Patients aged 15 to 65 years with blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted to emergency departments were enrolled. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast and urinalysis were requested for all the included patients. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, the results of urinalysis, and the results of abdominopelvic CT scan were gathered. Finally, the correlation between the results of abdominopelvic CT scan, and urinalysis was determined. Urinalysis was considered positive in case of at least one positive value in gross appearance, blood in dipstick, or red blood cell count. Results: 325 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were admitted to the emergency departments (83% male with the mean age of 32.63±17.48 years). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of urinalysis, were 77.9% (95% CI: 69.6-84.4), 58.5% (95% CI: 51.2-65.5), 56% (95% CI: 48.5-63.3), 79.6% (95% CI: 71.8-85.7), 1.27% (95% CI: 1.30-1.57), and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.18-0.36), respectively. Conclusion: The diagnostic value of urinalysis in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-abdominal injuries is low and it seems that it should be considered as an adjuvant diagnostic tool, in conjunction with other sources such as clinical findings and imaging. PMID:26862543

  5. Radiographic evaluation of the patient with sport-related abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kevin D

    2007-04-01

    Abdominal injuries are rare in sports, but they can be very serious, even life threatening when they occur. With the increasing popularity of snowboarding and extreme skiing, the rate of abdominal injuries is beginning to rise slightly. It is imperative that physicians be able to recognize signs of injury to the liver, spleen, kidney, and hollow abdominal viscera and order appropriate diagnostic tests to investigate these injuries. This article focuses on the imaging modalities physicians can use to assist in diagnosis of sport-related abdominal trauma. Although the sports medicine physician will likely not provide definitive care and treatment of these injuries, because a team approach works best, it is important to know how to diagnose them through the proper studies. PMID:17376340

  6. Traumatic rupture of a Meckel’s diverticulum due to blunt abdominal trauma in a soccer game: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, W.S.; van der Vorst, J.R.; Swank, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction a Meckel’s diverticulum is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the digestive tract. The reported lifetime complication rate is 4%, mostly due to hemorrhage, obstruction, perforation or inflammation. A symptomatic Meckel’s diverticulum due to rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is very rare. We believe this case report is the first reporting a rupture of a Meckel’s diverticulum after a low velocity blunt abdominal trauma and outlining the importance of a thorough and complete examination of the patient after blunt abdominal trauma. Presentation of case a 17-year-old male presented with abdominal pain after blunt abdominal trauma during a soccer game. Physical examination showed signs of peritonitis in all quadrants of the abdomen. During admission the patient deteriorated with decreasing blood pressure and raising pulse rate. A CT-scan showed free abdominal fluid. Our patient was scheduled for an emergent laparotomy where a perforated Meckel’s diverticulum with fecal spill was found. A segmental ileal resection was performed. Post-operative, patient developed a pneumonia and also intra-abdominal abscesses treated with percutaneous drainage. After an admission period of 17-days the patient was discharged. Conclusion perforation of a Meckel’s diverticulum is rarely suspected as a cause of acute deterioration following blunt abdominal trauma. This case shows the importance of awareness of this kind of injury especially in male patients. PMID:26701844

  7. Peritoneal Tap and Lavage in Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Their Contribution to Surgical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pacey, J.; Forward, A. D.; Preto, A. F.

    1971-01-01

    In a study of 51 patients with a history of blunt abdominal trauma, peritoneal tap and lavage made a positive contribution to the diagnostic process in 15 cases. Thirteen patients had early definitive operation on the basis of tap and lavage evidence which overruled the clinical evaluation, and two patients were managed conservatively when a negative tap and lavage contradicted the clinical decision. PMID:5162323

  8. A report of three cases and review of the literature on rectal disruption following abdominal seatbelt trauma.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, J; Kraus, R; Guy, R

    2016-02-01

    Seatbelt associated blunt trauma to the rectum is a rare but well recognised injury. The exact mechanism of hollow visceral injury in blunt trauma is unclear. Stress and shear waves generated by abdominal compression may in part account for injury to gas containing structures. A 'seatbelt sign' (linear ecchymosis across the abdomen in the distribution of the lap belt) should raise the suspicion of hollow visceral injuries and can be more severe with disruption of the abdominal wall musculature. Three consecutive cases of rectal injury following blunt abdominal trauma, requiring emergency laparotomy and resection, are described. Lumbar spine injury occurred in one case and in the other two cases, there was injury to the iliac wing of the pelvis; all three cases sustained significant abdominal wall contusion or muscle disruption. Abdominal wall reconstruction and closure posed a particular challenge, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The literature on this topic is reviewed and potential mechanisms of injury are discussed. PMID:26741660

  9. Acute direct inguinal hernia resulting from blunt abdominal trauma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of traumatic inguinal hernia following blunt abdominal trauma after a road traffic accident and describe the circumstances and technique of repair. The patient suffered multiple upper limb fractures and developed acute swelling of the right groin and scrotum. CT scan confirmed the acute formation of a traumatic inguinal hernia. Surgical repair was deferred until resolution of the acute swelling and subcutaneous haematoma. The indication for surgery was the potential for visceral strangulation or ischaemia with the patient describing discomfort on coughing. At surgery there was complete obliteration of the inguinal canal with bowel and omentum lying immediately beneath the attenuated external oblique aponeurosis. A modified prolene mesh hernia repair was performed after reconstructing the inguinal ligament and canal in layers. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the formation of an acute direct inguinal hernia caused as a result of blunt abdominal trauma with complete disruption of the inguinal canal. Surgical repair outlines the principles of restoration of normal anatomy in a patient who is physiologically recovered from the acute trauma and whose anatomy is distorted as a result of his injuries. PMID:20537142

  10. Blunt abdominal trauma. A 5-year analysis of 870 patients requiring celiotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, E F

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen of patients from a major regional trauma center. Eight hundred and seventy patients with blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed, representing 12.89% of the total admissions over a 5-year period. The motor vehicle continues to be the major cause (89.5%) of injury to these patients. Thirty per cent had positive blood alcohol. Intra-abdominal injuries in this group necessitating operative intervention were based on the use of peritoneal lavage. Negative celiotomies occurred in 10.2% of these patients. Of the injuries incurred, the spleen was involved 42%, the liver 35.6%, the serosa, diaphragm, bowel, and blood vessels were involved to a lesser extent. Only 0.4% of the patients suffered direct injury to the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas, data which should preclude routine exploration of retroperitoneal structures unless by obvious retroperitoneal injury is noted. Additional surgical intervention for associated injuries was seen in 50.54% of this patient group. PMID:6712323

  11. Screening for Occult Abdominal Trauma in Children with Suspected Physical Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Abusive abdominal trauma may be difficult to diagnose, and even serious abdominal injury may be missed. Screening for occult abdominal trauma (OAT) has been recommended by child abuse experts. However, it is unclear how often screening occurs, and what factors are associated with screening. Objectives (1) To determine the prevalence of OAT in a sample of children with suspected physical abuse. (2) To assess the frequency of OAT screening. (3) To assess factors associated with screening. Patients and Methods Charts of children evaluated for abusive injury were identified via a search of hospital discharge codes. Identified charts were reviewed to determine whether OAT screening occurred. Data were collected regarding results of screening tests, abusive injuries identified, family demographics, and characteristics of the emergency department visit. Results Screening occurred in 51 of 244 eligible children (20%). Positive screens were identified in 41% of those screened, and 9% of the total sample. 5% of children aged 12–23 months had OAT identified by imaging studies. Screening occurred more often in children presenting with probable abusive head trauma [OR=20.4, 95% CI (3.6–114.6), p<0..01] compared to those presenting with other injuries. Subspecialty consultation from the Child Protection Team [OR=8.5, 95% CI (3.5–20.7), p<0.01] and other subspecialists [OR=24.3, 95% CI (7.1–83.3), p<0.01] also increased the likelihood that OAT screening would occur. Conclusions Our findings support OAT screening with liver and pancreatic enzymes for physically abused children. This study also supports the importance of subspecialty input, especially that of a Child Protection Team. Although many identified injuries may not require treatment, their role in confirming, or demonstrating increased severity of maltreatment can play a critical role in protecting children. PMID:19933726

  12. Isolated Avulsion of the Common Hepatic Duct from Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Gee, Arvin; Hansen, Paul; Michaels, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Isolated extrahepatic biliary tract injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure, but include shear and/or compression forces on the biliary system. Associated morbidity rates are high and largely the result of delays in diagnosis. Imaging modalities commonly employed for diagnosis include ultrasonography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Percutaneous and endoscopic techniques have been used both for diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options are dictated by the stability of the patient and the extent of bile duct and concomitant injuries. In this paper, we discuss a case of isolated avulsion of the hepatic duct confluence following blunt trauma that was successfully managed with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. To our knowledge, this specific injury pattern has not been previously reported. PMID:22830067

  13. Small bowell perforation and mesentery injury after an unusual blunt abdominal trauma–Case report

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta de Castro, J.; Gomes, G.; Mateus, N.; Escrevente, R.; Pereira, L.; Jácome, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In blunt abdominal trauma, lesions of the small bowell and mesentery are often underdiagnosed; although unusual, they represent the third most injured organ, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Presentation of case The authors present the case of a 68 years old male, admitted to the emergency department after being hit by a bale of straw, weighing around 300 kg, in the abdomen. After successful ressuscitation, a CT scan was performed, suggesting hemoperitoneum because of vascular lesion of the right colon bleeding. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, confirming the presence of blood in the abdominal cavity and identifying jejunal perforation, an apparently innocent hematoma of the small bowel mesentery (beside the bowel wall) distally to the first lesion and a laceration of the sigmoid serosa; a segmental jejunal resection and suture of the colon serosa were performed. In the early post-operative period, an enteric discharge was noticed, mandating surgical reexploration; a previously unnoticed bowel perforation, in the mesenteric border where the hematoma was identified, justified an additional enterectomy, after what the patients recovery progressed uneventfully. Discussion In this case, a sudden increase in abdominal pressure could explain that missed rupture of the mesenteric border of the jejunum, also causing the mesenteric hematoma, or, in spite of that, a state of low perfusion could have lead to total wall ischemia of an already irrigation compromised segment. Only noted after surgical exploration, despite prior evaluation with a computed tomography. Small bowell and mesenteric injuries are potentially missed due to decreased exploratory laparotomies for blunt abdominal trauma. Conclusion Although uncommon, small bowel and mesenteric injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. High clinical suspicion is essential for an early diagnosis PMID:25576959

  14. Delayed small bowel perforation following blunt abdominal trauma: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Johnson, Lester; Youssef, Asser M

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of delayed presentation of a small bowel perforation following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). An initial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed that the patient (a 32-year-old man) had a mesenteric hematoma, which was managed conservatively. Four weeks later, he returned to the hospital complaining of abdominal pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a thickened loop of the small bowel adjacent to the mesenteric hematoma at the level of the ileum. He was discharged home, but re-presented with acute abdomen 6 weeks post-trauma. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, which showed a perforated thickened loop of the ileum forming a phlegmon in the lower abdomen. In the English medical literature, only eight other reports of delayed post-traumatic presentation of ileal/jejunal perforation following BAT have been reported. We propose that post-traumatic intestinal perforation be considered in the differential diagnosis even in patients who experience a delayed small bowel perforation following BAT. PMID:27016786

  15. [The staged surgical treatment of the injured persons with severe closed combined abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Zaruts'ky?, Ia L; Trutiak, I R

    2013-10-01

    In 91 injured persons, suffering severe closed combined abdominal trauma, the staged surgical treatment was conducted, in 41 of them the operation was performed during one narcosis, but with surgical pause after temporary stopping of hemorrhage, in 50 the "damage control surgery" was applied. Unstable critical state of the injured persons, "unfavorable" prognosis of course of an acute period of the traumatic disease served as indications for the staged surgical treatment conduction. While the urgent laparotomy performance the surgical manipulations were conducted in minimal volume, surgical pause was applied with the patient's state reestimation. Operative intervention was restarted when a stable hemodynamics and the homeostasis indices improvement were achieved. Middle value of surgical pause have constituted (94.5 +/- 7.2) min. In 50 injured persons, regardless of the hemorrhage stopping and stabilization of systolic arterial pressure, the hemostasis indices were disordered, they were admitted to department of reanimation and intensive therapy with consequent conduction of programmed relaparotomy (the technology of "damage control surgery"). Application of differentiated staged surgical treatment in the injured persons, suffering severe closed combined abdominal trauma, have permitted to reduce the occurrence rate of decompensated shock--by 6.4%, the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation--up to 1%, polyorgan insufficiency--up to 7.1%, general lethality--by 9.5%. PMID:24501969

  16. Unenhanced Computed Tomography to Visualize Hollow Viscera and/or Mesenteric Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu-Yang; Wei, Ming-Tian; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To identify and describe the major features of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of blunt hollow viscera and/or mesenteric injury (BHVI/MI) and to determine the value of unenhanced CT in the diagnosis of BHVI/MI. This retrospective study included 151 patients who underwent unenhanced CT before laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma between January 2011 and December 2013. According to surgical observations, patients were classified as having BHVI/MI (n = 73) or not (n = 78). Sensitivity, specificity, P values, and likelihood ratios were calculated by comparing CT findings between the 2 groups. Six significant CT findings (P < 0.05) for BHVI/MI were identified and their sensitivity and specificity values determined, as follows: bowel wall thickening (39.7%, 96.2%), mesentery thickening (46.6%, 88.5%), mesenteric fat infiltration (12.3%, 98.7%), peritoneal fat infiltration (31.5%, 87.1%), parietal peritoneum thickening (30.1%, 85.9%), and intra- or retro-peritoneal air (34.2%, 96.2%). Unenhanced CT scan was useful as an initial assessment tool for BHVI/MI after blunt abdominal trauma. Six key features on CT were correlated with BHVI/MI. PMID:26945375

  17. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage in patients with blunt abdominal trauma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pagliarello, G; Hanna, S S; Gregory, W D; McKee, J D; Harrison, A W; Taylor, G A; Miller, H A; Maggisano, R

    1987-01-01

    This prospective trial compares abdominopelvic computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma. Fifteen patients (group 1) were evaluated by both methods. Another 15 patients (group 2) had only computerized tomography. Criteria for a "positive" scan were hemoperitoneum and evidence of solid organ injury. Criteria for "positive" lavage were a grossly bloody return, erythrocyte count greater than 20.0 X 10(9)/L and leukocyte count greater than 0.5 X 10(9)/L. At laparotomy, only injuries requiring repair or excision were considered "true positive". Patients who did not have laparotomy and had an uncomplicated clinical course were considered "true negative". With tomographic criteria alone for diagnosis there would have been one false-positive and three false-negative results, compared with three false positive and no false negatives for open peritoneal lavage alone. None of the three patients who had negative findings on laparotomy suffered any morbidity or died. Results of computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage agreed in 8 of 15 patients (kappa value = 0.52), indicating a low level of agreement between the two. The authors believe that open peritoneal lavage remains the diagnostic procedure of choice in blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:3815173

  18. Giant biloma as a result of a blunt abdominal trauma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ferrusquía Acosta, José Alberto; Álvarez Navascués, Carmen; Rodríguez García, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    A 58-year-old man with a history of a heavy alcohol intake was admitted to hospital for a 3-weeks history of abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting and an increased abdominal girth that appeared progressively after an abdominal trauma due to an accidental fall. On physical examination, jaundice was present and the abdomen was distended with no tenderness on palpation. Laboratory studies showed an increased white-cell count, an elevated C-reactive protein and abnormal liver-function tests. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large fluid collection in the right side of the abdomen. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a gallbladder perforation communicating to a big subcapsular hepatic biloma of 9.5 by 25.0 by 35.0 centimeters, which was compressing the liver and other intraabdominal organs. Finally, our patient underwent an open cholecystectomy with drainage of the biloma, and a partial resection of the Glisson's capsule. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the resected specimens confirmed the diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder perforation. Gallbladder traumatic injury is a rare entity. The diagnosis represents a challenge because of its low incidence, its association with other lesions of vital organs and the nonspecific and insidious symptoms that can produce. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the damage caused; nevertheless, cholecystectomy remains the treatment of choice in patients with rupture or avulsion of the gallbladder. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of an isolated blunt traumatic gallbladder injury that was associated with the development of a large biloma. PMID:26671594

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of blunt abdominal trauma and comparison of early and late ultrasonography 24 hours after trauma

    PubMed Central

    Feyzi, Ali; Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Ahanchi, Navid; Firoozabadi, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite the advantages of ultrasound scan, its use as a screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of early and late ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Methods: In this study which was performed in a level I trauma center, firstly, 2418 patients with BAT had ultrasound (US) examination by two trauma expert radiologists. Results were compared with the best available gold standards such as laparotomy, CT, repeated ultrasound or clinical course follow-up. Then, 400 patients with BAT were examined by a trained residency student. Results: In the first phase, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of ultrasound were 97%, 98.1%, 99.7%, 83% and 98% respectively. In the second phase, they were 97.3%, 97.2%, 97.7%, 96.8% and 97.3% for the early and 98.5%, 97.6%, 98.5%, 97.5% and 98% for the late ultrasound respectively. Conclusion: Results obtained from this study indicate that negative ultrasound findings associated with negative clinical observation virtually exclude abdominal injury, and confirmation by performing other tests is unnecessary. High sensitivity and negative predictive value is achieved if ultrasound is performed by expert trauma radiologist. PMID:26430442

  20. Combined Abdominal and Spine Injuries after High Energy Flexion-Distraction Trauma.

    PubMed

    Woltmann, Alexander; Beisse, Rudolph; Eckardt, Henrik; Potulski, Michael; Bühren, Volker

    2007-10-01

    Combined abdominal (AT) and spine (ST) trauma in the multiply traumatized patient (MT) requires optimal clinical management. At the Traumacenter Murnau, Germany all multiply injured patients (injury severity score ? 16) are registered in a large prospective database (DGU-Tramaregister). From 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2004, 731 multiply injured patients (ISS ? 16) were admitted to the Trauma Center Murnau. In this population, ST was diagnosed in 287 patients (39%), AT was diagnosed in 100 patients (14%), and in 35 patients (5%) a combined ST and AT was observed. The most frequent injury mechanism in patients with a combined ST and AT was high-energy flexion-distraction trauma caused by motor vehicle accident with seat belt fastened passengers, bicycle accident, and fall from great height. In the cohort group of 35 patients, 29 required either abdominal or spinal operation. In 23 patients the AT and in 18 patients the ST necessitated operation. In 14 patients both the AT and ST called for surgery. The AT was predominately treated with splenectomies, resections and suturing of the intestine. The ST resulted in 14 posterior and four postponed anterior stabilizations of the thoracolumbar and four anterior fusions of the cervical spine. Mean age of these patients was 37 years in comparison to 47 years in the control group (MT without combined AT and ST). ISS of patients with combined AT and ST was 38 points compared to 26 points in the control group, and mortality was 7% in the combined group compared to 14% in the control group. The present study documents that damage control principles applied to patients sustaining the complex combination of AT and ST can result in low mortality rates despite the severity of this injury. PMID:26814933

  1. Damage control surgery in patient with delayed rupture of pseudoaneurysm after blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Ju, Jae Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Delayed rupture of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the visceral arteries, especially the pancreaticoduodenal artery, is uncommon. Here, we describe a 55-year-old man hemorrhaging from a pseudoaneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed active bleeding in the IPDA and large amounts of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum. Selective mesenteric angiography showed that the pseudoaneurysm arose from the IPDA, and treatment by angioembolization failed because the involved artery was too tortuous to fit with a catheter. Damage control surgery with surgical ligation and pad packing was successfully performed. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 19 days after the operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured pseudoaneurysm of an IPDA after blunt abdominal trauma from Korea. PMID:22880189

  2. Abdominal wall hernia and aortic injury secondary to blunt trauma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, David H.; Kaskas, Nadine M.; Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Skweres, Justin; Youssef, Asser M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) and traumatic abdominal aortic injury (TAAI) are two uncommon complications secondary to blunt trauma. In both TAWH and TAAI, reported cases are often associated with poly-trauma. TAWH may be initially missed if more pressing issues are identified during the patient's primary survey. TAAI may be an incidental finding on imaging or, if severe, a cause of an acute abdomen and hemodynamic abnormality. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 54-year-old white male suffered a TAWH and TAAI (pseudoaneurysm) due to severe blunt trauma. TAWH was apparent on physical exam and the TAAI was suspected on computed tomography (CT). The patient's TAWH was managed with a series of abdominal explorations and the TAAI was repaired with endovascular stenting. DISCUSSION TAWH and TAAI are commonly due to severe blunt trauma from motor vehicle collisions. Diagnosis is made through physical exam, imaging studies, or surgical exploration. A variety of surgical techniques achieve technical success. CONCLUSION The patient with blunt trauma to the abdomen is at risk for TAWH and TAAI, which are often associated with other injuries. Investigations should include thorough clinical exam through secondary survey and radiologic imaging in the hemodynamically normal patient. PMID:25437685

  3. The application of a trauma index to assess injury severity and prognosis in hospitalized patients with acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hailin; Ge, Wenhan; Li, Bing; Zhu, Yuanqun; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the application value of a trauma index (TI) to assess condition and likelihood of death in hospitalized patients with acute trauma (AT). Methods: Trauma index scores and injury severity scores (ISS) were assessed in 1,802 randomly selected cases of AT-hospitalized patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to compare the clinical values of TI and ISS values to predict outcomes in AT-hospitalized patients. Results: The area under the ROC curve for TI scores was 0.896 (95% CI [0.881, 0.909]), while for ISS, it was 0.792 (95% CI [0.773, 0.811]). This difference was not statistically significant (z = 3.236, P = 0.001). Potentially critical disease conditions in AT-hospitalized patients were best identified when TI scores were ? 16 points and ISS values were ? 22 points. Conclusions: Trauma Index scores exhibited a higher resolution for outcome prediction in AT-hospitalized patients compared to ISS values. The implementation of this scale was simple, reliable, easy to learn, and could quickly identify disease, which is vital for early detection and treatment of critical trauma patients. PMID:26770541

  4. A case of thoracic splenosis in a post-splenectomy patient following abdominal trauma: Hello Howell-Jolly.

    PubMed

    Viviers, Petrus J

    2014-08-01

    Seeding of splenic tissue to extra-abdominal sites is a relatively infrequent consequence of open abdominal trauma. Immunological function of these small foci of ectopic splenic tissue is unknown and their use in determining the splenic function may be limited. In this case report, a patient is described who had previously undergone an emergency splenectomy. The absence of Howell-Jolly bodies on the blood smear in a patient who had previously undergone surgical splenectomy raised the suspicion of splenosis. The immunological features as well as non-invasive evaluation of these ill-defined splenic tissue sites are discussed. PMID:25988041

  5. Detection of necrosis of the gastric fundus after blunt abdominal trauma by PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Hofer, A; Kratochwill, H; Pentsch, A; Gabriel, M

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose provides functional and anatomic information by visualising the uptake of radiolabelled glucose in tumour and inflammatory cells. We report delayed diagnosis of necrosis of the gastric fundus after blunt abdominal trauma in a 73-year-old man. After a car accident with head-on collision, the patient was stabilised in our emergency room. His femur was treated by internal fixation, his ellbow was stabilised by a fixateur externe. During surgery his status deteriorated. The patient was in need of high dosage of inotrops during the following days. He had a biventricular pacemaker implanted because of ischemic myocardiopathy, and he suffered from renal insufficiency. Over the next days, his haemodynamics improved. A central venous line had to be removed because of ensuing septic fever. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain and nausea. A sonography and computer tomography without contrast medium were performed with negative result. Because of contamination of the central venous line with Staphylococcus epidermidis the pacemaker was evaluated for infection by transoesophageal echocardiography, again without any findings. Because of ongoing fever and positive inflammatory markers a positron emission tomography was indicated, as a contrast examination and a magnetic resonance examination were not feasible because of the renal insufficiency and the pacemaker, respectively. Prophylactic removal of the pacemaker would have been a substantial risk for the patient due to his underlying myocardiopathy. Positron emission tomography showed an increased tracer uptake in the gastric fundus, which turned out to be necrotic by endoscopy. A laparoscopic resection followed, and drainage of an abscess, which had evolved subsequently between stomach and spleen stopped the inflammatory process. This case report demonstrates that positron emission tomography may be an alternative to computer tomography with contrast medium and magnetic resonance imaging to detect an inflammatory process in patients with pre-existing disease. PMID:25421368

  6. Diaphragmatic rupture precipitated by intercostal chest tube drainage in a patient of blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ashok Kumar; Feroz, Asif; Dawar, Sachet; Kumar, Prem; Singh, Anupam; Khublani, Trilok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma in collision injuries in road traffic accident (RTA) occasionally results in diaphragmatic injury and rupture besides other serious multisystem injuries. These diaphragmatic injuries (DI) frequently go undetected specially when occur on the right side. DI associated with hemothorax need insertion of intercostal tube drainage (ICTD). ICTD has never been reported to precipitate diaphragmatic rupture and hernia. We are reporting such a rare case for the first time in medical literature. PMID:26933316

  7. An outcome prediction model for exsanguinating patients with blunt abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We present a series of patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL) and introduce a nomogram that we created to predict survival among these patients. Methods This was a retrospective study. From January 2002 to June 2012, 91 patients underwent DCL for hemorrhagic shock. We excluded patients with the following characteristics: a penetrating abdominal injury, age younger than 18 or older than 65 years, a severe or life-threatening brain injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS]???4), emergency department (ED) arrival more than 6 hours after injury, pregnancy, end-stage renal disease, or cirrhosis. In addition, we excluded patients who underwent DCL after ICU admission or later in the course of hospitalization. Results The overall mortality rate was 61.5%: 35 patients survived and 56 died. We identified independent survival predictors, which included a preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score?abdominal trauma with exsanguination. The nomogram presented here may provide ED physicians and trauma surgeons with a tool for early stratification and risk evaluation in critical, exsanguinating patients. PMID:24775970

  8. Evaluation of gastrointestinal injury in blunt abdominal trauma "FAST is not reliable": the role of repeated ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the diagnostic Accuracy of Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and repeated FAST in the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Methods In this retrospective study we collected the data of all patients from September 2007 to July 2011 with gastrointestinal injury. The intraoperative outcome was compared with FAST technique and the repeated or delayed sonography. Results A total number of 1550 patients with blunt abdominal trauma underwent FAST in a period of 4 years in our hospital. Eighty-eight (5.67%) patients were found to have gastrointestinal injury after exploratory laparotomy. Fifty-five (62.5%) patients had isolated gastrointestinal injury and 33 (37.5%) patients had concomitant injury to the other solid organs. In those with isolated gastrointestinal injury, the sensitivity of FAST was 38.5%. Repeated ultrsonography was performed in 34 patients with false negative initial FAST after 12-24 hours. The sensitivity of repeated ultrasonography in negative initial FAST patients in detection of gastrointestinal injury was 85.2% (95% CI, 68.1%, and 94.4%). Conclusion Repeated sonography after 12 to 24 hours in patients with negative initial FAST but sustain abdominal symptom can facilitated a diagnosis of GI tract injury and can be as effective method instead of Computed tomography in developing country. PMID:22264345

  9. AB118. The new classification of renal pedicle injury: renal artery thrombosis because of blunt abdominal trauma with report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yong; Gao, Yu; Li, Meng; Li, Pei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Renal artery thrombosis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is distinctly rare. We report three cases of unilateral real artery thrombosis patients in our hospital and analyze its clinical diagnosis, therapeutic to the literature on the subject. In light of the classification of traumatic renal pedicle is not very distinct yet, we classify renal artery thrombosis for blunt abdominal trauma as a new classification of renal pedicle injury to pay their attention on its earlier diagnosis and more successful management.

  10. A prospective study of 91 patients undergoing both computed tomography and peritoneal lavage following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Fabian, T C; Mangiante, E C; White, T J; Patterson, C R; Boldreghini, S; Britt, L G

    1986-07-01

    Recent reports comparing computed tomography of the abdomen (CTA) and diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) following trauma have been contradictory. A 10-month prospective study was conducted at our trauma center comparing both methods. Criteria for entry into the study included suspected blunt abdominal trauma without indication for immediate laparotomy, with either equivocal abdominal examination, diminished sensorium, or neurologic deficit. Ninety-one patients meeting these criteria underwent CTA followed by DPL. CTA was performed using both oral and intravenous contrast; DPL was performed by the open technique with RBC greater than 100,000 mm3 or WBC greater than 500 mm3 as criteria for a positive examination. CTA was interpreted initially by available radiology staff and residents and retrospectively reviewed by an experienced tomographer blind to DPL and surgical results. Twenty patients in whom either test was positive underwent laparotomy; all others were admitted for observation and/or extra-abdominal surgery. Laparotomy revealed 26 organs injured in the 20 patients explored at admission; none of the observed patients required delayed laparotomy. The results of CTA and DPL were compared to the findings at laparotomy or the clinical course of those not explored. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for initial CTA were 60%, 100%, and 91%; for review CTA 85%, 100%, and 97%; for DPL 90%, 100%, and 98%. We conclude that: even with experienced examiners, CTA offers no diagnostic advantage over DPL in blunt trauma; because of relative costs, we do not recommend the routine application of CTA; CTA is a reliable alternative when circumstances prevent the performance of DPL. PMID:3723635

  11. Development of a composite trauma exposure risk index.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honghu; Prause, Nicole; Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Chin, Dorothy; Davis, Teri; Loeb, Tamra; Marchand, Erica; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F

    2015-09-01

    The high burden of exposure to chronic life adversities and trauma is quite prevalent, but assessment of this risk burden is uncommon in primary care settings. This calls for a brief, multiple dimensional mental health risk screening tool in primary care settings. We aimed to develop such a screening tool named the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Life Adversities Screener (LADS). Using pooled data across 4 studies from the UCLA Center for Culture, Trauma, and Mental Health Disparities, 5 domains of mental health risk including perceived discrimination, sexual abuse histories, family adversity, intimate partner violence, and trauma histories, were identified. Regression models for depression (Centers for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), controlling for demographic factors, were fitted to develop a weighted continuous scale score for the UCLA LADS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 5-domain structure, while item response theory endorsed the inclusion of each item. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the score was predictive for classifying subjects as reaching clinical threshold criteria for either depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II ? 14 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ? 10) or anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire-13 ?10). An optimal cut of 0.33 is suggested based on maximizing sensitivity and specificity of the LADS score, identifying patients at high risk for mental health problems. Given its predictive utility and ease of administration, the UCLA LADS could be useful as a screener to identify racial minority individuals in primary care settings who have a high trauma burden, needing more extensive evaluation. PMID:25984638

  12. Small bowel obstruction secondary to strangulation through a defect in the falciform ligament after blunt abdominal trauma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Joseph A; Norton, Karen I; Bhattacharya, Nishith; Stombaugh, Lauretta

    2010-06-01

    Obstruction caused by strangulation internal hernia secondary to incarceration within the falciform ligament, although rare, has been previously reported in the literature. These cases, however, were unrelated to trauma. We report on the first case in the pediatric literature of a strangulated internal hernia secondary to incarceration in the falciform ligament precipitated by blunt abdominal trauma. A 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency room less than 24 hours after sustaining a kick to the right upper quadrant. She described sharp, nonradiating, right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, which was associated with nausea and vomiting. A KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) view showed a paucity of bowel in the right upper quadrant with distended adjacent bowel. An ultrasound showed a small amount of abdominal ascites and a prominent liver. Computed tomography scan revealed a linear hypodensity at the tip of the right lobe of the liver, suggestive of a laceration. Moderate abdominal and pelvic ascites and multiple collapsed small-bowel loops with diffuse wall thickening and poor enhancement were seen in the right upper quadrant. Significantly, pneumatosis was noted, raising the question of obstruction/volvulus and/or bowel ischemia. An exploratory laparotomy revealed incarcerated small bowel herniated into a defect in the falciform ligament, which was resected. The defect was repaired. Seemingly trivial trauma may play a precipitating role in strangulation in a patient who already has a defect in the falciform ligament. PMID:20531130

  13. Temporization of penetrating abdominal-pelvic trauma with manual external aortic compression: a novel case report.

    PubMed

    Douma, Matthew; Smith, Katherine E; Brindley, Peter G

    2014-07-01

    A young civilian man experienced multiple gunshots to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and thigh. These were not amenable to direct compression by a single rescuer. This report outlines the first case in the peer-reviewed literature of manual external aortic compression after severe trauma. This technique successfully temporized external bleeding for more than 10 minutes and restored consciousness to the moribund victim. Subsequently, external bleeding could not be temporized by a second smaller rescuer, or during ambulance transfer. Therefore, we also gained insights about the possible limits of bimanual compression and when alternates, such as pneumatic devices, may be required. Research is needed to test our presumption that successful bimanual compression requires larger-weight rescuers, smaller-weight victims, and a hard surface. It is therefore unclear whether manual external aortic compression is achievable by most rescuers or for most victims. However, it offers an immediate and equipment-free life-sustaining strategy when there are limited alternatives. PMID:24161838

  14. Combined Intrathoracic and Subcutaneous Splenosis Discovered 51 Years after Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, James Benjamin; Hadeh, Anas; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Schroeder, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Splenosis is a rare condition that results from the autotransplantation of splenic parenchyma into unexpected locations such as the abdomen or subcutaneous tissue. In the presence of coexisting injury to the diaphragm intrathoracic transplantation can occur emerging as single or multiple pleural-based masses. This occurs after traumatic rupture of the spleen and is usually asymptomatic, only to be discovered incidentally on routine thoracic or abdominal imaging. To our knowledge this is the third documented case of combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis found in English literature. This occurred in a 71-year-old male involved in a motor vehicle accident at age 19 requiring urgent splenectomy. He has a significant cigarette smoking history and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of an abnormality seen on shoulder X-ray. PMID:26236530

  15. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa; Vatten, Lars J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between adiposity and gallbladder disease risk, however, the shape of the dose-response relationship and differences between overall and abdominal adiposity remains to be clarified. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and risk of gallbladder disease. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 9th 2015. Summary relative risks were calculated using a random effects model. Seventeen prospective studies of BMI and gallbladder disease risk with 55,670 cases among 1,921,103 participants were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.63 (95 % CI 1.49-1.78, I(2) = 98 %). There was evidence of a nonlinear association overall and among women, p(nonlinearity) < 0.0001, but not among men, p(nonlinearity) = 0.99, with a slight flattening of the curve at very high BMI levels (BMI 40-45), however, the risk of gallbladder disease increased almost twofold even within the "normal" BMI range. The summary RR for a 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.46 (95 % CI 1.24-1.72, I(2) = 98 %, n = 5) and for a 0.1 unit increment in waist-to-hip ratio was 1.44 (95 % CI 1.26-1.64, I(2) = 92 %, n = 4). Associations were attenuated, but still significant, when BMI and abdominal adiposity measures were mutually adjusted. Our results confirm a positive association between both general and abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease. There is an almost twofold increase in the risk even within the "normal" BMI range, suggesting that even moderate increases in BMI may increase risk. PMID:26374741

  16. [Immunological aspects in spleen ruptures surgery due to closed abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The remote results of immunity investigation in 30 patients after organ-preserving surgery and in 30 patients after splenectomy forspleen rupture are presented in the article. Indexes of cellular and humoral immunity were normal and life quality did not differ from that in healthy individuals after organ-preserving operations with splenic artery ligation. Splenectomy leads to deterioration of life quality and disorders in cellular immunity including decrease of T-helpers/inductors cells (CD4), immunoregulatory index (CD3/CD4) and general number of T-lymphocytes (CD3) in some cases on background of compensatory increase of normal killers (CD16). It was observed significant decrease of IgG and IgM levels. Values of IgA and cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF remained normal. Level of immunosuppression is reduced due to development of splenosis. PMID:26031956

  17. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  18. Unenhanced Computed Tomography to Visualize Hollow Viscera and/or Mesenteric Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu-Yang; Wei, Ming-Tian; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    To identify and describe the major features of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of blunt hollow viscera and/or mesenteric injury (BHVI/MI) and to determine the value of unenhanced CT in the diagnosis of BHVI/MI.This retrospective study included 151 patients who underwent unenhanced CT before laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma between January 2011 and December 2013. According to surgical observations, patients were classified as having BHVI/MI (n = 73) or not (n = 78). Sensitivity, specificity, P values, and likelihood ratios were calculated by comparing CT findings between the 2 groups.Six significant CT findings (P < 0.05) for BHVI/MI were identified and their sensitivity and specificity values determined, as follows: bowel wall thickening (39.7%, 96.2%), mesentery thickening (46.6%, 88.5%), mesenteric fat infiltration (12.3%, 98.7%), peritoneal fat infiltration (31.5%, 87.1%), parietal peritoneum thickening (30.1%, 85.9%), and intra- or retro-peritoneal air (34.2%, 96.2%).Unenhanced CT scan was useful as an initial assessment tool for BHVI/MI after blunt abdominal trauma. Six key features on CT were correlated with BHVI/MI. PMID:26945375

  19. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 ± 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 ± 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 ± 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 ± 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 ± 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 ± 9.5; PAD: 31.4 ± 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 ± 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  20. Abdominal Surgical Incision Induces Remote Preconditioning of Trauma (RPCT) via Activation of Bradykinin Receptors (BK2R) and the Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase Pathway in Canine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Garrett J.; Baker, John E.; Moore, Jeannine; Falck, John R.; Nithipatikom, Kasem

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a novel observation was made in which nonischemic trauma at a site remote from the heart produced by a transverse abdominal incision resulted in a marked reduction of infarct size (IS) in the mouse heart via activation of sensory nerve fibers in the skin and subsequent activation of bradykinin 2 receptors (BK2R). This phenomenon was termed remote preconditioning of trauma (RPCT). Since RPCT may have potential clinical implications we attempted to confirm these findings in a large animal model, the dog. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have also recently been shown to be antinociceptive and have been shown to mimic ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and postconditioning (POC) in dogs, therefore, we tested the role of the EETs in RPCT. Anesthetized adult mongrel dogs of either sex were subjected to 60 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion. In all groups except the controls (no slit), a transverse slit (9 cm) was applied to the abdominal wall of the dog being careful to only slit the skin. Subsequently, 15 min after the slit the heart was subjected to the ischemia/reperfusion protocol. In the control dogs, the IS as a percent of the area at risk (AAR) was 22.5 ± 2.4%, whereas in the dogs subjected to the slit alone the IS/AAR was reduced to 9.2 ± 1.2% (*P<0.01). The BR2R blocker, HOE 140 (50 ug/kg, iv) given 10 min prior to the slit, completely abolished the protective effects of RCPT as did pretreatment with 14,15-EEZE, a putative EET receptor blocker or pretreatment with the selective EET synthesis inhibitor, MSPPOH. These results suggest that BK and the EETs share cardioprotective properties in a large animal model of RPCT. PMID:21786213

  1. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  2. [Focused surgical bedside ultrasound: E-FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) - abdominal aortic aneurysm - cholecystolithiasis - acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Studer, Maria; Studer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound is an easy to learn and highly efficient diagnostic tool to complete the clinical examination and improve bedside decision-making. In the trauma room, surgeons are often required to make a quick decision as to whether or not a patient needs an emergency intervention or whether further diagnostics are required. For this reason, education of surgeons in performing focused emergency ultrasound is pivotal. The goal of ICAN is to improve and expand the education of surgeons in Switzerland. This article provides a short review of the most frequent surgical pathologies encountered in the emergency room. PMID:24894613

  3. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the ... The surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an ... abdominal disease from an unknown cause (to diagnose), or trauma ...

  4. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  5. Frequency and severity approaches to indexing exposure to trauma: the Critical Incident History Questionnaire for police officers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel S; Brunet, Alain; Best, Suzanne R; Metzler, Thomas J; Liberman, Akiva; Pole, Nnamdi; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Marmar, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    The Critical Incident History Questionnaire indexes cumulative exposure to traumatic incidents in police by examining incident frequency and rated severity. In over 700 officers, event severity was negatively correlated (r(s) = -.61) with frequency of exposure. Cumulative exposure indices that varied emphasis on frequency and severity-using both nomothetic and idiographic methods-all showed satisfactory psychometric properties and similar correlates. All indices were only modestly related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Ratings of incident severity were not influenced by whether officers had ever experienced the incident. Because no index summarizing cumulative exposure to trauma had superior validity, our findings suggest that precision is not increased if frequency is weighted by severity. PMID:21171134

  6. Visceral injury in electrical shock trauma: proposed guideline for the management of abdominal electrocution and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Evelyne GSC; Júnior, Gerson A Pereira; Neto, Bruno F Muller; Freitas, Rodrigo A; Yaegashi, Lygia B; Almeida, Carlos E Fagotti; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Victims of electrical burns account for approximately 5% of admissions to major burn centers. The first case of visceral injury caused by electrical burns was described in 1927 by Simonin, who reported perforation of the small intestine. Other rare cases were reported over the following years. The colon and small intestine were the organs most frequently affected. Less frequently involved organs were the heart, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, lung, and kidney. We highlight the potential fatal visceral injuries after the electrical trauma. This study provides a review on this topic and proposes a management flowchart that should be adopted by the multidisciplinary team to treat these patients. Conclusion: Visceral injuries are rare in electrical burns victims, but it can be severe and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, sometimes requiring a more interventional approach. PMID:24624308

  7. Right diaphragmatic injury and lacerated liver during a penetrating abdominal trauma: case report and brief literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaphragmatic injuries are rare consequences of thoracoabdominal trauma and they often occur in association with multiorgan injuries. The diaphragm is a difficult anatomical structure to study with common imaging instruments due to its physiological movement. Thus, diaphragmatic injuries can often be misunderstood and diagnosed only during surgical procedures. Diagnostic delay results in a high rate of mortality. Methods We report the management of a clinical case of a 45-old man who came to our observation with a stab wound in the right upper abdomen. The type or length of the knife used as it was extracted from the victim after the fight. CT imaging demonstrated a right hemothorax without pulmonary lesions and parenchymal laceration of the liver with active bleeding. It is observed hemoperitoneum and subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen, as a bowel perforation. A complete blood count check revealed a decrease in hemoglobin (7 mg/dl), and therefore it was decided to perform surgery in midline laparotomy. Conclusion In countries with a low incidence of inter-personal violence, stab wound diaphragmatic injury is particularly rare, in particular involving the right hemidiaphragm. Diaphragmatic injury may be underestimated due to the presence of concomitant lesions of other organs, to a state of shock and respiratory failure, and to the difficulty of identifying diaphragmatic injuries in the absence of high sensitivity and specific diagnostic instruments. Diagnostic delay causes high mortality with these traumas with insidious symptoms. A diaphragmatic injury should be suspected in the presence of a clinical picture which includes hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, anemia and the presence of subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen. PMID:24817907

  8. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20–64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16–2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46–3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17–3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31–3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21–7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women, visceral adipose tissue area shows significant positive association with glomerular hyperfiltration as in men. PMID:26495973

  9. Epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine reduces propofol requirement based on bispectral index in patients undergoing lower extremity and abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Renu; Pujari, Vinayak Seenappa; Chadalawada, Mohan V. R.; Cheruvathoor, Ajish Varghese; Bevinguddaiah, Yatish; Sheshagiri, Nirmal

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: To assess the amount of propofol required for induction based on bispectral index (BIS) after administering epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine alone and ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing lower extremities and abdominal surgeries. Subjects and Methods: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out in 60 patients over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital. American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II in age group 18–65 years were included in the study. Group R received epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine alone, and Group D received ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine. General anesthesia was induced with propofol under BIS monitoring after 15 min. Onset of sensory and motor block, time for loss of consciousness and total amount of propofol used during induction to achieve the BIS value < 55 were recorded. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used to find the significance of study parameters. Results: Time of onset of sensory block (Group R 11.30 ± 1.64/Group D 8.27 ± 0.83 min), motor block (Group R 14.16 ± 1.33/Group D 12.63 ± 1.22 min), time for loss of consciousness (Group R 90.57 ± 11.05/Group D 73.67 ± 16.34 s), and total amount of propofol (Group R 129.83 ± 22.38/Group D 92.13 ± 12.93 s) were reduced in Group D which was statistically significant with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine significantly reduces the total propofol dose required for induction of anesthesia. Also, it decreases the onset time of sensory and motor block and provides good hemodynamic stability. PMID:26957689

  10. Glycemic index predicts individual glucose responses after self-selected breakfasts in free-living, abdominally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Angela M; Wolever, Thomas M S; Chetty, V Tony; Anand, Sonia S; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Sharma, Arya M

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which an individual's glycemic response to a meal is determined by the glycemic index (GI) and other components of the meal remains unclear, especially when meals are not consumed in a highly controlled research setting. To address this question, we analyzed data collected during the run-in period of a clinical trial. Free-living, nondiabetic adults (n = 57) aged 53.9 ± 9.8 y (mean ± SD) with a BMI of 33.9 ± 5.3 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 109 ± 11 cm underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and, on a separate day, wore a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS) for 24 h during which time they recorded all foods consumed. The protein, fat, and available carbohydrate (avCHO) content and GI of the breakfast meals were calculated from the food records and the incremental areas under the glycemic response curves (iAUC) for 2 h after breakfast (iAUC(breakfast)) were calculated from CGMS data. Values for iAUC(breakfast), avCHO, fat, fiber, and BMI were normalized by log-transformation. The ability of participant characteristics and breakfast composition to predict individual iAUC(breakfast) responses was determined using step-wise multiple linear regression. A total of 56% of the variation in iAUC(breakfast) was explained by GI (30%; P < 0.001), iAUC after the OGTT (11%; P < 0.001), avCHO (11%; P < 0.001), and waist circumference (3%; P = 0.049); the effects of fat, protein, dietary fiber, age, sex, and BMI were not significant. We concluded that, in free-living, abdominally obese adults, GI is a significant determinant of individual glycemic responses elicited by self-selected breakfast meals. In this study, GI was a more important determinant of glycemic response than carbohydrate intake. PMID:22090469

  11. A case of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Georgina C; Claydon, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  12. A case of abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Georgina C.; Claydon, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  13. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  14. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  15. Association of body mass index, sagittal abdominal diameter and waist-hip ratio with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipocytokines in Arab children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in terms of association to cardiometabolic risk and circulating adipocytokine concentrations in a cohort of Saudi children and adolescents. Methods A total of 948 (495 boys and 453 girls) apparently healthy children with varying BMI, aged 10–17 years, were included in this cross sectional study. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin, TNF-α and aPAI-1 were measured in serum and HOMA-IR was calculated. MetS components were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results BMI was superior to SAD as well as WHR, and had the highest number of significant associations to MetS components and adipocytokines even after adjustment for age and gender, including blood pressure, lipids, glucose and leptin. Conclusion In conclusion, while SAD is significantly associated with components of MetS among children and adolescents, it is not superior to BMI. The use of SAD therefore may not be practical for use in the pediatric clinical setting. Follow-up studies are needed to determine whether SAD has clinical significance in terms of harder outcomes such as predicting diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22871266

  16. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  17. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  18. Body Mass Index Is a Marker of Nutrition Preparation Sufficiency Before Surgery for Crohn's Disease From the Perspective of Intra-Abdominal Septic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhi, Min; Chen, Huangwei; Tang, Jian; Su, Minli; Yao, Jiayin; Yang, Qingfan; Chen, Junrong; Hu, Pinjin; Liu, Huanliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poor preoperative nutritional status for individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intra-abdominal septic complications (IASCs). The present study aimed to investigate the association of the common nutrition indices serum albumin and body mass index (BMI) with IASCs. Sixty-four CD patients who had received elective intestinal operations were retrospectively investigated. Among these patients, 32 had received individualized fortified nutrition support. IASCs occurred in 7 patients (10.9%). Compared with non-IASC patients, IASC patients had a lower BMI (17.6?±?2.7 vs 15.6?±?1.3?kg/m2, P?=?0.048). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve according to the BMI-based IASC prediction was 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.601–0.944; P?=?0.020) with an optimum diagnostic cutoff value of 16.2?kg/m2. A BMI?index (CDAI), a low BMI level remained associated with IASCs (OR, 7.650; 95% CI, 0.808–72.427; P?=?0.076). Serum albumin was not associated with IASCs. Although the fortified nutrition support group had an albumin level comparable to the control group, this group had a higher simplified CDAI score, a lower BMI level, and a comparable incidence rate of IASCs. Thus, BMI more accurately reflects the basic preoperative nutritional status of CD patients than serum albumin. BMI can aid in guiding preoperative nutrition support and judging the appropriate operation time for CD. PMID:26334908

  19. The Focused Assessment With Sonography For Trauma (FAST) Examination And Pelvic Trauma: Indications And Limitations.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Nadia Maria; Copeli, Nikolai; Desai, Poonam

    2016-03-01

    Pelvic trauma accounts for only 3% of all skeletal injuries but may have mortality as high as 45% in cases of severe trauma. Significant high-grade-mechanism trauma to the pelvis must always take the abdomen into consideration for evaluation. The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been shown to be a valuable tool in assessing the unstable trauma patient with blunt abdominal injury, though its diagnostic utility is much less well-defined than in primary pelvic trauma. This systematic review explores the utility and limitations of the FAST examination in patients with blunt pelvic trauma and discusses the timing for the examination during the trauma survey. Newer techniques for emergency department management of the unstable trauma patient are also addressed. PMID:26881977

  20. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Perioperative Outcomes of Open and Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A; Wyers, Mark C; Pomposelli, Frank B; Hamdan, Allen D; Ching, Y Avery; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity and morbid obesity have been shown to increase wound infections and occasionally mortality after many surgical procedures. Little is known about the relative impact of body mass index on these outcomes after open (OAR) and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS The 2005–2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was retrospectively queried to compare perioperative mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) and postoperative wound infections after OAR and EVAR. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative details were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight variables and definitions of obesity and morbid obesity were defined as BMI > 30kg/m2 and BMI > 40kg/m2 respectively. Student's T-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare outcomes. RESULTS There were 2,097 OAR and 3,358 EVAR. Compared to EVAR, OAR patients were younger, more likely to be female (26% vs. 17%, P < .001), and less obese (27% vs. 32%, P < .001). Mortality was 3.7% vs. 1.2% after OAR vs. EVAR respectively (RR 3.1, P < .001) and overall morbidity was 28% vs. 12% (RR 2.3, P < .001). Morbidly obese patients had a higher mortality for both OAR (7.3%) and EVAR (2.4%) than obese patients (3.9% OAR; 1.5% EVAR) or non-obese patients (3.7% OAR; 1.1% EVAR). Obese patients had a higher rate of wound infection vs. non-obese after open repair (6.3% vs. 2.4%, P < .001) and EVAR (3.3% vs. 1.5%, P < .001). Morbid obesity predicted mortality after OAR but not EVAR and obesity was an independent predictor of wound infection after OAR and EVAR. CONCLUSIONS Morbid obesity confers a worse outcome for mortality after AAA repair. Obesity is also a risk factor for infectious complications after OAR and EVAR. Obese patients and particularly morbidly obese patients should be treated with EVAR when anatomically feasible. PMID:20843627

  1. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  2. Abdominal splenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pirozynski, W. J.; Allan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Abdominal splenosis was an incidental finding at laparotomy for acute appendicitis in a 39-year-old man who had had splenectomy for traumatic rupture of the spleen nine years previously. Similar cases of abdominal and intrathoracic splenosis are reviewed. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4841838

  3. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  4. Abdominal exploration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trauma. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ... abdomen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ...

  5. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  6. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can I find more information and related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN). Gastro Kids , a site for kids with ...

  7. Reconstruction after pancreatic trauma by pancreaticogastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Gonzalo Martín; Morillas, Patricia Jiménez; Pino, José C. Rodríguez; Canis, José M. Morón; Argenté, Francesc X. González

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic lesions are very infrequent after closed abdominal trauma (5% of cases) with a complication rate that affects 30–40% of patients, and a mortality rate that can reach 39%. In our experience, closed abdominal traumatisms occurring at typical popular horse-riding festivals in our region constitute a high risk of pancreatic trauma. The purpose of the present paper is to raise awareness about our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic lesions secondary to closed abdominal traumatism. Presentation of case We present the clinical cases of two young patients who, after suffering blunt abdominal trauma secondary to the impact of a horse during the celebration of typical horse-riding festival, were diagnosed with pancreatic trauma type III. The treatment was surgical in both cases and consisted in performing a pancreaticogastric anastomosis with preservation of the distal pancreas and spleen. The postoperative period was uneventful and, at present, both patients are asymptomatic. Discussion Signs and symptoms caused by pancreatic lesion are unspecific and difficult to objectify. With some limitations CT is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis and staging in the acute phase. The Wirsung section is indication for surgical treatment. The most extended surgical procedure in these cases is the resection of pancreatic body, tail, and spleen. Conclusion The identification of a pancreatic injury after closed abdominal trauma requires a high suspicion based on the injury mechanism. A safer option may be the distal pancreatic preservation with pancreaticogastric anastomosis in grade III lesions with healthy pancreatic tissue. PMID:25744560

  8. Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta: a review.

    PubMed

    Roth, S M; Wheeler, J R; Gregory, R T; Gayle, R G; Parent, F N; Demasi, R; Riblet, J; Weireter, L J; Britt, L D

    1997-04-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma occurs much less frequently than injury to the thoracic aorta. Although presentations vary, common themes continue to emerge with each patient. Within a 6-month period, our trauma unit diagnosed and treated two cases of blunt abdominal aortic trauma. Both patients were restrained passengers in motor vehicle crashes with resultant abdominal aortic injuries and demonstrated some of the most common associated injuries. Our two cases bring the number found in the literature to 62 and demonstrate the need for rapid recognition and treatment of this potentially lethal injury. This article is a comprehensive review of the management of abdominal aortic injury from blunt trauma. PMID:9137272

  9. Trauma team.

    PubMed

    Tiel Groenestege-Kreb, D; van Maarseveen, O; Leenen, L

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of trauma teams has improved patient outcome independently. The aim of establishing a trauma team is to ensure the early mobilization and involvement of more experienced medical staff and thereby to improve patient outcome. The team approach allows for distribution of the several tasks in assessment and resuscitation of the patient in a 'horizontal approach', which may lead to a reduction in time from injury to critical interventions and thus have a direct bearing on the patient's ultimate outcome. A trauma team leader or supervisor, who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to guidelines, should lead the trauma team. There is a major national and international variety in trauma team composition, however crucial are a surgeon, an Emergency Medicine physician or both and anaesthetist. Advanced Trauma Life Support training, simulation-based training, and video review have all improved patient outcome and trauma team performance. Developments in the radiology, such as the use of computed tomography scanning in the emergency room and the endovascular treatment of bleeding foci, have changed treatment algorithms in selected patients. These developments and new insights in shock management may have a future impact on patient management and trauma team composition. PMID:24980423

  10. Abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing abdominal adhesions. A person with a partial intestinal obstruction may relieve symptoms with a liquid or low-fiber diet, which is more easily broken down into smaller ...

  12. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  13. Hope Thinking and Past Trauma Mediate the Relationships of Body Mass Index with Perceived Mental Health Treatment Need and Mental Health Treatment Use

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Andrea N.; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Greater body mass is associated with a greater risk of mental health conditions and more frequent mental health treatment use. However, factors that might influence perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use among those of greater weight, including hope thinking, trauma history, and perceived mental health treatment stigma, are not well understood. Objective To determine if hope thinking, trauma history, and/or perceived mental health treatment stigma mediate the relationships of BMI with perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use. Method Primary care clinic patients in the Midwest United States (N = 196; BMI range = 18.5 to 47, mean = 29.26 ± 6.61, median = 27.90) were recruited to complete a battery of self-report measures that assessed perceived mental health treatment need, mental health treatment use, hope thinking (Trait Hope Scale), trauma history (a single-item traumatic event history screen from the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), and perceived mental health treatment stigma (Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help). Results Reduced hope thinking and a greater incidence of past trauma accounted for greater perceived mental health treatment need and greater mental health treatment use among those of greater BMI. BMI was not related to perceived unmet mental health treatment need. Conclusion Increased perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use among those of greater BMI may be explained by lower hope thinking and a greater incidence of trauma in this population. Heavier patients may benefit from interventions designed to augment hope and address traumatic histories. PMID:25556357

  14. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238

  15. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, N. P.; Cooper, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238

  16. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  17. Renal Trauma: The Rugby Factor

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Catherine M.; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; McGuire, Barry B.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Ryan, John; Lennon, Gerald; Galvin, David; Quinlan, David; Mulvin, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal trauma accounts for 5% of all trauma cases. Rare mechanisms of injuries including sports participation are increasingly common. Rugby-related trauma poses a conundrum for physicians and players due to the absence of clear guidelines and a paucity of evidence. Our series highlights traumatic rugby-related renal injuries in our institution, and emphasize the need for international guidelines on management. Methods A retrospective review of all abdominal traumas between January 2006 and April 2013, specifically assessing for renal related trauma that were secondary to rugby injuries was performed. All patients' demographics, computerized tomography results, hematological and biochemical results and subsequent management were recorded. Results Five male patients presented with rugby-related injuries. Mean age was 21 years old. All patients were hemodynamically stable and managed conservatively in acute setting. One patient was detected to have an unknown pre-existing atrophic kidney that had been subsequently injured, and was booked for an elective nephrectomy an 8-week interval. Conclusion Rugby-related trauma has generated essential attention. This paper serves to highlight this type of injury and the need for defined guidelines on role of imaging and international consensus on timing of return to contact sport, in both professional and amateur settings. PMID:26889132

  18. Tailbone trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    Choi SB, Cwinn AA. Pelvic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 55. Vora ...

  19. [Ocular trauma. Blunt ocular trauma].

    PubMed

    Saleh, M

    2012-06-01

    Ocular traumas represent a major public health problem with poorly understood ramifications at both the individual and community levels. Any of the ocular structures can be damaged in the case of closed globe injury. These lesions, often multiple, may appear immediately or in a delayed fashion. Classifications have been developed recently in order to better inform the patient of the visual prognosis. However, significant efforts are still needed, on the one hand, to assess and develop new therapies, and on the other hand, to implement effective policies to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:22463853

  20. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  1. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  2. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Calderale, Stefano Massimiliano; Sandru, Raluca; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone; Beuran, Mircea; Ribaldi, Sergio; Coletti, Massimo; Gambale, Giorgio; Paun, Sorin; Russo, Livio; Baldoni, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Background Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Results Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. Conclusion The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings. PMID:19019230

  3. Suspension trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Caroline; Porter, Keith M

    2007-01-01

    Suspension trauma (also known as “harness?induced pathology” or “orthostatic shock while suspended”) is the development of presyncopal symptoms and loss of consciousness if the human body is held motionless in a vertical position for a period of time. It has been described in experiments of personal fall protection, and has been implicated in causes of death in mountaineering accidents, but it seems neither to be widely known about nor to have been presented to the medical profession. This article highlights the potential existence of suspension trauma and suggests that more robust medical research using modern harnesses and healthy volunteers would be beneficial to assess whether this is purely a theoretical risk. PMID:17384373

  4. Penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Dervelegas, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space. Currently there is increasing incidence of road traffic accidents, increasing awareness of healthcare leading to more advanced diagnostic procedures, and increasing number of admissions in intensive care units are responsible for traumatic (non iatrogenic and iatrogenic) pneumothorax. Pneumothorax has a clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patient to life-threatening situations. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination and imaging techniques. In our current work we focus on the treatment of penetrating trauma. PMID:25337403

  5. Diaphragmatic herniation after penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Degiannis, E; Levy, R D; Sofianos, C; Potokar, T; Florizoone, M G; Saadia, R

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of 45 patients with diaphragmatic herniation after penetrating trauma. In 29 the diagnosis was established during the first admission (early presentation) and in 16 during a subsequent admission (delayed presentation). The mortality rate in the early presentation group was 3 per cent compared with 25 per cent in the delayed presentation group. The presence of gangrenous or perforated abdominal viscus in the chest cavity was the single most common and severe aggravating factor. The need for diagnosis of diaphragmatic herniation during the initial admission is emphasized. As isolated diaphragmatic injuries provide few helpful clinical features to aid diagnosis, appropriate investigations and good follow-up are of paramount importance in preventing late herniation of intra-abdominal viscera through a penetrating diaphragmatic injury. PMID:8653376

  6. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  7. ABCs of scoring systems for pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Furnival, R A; Schunk, J E

    1999-06-01

    This review presents an overview of scoring systems used in pediatric and adult trauma. Triage scoring systems, using readily available physical examination, physiologic, and/or mechanism of injury parameters, are used to determine appropriate prehospital referral patterns. The Trauma Score, Revised Trauma Score, Circulation/Respiration/Abdomen/Motor/Speech Scale, Prehospital Index, and Trauma Triage Rule were reviewed. Injury scoring systems based upon anatomic descriptions of all identified injuries, are retrospectively used to analyze trauma populations. The Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, Modified Injury Severity Score, Organ Injury Scaling, and Anatomic Profile were discussed. The two trauma outcome analysis systems presented, TRISS and ASCOT, allow for reproducible quantification of trauma severity, and survival comparison between trauma populations. Many of these triage, injury severity, and outcome analysis systems were developed with patient survival as the major outcome variable. Although subsequent studies may have found them to have some predictive value for measures of trauma morbidity, these scoring systems do not specifically address long-term risk of impairment, and therefore overlook one of the most crucial elements of pediatric trauma care. The last 2 decades have seen considerable development of scoring systems and analysis methods applicable to the trauma patient. As presented, this trend includes both the elaboration of increasingly simple, field-oriented triage tools, and more complex mathematical techniques for trauma outcome analysis. Although not all systems were designed specifically with the pediatric patient in mind, validation or modification of these systems for the pediatric patient will likely occur in the future. It is anticipated that this field will continue to evolve with greater mathematical sophistication; a baseline familiarity of the early stages of this evolution may be of benefit to those caring for the pediatric trauma patient. PMID:10389962

  8. Intraabdominal Challenges Affecting Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Jennifer Movassaghi; Gedalia, Uri; Xue, Amy Shengnan; Heller, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects may arise from trauma, infection, and prior abdominal surgeries, such as tumor resections. Although ideally reconstruction should be accomplished as soon as possible to restore the integrity and function of the abdominal wall, it is not always a viable option. A successful reconstruction must take into consideration the local environment of the defect, as well as the global condition of the patient. Therefore, it is imperative that a multidisciplinary team be involved to optimize the patient's care, particularly when a defect is complicated by a wound infection, an abscess, a fistula, or a neoplasm. Our goal in this article is to explore the challenges evoked by each of these special situations, and review the necessary steps for successful management. PMID:23372452

  9. Modified Opsite® Sandwich for Temporary Abdominal Closure: A Non-Traumatic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, JM; Loudon, MA

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Laparostomy techniques have advanced since the advent of damage control surgery for the critically injured patient. Numerous methods of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) are described in the literature with most reports focusing on trauma. We describe a modified technique for TAC and report its use in a series of critically ill non-trauma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eleven patients under the care of one consultant underwent TAC over a 36-month period. A standardised technique was used in all cases and this is described. Severity of illness at the time of the first laparotomy was assessed using the Portsmouth variant of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM). RESULTS Nineteen TACs were performed in 11 patients with a variety of serious surgical conditions. In-hospital mortality was zero despite seven of the patients having an individual P-POSSUM predicted mortality in excess of 50%. The laparostomy dressing proved simple in construction, facilitated nursing care and was well-tolerated in the critical care environment. All patients underwent definitive fascial closure during the index admission. CONCLUSIONS Laparostomy is a useful technique outwith the context of trauma. We have demonstrated the utility of the modified Opsite® sandwich vacuum pack for TAC in a series of critically ill patients with a universally favourable outcome. This small study suggests that selective use of TAC may reduce surgical mortality. PMID:17316524

  10. The evaluation of an abdominal aortic tourniquet for the control of pelvic and lower limb hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Coleman, Martin; Parker, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Despite improved body armor, hemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Trauma to the junctional areas such as pelvis, groin, and axilla can be life threatening and difficult to manage. The Abdominal Aortic Tourniquet (AAT) is a prehospital device capable of preventing pelvic and proximal lower limb hemorrhage by means of external aortic compression. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the AAT. Serving soldiers under 25 years old were recruited. Basic demographic data, height, weight, blood pressure, and abdominal girth were recorded. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify blood flow in the common femoral artery (CFA). The AAT was applied while the CFA flow was continuously monitored. The balloon was inflated until flow in the CFA ceased or the maximum pressure of the device was reached. A total of 16 soldiers were recruited. All participants tolerated the device. No complications were reported. Blood flow in the CFA was eliminated in 15 out of 16 participants. The one unsuccessful subject was above average height, weight, body mass index, and abdominal girth. This study shows the AAT to be effective in the control of blood flow in the pelvis and proximal lower limb and potentially lifesaving. PMID:24183765

  11. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  12. Isolated jejunal perforation after blunt trauma. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Baccoli, A; Manconi, A R; Caocci, G; Pisu, S

    2010-04-01

    Small bowel perforation occurs in 3% to 5% of cases of blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical exam can be unremarkable because signs of hollow viscus injury (HVI) may take time to develop. Conventional radiograms are often unable to diagnosis of this subset of trauma. Three cases of jejunal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma are described. One of these showed at laparotomy small sero muscular diastasis of the jejunum and multiple ecchymosis of the small bowel without peritonitis. The detection of this subset of trauma patients has improved markedly with CT, which has led to a decrease in the number of negative laparotomies performed. In our report CT imaging showed a increased thickness of bowel loop wall in left ipocondrium in the first and second case. In our small experience this sign suggest us a jejunal contusion in which an isolated perforating is always possible. PMID:20444335

  13. Specific Trauma Subtypes Improve the Predictive Validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Arnetz, Bengt B.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A.; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. Methods A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Results Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12% and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7% and 3%, respectively). Discussion Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations. PMID:24549491

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  15. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Overview What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? The main blood vessel in your body is the aorta ( ... burst. Symptoms What are the symptoms of an AAA? As the aneurysm develops, there are usually no ...

  16. Scroto-abdominal impalement injury in a skateboard rider.

    PubMed

    Carragher, A M; Sulaiman, S K; Panesar, K J

    1990-01-01

    The injuries sustained by skateboard riders vary from minor cuts and abrasions to fractures. This report describes a unique injury sustained by a young skateboard rider who was impaled on a metal rod. Literature review of over 1,254 skateboard injuries did not reveal any other instances of penetrating abdominal trauma. PMID:2212559

  17. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  18. Isolated Blunt Duodenal Trauma: Simple Repair, Low Mortality.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Stefano; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Haltmeier, Tobias; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    Optimal surgical management of traumatic duodenal injury (DI) remains controversial. The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for all blunt trauma patients with DI. Patients with isolated injury were identified by excluding chest and head Abbreviated Injury Score > 3 and nonduodenal intra-abdominal Organ Injury Scale ? 3. Demographics, OIS, and operative intervention were collected. Outcomes included mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS). During the study period, 3,456,098 blunt trauma patients were entered into the National Trauma Data Bank, 388,137 of which had abdominal trauma. Overall, 1.0 per cent patients with abdominal trauma had DI with isolated DI in only 0.6 per cent (n = 2220). The majority of isolated DI was low grade with only 158 patients sustaining severe injury and overall mortality was 5.2 per cent. Overall 743 patients were operated, of which 353 (47.5%) patients underwent duodenal operation, 280 (37.7%) had primary repair (PR), and 68 (9.2%) had gastroenterostomy (GE). Patients with PR had similar mortality to those with GE (6.6% vs 4.5%, P = 0.777); however, HLOS was shorter (median 11 days, vs 18 days, P < 0.001). In only OIS 4 and 5 injuries, PR was also associated with shorter HLOS (P = 0.004) and similar mortality (P = 1.000) when compared with GE. Isolated DI after blunt abdominal trauma is rare. In severe injuries, PR is associated with a shorter HLOS without effecting mortality when compared with GE. PMID:26463289

  19. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  20. A Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair: A Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kenneth L.; Rosser, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias from blunt trauma usually occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions where the force is tangential, sudden, and severe. Although rare, these hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Open repairs can be challenging and unsuccessful due to avulsion of muscle directly from the iliac crest, with or without bone loss. A laparoscopic approach to traumatic abdominal wall hernia can aid in the delineation of the hernia and allow for a safe and effective repair. Case Description: A 36-year-old female was admitted to our Level 1 trauma center with a traumatic abdominal wall hernia located in the right flank near the iliac crest after being involved in a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the presence of an abdominal wall defect that was unapparent on physical examination. The traumatic abdominal wall hernia in the right flank was successfully repaired laparoscopically. One-year follow-up has shown no sign of recurrence. Discussion: A traumatic abdominal wall hernia rarely presents following blunt trauma, but should be suspected following a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Frequently, repair is complicated by the need to have fixation of mesh to bony landmarks (eg, iliac crest). In spite of this challenge, the laparoscopic approach with tension-free mesh repair of a traumatic abdominal wall hernia can be accomplished successfully using an approach similar to that taken for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:23477181

  1. Head Trauma, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Note: Do not allow the person to drink alcohol within 48 hours of the head trauma. Who's At Risk Anyone can be at risk for head trauma. Those who play sports and young children, particularly those learning to walk, ...

  2. Practical Approaches to Definitive Reconstruction of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat

    2016-04-01

    With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain. PMID:26585951

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... renal disease Infertility Liver disease Needle biopsy Osteoporosis Pediatrics Pelvic pain ... Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  4. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis. PMID:22699314

  5. Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    Military Sexual Trauma What is military sexual trauma (MST)? Military sexual trauma, or MST, is the term used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault ... that a Veteran experienced during his or her military service. The definition used by the VA comes ...

  6. Abusive head trauma: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Narang, Sandeep; Clarke, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma has a robust and interesting scientific history. Recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics has endorsed a change in terminology to a term that is more general in describing the vast array of abusive mechanisms that can result in pediatric head injury. Simply defined, abusive head trauma is "child physical abuse that results in injury to the head or brain." Abusive head trauma is a relatively common cause of childhood neurotrauma, with an estimated incidence of 16 to 33 cases per 100,000 children per year in the first 2 years of life. Clinical findings are variable; AHT should be considered in all children with neurologic signs and symptoms, especially if no or only mild trauma is described. Subdural and retinal hemorrhages are the most common findings. The current best evidence-based literature has identified some features--apnea and severe retinal hemorrhages--that reliably discriminate abusive from accidental injury. Longitudinal studies of outcomes in abusive head trauma patients demonstrate that approximately one-third of the children are severely disabled, one third of them are moderately disabled, and one third have no or only mild symptoms. Abusive head trauma cases are complex cases that require a rigorous, multidisciplinary team approach. The clinician can establish this diagnosis with confidence if he/she maintains a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis, has knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of abusive head trauma, and reasonably excludes other etiologies on the differential diagnosis. PMID:25316728

  7. Intra-abdominal sepsis after hepatic resection.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, R F; Blenkharn, J I; Edwards, W J; Orloff, M; Blumgart, L H; Benjamin, I S

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty hepatic resections performed over an 8-year period were reviewed for evidence of postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis. Of 126 patients who survived for more than 24 hours after operation, 36 developed culture positive intra-abdominal collections (28.6%). Significant independent variables associated with the development of intra-abdominal sepsis were diagnoses of trauma or cholangiocarcinoma, and the need for reoperation to control hemorrhage during the postoperative period. Before 1984, infected fluid collections were treated predominantly by operative drainage, but this has largely been replaced by percutaneous methods, which have proven effective in most cases. Eighteen (50%) of the infections were caused by a mixed bacterial culture, with Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli being the most common isolates. Six patients with clinical signs of sepsis had a sterile fluid collection drained with complete relief of symptoms. This review suggests that intra-abdominal sepsis is a frequent complication after hepatic resection, and can often be managed successfully by nonoperative percutaneous drainage. PMID:2493775

  8. Spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy in an isolated blunt pancreatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko; Jr, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro; Contrucci, Orlando; Pompeo, Alexandre; Orsetti, Adriana; Neto, Herico Arsie

    2011-01-01

    Blunt isolated pancreatic trauma is uncommon, accounting for 1%-4% of high impact abdominal injuries. In addition, its diagnosis can be difficult; physical signs may be poor and laboratory findings nonspecific, resulting in delayed treatment. Preserving the spleen during distal pancreatectomy (DP) is controversial. One of the spleen’s functions regards immunity; complications following splenectomy include leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, overwhelming post splenectomy sepsis and some degree of immunodeficiency. This is why many authors favor its preservation. We describe a case of a young man with an isolated pancreatic trauma due to a blunt abdominal trauma with a delayed presentation who was treated with spleen-preserving DP and we discuss the value of this procedure with reference to the literature. PMID:22007283

  9. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  10. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  11. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  12. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  13. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  14. Skeletal muscle glutathione after surgical trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J L; Hammarqvist, F; Andersson, K; Wernerman, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effect of surgical trauma on skeletal muscle concentrations of glutathione in patients undergoing selective abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The posttraumatic state is accompanied by characteristic changes in the pattern of free amino acids and a decline of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Glutathione has multiple metabolic functions that are involved in cellular homeostasis. It is unknown how surgical trauma affects the glutathione metabolism of skeletal muscle in surgical patients. METHODS: Eight patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were investigated. Percutaneous muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken before operation and at 6, 24, and 48 hours after operation. The concentrations of glutathione were determined in muscle tissue, plasma, and whole blood, as well as the concentrations of the related amino acids in muscle and plasma. RESULTS: In skeletal muscle, the levels of both reduced and total glutathione decreased by 40% (p<0.01) at 24 hours and remained low at 48 hours after operation compared with the preoperative values. The glutathione concentration in plasma was 20% lower after operation compared with the concentration before operation (p<0.05). There were no changes at the whole blood levels of glutathione. Tissue glutamate and glutamine decreased significantly after operation (p<0.001), whereas intracellular cysteine and glycine remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle glutathione deficiency occurs after surgical trauma. This may lead to an increase in the susceptibility to intracellular oxidative injury. PMID:8633921

  15. Trauma system development.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, R A; Lockey, D J

    2013-01-01

    The word 'trauma' describes the disease entity resulting from physical injury. Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and deaths due to injury look set to increase. As early as the 1970s, it became evident that centralisation of resources and expertise could reduce the mortality rate from serious injury and that organisation of trauma care delivery into formal systems could improve outcome further. Internationally, trauma systems have evolved in various forms, with widespread reports of mortality and functional outcome benefits when major trauma management is delivered in this way. The management of major trauma in England is currently undergoing significant change. The London Trauma System began operating in April 2010 and others throughout England became operational this year. Similar systems exist internationally and continue to be developed. Anaesthetists have been and continue to be involved with all levels of trauma care delivery, from the provision of pre-hospital trauma and retrieval teams, through to chronic pain management and rehabilitation of patients back into society. This review examines the international development of major trauma care delivery and the components of a modern trauma system. PMID:23210554

  16. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  17. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AFTER SEVERE HEPATIC TRAUMA: CURRENT INDICATIONS AND RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO-JR, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; MEDRADO, Melina Botelho; ROSA, Otto Mauro; SILVA, Ana Júlia de Deus; FONTANA, Mariana Prado; CRUVINEL-NETO, José; FONSECA, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2015-01-01

    Background : The liver is the most injured organ in abdominal trauma. Currently, the treatment in most cases is non-operative, but surgery may be necessary in severe abdominal trauma with blunt liver damage, especially those that cause uncontrollable bleeding. Despite the damage control approaches in order to achieve hemodynamic stability, many patients develop hypovolemic shock, acute liver failure, multiple organ failure and death. In this context, liver transplantation appears as the lifesaving last resource Aim : Analyze the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe liver trauma. Methods : Were reviewed 14 articles in the PubMed, Medline and Lilacs databases, selected between 2008-2014 and 10 for this study. Results : Were identified 46 cases undergoing liver transplant after liver trauma; the main trauma mechanism was closed/blunt abdominal trauma in 83%, and severe trauma (>grade IV) in 81 %. The transplant can be done, in this context, performing one-stage procedure (damaged organ removed with immediate transplantation), used in 72% of cases. When the two-stage approach is performed, end-to-side temporary portacaval shunt is provided, until new organ becomes available to be transplanted. If two different periods are considered - from 1980 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2014 - the survival rate increased significantly, from 48% to 76%, while the mortality decreased from 52% to 24%. Conclusion : Despite with quite restricted indications, liver transplantation in hepatic injury is a therapeutic modality viable and feasible today, and can be used in cases when other therapeutic modalities in short and long term, do not provide the patient survival chances. PMID:26734803

  18. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  19. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  20. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems: Mesenteric vascular insufficiency (blocked arteries or veins) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (swelling of the main artery in the belly) Inflammatory conditions in the mid- and lower abdomen: Enteritis (infections of the small bowel, Crohn's disease) ...

  1. Ventilation in chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Torsten; Ragaller, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Chest trauma is one important factor for total morbidity and mortality in traumatized emergency patients. The complexity of injury in trauma patients makes it challenging to provide an optimal oxygenation while protecting the lung from further ventilator-induced injury to it. On the other hand, lung trauma needs to be treated on an individual basis, depending on the magnitude, location and type of lung or chest injury. Several aspects of ventilatory management in emergency patients are summarized herein and may give the clinician an overview of the treatment possibilities for chest trauma victims. PMID:21769213

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; DE Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  3. Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury.

    PubMed

    Terrosu, G; Rossetto, A; Kocjancic, E; Rossitti, P; Bresadola, V

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations. An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The mobilization of the patient revealed a deep gap, about 8 × 8 cm, in the perineum, with the anus and rectum displaced from their original site. Anal reimplantation was performed, suturing the median raphe, inserting two pelvic drainage tubes, and fashioning a loop transverse colostomy. Closed rectal traumas account for only 4-11% of all rectal traumas. Crushing of the pelvis causes a sudden reduction in its anteroposterior diameter and a corresponding increase in its latero-lateral diameter, together with an abrupt rise in intra-abdominal pressure. The anus is pushed out of the perineal plane due to the divarication of the levator muscles. As suggested in the literature, the standard treatment is wound debridement with immediate or deferred repair, fashioning a diversion colostomy, and repair of the rectum, wherever possible. PMID:21556880

  4. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. PMID:26450606

  5. Circulating iFABP Levels as a marker of intestinal damage in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Kim; Sir, Özcan; Kox, Matthijs; Vaneker, Michiel; de Jong, Carmen; Gerretsen, Jelle; Edwards, Michael; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Both the initial trauma and the subsequent hemodynamic instability may contribute to intestinal damage, which is of great importance in (immunological) posttrauma complications. This study assesses intestinal damage using the biomarker intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (iFABP) in trauma patients during the first days of their hospital admission and the risk factors involved. Plasma iFABP levels were measured in blood samples obtained from adult multiple trauma patients (n = 93) at the trauma scene by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services, at arrival at the emergency department (ED), and at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after trauma and related to injury severity and hemodynamic parameters. Plasma iFABP concentrations showed highest levels immediately after trauma at time points Helicopter Emergency Medical Services and ED. Nonsurvivors demonstrated higher iFABP levels at the ED compared with survivors. Furthermore, iFABP values at the ED correlated with Injury Severity Scores, and patients suffering from abdominal trauma demonstrated significantly higher iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with other types of trauma or healthy controls. Also, patients presenting with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) less than 70 mmHg at the ED demonstrated significantly higher plasma iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with a normal (70-99 mmHg) or high (>100 mmHg) MAP or healthy controls. Finally, patients with a low hemoglobin (Hb) (<80% of reference value) displayed significantly higher iFABP concentrations in comparison with patients with a normal Hb or healthy controls. Plasma iFABP levels, indicative of intestinal injury, are increased immediately after trauma in patients with abdominal trauma, low MAP, or low Hb and are related to the severity of the trauma. As intestinal injury is suggested to be related to late complications, such as multiorgan dysfunction syndrome or sepsis in trauma patients, strategies to prevent intestinal damage after trauma could be of benefit to these patients. PMID:25394241

  6. DAMAGE CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE LUNG TRAUMA

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alberto; Martinez, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio; Millan, Mauricio; Valderrama, Gustavo; Ordoñez, Carlos; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Damage Control (DC) has improved survival from severe abdominal and extremities injuries. The data on the surgical strategies and outcomes in patients managed with DC for severe thoracic injuries is scarce. Methods Retrospective review of the patients treated with DC for thoracic/pulmonary complex trauma at two level I trauma centers from 2006 to 2010. Subjects 14 and older, were included. Demographics, trauma characteristics, surgical techniques, and resuscitation strategies were reviewed. Results A total of 840 trauma thoracotomies were performed. Damage control thoracotomy (DCT) was done in 31 (3.7%). Pulmonary trauma was found in 25 of them. The median age was 28 (IQR 20–34) years, Revised Trauma Score was 7.11, (IQR 5.44–7.55), and Injury Severity Score was 26 (IQR 25–41). Nineteen patients had gunshot-wounds, four stab-wounds and two blunt trauma. Pulmonary trauma was managed by pneumorrhaphy in three cases, tractotomy in 12, wedge resection in one and packing as primary treatment in 8. Clamping of the pulmonary hilum was used as a last resource in 7 cases. Five patients returned to the ICU with the pulmonary hilum occluded by a vascular clamp or an en masse ligature. These patients underwent a deferred resection within 16 to 90 hours after the initial DCT. Four of them survived. Bleeding from other intra-thoracic sources was found in 20 cases: major vessels in nine, heart in three, and thoracic wall in nine. DCT mortality in pulmonary trauma was 6/25, (24%) due to coagulopathy or persistent bleeding in five cases and to multiorgan failure in one. Conclusion This series describes our experience with DCT in severe lung trauma. We describe pulmonary hilum clamping and deferred lung resection as a viable surgical alternative for major pulmonary injuries, and the use of packing as a definitive method for hemorrhage control. PMID:25539202

  7. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis complicating abdominal penetrating injury: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is a rare condition usually associated with endocarditis or spinal surgery. However, it may also occur following abdominal penetrating trauma with associated gastrointestinal perforation. Diagnosis might be challenging and appropriate treatment is essential to ensure a positive outcome. In trans-abdominal trauma, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotics is generally recommended for prophylaxis of secondary infections. A case report of vertebral osteomyelitis complicating trans-colonic injury to the retroperitoneum is presented and clinical management is discussed in the light of literature review. PMID:24373134

  8. Laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL): A method for evaluation of penetrating abdominal stab wounds

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Michael M; Abbou, Benyamine; Hershko, Dan D; Mahajna, Ahmad; Duek, Daniel S; Bishara, Bishara; Israelit, Shlomo H

    2006-01-01

    Background The management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds has been the subject of continued reappraisal and controversy. In the present study a novel method which combines the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and DPL, termed laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) is described Method Five trauma patients with penetrating injuries to the lower chest or abdomen were included. Standard videoscopic equipment is utilized for the laparoscopic trauma evaluation of the injured patient. When no significant injury is detected, the videoscope is withdrawn and 1000 mL of normal saline is infused through the abdominal trochar into the peritoneal cavity, and the effluent fluid studied for RBCs, WBC, amylase debry, bile as it is uced in regular diagnostic peritoneal lavage Results Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) was then performed and proved to be negative in all 5 patients. RBC lavage counts above 100,000/mcrl were not considered as a positive lavage result, because the bleeding source was directly observed and controlled laparoscopically. All patients recovered uneventfully and were released within 3 days. This procedure combines the visual advantages of laparoscopy together with the sensitivity and specificty of DPL for the diagnosis of significant penetrating intra-abdominal injury, when the diagnostic strategy of selective consevatism for abdominal stab wounds is adopted. Conclusion A method of laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating lower thoracic or abdominal stab wounds is described. The method is especially applicable for trauma surgeons with only basic experience in laparoscopic technique. This procedure is used to obtain conclusive evidence of significant intra-abdominal injury, confirm peritoneal penetration, control intra-abdominal bleeding, and repair lacerations to the diaphragm and abdominal wall. The combination of laparoscopy and DPL afforded by the L-DPL method adds to the sensitivity and specificity of DPL, and avoids under or over sesitivty, that have limited the use of DPL in the hemodynamically stable trauma patients with suspicious or proven peritoneal penetration. PMID:16759402

  9. Laparoscopy in trauma: An overview of complications and related topics

    PubMed Central

    Kindel, Tammy; Latchana, Nicholas; Swaroop, Mamta; Chaudhry, Umer I; Noria, Sabrena F; Choron, Rachel L; Seamon, Mark J; Lin, Maggie J; Mao, Melissa; Cipolla, James; El Chaar, Maher; Scantling, Dane; Martin, Niels D; Evans, David C; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of laparoscopy has provided trauma surgeons with a valuable diagnostic and, at times, therapeutic option. The minimally invasive nature of laparoscopic surgery, combined with potentially quicker postoperative recovery, simplified wound care, as well as a growing number of viable intraoperative therapeutic modalities, presents an attractive alternative for many traumatologists when managing hemodynamically stable patients with selected penetrating and blunt traumatic abdominal injuries. At the same time, laparoscopy has its own unique complication profile. This article provides an overview of potential complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma, focusing on practical aspects of identification and management of laparoscopy-related adverse events. PMID:26557490

  10. Pediatric trauma: differences in pathophysiology, injury patterns and treatment compared with adult trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Kissoon, N; Dreyer, J; Walia, M

    1990-01-01

    Although multiple trauma remains the leading cause of death among children, fewer resources and less attention have been directed to treatment of the injured child than to treatment of the injured adult. Insufficient training of medical personnel and hence lack of expertise in the management of injured children are factors contributing to disability and death in such children. Although the principles of resuscitation of injured children are similar to those for adults, appreciation of the differences in cardiorespiratory variables, airway anatomy, response to blood loss, thermoregulation and equipment required is essential for successful initial resuscitation. Cerebral, abdominal and thoracic injuries account for most of the disability and death among injured children. Cerebral damage may be due to secondary injuries to the brain and is potentially preventable. The need to preserve the spleen in children complicates the management of abdominal trauma. Although children usually have large cardiorespiratory reserves, they are likely to need airway control and ventilation with thoracic injuries. The psychologic effect of trauma may pose long-term problems and needs close follow-up. PMID:2403481

  11. Major trauma guidance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The National Audit Office states that immediate treatment for major trauma, which comprises serious and multiple injuries that are often life threatening, accounts for up to £400,000 of health expenditure and up to £3.7 billion in lost economic output every year. There is also significant emotional impact on patients and their families during the trauma and rehabilitation phases. PMID:26948204

  12. Thromboprophylaxis for trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Luis Manuel Barrera; Perel, Pablo; Ker, Katharine; Cirocchi, Roberto; Farinella, Eriberto; Morales, Carlos Hernando

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of thromboprophylaxis in trauma patients on mortality and incidence of DVT and PE. To compare the effects of different thromboprophylaxis interventions and their relative effects according to the type of trauma. PMID:25267908

  13. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders. PMID:25086094

  14. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Diana M

    2007-05-01

    Thoracic trauma represents an important cause of morbidity in mortality after injury in human beings and animals. After any form of suspected chest wall trauma, initial emergency management should include assurance of a patent airway and adequate ventilation, along with treatment for shock if present. As with any open wound, tetanus prophylaxis should be instituted. Types of trauma to the thoracic region of the horse include pectoral and axillary lacerations, penetrating chest wounds, flail chest, fractures of the ribs, blunt thoracic trauma, and several potential sequelae that include pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, hemothorax, pleuritis, fistulae of the sternum or ribs, and diaphragmatic hernia. Emergency management of these various forms of thoracic trauma is discussed. PMID:17379110

  15. Trauma: the seductive hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Steven

    2003-01-01

    In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail. PMID:12866751

  16. Abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ERCOLAK, VEHBI; PAYDAS, SEMRA; ERGIN, MELEK; ATES, BERNA T.; DUMAN, BERNA B.; GUNALDI, MERAL; AFSAR, CIGDEM U.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, for which immune suppression is a predisposing factor. In unusual cases, this disease may present as an abdominal wall involvement simulating a soft tissue tumor as seen in the present case. The presented patient had no signs of trauma or surgical approach and the pathology was considered to be a primary abdominal wall actinomycosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the nonspecific nature of clinical presentation, radiographic and laboratory findings. Surgery combined with antibiotic treatment is a curative approach for this relatively rare infection. Surgeons must be aware of this disease in order to ensure correct diagnosis and to prevent performing any unnecessary procedures. The present study describes a case of abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma, together with a review of important points related to this disease. PMID:25202429

  17. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in evaluating acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barbee, C L; Gilsdorf, R B

    1975-06-01

    A study was performed to determine the value of peritoneal lavage in the acute abdomen not related to trauma. Lavage was performed in 33 patients in the evaluation of abdominal pain of sufficient degree to warrant consideration for surgical intervention. Peritoneal lavage was truly positive or truly negative in 64% of the cases. It showed false negative results in 28% and false positive results in 8%. The lavage was most accurate in the evaluation of appendicitis, colonic disease, and intra abdominal bleeding. It was highly inaccurate in the evaluation of cholecystitis and peptic ulcer disease. It was concluded that the peritoneal lavage can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with abdominal pain and should be considered in difficult diagnostic problems but not routinely employed. PMID:1138636

  18. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases.

    PubMed

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey's southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries. Consequently, reducing the mortality and complication rates from firearm injuries is still a serious problem. Despite all of these efforts, there is still a need to determine the optimum treatment strategy to achieve this end goal. PMID:26131219

  19. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries. Consequently, reducing the mortality and complication rates from firearm injuries is still a serious problem. Despite all of these efforts, there is still a need to determine the optimum treatment strategy to achieve this end goal. PMID:26131219

  20. Pericardial rupture from blunt chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, J.; Lichter, I.

    1974-01-01

    Borrie, J. and Lichter, I. (1974).Thorax, 29, 329-337. Pericardial rupture from blunt chest trauma. Pericardial rupture may occur in two distinct anatomical sites, namely the diaphragmatic pericardium and the pleuropericardium. They may be combined. The problems in each type are different. In ruptured diaphragmatic pericardium the rent may involve the pericardial cavity alone, or may extend into one or both adjoining pleural cavities. Upward herniation of abdominal viscera can occur, with or without strangulation. The presence of a pericardial rent may be suggested by diagnostic pneumoperitoneum, and chest films showing displaced abdominal viscera; its extent may be fully revealed only by thoracotomy. If the rent involves only the diaphragmatic pericardium without lateral spread into a pleural cavity, the presence of a rent may be revealed only by exploratory thoracotomy with pericardiotomy. In ruptured pleuropericardium the rent is usually vertical and may occur on either side, more usually on the left. It may be recognized on chest films in its early stages by the presence of intrapericardial air arising from associated lung trauma. There is serious risk of heart dislocation with or without strangulation. The defect must be surgically repaired and, because of pericardial retraction, it may require a fabric patch. Teflon fabric has proved to be a long-term satisfactory pericardial substitute. Two cases of each type of pericardial rupture are described and illustrate these points. Images PMID:4853582

  1. Pattern of ocular trauma.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M M; Mohiuddin, A A; Akhanda, A H; Hossain, M I; Islam, M F; Akonjee, A R; Ali, M

    2011-07-01

    This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of November, 2009 to October, 2010. Two hundred & fifty (250) patients of both sexes and all ages with ocular trauma were selected randomly for this study. A detailed history of patients, duration of trauma, relation of trauma with work, visual status prior to injury, any surgery prior to injury & patients were alcoholic or not were taken. Male patients were 190(76%) and female patients were 60(24%). Majority of patients were 11-20 years group (39.2%). Most of patients (40%) attended into hospital within 60 hours of ocular trauma. Accidental occupational trauma were more common (51.2%) and assault injury were less common (12.8%). Greater number of ocular trauma was caused by sharp objects (59.2%) and less number of ocular trauma was caused by chemical injuries (2.4%). Open globe injuries were more common (62%) than closed globe injury (38%). Visual acuity on admission between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number (64%) and also on discharge between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number of cases (50%). Most of the patients came from poor socioeconomic group (60%). PMID:21804497

  2. Renal Pelvis Injury in Case of Blunt Trauma Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra B.; Patil, Amey; Devaraju, Shishir; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated renal pelvis/upper ureteric injuries are uncommon in a case of blunt abdominal trauma. These injuries are associated with fractures of transverse process of the adjoining vertebrae. We report a case of such a case in a 35 year old male involved in road traffic accident. He underwent exploration and repair of the right UPJ/Upper ureteric injury. This case presented with injury to the transverse processes on the left side, which is unusual. PMID:26793520

  3. Intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R L

    1976-01-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis remains one of the major challenges to the surgeon. With a proper appreciation of the bacteriology and pathophysiology involved and an awareness of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, hopefully, mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced. PMID:1048948

  4. Use of vacuum-assisted closure device in a disastrous form of abdominal sepsis and stoma site infection: systematic review and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Popovi?, Milos; Barisi?, Goran; Markovi?, Velimir; Petrovi?, Jelena; Krivokapi?, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Use of Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) for treatment of open abdomen has been established predominantly in cases of severe abdominal trauma, resulting with high percentage of primary fascial closure. The role of VAC technique in cases of severe diffuse peritonitis is not definitely incorrigible. However, in cases of severe complicated abdominal sepsis VAC come up as a last resort. PMID:23373369

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  6. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  7. Tailbone trauma - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... onto a hard surface, such as a slippery floor or ice. Symptoms of a tailbone injury include: ... Saunders; 2012:chap 106. Choi, SB, Cwinn, AA. Pelvic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  8. Pediatric Ocular Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... usually occur from blunt trauma, such as a sports injury or a fall with injury to the nose ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  9. Abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Antonia; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2009-04-01

    Child physical abuse that results in injury to the head or brain has been described using many terms, including battered child syndrome, whiplash injuries, shaken infant or shaken impact syndrome, and nonmechanistic terms such as abusive head trauma or nonaccidental trauma. These injuries sustained by child abuse victims are discussed in detail in this article, including information about diagnosis, management and outcomes. The use of forensics, the use imaging studies, and associated injuries are also detailed. PMID:19358918

  10. Quality of trauma care and trauma registries.

    PubMed

    Pino Sánchez, F I; Ballesteros Sanz, M A; Cordero Lorenzana, L; Guerrero López, F

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic disease is a major public health concern. Monitoring the quality of services provided is essential for the maintenance and improvement thereof. Assessing and monitoring the quality of care in trauma patient through quality indicators would allow identifying opportunities for improvement whose implementation would improve outcomes in hospital mortality, functional outcomes and quality of life of survivors. Many quality indicators have been used in this condition, although very few ones have a solid level of scientific evidence to recommend their routine use. The information contained in the trauma registries, spread around the world in recent decades, is essential to know the current health care reality, identify opportunities for improvement and contribute to the clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:25241631

  11. Mathematics and Medical Indexes: A Life-Saving Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Richard J.; Sloyer, Clifford W.

    1993-01-01

    In cases of trauma, medical indexes are used by paramedics to report the condition of the patient to the hospital. Presents a scenario in which students act as paramedics at the scene of an earthquake and use the index called capillary refill to report the severity of the trauma and predict probable survival. (MDH)

  12. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  13. Evaluation of trauma and prediction of outcome using TRISS method

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspal; Gupta, Gulzar; Garg, Ramneesh; Gupta, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Trauma and injury severity score (TRISS), introduced in 1981 is a combination index based on revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS) and patient's age. In this study we have used TRISS method to predict the outcome in trauma cases. Materials and Methods: 1000 consecutive cases of trauma of adult age group admitted in casualty of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, from 1/7/2000 onwards. Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score and Age Index were recorded from which TRISS was determined. The performance of TS, ISS and TRISS as predictors of survival was evaluated using the misclassification rate, the information gain and the relative information gain. Results: The majority of the patients were men (83.7%) and in the age group of 20-50 years. Road traffic collisions (72%) were the most common cause of trauma. The mortality rate was 4.1%. Using PER method, the TRISS method was found to have information gain of 0.049 and a relative information gain of 0.41. Conclusions: The revised trauma score (RTS) ranged from 2.746 to 7.8408.There was a graded increase in mortality with decreasing RTS score. PMID:22090735

  14. Isolated renal pelvis rupture secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Taken, Kerem; Oncü, Mehmet Re?it; Ergün, Müslüm; Ery?lmaz, Recep; Güne?, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated rupture of the renal pelvis is a very rare condition and thus causes delays in the diagnosis of the rupture. It is most commonly seen in the setting of obstructive ureteric calculus. Other rare causes include neoplasms, trauma, and iatrogenic procedures. Diagnosis is usually established on computed tomography (CT) which demonstrates the extravasation of the contrast in the peripelvic, perinephric, or retroperitoneal collections. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to multiple traumas associated with motor vehicle accidents. The patient had clear urine output. A large pelvic rupture was detected by abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and after consulting with other departments, emergency repair of the renal pelvis was performed and a ureteral stent was implanted. Discussion Only a few isolated cases of pelvis rupture with resultant extravasation have been reported in the literature. The treatment of pelvic rupture should be preceded by the removal of underlying causes, followed by conservative management. However, surgical intervention should be warranted in the emergency cases presenting with the symptoms that may impede the decision-making process and in the cases whose diagnosis cannot be clarified by radiological techniques. Conclusion Renal pelvic injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis of blunt trauma. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. We present a case who underwent surgery due to isolated renal pelvis rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:25734319

  15. Urinary bladder herniation through a caudoventral abdominal wall defect in a mature cat

    PubMed Central

    Neville-Towle, Jack; Sakals, Sherisse

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with no history of trauma was presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for assessment of urinary incontinence. Diagnostic investigation revealed herniation of the urinary bladder through a caudoventral abdominal wall defect. Clinical signs resolved after surgical reduction of the bladder. PMID:26347198

  16. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  17. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  18. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management. PMID:20668419

  19. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Jenny N; Abboud, Bassam N

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal cocoon, the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Preoperative diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion. The early clinical features are nonspecific, are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan. Surgery is important in the management of this disease. Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases. PMID:22563185

  20. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  1. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  2. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  3. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  4. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. PMID:25463338

  5. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140

  6. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  7. Trauma-focused CBT for youth who experience ongoing traumas.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Judith A; Mannarino, Anthony P; Murray, Laura K

    2011-08-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: (1) enhancing safety early in treatment; (2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and (3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on (a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths' ongoing trauma experiences; (b) addressing youths' maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and (c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140

  8. Is diagnostic peritoneal lavage for blunt trauma obsolete?

    PubMed

    Hawkins, M L; Bailey, R L; Carraway, R P

    1990-02-01

    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was 97 percent accurate, with a 2 percent false positive rate and a 1 percent false negative rate in this series of 414 patients. The ease, safety, and accuracy of diagnostic peritoneal lavage justify its continued use in evaluating these patients. Recent studies show computerized tomography (CT) can be highly accurate in detecting intra-abdominal injuries after blunt trauma. We reviewed our experience with diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) to evaluate whether the accuracy, safety, speed, and cost justified its continued use. Four hundred fifteen DPLs were performed on 414 patients from February 1, 1983, through December 31, 1987. All DPLs were done by the open technique. The lavage was considered grossly positive if 10 cc gross blood were aspirated. If there were greater than 100,000 red blood cells (RBC)/mm3, greater than 500 white blood cells (WBC)/mm3, elevated amylase or bilirubin, or bacteria or vegetable fibers the lavage was microscopically positive. There were no cases with elevated bilirubin, amylase, or presence of bacteria. All four cases with "rare vegetable fibers" were false positive. Six DPLs were for penetrating trauma to the lower chest or back. There were 291 negative lavages, including five false negatives (1%), and 124 positive DPLs, including seven false positives (2%), resulting in a crude accuracy of 97 percent. Three of the five false negative lavages had a ruptured diaphragm as the only intra-abdominal injury. There was one minor complication. DPL was usually performed in the trauma resuscitation room during the secondary survey. At our institution, the total fees for DPL are +185 less than the fees for CT. DPL is accurate, rapid, safe, and avoids the disruption of patient care that results in the radiology suite. DPL remains our procedure of choice for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma in the adult. PMID:2306058

  9. Neurotrauma and trauma systems.

    PubMed

    Pitts, L H

    1995-08-01

    Optimal trauma care, including that for head and spinal cord injury, requires system organization and adoption throughout the United States and the world. Neurosurgeons play an essential role in system design and development in addition to treating neurotrauma patients. Areas of neurosurgical involvement include defining prehospital triage and treatment guidelines, emergency department evaluation and therapy, operative management, and active involvement in the critical care and acute hospital settings. Collaboration among all members of the trauma team is essential to ensure the best possible outcome for patients with traumatic injuries. PMID:7496766

  10. Advances in prehospital trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773

  11. Delayed hypersensitivity and neutrophil chemotaxis: effect of trauma.

    PubMed

    Meakins, J L; McLean, A P; Kelly, R; Bubenik, O; Pietsch, J B; MacLean, L D

    1978-04-01

    To investigate alterations in host defense produced by trauma, skin testing with five standard recall antigens was done on admission and weekly on 53 patients with blunt trauma and seven with penetrating missile injuries, who then were classified as normal (N), 2 or more positive responses; relatively anergic (RA), one positive response; or anergic (A), no response. Neutrophil chemotaxis was tested 145 times in 32 patients. Degree of injury was assessed by assigning one point to pelvic fracture, long-bone fracture, head, chest, or abdominal injury, to a maximum of five. The A and RA patients had greater trauma, 3 vs. 1.6 for N, and a significantly increased rate of sepsis (p less than 0.005) and mortality (p less than 0.05). Incidence of anergy depended upon age and extent of trauma. Neutrophil chemotaxis in A and RA patients was significantly (p less than 0.001) worse at 96.7 +/- 2.4 mu and 99.8 +/- 1.7 mu compared to N, 113.2 +/- 1.7 mu, and controls 121 +/- 4 mu. With recovery, chemotaxis returned to normal. It is concluded that failure of delayed hypersensitivity responses follows trauma, is related to the severity of injury and age of patient, and is associated with an abnormality of neutrophil chemotaxis and increased rate of sepsis. PMID:660668

  12. Cirrhosis in the trauma victim. Effect on mortality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkoff, G; Rhodes, M; Diamond, D; Lucke, J

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the impact cirrhosis has on survival the records of 40 cirrhotic trauma victims from the registries of two Level 1 trauma centers were reviewed and probability of survival calculated using the TRISS methodology. Mechanism of injury, anatomic location, involvement of single or multiple sites, presence of ascites, elevations in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT), and hypoalbuminemia were tabulated for each patient. Contingency tables were created for injury and hepatic parameters, as related to survival, and subjected to chi square analysis. Loglinear analysis was performed on all significant parameters to evaluate the independent effects of injury characteristics and hepatic insufficiency on survival. Predicted survival was 93%; observed survival was 70% (Z = -6.92; p less than 0.001). Cause of death was multiple-system organ failure (9) and closed head injury (3). Admission markers of poor outcome included one or more of the following: ascites, elevated PT or bilirubin, history of motor vehicle accident, multiple trauma, or blunt abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy. Loglinear analysis revealed that the presence of ascites, elevated PT, or bilirubin, further diminished the rate of survival for any individual injury characteristic. We concluded that survival among cirrhotic trauma victims was significantly lower than predicted. In addition the presence of hepatic insufficiency further diminishes survival, regardless of the injury sustained. PMID:2301996

  13. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early through measurements of IAP. Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 15 mm Hg, especially if pressures reach above 20 mm Hg with new onset organ failure. Although non-operative measures come first, surgical decompression must not be delayed if these fail. Percutaneous drainage of ascites is a simple and potentially effective tool to reduce IAP if organ dysfunction develops, especially in burn patients. Escharotomy may also dramatically reduce IAP in the case of abdominal burns. PMID:25973659

  14. Is clinical examination an accurate indicator of raised intra-abdominal pressure in critically injured patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; McLean, Richard F.; Rapanos, Theodore; Boulanger, Bernard R.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the rate of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and to evaluate the accuracy of clinical abdominal examination in the assessment of IAP in the critically injured trauma patient. Design A prospective blinded study. Setting The medical-surgical critical care unit of a university-affiliated regional adult trauma centre. Patients Forty-two adult blunt trauma victims, who had a mean injury severity score of 36. Interventions Urinary bladder pressure was measured daily and classified as normal (10 mm Hg or less), elevated (more than 10 mm Hg) or significantly elevated (more than 15 mm Hg). A blinded clinical assessment of abdominal pressure was concurrently performed and recorded as elevated or normal. Main outcome measures The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy and the positive and negative predictive values of the 2 interventions in identifying elevated IAP. Results Twenty-one patients (50%) had an elevated IAP at some point during the study. Of the 147 bladder pressure measurements done in these 42 patients, 47 (32%) were more than 10 mm Hg and 16 (11%) were more than 15 mm Hg. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of clinical abdominal examination for identifying elevated IAP were 40%, 94%, 76%, 77% and 77%, respectively. Clinical abdominal examination had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 56%, 87%, 35%, 94% and 84% respectively, for significantly elevated IAP. Conclusions Urinary bladder pressure was commonly elevated among our population of critically injured adults. Compared with bladder pressure measurements, clinical abdominal assessment showed poor sensitivity and accuracy for elevated IAP. These findings suggest that more routine measurements of bladder pressure in patients at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension should be performed. PMID:10851415

  15. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  16. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  17. Diaphragmatic hernia repair more than four years after severe trauma: Four case reports

    PubMed Central

    de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Lopes, José Carlos Paiva; Inaco Cirino, Caio César; Godinho, Maurício; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Scarpelini, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diaphragmatic rupture is an infrequent complication of trauma, occurring in about 5% of those who suffer a severe closed thoracoabdominal injury and about half of the cases are diagnosed early. High morbidity and mortality from bowel strangulation and other sequelae make prompt surgical intervention mandatory. Case presentation Four Brazilian men with a delayed diagnosis of a rare occurrence of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Patient one had diaphragmatic rupture on the right side of thorax and the others three patients on the left thoracic side, all they had to approach by a laparotomy and some approach in the chest, either thoracotomy or VATS. This injuries required surgical repositioning of extensively herniated abdominal viscera and intensive postoperative medical management with a careful control of intra-abdominal pressure. Discussion The negative pressure of the thoracic cavity causes a gradually migration of abdominal contents into the chest; this sequestration reduces the abdomen’s ability to maintain the viscera in their normal anatomical position. When the hernia is diagnosed early, the repair is less complicated and requires less invasive surgery. Years after the initial trauma, the diaphragmatic rupture produces dense adhesions between the chest and the abdominal contents. Conclusions All cases demonstrated that surgical difficulty increases when diaphragmatic rupture is not diagnosed early. It should be noted that when trauma to the thoraco-abdominal transition area is blunt or penetrating, a thorough evaluation is required to rule out diaphragmatic rupture and a regular follow-up to monitor late development of this comorbidity. PMID:26241166

  18. When trauma means a stoma.

    PubMed

    Steele, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability. When traumatic injuries require ostomy surgery, the wound, ostomy, and continence nurse acts as a crucial part of the trauma team. This literature review describes mechanisms of injury associated with creation of a stoma, key aspects of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing care in trauma populations and presents suggestions for future research. PMID:17133136

  19. Pediatric spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Tekes, Aylin; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spinal trauma is unique. The developing pediatric spinal column and spinal cord deal with direct impact and indirect acceleration/deceleration or shear forces very different compared to adult patients. In addition children are exposed to different kind of traumas. Moreover, each age group has its unique patterns of injury. Familiarity with the normal developing spinal anatomy and kind of traumas is essential to correctly diagnose injury. Various imaging modalities can be used. Ultrasound is limited to the neonatal time period; plain radiography and computer tomography are typically used in the acute work-up and give highly detailed information about the osseous lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for disco-ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. Depending on the clinical presentation and timing of trauma the various imaging modalities will be employed. In the current review article, a summary of the epidemiology and distribution of posttraumatic lesions is discussed in the context of the normal anatomical variations due to progressing development of the child. PMID:25512255

  20. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  1. Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  2. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  3. Trauma induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lolay, Georges A; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed K

    2016-01-15

    Chest Trauma in athletes is a common health problem. However, myocardial infarction secondary to coronary dissection in the setting of blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. We report a case of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma. A 32-year-old male with no relevant medical problems was transferred to our medical center for retrosternal chest pain after being elbowed in the chest during a soccer game. Few seconds later, he started experiencing sharp retrosternal chest pain that was severe to that point where he called the emergency medical service. Upon arrival to the trauma department patient was still complaining of chest pain. ECG demonstrated ST segment elevation in the inferior leads with reciprocal changes in the lateral leads all consistent with active ischemia. After rolling out aortic dissection, patient was loaded with ASA, ticagerlor, heparin and was emergently taken to the cardiac catheterization lab. Coronary angiography demonstrated 100% thrombotic occlusion in the distal right coronary artery with TIMI 0 flow distally. After thrombus aspiration, a focal dissection was noted on the angiogram that was successfully stented. Two days after admission patient was discharged home. Echocardiography prior to discharge showed inferior wall akinesis, normal right ventricular systolic function and normal overall ejection fraction. PMID:26490501

  4. [Multiple trauma and burns].

    PubMed

    Carsin, H; Dutertre, G; Le Bever, H; Ainaud, P; Le Réveillé, R; Rives, J M

    1995-01-01

    In peace time, burn injury combined with traumatic, chemical or radioactive casualties is rarely encountered and often unrecognized; during disasters, burn injury is unlikely the only trauma. The authors try to bring out the main pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of changes induced by combined lesions on burn injury and vice-versa. PMID:7671090

  5. Penetrating injuries of the abdominal inferior vena cava.

    PubMed Central

    Degiannis, E.; Velmahos, G. C.; Levy, R. D.; Souter, I.; Benn, C. A.; Saadia, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 74 patients with penetrating injuries of the abdominal inferior vena cava; the cause of injury was gunshot in 91% and stabbing in 9%. Of the patients, 77% underwent lateral venorrhaphy, 5% underwent infrarenal ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and 18% died perioperatively before any caval repair could be carried out. There was an overall perioperative mortality of 39%. Persistent shock, the site of the venous injury, particularly in the retrohepatic position, and the number of associated vascular injuries were directly related to mortality. Irrespective of the improvements in resuscitation and the various operative methods available, penetrating trauma of the abdominal IVC remains a life-threatening injury. PMID:8943628

  6. Extrasensory Perception Experiences and Childhood Trauma: A Rorschach Investigation.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Ciura, Giulia; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether people who report recurrent extrasensory perception (ESP) experiences (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition) have suffered more traumatic experiences and traumatic intrusions. Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire); traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure (Rorschach Traumatic Content Index). Participants also completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Dissociative Experience Scale, and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Implications for health professionals are discussed. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma. PMID:26488918

  7. Trauma Mechanisms and Injuries Associated with Go-Karting

    PubMed Central

    Eker, Hasan H.; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.; Den Hartog, Dennis; Schipper, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    Annually, approximately 600 patients seek medical attention after go-kart accidents in the Netherlands. A large variability in injury patterns can be encountered. Knowledge of the trauma mechanisms of go-kart accidents and insight into the associated injuries is limited and requires improvement. Such additional knowledge may lead to customized trauma protocols for patients with a high index of suspicion on go-kart injuries. Research into trauma mechanisms may also lead to implementation of improved or additional safety measures for go-karting, involving both the go-karts itself as well as prerequisites to the go-kart tracks and qualifications for the drivers. The main trauma mechanisms involved in go-kart accidents, and three cases to illustrate the variety of injuries are described in the current manuscript. PMID:20361000

  8. Trauma mechanisms and injuries associated with go-karting.

    PubMed

    Eker, Hasan H; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Den Hartog, Dennis; Schipper, Inger B

    2010-01-01

    Annually, approximately 600 patients seek medical attention after go-kart accidents in the Netherlands. A large variability in injury patterns can be encountered. Knowledge of the trauma mechanisms of go-kart accidents and insight into the associated injuries is limited and requires improvement. Such additional knowledge may lead to customized trauma protocols for patients with a high index of suspicion on go-kart injuries. Research into trauma mechanisms may also lead to implementation of improved or additional safety measures for go-karting, involving both the go-karts itself as well as prerequisites to the go-kart tracks and qualifications for the drivers. The main trauma mechanisms involved in go-kart accidents, and three cases to illustrate the variety of injuries are described in the current manuscript. PMID:20361000

  9. Late onset hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade from minor blunt chest trauma – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tabansi, Petronilla N; Otaigbe, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade following minor blunt trauma is a rare, life-threatening condition in children. Without high index of suspicion, diagnosis and intervention may be delayed as the link between the trauma and illness may be missed. We present a 12-year-old female in Nigeria, and highlight challenges in diagnosis. PMID:25914818

  10. Post-operative Abdominal Wall Mucormycosis-a Case Series.

    PubMed

    Nain, Prabhdeep Singh; Matta, Harish; Singh, Kuldip; Chhina, Deepinder; Trehan, Munish; Batta, Nishant

    2015-12-01

    Mucormycosis is caused by saprophtytic fungi which cause acute invasive zygomycosis. It clinically presents with necrosis, and on histopathology, acute and chronic infiltrates are seen. It rarely infects a healthy host, but is devastating in an immunocompromised host. We studied five cases with post-operative abdominal wall mucormycosis, three females and two males. Three patients were post-operative while the other two had mucormycosis following trauma and infection was found in sutured wound. All were initially diagnosed as cases of necrotizing fasciitis. Two patients eventually survived after intensive medical therapy and extensive debridements. PMID:26730004

  11. Abdominal MR Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    MR Elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues, based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, offers a safer, and less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062

  12. [Pathophysiology of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Abdominal pain can be induced by stimulation of visceral nociceptors. Activation of nociceptors usually requires previous sensitization by pathological events, such as inflammation, ischemia or acidosis. Although abdominal pain can obviously be caused by pathology of a visceral structure, clinicians frequently observe that such a pathology explains only part of the pain complaints. Occasionally, there is lack of objective signs of visceral lesions. There is clear evidence that pain states are associated with profound changes of the central processing of the sensory input. The main consequences of such alterations for patients are twofold: 1) a central sensitization, i.e. an increased excitability of the central nervous system; 2) an alteration of the endogenous pain modulation, which under normal conditions inhibits the processing of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system. Both phenomena lead to a spread of pain to other body regions and an amplification of the pain perception. The interactions between visceral pathology and alterations of the central pain processes represent an at least partial explanation for the discrepancy between objective signs of peripheral lesions and severity of the symptoms. Today, both central hypersensitivity and alteration in endogenous pain modulation can be measured in clinical practice. This information can be used to provide the patients with an explanatory model for their pain. Furthermore, first data suggest that alterations in central pain processing may represent negative prognostic factors. A better understanding of the individual pathophysiology may allow in the future the development of individual therapeutic strategies. PMID:21796591

  13. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Jean-Francois; Pierce, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among people under the age of 44. Hemorrhage is a major contributor to deaths related to trauma in the first 48 h. Accordingly, the management of these patients is a time-sensitive and critical affair that anesthesiologists responsible for surgical resuscitation will face. Coagulopathy associated with trauma exists in one-third of all severely injured patients upon presentation to the hospital. Trauma patients presenting with coagulopathy have significantly higher mortality. This trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) must be managed adroitly in the resuscitation of these patients. Recent advancements in our understanding of TIC have led to new protocols and therapy guidelines. Anesthesiologists must be aware of these to effectively manage this form of shock. TIC driven by a combination of endogenous biological processes, as well as iatrogenic causes, can ultimately lead to the lethal triad of hypothermia, acidemia, and coagulopathy. Providers should understand how to promptly diagnose TIC and be aware of the early indicators of massive transfusion. The use of common laboratory studies and patient vital signs serve as our current guide, but the importance of each is still under debate. Thromboelastography is a tool used often in the diagnosis of TIC and can be used to guide blood product transfusion. Certain pharmaceutical strategies and non-transfusion strategies also exist, which aid in the management of hemorrhagic shock. Damage control surgery, rewarming, tranexamic acid, and 1:1:1 transfusion protocols are promising methods used to treat the critically wounded. Though protocols have been developed, controversies still exist on the optimal resuscitation strategy. PMID:25587242

  14. Spontaneous reduction of ileoileal adult intussusception after blunt abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Emet, Mucahit; Kocak, Abdullah Osman; Akbas, Ilker; Karaman, Adem; Arslan, Sukru

    2015-10-01

    This is the first case report of an adult who had spontaneous reduction of ileoileal intussusception occurred after punching to the abdomen. A 40-year-old man was brought to our emergency department by ground ambulance due to pounding and punching a few hours ago. Physical examination showed multiple dermabrasions on his face, abdomen, and lower extremities. All other examinations were unremarkable except that of mild abdominal pain. Laboratory results gave no clues. On abdominal x-ray, paucity of intestinal gas, pseudomass and surrounding gas appearances were visible. No nausea or vomiting occurred during observation. His abdominal pain resolved gradually. On the 24th hour after admission, control computed tomography showed that the findings of intussusception disappeared. He was discharged after 1 day of observation. Outpatient follow-up did not show any abnormality. We suggest that, in patients with mild to moderate trauma, even if the patient has mild abdominal pain, physicians should rule out invagination. Computed tomography is the suggested imaging modality. These patients should be kept in close follow-up. If symptoms resolve and intussusception findings disappear in computed tomography, no further treatment is required. PMID:26299690

  15. The Role of Trauma Type in the Risk for Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Akeeb, Ameenat; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is common following exposure to trauma and can occur independently or as a feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is limited research identifying risk factors associated with the development of insomnia following exposure to a traumatic event. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of specific trauma types in the risk for insomnia in a community sample of urban African Americans young adults. Methods: A sample of 554 nonclinical, urban, young adult African Americans was recruited for a larger study from which 465 participants were utilized for this study based on their completion of all study self-report measures. Participants were initially screened by phone to determine whether they provisionally met study criteria. Once selected, participants underwent informed consent and then completed a battery of self-report measures that included the Life Events Checklist, the PTSD Checklist, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the Fear of Sleep Index. Results: Of the seven trauma categories that were endorsed by at least 20% of the sample, results from logistic regression models indicated that sexual trauma, physical assault, accidents, natural disasters, and sudden violent death predicted insomnia independent of sex. However, PTSD symptom severity and nocturnal fears differentially influenced the relationship between trauma type and risk for insomnia. Conclusions: Exposure to specific types of trauma increases the odds of insomnia twofold to threefold. Additionally, PTSD symptom severity and nocturnal fears contribute differentially to the relationship between trauma exposure and insomnia suggesting the possibility of multiple underlying pathways. Citation: Hall Brown TS, Akeeb A, Mellman TA. The role of trauma type in the risk for insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):735–739. PMID:25766711

  16. The influence of injury severity on complication rates after primary closure or colostomy for penetrating colon trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Nelken, N; Lewis, F

    1989-01-01

    The management of penetrating colon injury has been frequently debated in the literature, yet few reports have evaluated primary closure versus diverting colostomy in similarly injured patients. Diverting colostomy is the standard of care when mucosal penetration is present, but primary closure in civilian practice has generally had excellent results, although it has been restricted to less severely injured patients. Because the degree of injury may influence choice of treatment in modern practice, various indices of injury severity have been proposed for assessment of patients with penetrating colon trauma. As yet, however, there has been no cross-comparison of repair type versus injury severity. A retrospective study 76 patients who sustained penetrating colon trauma between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 1985 and who survived for at least 24 hours was conducted. Different preferences among attending surgeons and a more aggressive approach to the use of primary closure during the years of study led to an essentially random use of primary closure and diverting colostomy for moderate levels of colon injury, with mandatory colostomy reserved for the most serious injuries. Primary closure was performed in 37 patients (three having resection and anastomosis), and colostomy was performed in 39 patients. Severity of injury was evaluated by the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), and the Flint Colon Injury Score. Complications and outcome were evaluated as a function of severity of injury, and primary closure and colostomy were compared. Demographic profiles of the two groups did not differ regarding age, sex, mechanism of injury, shock, or delay between injury and operation. The mortality rate was 2.6% for each group. Major morbidity, including septic complications, occurred in 11% of the patients of the primary closure group and in 49% of those of the colostomy group. When PATI was less than 25, the Flint score was less than or equal to 2, or when the ISS was less than 25, primary closure resulted in fewer complications than did colostomy. Of the injury severity indices examined, the PATI most reliably predicted complications and specifically identified patients who whose outcome would be good with primary repair. These results suggest that the use of primary closure should be expanded in civilian penetrating colon trauma and that, even with moderate degrees of colon injury, primary closure provides an outcome equivalent to that provided by colostomy. In addition, the predictive value of the PATI suggests that it should be included along with other injury severity indices in trauma data bases. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2930290

  17. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  18. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  19. A Case of Pediatric Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Components Separation within the Austere War Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Jennifer; Kumar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructive surgeons supporting military operations are required to definitively treat severe pediatric abdominal injuries in austere environments. The safety and efficacy of using a components separation technique to treat large ventral hernias in pediatric patients in this setting remains understudied. Components separation technique was required to achieve definitive closure in a 12-month-old pediatric patient in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Her course was complicated by an anastomotic leak after small bowel resection. Her abdominal was successfully reopened, the leak repaired, and closed primarily without incident on postinjury day 9. Abdominal trauma with a large ventral hernia requiring components separation is extremely rare. A pediatric patient treated with components separation demonstrated minimal complications, avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome, and no mortality. PMID:25426363

  20. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  2. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  3. Treatment of acoustic trauma.

    PubMed

    d'Aldin, C; Cherny, L; Devrière, F; Dancer, A

    1999-11-28

    The aim of this study is to determine the actual efficiency of the present medical treatments of acoustic trauma. Untreated and treated groups of guinea pigs are exposed to a traumatic noise exposure, inducing up to 60-dB threshold shift. The recovery is followed for up to 14 days. The first results indicate that in some animals the recovery of the threshold shifts are complete despite the fact that significant areas of hair cells are damaged. The most widely used medical treatments of acoustic trauma (oxygenotherapy, carbogen, hyperbaric oxygen, vasoactive agents, and corticotherapy) have been tested. Preliminary results indicate that pure oxygen and carbogen seem ineffective, hyperbaric oxygen used alone is dangerous, and corticoids and combined corticoid/hyperbaric oxygen seem to improve functional and morphological recovery. This study will be taken as a reference to look for new treatments that will be applied directly to the cochlea by means of an implanted osmotic micropump. PMID:10842604

  4. Airway management in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rashid M; Sharma, Pradeep K; Kaul, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    Trauma has assumed epidemic proportion. 10% of global road accident deaths occur in India. Hypoxia and airway mismanagement are known to contribute up to 34% of pre-hospital deaths in these patients. A high degree of suspicion for actual or impending airway obstruction should be assumed in all trauma patients. Objective signs of airway compromise include agitation, obtundation, cyanosis, abnormal breath sound and deviated trachea. If time permits, one should carry out a brief airway assessment prior to undertaking definitive airway management in these patients. Simple techniques for establishing and maintaining airway patency include jaw thrust maneuver and/or use of oro- and nas-opharyngeal airways. All attempts must be made to perform definitive airway management whenever airway is compromised that is not amenable to simple strategies. The selection of airway device and route- oral or -nasal, for tracheal intubation should be based on nature of patient injury, experience and skill level. PMID:22174462

  5. Needle Thoracotomy in Trauma.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Fay, Shmuel; Gendler, Sami; Klein, Yoram; Arkovitz, Marc; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2015-12-01

    Tension pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in trauma patients. Needle thoracotomy (NT) is the currently accepted first-line intervention but has not been well validated. In this review, we have critically discussed the evidence for NT procedure, re-examined the recommendations by the Advanced Trauma Life Support organization and investigated the safest and most effective way of NT. The current evidence to support the use of NT is limited. However, when used, it should be applied in the 2nd intercostal space at midclavicular line using a catheter length of at least 4.5 cm. Alternative measures should be studied for better prehospital management of tension pneumothorax. PMID:26633663

  6. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…

  7. Abdominal wall extraction using constrained deformable model and abdominal context.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weimin; Quan, Lijie; Lin, Zhiping; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Yang, Yongzhong; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information about abdominal wall can be used for many applications from organ segmentation, registration, and surgical simulation. The challenges exist in abdominal wall extraction due to its varieties in shapes, connection to the internal organs and anterior layer edge formed between the muscle and fascia/fatty layer, which may distract the shape model. In this paper we present an approach to the posterior abdominal wall extraction using the shape model and other abdominal context, particularly with the rib-spine bone information and the wall image features. The shape model is constructed based on the training abdominal walls that are delineated manually. After bone information being extracted, the wall shape deforms from the prior shape model using the snake, which is constrained by the bone context and guided by the processed image energy map with the aim of removing distracted image features of anterior abdominal wall and the outer region from the original map. Meanwhile, an overall convex shape is maintained by limiting the angles of the contour points. The proposed approach is tested on abdominal CT data which provides encouraging results. PMID:25571041

  8. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Liu, Dong; Tang, Hao; Sun, Shi-Jin; Ai, Shan-Mu; Yang, Wen-Qun; Jiang, Dong-Po; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. PMID:26739977

  9. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric trauma involving the bones of the face is associated with severe injury and disability. Although much is known about the epidemiology of facial fractures in adults, little is known about injury patterns and outcomes in children. The most common facial fractures were mandible, nasal and maxillary/zygoma. The most common mechanisms of injury are motor vehicle collisions, violence and falls. These fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury varies with age. Cranial and central facial injuries are more common among toddlers and infants, and mandible injuries are more common among adolescents. Although bony craniofacial trauma is relatively uncommon among the pediatric population, it remains a substantial source of mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions. Continued efforts toward injury prevention are warranted. An overview of various types of fractures and their management modalities is discussed, with case reports. How to cite this article: Mukherjee CG, Mukherjee U. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):231-236. PMID:25206176

  10. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  11. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    PubMed

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution. PMID:18854963

  12. Trauma-related Infections in Battlefield Casualties From Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kyle; Riddle, Mark S.; Danko, Janine R.; Blazes, David L.; Hayden, Richard; Tasker, Sybil A.; Dunne, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe risks for, and microbiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of, war trauma associated infections from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Background: The invasion of Iraq resulted in casualties from high-velocity gunshot, shrapnel, and blunt trauma injuries as well as burns. Infectious complications of these unique war trauma injuries have not been described since the 1970s. Methods: Retrospective record review of all trauma casualties 5 to 65 years of age evacuated from the Iraqi theatre to U.S. Navy hospital ship, USNS Comfort March to May 2003.War trauma-associated infection was defined by positive culture from a wound or sterile body fluid (ie, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) and at least two of the following infection-associated signs/symptoms: fever, dehiscence, foul smell, peri-wound erythema, hypotension, and leukocytosis. A comparison of mechanisms of injury, demographics, and clinical variables was done using multivariate analysis. Results: Of 211 patients, 56 met criteria for infection. Infections were more common in blast injuries, soft tissue injuries, >3 wound sites, loss of limb, abdominal trauma, and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS). Wound infections accounted for 84% of cases, followed by bloodstream infections (38%). Infected were more likely to have had fever prior to arrival, and had higher probability of ICU admission and more surgical procedures. Acinetobacter species (36%) were the predominant organisms followed by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species (14% each). Conclusions: Similar to the Vietnam War experience, gram-negative rods, particularly Acinetobacter species, accounted for the majority of wound infections cared for on USNS Comfort during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Multidrug resistance was common, with the exception of the carbapenem class, limiting antibiotic therapy options. PMID:17457175

  13. A case report of abdominal splenosis - a practical mini-review for a gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Ksi?dzyna, Dorota

    2011-09-01

    Splenosis is a benign condition caused by ectopic autotransplantation of splenic tissues after splenic trauma or surgery. It is usually diagnosed accidentally. However, occasionally splenosis poses a significant diagnostic dilemma, especially when this condition presents as a metastatic malignant disease on abdominal imaging. This is the case report of a 54-year-old woman, who underwent post-traumatic splenectomy at the age of 12 years. The physical examination of this patient complaining of epigastric and low back pain, except for postoperative abdominal scar, as well as laboratory tests were normal. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed chronic gastritis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed no spleen, enlarged lymph nodes in the right retroperitoneum and a focal lesion in the uterus. In addition, the CT scan disclosed enlarged left hepatic lobe, numerous oval tumors between intestinal loops, in the caecal region, under the diaphragm and abdominal wall, periaortic enlarged lymph nodes and an osteolytic lesion in the first lumbar vertebra, suggesting disseminated malignant disease. The exploratory laparotomy showed multiple abdominal nodules, a tumor of the ileum, the greater omentum and the uterus. Except for the last one (leiomyoma), all excised tumors proved to have histological structure typical for the spleen and, finally, abdominal splenosis was diagnosed. Splenosis should be considered when a differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions disclosed on abdominal imaging occurs in a patient with a splenic injury in the past. PMID:21961104

  14. New technology in the management of liver trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Glikeria; Kaskarelis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the second most frequently injured solid organ in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Hence the diagnosis and clinical assessment of hepatic trauma is of great importance because of the relationship of the liver to high morbidity and mortality. Multi detector-row computed tomography is the main diagnostic modality for the examination of hepatic parenchyma and other associated organ injuries, such as acute or delayed complications. Based on clinical and radiological findings, the majority of patients are managed conservatively, with the most important criterion of surgical therapy being hemodynamic instability. Radiologists must demonstrate a high knowledge of imaging recommendations and standardization of reporting to enable the selection of the appropriate treatment algorithm. Transcatheter embolization therapy is a method of great potential for the management of patients with traumatic hepatic injuries. PMID:24714662

  15. New technology in the management of liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Glikeria; Kaskarelis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the second most frequently injured solid organ in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Hence the diagnosis and clinical assessment of hepatic trauma is of great importance because of the relationship of the liver to high morbidity and mortality. Multi detector-row computed tomography is the main diagnostic modality for the examination of hepatic parenchyma and other associated organ injuries, such as acute or delayed complications. Based on clinical and radiological findings, the majority of patients are managed conservatively, with the most important criterion of surgical therapy being hemodynamic instability. Radiologists must demonstrate a high knowledge of imaging recommendations and standardization of reporting to enable the selection of the appropriate treatment algorithm. Transcatheter embolization therapy is a method of great potential for the management of patients with traumatic hepatic injuries. PMID:24714662

  16. Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Suhail Yaqoob; Abdelrahman, Husham; Mudali, Insolvisagan Natesa; El-Menyar, Ayman; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Blunt trauma as a cause of pneumoperitoneum is less frequent and its occurrence without a ruptured viscus is rarely seen. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of blunt neck trauma in which a motorcycle rider hit a fixed object causing severe laryngotracheal injury. The patient developed pneumothorax bilaterally and had pneumoperitoneum despite no injury to the internal viscus. Bilateral chest tube drainage and abdominal exploratory laparotomy was performed. CONCLUSION Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases. PMID:25460486

  17. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip; Schubert, Johanna

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery.

  18. Trauma and PTSD Symptoms: Does Spiritual Struggle Mediate the Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Because exposure to potentially traumatic events is common (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, & Hughes, 1995), the mechanisms through which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms develop is a critical area of investigation (Ozer, Best, Lipsey, & Weiss, 2003). Among the mechanisms that may predict PTSD symptoms is spiritual struggle, a set of negative religious cognitions related to understanding or responding to stressful events. Although prominent theories emphasize cognitive factors in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, they have not explicitly addressed spiritual struggle. The present prospective study tested the role of spiritual struggle in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms following trauma. We assessed exposure to trauma and non-trauma events during the first year of college, spiritual struggle due to the most stressful event, and PTSD symptoms resulting from the index event. Spiritual struggle partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms. Interestingly, some individual subscales of spiritual struggle (specifically, Punishing God Reappraisal, Reappraisal of God’s Powers, and Spiritual Discontent) partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms; however, reappraisal of the event to evil forces did not relate to PTSD symptoms. These results suggest that spiritual struggle is an important cognitive mechanism for many trauma victims and may have relevance for cognitive therapy for PTSD. PMID:22308201

  19. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT. PMID:25771265

  20. Physical Trauma and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population-Based Study Using Danish National Registries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Ryan M; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-02-15

    Prior studies have suggested that physical trauma might be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a population-based, individually matched case-control study in Denmark to assess whether hospitalization for trauma is associated with a higher risk of developing ALS. There were 3,650 incident cases of ALS in the Danish National Patient Register from 1982 to 2009. We used risk-set sampling to match each case to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive on the date of the case's diagnosis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a conditional logistic regression model. History of trauma diagnosis was also obtained from the Danish Patient Register. When traumas in the 5 years prior to the index date were excluded, there was a borderline association between any trauma and ALS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.19). A first trauma before age 55 years was associated with ALS (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37), whereas first traumas at older ages were not (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.10). Our data suggest that physical trauma at earlier ages is associated with ALS risk. Age at first trauma could help explain discrepancies in results of past studies of trauma and ALS. PMID:26825926

  1. Kidney in danger: CT findings of blunt and penetrating renal trauma.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Raquel Cano; Nacenta, Susana Borruel; Martinez, Patricia Diez; Guerrero, Angel Sanchez; Fuentes, Carlos Garcia

    2009-11-01

    Approximately 10% of all significant blunt abdominal traumatic injuries manifest with renal injury, although it is usually minor. However, renal imaging is indicated in cases of gross hematuria, penetrating trauma with gross or microscopic hematuria, and blunt trauma and shock with gross or microscopic hematuria. Contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation and management of renal trauma. Contrast-enhanced CT is readily available in emergency departments and can quickly and accurately depict renal injuries as well as associated injuries to other abdominal or retroperitoneal organs. In this way, contrast-enhanced CT provides the anatomic and functional information that is essential for accurate staging. In addition, CT can help detect active hemorrhage and urinary extravasation and is very useful in guiding transcatheter embolization and delineating preexisting disease entities that may predispose kidneys to posttraumatic hemorrhage. With the advent of multidetector CT, imaging is characterized by faster scanning times, increased volume coverage, and improved spatial and temporal resolution. The increased use of CT has been partially responsible for a growing trend toward conservative management of renal trauma, except in cases in which extensive urinary extravasation or devitalized areas of renal parenchyma are found and especially in those cases with associated injuries to other abdominal organs; these cases are particularly prone to complications and usually require surgery. PMID:19926761

  2. Updates in abdominal wall management.

    PubMed

    Hope, W W; Williams, Z

    2015-10-01

    The field of abdominal wall hernia surgery continues to evolve at a rapid pace. Surgeons dealing with abdominal wall hernias must constantly stay abreast as new biomaterials and surgical techniques evolve. Increasing knowledge related to hernia formation and factors affecting outcomes will help surgeons prevent hernias and individualize hernia repair techniques and biomaterials based on specific clinical situations and patient characteristics. This review outlines some new advances in abdominal wall hernia management focusing on hernia prevention, preoperative strategies to improve outcomes, available biomaterials and mesh products used in hernia repair, new surgical techniques, and improving ways to evaluate outcomes and perform continuous quality improvement in hernia repair. PMID:26149522

  3. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  4. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  5. CT of abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, B M; Mann, J H

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1)irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trail of antituberculous therapy) be instituted. PMID:6981966

  6. Haematuria after blunt trauma: the role of pyelography.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Rabinowitz, B; Sofianos, C; Landau, A

    1985-09-01

    This study is a combined prospective and retrospective review of 208 patients presenting with haematuria after blunt abdominal trauma. One hundred and twelve patients had an urgent intravenous pyelogram (IVP) with cystogram performed, while the remaining ninety-six were observed with serial urinalysis without any further investigation. Nineteen of the twenty-three patients with a positive IVP had gross haematuria and the remaining four had microscopic haematuria. Twenty-two of the patients with an abnormal IVP had positive abdominal signs, whilst only one case (with severe head injury) had no abdominal signs. In the 96 cases who were observed without IVP no complications occurred. It is suggested that if certain clinical criteria are observed most patients with post-traumatic microscopic haematuria can safely be spared an IVP. Indications for emergency IVP should include: gross haematuria or microscopic haematuria associated with abdominal signs or severe head injury or fracture of pelvis or spine. Had these criteria been observed during this study, 130 patients (62 per cent) would have avoided the risks and expenses of an IVP, and no significant urological injury would have been missed. PMID:4041738

  7. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  8. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... psychological state. The pain may interfere with school attendance, participation in sports and other extra-curricular activities. ... cause for abdominal pain is discovered during the evaluation, the physician will discuss specific management of conditions ...

  9. Physical Health after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pasagic, Almir; Bostandzija, Amela; Pasagic, Omer; Bostandzija, Sanela; Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary Family medicine physicians in their daily practice meet with a number of diseases and conditions that are the result of stress and physical trauma. One of the most frequent is post-traumatic stress disorder syndrome, which in our terms is a result of the aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina and in total morbidity occupies more than 30% of all mental illnesses. This paper describes one such case in our practice. Timely diagnosis means the establishment of adequate therapy and relatively successful treatment. PMID:24493983

  10. Acute brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem. PMID:26688392

  11. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612

  12. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth with Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…

  13. Rural Trauma: Is Trauma Designation Associated with Better Hospital Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…

  14. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  15. Haemodynamic changes in trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, E; Watts, S

    2014-08-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death during the first four decades of life in the developed countries. Its haemodynamic response underpins the patient's initial ability to survive, and the response to treatment and subsequent morbidity and resolution. Trauma causes a number of insults including haemorrhage, tissue injury (nociception) and, predominantly, in military casualties, blast from explosions. This article discusses aspects of the haemodynamic responses to these insults and subsequent treatment. 'Simple' haemorrhage (blood loss without significant volume of tissue damage) causes a biphasic response: mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) is initially maintained by the baroreflex (tachycardia and increased vascular resistance, Phase 1), followed by a sudden decrease in MAP initiated by a second reflex (decrease in vascular resistance and bradycardia, Phase 2). Phase 2 may be protective. The response to tissue injury attenuates Phase 2 and may cause a deleterious haemodynamic redistribution that compromises blood flow to some vital organs. In contrast, thoracic blast exposure augments Phase 2 of the response to haemorrhage. However, hypoxaemia from lung injury limits the effectiveness of hypotensive resuscitation by augmenting the attendant shock state. An alternative strategy ('hybrid resuscitation') whereby tissue perfusion is increased after the first hour of hypotensive resuscitation by adopting a revised normotensive target may ameliorate these problems. Finally, morphine also attenuates Phase 2 of the response to haemorrhage in some, but not all, species and this is associated with poor outcome. The impact on human patients is currently unknown and is the subject of a current physiological investigation. PMID:25038158

  16. The epidemiology of renal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonoperative and minimally invasive management techniques for both blunt and penetrating renal trauma have become standard of care over the past decades. We sought to examine the modern epidemiology of renal trauma over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of PubMed from the past decade was conducted to examine adult and pediatric renal trauma. A total of 605 articles were identified. Of these, 15 adult and 5 pediatric articles met our a priori search criteria. Results There is a lack of uniform reporting of the renal trauma demographics precluding accurate assessment. Despite this, we were able to elucidate the following details. Renal trauma predominately affects young adult males, and the etiology is predominantly blunt. Among blunt injuries, motor vehicle crashes are most common among adult and pediatric patients. Nonoperative care was utilized in 94.8% of reviewed manuscripts with a 5.4% nephrectomy rate. Discussion There do not appear to be any startling changes in the presentation of adult and pediatric renal trauma over the past decade. Nonoperative care continues to be utilized as primary therapy. Increased attention on the reporting of renal trauma demographics is necessary to improve detection of trends. Conclusions Increased reporting of the presenting demographics of adult and pediatric renal trauma is encouraged to assist future assessment of epidemiology. PMID:26816762

  17. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  18. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Christiaans, Sarah C; Duhachek-Stapelman, Amy L; Russell, Robert T; Lisco, Steven J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children aged 1 to 21 years. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury. Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution, and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system after severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of trauma-induced coagulopathy that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  19. Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality

    PubMed Central

    Floen, Silje K; Elklit, Ask

    2007-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. Methods During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139) in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%). Results Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma for longer periods of time. Only 7% acquired a PTSD diagnosis. The comorbidity of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses were 78%. A number of diagnoses were associated with specific traumas. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported suicidal thoughts in the month prior to intake; thirty-one percent had attempted suicide in the preceding week. Suicidal ideation, self-harming behaviour, and suicide attempts were associated with specific traumas. Conclusion Traumatised patients appear to be under- or misdiagnosed which could have an impact on the efficiency of treatment. PMID:17448229

  20. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services. PMID:25494913

  1. Open partial splenectomy for trauma using GIA-Stapler and FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Daniela; Rizzi, Sabrina; Zampogna, Annunziatino; Alonzo, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A ruptured spleen caused by blunt abdominal injury is often treated by splenectomy. In view of the gravity of the ‘postsplenectomy syndrome,’ a conservative approach has been increasingly used. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with a Grade III splenic lesion for a blunt abdominal trauma after a car accident. We performed a partial splenectomy of the upper pole using GIA-Stapler. A supplemental haemostasis of the stapled line was successfully achieved by the application of FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent. The splenic remnant was fixed into the left-upper quadrant using human fibrin glue. PMID:22767672

  2. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  3. Pancreatic and gastrointestinal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Grosfeld, J L; Cooney, D R

    1975-05-01

    Injuries to the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract following blunt abdominal trauma continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Optimal treatment of these injuries is frequently hampered by considerable delays in diagnosis. Factors contributing to these delays include the location of much of the duodenum and the pancreas in the retroperitoneum resulting in an absence of initial symptoms and signs, the often trivial nature of some of the responsible blunt traumatic accidents, inappropriate child-parent or child-physician communication, failure to achieve a meaningful physical examination in uncooperative or unconscious patients, and false negative paracentesis. Eighty per cent of these injuries occurred in boys. Eleven of 16 patients with pancreatic trauma had pseudocysts. A persistently elevated serum amylase level was invariably noted and epigastric mass was palpable in eight patients. Significant delays in diagnosis were prevalent and pseudocysts was misdiagnosed as appendicitis in three cases. Internal drainage by cystgastrostomy or cystjejunostomy was effective operative treatment. In instances of acute pancreatic injuries, sump drains, gastrostomy, cholecystostomy, and total parenteral hyperalimentation were useful therapeutic adjuncts. There was one death for a 6.2 per cent mortality rate. Forty patients had gastrointestinal injuries involving the duodenum in 17, jejunum in 14, ileum in seven, and stomach in two. Perforations occured in 65 per cent of cases, obstructing hematomas in 30 per cent, and mesenteric avulsions in 5 per cent. Associated injuries were observed in 15 patients (37.5 per cent). Pain and tenderness were the only consistent findings. Upper gastrointestinal contrast studies were diagnostic of duodenal hematomas. Eighty per cent of perforations were managed by simple closures and 20 per cent by resection and anastomosis. Obstructing hematomas unassociated with other injuries may be expected to resolve without requiring operation in 50 per cent of patients managed conservatively. Complications occurred in 35 per cent of patients and the mortality rate was 12.5 per cent (five deaths). PMID:1124220

  4. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by tension pneumoperitoneum in a scuba diver

    PubMed Central

    Bunni, J; Bryson, PJ; Higgs, SM

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency caused by a raised intra-abdominal pressure, which may lead to respiratory, cardiovascular and renal compromise. It is most commonly seen in post-operative and trauma patients and it has a variety of causes. Tension pneumoperitoneum (TP) is a rare cause of abdominal compartment syndrome most often seen after gastrointestinal endoscopy with perforation. We present the case of a fit 52-year-old experienced female diver who developed TP and shock following a routine training dive to 27m. Following accidental inhalation of water, she had an unstaged ascent and, on reaching the surface, developed severe acute abdominal pain and distension. She was brought to our emergency department by air ambulance for assessment. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a shocked patient with dramatic free intra-abdominal gas and signs of abdominal compartment syndrome, which was treated with needle decompression. Symptoms and signs resolved quickly with no need for further surgical intervention. TP is a surgical emergency where surgery can be avoided with prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23131212

  5. An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. Case presentation A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patient’s left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Conclusion Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma. PMID:23327472

  6. CT in aortic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    A diagnosis of aortic transection was made at computed tomography (CT) in four of 10 patients with acute multiple trauma suspected of having thoracic aortic injuries. There were no false-negative or false-positive examinations. The CT findings of an injured aorta were (1) false aneurysm, (2) linear lucency within the opacified aortic lumen caused by the torn edge of the aortic wall, (3) marginal irregularity of the opacified aortic lumen, (4) periaortic or intramural aortic hematoma, and (5) dissection. The extent of associated mediastinal hemorrhage and the amount of blood in the pleural space were not useful as indicators of aortic injury. Similarly, shift of the trachea and esophagus or absence thereof was found in patients with or without aortic tear.

  7. Trauma and religiousness.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Repič Slavič, Tanja; Lukek, Saša Poljak; Cvetek, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Victims of traumatic events who experience re-traumatization often develop a highly ambivalent relationship to God and all religiosity as extremely conflictual. On the one hand, they may choose to blame God for not having protected them, for having left them to feel so alone, for having been indifferent to them or they may even turn their wrath upon God, as the source of cruelty. Often though, the traumas experienced by individuals prompt them to turn to God and religion in search of help. This gives reason for the need of new and up-to-date research that can help elucidate why some people choose to seek help in religion and others turn away from it. PMID:23187617

  8. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  9. A correlation of response time and results of abdominal gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, M D; Jones, L M; Miller, S F; Finley, R K

    1986-08-01

    Gunshot wounds to the abdomen are an indication for exploratory laparotomy in all cases except those involving the most superficial abdominal wall injuries. The charts of 123 patients admitted for abdominal gunshot wounds were reviewed for times of arrival on the scene by paramedics, in the emergency room, and in the operating room, as well as for number of admissions. Results of therapy were also graded and correlated with response times. The mean paramedic response time was 4 minutes 30 s. An average of 24 minutes 24 s was spent at the scene and in transport. The average delay from admission to arrival in the operating room was 1 hour 49 minutes. Patients who died spent an average of 54.4 minutes in the emergency room prior to surgical intervention. These results may represent justification for regionalization of trauma and direct transport to the operating room for abdominal gunshot wounds. PMID:3729707

  10. Intra-abdominal gossypiboma: a report of two cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kpolugbo, J; Alili, U; Abubakar, M

    2010-01-01

    Post operative foreign body in the abdominal cavily, though rare continues to occur in surgical practice. Symptoms may start early with abdominal pain but usually have a varying course, ofter leading 10 the formation of gossypiboma. This is usually a great source of embarrassment to the surgeon and the centre, and of serious detrimental effect to the patient. A case report of a 27-year-old trader with intra-abdominal foreign body is presented to highlig at the similarity in presentation with abdominal lymphoma and the need to explore carefully masses in the abdominal cavity especially in patients who have had surgery in the past. A high index of suspicious is required on the part of the clinician in addition to appropriate radiological and sonologic assessment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment ameliorates the patients suffering and brings them back to life. PMID:23457869

  11. Childhood and adult trauma experiences of incarcerated persons and their relationship to adult behavioral health problems and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000). Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense). Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood) to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood). Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical. PMID:22754481

  12. Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. PMID:22080869

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Focused Assessment With Sonography for Trauma Performed by Emergency Medicine and Radiology Residents

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Majid; Masoumi, Babak; Esmailian, Mehrdad; Habibi, Amin; Khazaei, Mehdi; Mohammadi Esfahani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) is a method for prompt detection of the abdominal free fluid in patients with abdominal trauma. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FAST performed by emergency medicine residents (EMR) and radiology residents (RRs) in detecting peritoneal free fluids. Patients and Methods: Patients triaged in the emergency department with blunt abdominal trauma, high energy trauma, and multiple traumas underwent a FAST examination by EMRs and RRs with the same techniques to obtain the standard views. Ultrasound findings for free fluid in peritoneal cavity for each patient (positive/negative) were compared with the results of computed tomography, operative exploration, or observation as the final outcome. Results: A total of 138 patients were included in the final analysis. Good diagnostic agreement was noted between the results of FAST scans performed by EMRs and RRs (κ = 0.701, P < 0.001), also between the results of EMRs-performed FAST and the final outcome (κ = 0.830, P < 0.0010), and finally between the results of RRs-performed FAST and final outcome (κ = 0.795, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted between EMRs- and RRs-performed FASTs regarding sensitivity (84.6% vs 84.6%), specificity (98.4% vs 97.6%), positive predictive value (84.6% vs 84.6%), and negative predictive value (98.4% vs 98.4%). Conclusions: Trained EMRs like their fellow RRs have the ability to perform FAST scan with high diagnostic value in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:26756009

  14. Liver Trauma During Combined Liposuction and Abdominoplasty: A Rare but Potentially Lethal Complication.

    PubMed

    Gialamas, Eleftherios; Oldani, Graziano; Modarressi, Ali; Morel, Philippe; Toso, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Liposuction is a well-established procedure that is generally safe. However, rare complications can occur. The authors report on a 38-year-old woman who underwent combined abdominoplasty and liposuction at a private clinic. Four hours after the procedure, severe hypovolemic shock developed and required emergency transfer to a tertiary-care center. After primary fluid resuscitation, abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed severe right-sided liver trauma, with active bleeding and free intra-abdominal fluid. Two attempts at right hepatic artery embolization failed to fully control the bleeding, and surgical hemostasis was required. After a 2-week hospitalization, the patient was discharged, and she returned to work 3 months later. Although it appears that this is the first reported case of liver trauma during liposuction, this potential complication should be kept in mind and identified early to permit efficient and effective management. PMID:26254474

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C P; Drouilhet, J C; Southern, F N; Eidt, J F; Barnes, R W; Moursi, M M

    2001-01-01

    Newer, minimally invasive catheter-based endovascular technology utilizing stent grafts are currently being evaluated for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A retrospective review of all (3 years) consecutive, non-ruptured elective AAA repairs was undertaken to document the results of AAA surgical repair in a modern cohort of patients to allow a contemporary comparison with the evolving endoluminal data. One hundred twenty-one AAAs were identified in a male veteran population. Mean age was 68.5 +/-7.7 years. Medical history review showed hypertension in 55%, heart disease in 73.5%, peripheral vascular disease in 21%, stroke and transient ischemic attacks in 22%, diabetes mellitus in 7%, renal insufficiency in 10%, and smoking history in 80%. The AAA size was documented with ultrasound (5.2 +/-1.3 cm, n=40) and computed tomography (5.6 +/-1.3 cm, n=100). Fifty-nine percent had angiography. Intraoperative end points included an operative time of 165 +/-6.3 minutes from incision to dressing placement. A Dacron tube graft was used in 78%, the remaining were Dacron bifurcated grafts. A suprarenal clamp was used in 8% for proximal aortic control with juxtarenal aneurysms. A pulmonary-artery catheter was placed in 69%. A transverse incision was used in 69% of patients and a midline incision was used in the rest. Estimated blood loss was 1505 +/-103 mL; cell saver blood returned 754 +/-53 mL; crystalloid/Hespan 4771 +/-176 mL; banked packed red blood cells 0.75 +/-0.11 U. Time to extubation was, in the operating room (78.5%), on the day of the operation (5.0%), postoperative day (POD) 1 (12.4%), POD2 (1.7%), POD3 (0.8%), and one case was performed with epidural anesthesia only. Postoperative end points included a 30-day mortality rate of 1.6% (two patients). Postoperative morbidity included wound dehiscence 0.8%; sepsis, urinary tract infection, wound infection, leg ischemia, ischemic colitis, and stroke each had an incidence of 1.6%; myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, re-operation for suspected bleeding, and ileus or bowel obstruction occurred with an incidence of 3.3%. No significant increase in serum creatinine levels was noted. Time to enteral fluids/nutrition was 3.5 +/-0.08 days. Patients were out of bed to a chair or walking by 1.3 +/-0.06 days postoperatively. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 2.0 +/-0.12 days and postoperative hospital stay was 6.6 +/- 0.33 days. Transfusion requirement for the hospital stay was 1.6 +/-0.2 U per patient. This review highlights a cohort of male veteran patients with significant cardiac co-morbidity who have undergone repair with a conventional open technique and low mortality and morbidity rates. This group had rapid extubation, time to oral intake, and ambulation. In addition, ICU and hospital stays were relatively short. PMID:11565037

  16. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Penetrating Trauma on Retrospective Multi-Center Data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bilal A.; Matheny, Michael E.; Rice, Phillip L.; Clarke, John R.; Ogunyemi, Omolola I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective TraumaSCAN-Web (TSW) is a computerized decision support system for assessing chest and abdominal penetrating trauma which utilizes 3D geometric reasoning and a Bayesian network with subjective probabilities obtained from an expert. The goal of the present study is to determine whether a trauma risk prediction approach using a Bayesian network with a predefined structure and probabilities learned from penetrating trauma data is comparable in diagnostic accuracy to TSW. Methods Parameters for two Bayesian networks with expert-defined structures were learned from 637 gunshot and stab wound cases from three hospitals, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed using 10-fold cross validation. The first network included information on external wound locations, while the second network did not. Diagnostic accuracy of learned networks was compared to that of TSW on 194 previously evaluated cases. Results For 23 of the 24 conditions modeled by TraumaSCAN-Web, 16 conditions had Areas Under the ROC Curve (AUCs) greater than 0.90 while 21 conditions had AUCs greater than 0.75 for the first network. For the second network, 16 and 20 conditions had AUCs greater than 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. AUC results for learned networks on 194 previously evaluated cases were better than or equal to AUC results for TSW for all diagnoses evaluated except diaphragm and heart injuries. Conclusions For 23 of the 24 penetrating trauma conditions studied, a trauma diagnosis approach using Bayesian networks with predefined structure and probabilities learned from penetrating trauma data was better than or equal in diagnostic accuracy to TSW. In many cases, information on wound location in the first network did not significantly add to predictive accuracy. The study suggests that a decision support approach that uses parameter-learned Bayesian networks may be sufficient for assessing some penetrating trauma conditions. PMID:18929685

  17. Impact of trauma on children.

    PubMed

    Lubit, Roy; Rovine, Deborah; DeFrancisci, Lea; Eth, Spencer

    2003-03-01

    Millions of children are affected by physical and sexual abuse, natural and technological disasters, transportation accidents, invasive medical procedures, exposure to community violence, violence in the home, assault, and terrorism. Unfortunately, the emotional impact of exposure to trauma on children is often unappreciated and therefore untreated, and yet the impact of exposures to disaster and violence is profound and long-lasting. This article first briefly discusses the epidemiology of trauma in children, and then reviews the psychiatric and neurodevelopmental impact of trauma on children as well as the effects of trauma on children's emotional development. Trauma in children can lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder as well as to a variety of other psychiatric disorders, including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse in adult survivors of trauma. Research has found that early exposure to stress and trauma causes physical effects on neurodevelopment which may lead to changes in the individual's long-term response to stress and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. Exposure to trauma also affects children's ability to regulate, identify, and express emotions, and may have a negative effect on the individual's core identity and ability to relate to others. The authors also discuss what has been learned, based on recent experiences such as the World Trade Center catastrophe, about the role of television viewing in increasing the effects of traumatic events. The last section of the article provides guidance concerning the identification and clinical treatment of children and adolescents who are having emotional problems as a result of exposure to trauma. PMID:15985923

  18. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3?days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10?days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively. PMID:26611488

  19. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  20. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  1. [The mast cell and trauma].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-nian; Wang, Cheng-yi; Liu, Liang

    2002-05-01

    Mast cell(MC) takes an important role in trauma and the process of wound healing, and the pathophysiology reaction has a relationship to the time since trauma, which is helpful to determine the post-trauma and postmortem interval, and to distinguish the wound shaped whether before or after death. In this paper, the role of MC and its chemic medium in the process of wound healing, scar shaping, postburns inflammatory response, healing of bone fracture, as well as the signification for forensic medicine and the progress of researching in this field were reviewed. PMID:12596601

  2. [Damage control in vascular trauma].

    PubMed

    Henzan, Eisei

    2002-07-01

    During the era of frequent occurrence of motor vehicle accidents and criminal injuries with lethal weapons, trauma surgeons have accumulated much experience in managing severely injured victims. Very often, efforts to proceed with definitive repair at initial surgery led to patient death despite the control of anatomic bleeding. Damage control methods were thus developed to save patients who otherwise would hove died. Damage control treatment for vascular trauma patients is still in its infancy in Japan. This paper presents an overview of the relevant reports form international journals dealing with the present status of damage control methods in vascular trauma patients. PMID:12143290

  3. Relationship between socio-economic position and general, maxillofacial and dental trauma: A National Trauma Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Lin, Shaul; Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-08-01

    Trauma, a major public health problem, has been extensively studied. However, characteristics of maxillofacial and dental injuries and their association with socio-economic position (SEP) have not been thoroughly documented. This study retrospectively investigated the occurrence of maxillofacial, dental and general trauma in Israel, and examined the relationship between socio-economic status and trauma-related hospitalizations. Records were obtained for all trauma patients hospitalized and recorded in the National Israel Trauma Registry (ITR) between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005. Maxillofacial and dental injuries were separated and further analyzed by residence locality and SEP. The socio-economic index, developed by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was used to determine the socio-economic status of 50 selected localities. During the study period, 77 072 trauma patients were hospitalized, of whom 3972 (5%) were diagnosed with maxillofacial or dental injuries. Among the selected localities, 42 303 hospitalizations were recorded, of which 1886 (4.5%) involved maxillofacial or dental injuries. For all traumas, lower injury rates were found among residents living in high socio-economic localities. The difference in hospitalization rates for maxillofacial and dental injuries was not significant. The cause of injury differed by age, SEP and category of injury. A fall (35%) or road crash (33%) caused most of the maxillofacial injuries, with 50% of dental injuries because of a road crash. Intentional injuries constituted 22% of the maxillofacial-related hospitalizations and were more prevalent among adults living in low SEP localities. These data should be used to promote injury prevention programs with emphasis directed at high risk populations. PMID:20455914

  4. A comparison of proximal radioulnar synostosis excision after trauma and distal biceps reattachment.

    PubMed

    Henket, Marjolijn; van Duijn, Pleun J; Doornberg, Job N; Ring, David; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the results of operative resection of a proximal radioulnar synostosis are better when the synostosis is due to a distal biceps reattachment (11 patients) than when it occurs after trauma (13 patients). Two patients in the trauma cohort had recurrence of the synostosis, and 1 had repeat resection. Two patients in the trauma cohort and 1 in the biceps cohort had substantial loss of forearm rotation due to regrowth of heterotopic ossification without synostosis, and 2 patients were addressed with subsequent surgeries. The arc of forearm rotation after the index surgery averaged 94 degrees in the trauma cohort and 131 degrees in the biceps cohort. This study confirms that operative resection of a proximal radioulnar synostosis can restore substantial motion in most patients. The results for excision of a synostosis after a distal biceps reattachment were better than those of excision of a synostosis after trauma. PMID:17629506

  5. Right-sided diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. An unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Pastor, Vicente; Alvarez, Laura; Charco, Ramon; Armengol, Manel; Navarro, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm remain an entity of difficult diagnosis despite having been recognised early in the history of surgery, especially when it comes to blunt trauma and injuries of the right diaphragm. We report the case of a patient with blunt trauma with right diaphragmatic rupture that required urgent surgical treatment for hepatothorax and iatrogenic severe liver injury. Blunt trauma can cause substantial diaphragmatic rupture. It must have a high index of suspicion for diaphragmatic injury in patients, victims of vehicle collisions, mainly if they have suffered frontal impacts and/or side precipitates in patients with severe thoracoabdominal trauma. The diagnosis can be performed clinically and confirmation should be radiological. The general measures for the management of multiple trauma patients must be applied. Surgery at the time of diagnosis should restore continuity. PMID:21244704

  6. Right-sided diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. An unusual entity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm remain an entity of difficult diagnosis despite having been recognised early in the history of surgery, especially when it comes to blunt trauma and injuries of the right diaphragm. We report the case of a patient with blunt trauma with right diaphragmatic rupture that required urgent surgical treatment for hepatothorax and iatrogenic severe liver injury. Blunt trauma can cause substantial diaphragmatic rupture. It must have a high index of suspicion for diaphragmatic injury in patients, victims of vehicle collisions, mainly if they have suffered frontal impacts and/or side precipitates in patients with severe thoracoabdominal trauma. The diagnosis can be performed clinically and confirmation should be radiological. The general measures for the management of multiple trauma patients must be applied. Surgery at the time of diagnosis should restore continuity. PMID:21244704

  7. Trauma exposure and cigarette smoking: the impact of negative affect and affect-regulatory smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Beckham, Jean C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association. PMID:25299617

  8. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  10. Functional abdominal bloating with distention.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

  11. Secondary Trauma in Children and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    A review of childhood secondary trauma is presented. Secondary trauma involves the transfer and acquisition of negative affective and dysfunctional cognitive states due to prolonged and extended contact with others, such as family members, who have been traumatized. As such, secondary trauma refers to a spread of trauma reactions from the victim…

  12. Penetrating trauma audit--TRISS analysis.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Sofianos, C

    1992-12-01

    Quality assurance in trauma care is of major importance in assessing the efficacy of a trauma service and in identifying areas for improvement. Trauma scores and the TRISS methodology are at present the most accurate tools for quality assurance purposes. In this prospective study, the TRISS methodology was used to analyse the results in a group of 629 patients with penetrating trauma. PMID:1295094

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of abdominal obesity in Polish rural children.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Janusz, M; Jagielski, P; G?odzik, J; Pa?ka, T; Ciso?, T; Pilch, W

    2015-08-01

    Secular trends of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference indicate greater increase in abdominal obesity compared to general obesity. Determinants of obesity described by BMI are relatively well documented in various populations, unlike abdominal obesity described by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aim of the study was to determine prevalence and abdominal obesity (WHtR) risk factors in a cohort of 3048 rural children aged 7-12 years from southern Poland. Biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were analysed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in rural boys and girls in the sample was 11% and 9% respectively. Obesity in both parents, irregular breakfasts, irregular meals during the day and regularly consumed tea were significant factors of abdominal obesity risks in rural girls. Being the only child, low number of people in a household, obesity in both parents, high energy-dense food index and no exercise significantly increased the risk of abdominal obesity in rural boys. The study demonstrated tendencies similar to other European countries in the prevalence of abdominal obesity among sexes. Lifestyle behaviours should be changed and adapted to each sex since risk factors differ between the sexes and indicate higher eco-sensitivity in boys. PMID:25796137

  14. The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization.

    PubMed

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Corsi, Alessia; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-06-29

    Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

  15. The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

  16. Pseudopancreatitis on computed tomography in a patient with isolated blunt head trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography is commonly used to exclude occult injuries in patients with trauma, but imaging can reveal findings that are of uncertain etiology or clinical significance. We present a case of unsuspected pancreatic abnormality in a female patient with trauma who sustained an isolated blunt head injury. Case presentation A 25-year-old female Caucasian patient sustained massive blunt and penetrating head trauma, secondary to a large object penetrating through the vehicle windshield. Based on the mechanism of injury and clinical evaluation, it was felt to be an isolated head injury. However, computed tomography of her abdomen revealed an occult, intra-abdominal finding of significant pancreatic enlargement and peripancreatic fluid. There was no computed tomography evidence of parenchymal pancreatic laceration. The appearance of her pancreas on computed tomography was identical to that of acute pancreatitis or low-grade pancreatic injury, but her clinical history and laboratory values were not consistent with this, hence the term ‘pseudopancreatitis’. Later surgery for organ donation confirmed diffuse pancreatic and peripancreatic edema, but no hematoma, contusion or other evidence for direct traumatic injury. This was an isolated intra-abdominal abnormality. Conclusion The routine use of computed tomography in patients who have sustained trauma has led to increasing detection of unexpected findings. Clinical information such as mechanism of injury and blood work, along with careful evaluation of ancillary imaging findings (or lack of), is important for the provision of an appropriate differential diagnosis. We discuss the possible mechanism and differential diagnosis of an isolated pancreatic abnormality in the setting of non-abdominal trauma, which includes shock pancreas, overhydration, traumatic pancreatic injury and pancreatitis secondary to other etiologies. PMID:24529327

  17. Return to Play After Liver and Spleen Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Juyia, Rushad F.; Kerr, Hamish A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Conclusion: Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy: C. PMID:24790694

  18. Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Delayed Presentation after a Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Abdussamet; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Toktas, Osman; Bora, Ayd?n; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition that is life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated rapidly. We present a case of a spontaneously ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm that occurred after a blunt trauma, and provide a review of the current literature on this topic. This case study demonstrates a spontaneously ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm which emerged following a blunt trauma and it also presents current literature studies on the topic. Case Report A man at the age of 34 years with blunt trauma dating back to 1.5 month was admitted to the emergency department of a hospital with hematemesis and epigastric tenderness. He also had a duodenal ulcer, blood in the gastric lumen and a large pseudoaneurysm that developed from the left hepatic artery. Soon after the diagnosis, the patient worsened and underwent distal gastrectomy and cholecystectomy that included removing the bleeding aneurysm. Conclusions Ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm stands as a deadly condition which has to be diagnosed and managed as soon as possible. Physicians need to take aneurysms of abdominal arteries into consideration after routine diagnostic practises as long as the cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage is unidentified. PMID:26171087

  19. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  20. Major trauma in geriatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Champion, H R; Copes, W S; Buyer, D; Flanagan, M E; Bain, L; Sacco, W J

    1989-01-01

    Contemporary trauma to the elderly, its severity and associated mortality and morbidity in 111 United States and Canadian trauma centers are described. Three-thousand eight-hundred thirty-three (3,833) trauma patients age 65 years or older are compared to 42,944 injured patients under age 65. Although both groups had equivalent measures of injury severity, the older group had higher case fatality and complication rates and longer hospital stays. The results raise important questions regarding the triage, acute care, accurate prediction of outcome, and hospital reimbursement for the elderly injured patient, with implications for care evaluation, quality assurance, and the long-term viability of trauma centers and systems of care. PMID:2764207

  1. Rehabilitation after major extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Wallace, George F

    2014-10-01

    Physical therapy is an integral part of rehabilitation after foot and ankle trauma. Workman's compensation may play a role in treatment, prognosis, and added bureaucracy. The foot and ankle surgeon needs to be able to determine when maximum medical improvement has been reached. Patients with foot and ankle trauma must have a coordinated care plan, which may include a case manager, a physician conducting an independent medical examination, and possibly, legal counsel. PMID:25281518

  2. [The epidemiology of multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Wick, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Muhr, G

    1997-11-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death for people up to 40 years of age in Germany. Most of the patients were injured in traffic accidents where special injury patterns could be detected: head injuries in bicycle and pedestrian accidents, lower extremity injuries in motorcycle accidents, and chest and pelvis injuries in car accidents. After falls from a height, the most common injuries were fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The treatment of polytrauma patients requires high health care resources and demands sophisticated medical support. It is estimated that every trauma patient costs daily approximately DM 4,700. It is not only the acute medical care that burdens our social system, but also the long period of rehabilitation and reintegration. The number of preventable trauma deaths can be significantly reduced in special trauma centers, and the high costs could be damaging for smaller hospitals. A plea is made for more preventive measures and legislative changes to reduce the number of traffic accidents. The medical care of trauma patients should be in special trauma centers. PMID:9518193

  3. [A man with a painful index finger].

    PubMed

    Hutting, K H; Bouwer, L R; Keukens, F M C

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with pain in his right index finger. No history of trauma was reported. His finger nails were dystrophic and the X-ray of the finger showed typical osteolysis of the distal phalanx of his right index finger. This was caused by acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau. We administered naproxen, methotrexate and folic acid as a systemic anti-inflammatory treatment. PMID:26883842

  4. Trauma of the midface

    PubMed Central

    Kühnel, Thomas S.; Reichert, Torsten E.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the midface pose a serious medical problem as for their complexity, frequency and their socio-economic impact. Interdisciplinary approaches and up-to-date diagnostic and surgical techniques provide favorable results in the majority of cases though. Traffic accidents are the leading cause and male adults in their thirties are affected most often. Treatment algorithms for nasal bone fractures, maxillary and zygomatic fractures are widely agreed upon whereas trauma to the frontal sinus and the orbital apex are matter of current debate. Advances in endoscopic surgery and limitations of evidence based gain of knowledge are matters that are focused on in the corresponding chapter. As for the fractures of the frontal sinus a strong tendency towards minimized approaches can be seen. Obliteration and cranialization seem to decrease in numbers. Some critical remarks in terms of high dose methylprednisolone therapy for traumatic optic nerve injury seem to be appropriate. Intraoperative cone beam radiographs and preshaped titanium mesh implants for orbital reconstruction are new techniques and essential aspects in midface traumatology. Fractures of the anterior skull base with cerebrospinal fluid leaks show very promising results in endonasal endoscopic repair. PMID:26770280

  5. Trauma of the midface.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, Thomas S; Reichert, Torsten E

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the midface pose a serious medical problem as for their complexity, frequency and their socio-economic impact. Interdisciplinary approaches and up-to-date diagnostic and surgical techniques provide favorable results in the majority of cases though. Traffic accidents are the leading cause and male adults in their thirties are affected most often. Treatment algorithms for nasal bone fractures, maxillary and zygomatic fractures are widely agreed upon whereas trauma to the frontal sinus and the orbital apex are matter of current debate. Advances in endoscopic surgery and limitations of evidence based gain of knowledge are matters that are focused on in the corresponding chapter. As for the fractures of the frontal sinus a strong tendency towards minimized approaches can be seen. Obliteration and cranialization seem to decrease in numbers. Some critical remarks in terms of high dose methylprednisolone therapy for traumatic optic nerve injury seem to be appropriate. Intraoperative cone beam radiographs and preshaped titanium mesh implants for orbital reconstruction are new techniques and essential aspects in midface traumatology. Fractures of the anterior skull base with cerebrospinal fluid leaks show very promising results in endonasal endoscopic repair. PMID:26770280

  6. Post-war trauma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, C

    1995-12-01

    One of the great delights of general practice is the way we are allowed to share people's lives. Another facet is the humbling experience of having a patient intuitively grasp a concept that you have found difficult to understand. As regular readers of these pages are aware, I am no stranger to emergencies and trauma. Consequently I see and experience critical incident stress at first hand. This gives me some understanding of others' experiences and, I hope, might help me prevent critical incident stress developing into the more severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in those under my care. How well I recall that it was only the fall of a marble that prevented me from being conscripted for service in Vietnam. Kerry is a long-standing patient and an old friend (in a small community, if your patients aren't your friends, you do not have too many patients!). He was seeing me for something or other when he told me the following story. I was so impressed that I asked him to write it down. It speaks eloquently of the aftermath of war and how mates help each other deal with it. It also reminds us that there continue to be new crops of returned service-men who need our help. PMID:8588756

  7. Complications of pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, S J

    1991-09-01

    MSOF is a life-threatening complication of trauma. The body is a dynamic interrelated group of systems that work together efficiently. Changes in one system generally have a widespread impact, and soon the entire system is changed. In children with MSOF, the normal equilibrium that is maintained between organ systems does not exist. Generalized disruption of organ functions occur, and the body attempts to compensate and regain its homeostasis. This activity will often benefit certain organs and harm others. If the disruption continues and compensation fails, organ dysfunction occurs and general chaos reigns. Medical and nursing interventions are directed toward supporting individual organ systems before failure occurs. Attempts to provide this support for one system can cause adverse effects to occur in other systems. Although this is a potential result of medical and nursing interventions, often there is no other choice. It is essential that nurses be aware of the systemic consequences of these interventions and carefully evaluate them. Although overall mortality rates are high, children have a better chance for survival than adults. Expert nursing assessments, interventions, and evaluations are essential to maximize this outcome. More research in the area of MSOF in children is necessary, with specific attention to nursing management and the effect on patient outcome. PMID:1883588

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis. Omphalocele is an opening in the center of ... same protective membrane that covers the umbilical cord. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually ...

  9. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  10. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Kothandan, Harikrishnan; Haw Chieh, Geoffrey Liew; Khan, Shariq Ali; Karthekeyan, Ranjith Baskar; Sharad, Shah Shitalkumar

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysm is defined as a localized and permanent dilatation with an increase in normal diameter by more than 50%. It is more common in males and can affect up to 8% of elderly men. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and other risk factors include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of aneurysms, inflammatory vasculitis, and trauma. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [EVAR] is a common procedure performed for AAA, because of its minimal invasiveness as compared with open surgical repair. Patients undergoing EVAR have a greater incidence of major co-morbidities and should undergo comprehensive preoperative assessment and optimization within the multidisciplinary settings. In majority of cases, EVAR is extremely well-tolerated. The aim of this article is to outline the Anesthetic considerations related to EVAR. PMID:26750684

  11. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  12. Early Liver Dysfunction in Patients With Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kun; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Chen, Guopu; Youming, Deng; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Liver dysfunction is commonly seen in patients with severe sepsis; however, few studies were reported in intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). This study was performed to assess the risk factors for early liver dysfunction (ELD) in patients with IAIs and to determine the effects of ELD on outcomes of these patients. From January 2011 to November 2014, a retrospective study that screened 421 patients with IAIs was performed. ELD was defined as an increase in serum total bilirubin (TB) >2?mg/dL or aminotransferases levels greater than twice the normal value within 48?hours after IAIs’ onset. Patients with pre-existing liver disease or major hepatobiliary injury were excluded. Risk factors for ELD and outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analysis was performed for ELD patients within 24 to 48?hours. Of 353 enrolled patients admitted with IAIs, 147 (41.6%) developed ELD. Significant independent risk factors for ELD were trauma (odds ratio [OR] 1.770, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.126–2.783, P?=?0.01) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) (OR 3.199, 95% CI 1.184–8.640, P?=?0.02). Successful source control <24?hours was shown to exert protection against ELD after 24?hours during IAIs (OR 0.193, 95% CI 0.091–0.409, P?Trauma and ACS were relevant risk factors. Early successful source control appeared to be an important method to prevent and/or reduce ELD in patients with IAIs. PMID:26496306

  13. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  14. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to be at an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a new study suggests. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weak spot in the body's main ... those without recent asthma activity. "People with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were diagnosed with asthma within the past ...

  15. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID:26849559

  16. Anterior abdominal stab injury: a comparison of self-inflicted and intentional third-party stabbings

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Aman; Zhou, Hannah Y.; Kelly, Katherine B.; Downs, Bianca D.; Como, John J.; Claridge, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is minimal literature comparing self-inflicted (SI) with non–self-inflicted (NSI) anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASW). METHODS Adult patients treated at a level 1 trauma center from 2006 through 2011 with an AASW were reviewed. RESULTS There were 215 patients with an AASW; 20% were SI. NSI patients had more nonabdominal injuries (47% vs 16%, P < .01) and disposition directly to the operating room (45% vs 26%, P = .02). Intra-abdominal injury rates were similar. One hundred twenty-eight patients had isolated AASWs; 28% were SI. SI patients had higher admission rates (86% vs 63%, P = .01). One hundred three patients had isolated stable/asymptomatic AASWs; 31% were SI. SI patients had more admissions (84% vs 52%, P < .01), had higher intensive care unit admission rates (23% vs 5%, P = .01), longer LOS (3.2 vs 1.4, P < .01), and higher hospital charges ($18,000 vs $11,000, P < .01). The rates of intra-abdominal injury were again similar. CONCLUSIONS Controlling for extra-abdominal injuries, SI AASW patients have similar rates of intra-abdominal injury but use more resource. PMID:23414952

  17. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management

    PubMed Central

    TORBA, M.; GJATA, A.; BUCI, S.; BUSHI, G.; ZENELAJ, A.; KAJO, I.; KOCEKU, S.; KAGJINI, K.; SUBASHI, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. Patients and methods This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Results Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 –1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 – 21.3, p<0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries. PMID:26017103

  18. Evaluation of a virtual geriatric trauma institute.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Zipf, Jami

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric trauma patients require specialized care. Objective of this study was to compare outcomes for geriatric trauma patients before and after the implementation of a virtual geriatric trauma institute. This is a retrospective chart review of 583 trauma patients older than 65 years admitted to a rural level 1 trauma center before and after the implementation of a geriatric trauma institute. Length of stay was decreased from 4.99 to 3.9 days (P = .0014). Emergency department length of stay was decreased by approximately 10 minutes (P = .059), and time from the emergency department to the operating room was decreased by 470 minutes (P = .262). PMID:25397334

  19. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective. PMID:22375803

  20. Confessed abusive blunt head trauma.

    PubMed

    De Leeuw, Marc; Beuls, Emile; Parizel, Paul; Jorens, Philippe; Jacobs, Werner

    2013-06-01

    It is generally accepted that terms referring to specific craniocerebral injury mechanisms must be replaced by the more general term abusive head trauma (AHT). Although blunt impact trauma remains an essential part of AHT, it has received far less attention in the literature than shaken-impact injuries. The current article presents 19 confessed cases of a series of 47 highly suspected AHT cases. Of these, 13 were confessed shaken-impact cases, and the other 6 confessed blunt trauma cases. There were no significant differences in the appearance of subdural hematoma, which was present in each case. Retinal hemorrhage, which was present in 10 of the 13 shaken-impact cases in which an ophthalmologic examination was conducted, occurred in 2 of the 6 blunt trauma cases. In 1 case, retinal hemorrhage probably had of metabolic origin. Skull fractures with an overlying subgaleal hematoma and a subdural hematoma below the fracture side were found in 5 of the blunt trauma cases but was also seen in the 2 shaken-impact cases with a skull fracture. The most important finding was a lucid interval (LI) in 3 blunt AHT cases. An LI does not seem to occur in shaking injuries because of the immediate and persistent effect of brain damage that such injuries involve. Therefore, LI makes it important to conduct a detailed investigation of the clinical course in time in suspected AHT cases. PMID:23629386

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  2. Management of Carotid Artery Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Gordin, Eli; Stroman, David

    2014-01-01

    With increased awareness and liberal screening of trauma patients with identified risk factors, recent case series demonstrate improved early diagnosis of carotid artery trauma before they become problematio. There remains a need for unified screening criteria for both intracranial and extracranial carotid trauma. In the absence of contraindications, antithrombotic agents should be considered in blunt carotid artery injuries, as there is a significant risk of progression of vessel injury with observation alone. Despite CTA being used as a common screening modality, it appears to lack sufficient sensitivity. DSA remains to be the gold standard in screening. Endovascular techniques are becoming more widely accepted as the primary surgical modality in the treatment of blunt extracranial carotid injuries and penetrating/blunt intracranial carotid lessions. Nonetheless, open surgical approaches are still needed for the treatment of penetrating extracranial carotid injuries and in patients with unfavorable lesions for endovascular intervention. PMID:25136406

  3. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  4. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  5. [Pre- and perimortem bone trauma vs. postmortem damages-- Principles of differentiation].

    PubMed

    Holz, Franziska; Birngruber, Christoph G; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    In medicolegal practice, evidence of trauma or damage on human skeletons or single bones raises the question whether this was inflicted in an antemortem, perimortem, or postmortem time frame. Trauma that occurred around the time of death, i. e., perimortem trauma, is of special forensic interest, as it can yield clues about the manner and cause of death. Perimortem traumas thus need to be carefully distinguished both from antemortem injuries that were evidently survived (these can still be useful for identification purposes) and from postmortem damage, as may occur during retrieval of remains. This study offers an up-to-date review of the specialist literature, e. g. textbooks and pubmed-listed publications, identifying differentiation criteria for ante- and perimortem traumas and postmortem damage. The results that are useful for practice in actual medicolegal casework are presented, and an overview of all macroscopically visible criteria (including simple magnifications, i. e., magnifying glass) that can be used to distinguish between ante- and perimortem traumas on the one side, and postmortem damage on the other is given. The difficulty of distinguishing antemortem trauma and postmortem damage from perimortem trauma rises sharply the closer in time they were inflicted to the time of the death event. Additional postmortem changes due to exposure of the bones to the surrounding deposition conditions may also occur after the relevant postmortem damage or antemortem trauma was inflicted and further complicate the problem. In this context, the "perimortem interval" and the "Fracture Freshness Index" (FFI) are discussed as means to classify the time frame of traumas. PMID:26399122

  6. Penetrating ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge injury. Intraocular foreign bodies undetectable by CT were identified by B-scan ultrasonography in our patient. This case highlights the importance of additional ultrasonography when evaluating severe ocular trauma. And ophthalmologists should consider the possibility of penetrating injury caused by blank ammunition. PMID:24589340

  7. Trauma-Informed or Trauma-Denied: Principles and Implementation of Trauma-Informed Services for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Denise E.; Bjelajac, Paula; Fallot, Roger D.; Markoff, Laurie S.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to bridge the gap between practice (service delivery) and philosophy (trauma theory, empowerment, and relational theory). Specifically, we identify 10 principles that define trauma-informed service, discuss the need for this type of service, and give some characteristics of trauma-informed services in eight different…

  8. Trauma-Informed or Trauma-Denied: Principles and Implementation of Trauma-Informed Services for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Denise E.; Bjelajac, Paula; Fallot, Roger D.; Markoff, Laurie S.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to bridge the gap between practice (service delivery) and philosophy (trauma theory, empowerment, and relational theory). Specifically, we identify 10 principles that define trauma-informed service, discuss the need for this type of service, and give some characteristics of trauma-informed services in eight different…

  9. Thromboembolic Disease After Orthopedic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Paul S; Jahangir, A Alex

    2016-04-01

    Orthopedic trauma results in systemic physiologic changes that predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the absence of prophylaxis, VTE incidence may be as high as 60%. Mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis are effective in decreasing rates of VTE. Combined mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is more efficacious for decreasing VTE incidence than either regimen independently. If pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is contraindicated, mechanical prophylaxis should be used. Patients with isolated lower extremity fractures who are ambulatory, or those with isolated upper extremity trauma, do not require pharmacologic prophylaxis in the absence of other VTE risk factors. PMID:26772942

  10. [Prehospital treatment of severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Kill, Clemens

    2007-10-01

    The prehospital management of patients with severe trauma should focus on stabilization of vital signs. Major goal is the early transport in a specialized trauma center. After immobilization of cervical spine maintenance of oxygen delivery is the primary and most important intervention. Unconscious patients and patients with respiratory distress should receive endotracheal intubation and controlled ventilation on scene. Amounts of Infusion should be decided on blood loss, patients with traumatic brain injury need at least a normotensive blood pressure. Patients with uncontrolled severe bleeding should not receive excessive infusion before urgent surgical treatment can be performed. Prehospital induction of anesthesia must be carefully considered because of the enhanced risk. PMID:17968768

  11. Coping with Unexpected Events: Depression and Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Coping With Unexpected Events: Depression and Trauma Responding to Traumatic Events When we ... immediately. back to top How to Cope with Depression After Trauma The healing process after a traumatic ...

  12. Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers Page Content Article ... temporary or permanent hearing loss. This is called acoustic trauma. How loud is 85 decibels? Surprisingly, not ...

  13. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.

  14. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chen-Ju; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Wang, Li-Jen; Chen, Huan-Wu; Ku, Yi-Kang; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Huan-Wen; Kang, Shih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. METHODS Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. RESULTS A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma. PMID:26268303

  15. [In-hospital trauma management - beyond routine in trauma resuscitation].

    PubMed

    López, Caroline L; Meyer, Thomas; Heuer, Stefan; Kranke, Peter; Debus, Florian; Wurmb, Thomas; Kühne, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Trauma resuscitation in children, pregnant women, Jehovah's witnesses or in patients with infectious diseases like HIV is obviously beyond routine. This may result in uncertainty how to manage these patients appropriately. Preparation for such situations is essential. Therefore this article focuses on the specific problems associated with these kinds of patients. PMID:25238014

  16. The "Trauma Coping Inventory" and The "Trauma Coping Resource Inventory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael Robert

    2005-01-01

    In many instances, actual or threatened traumatic events trigger strong reactions for those individuals experiencing them, witnessing them, or learning about a loved one or friend who experienced an unexpected trauma. In addition, those who help traumatized persons can sometimes develop secondary traumatization. This workshop presenter constructed…

  17. How regional trauma systems improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Management of severely injured patients is complex and requires organised, expert care. Regionalised trauma systems are relatively new in the UK and aim to deliver optimal, timely care to injured patients at the most appropriate location. This article discusses the drivers, organisation, processes and outcomes of regionalised trauma care. It also describes the challenges and benefits of working within a trauma system to enable emergency practitioners to reflect on their roles in contemporary trauma care. PMID:26451941

  18. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  19. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  20. Managing Mental Health Disorders Resulting from Trauma through Yoga: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    There are many and varied types of trauma. The extent to which trauma influences the mental health of an individual depends on the nature of trauma, as well as on the individual's coping capabilities. Often trauma is followed by depression, anxiety, and PTSD. As the pharmacological remedies for these conditions often have undesirable side-effects, nonpharmacological remedies are thought of as a possible add-on treatment. Yoga is one such mind-body intervention. This paper covers eleven studies indexed in PubMed, in which mental health disorders resulting from trauma were managed through yoga including meditation. The aim was to evaluate the use of yoga in managing trauma-related depression, anxiety, PTSD and physiological stress following exposure to natural calamities, war, interpersonal violence, and incarceration in a correctional facility. An attempt has also been made to explore possible mechanisms underlying benefits seen. As most of these studies were not done on persons exposed to trauma that had practiced yoga, this is a definite area for further research. PMID:22778930

  1. Is worst-event trauma type related to PTSD symptom presentation and associated features?

    PubMed

    Smith, Hillary L; Summers, Berta J; Dillon, Kirsten H; Cougle, Jesse R

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is generally assessed with reference to a "worst-event" (index) trauma, though little research has examined whether symptom presentation and comorbidity differ across worst-events. Data from individuals meeting lifetime PTSD criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (N=398) were used to examine relations between PTSD presentation and comorbidity with the three most commonly reported "worst-event" trauma types: sexual trauma, non-sexual physical violence, and unexpected death of a loved one. Sexual trauma and non-sexual physical violence were associated with more symptomatic presentation of PTSD and lifetime trauma types compared to other worst-events. Non-sexual physical violence was associated with comorbid substance use disorder, and unexpected death of a loved one was associated with comorbid depression. Inclusion of number of lifetime trauma types as a covariate rendered most, but not all associations non-significant. These findings suggest worst-event trauma type is related to some important differences in PTSD presentation. PMID:26826984

  2. A Patient With Blunt Trauma and Cardiac Arrest Arriving Pulseless at the Emergency Department; is that Enough Reason to Stop Resuscitation? Review of Literature and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Northcutt, Ashley; Youssef, Asser M

    2013-01-01

    The decision to stop or continue resuscitation in a patient with blunt trauma and cardiac arrest arriving pulseless to the hospital has always been controversial. While many authors still believe that it is a futile effort, with no chance of success for complete neurological recovery, some recent reports have challenged the idea. Here we report complete recovery of a severely injured patient following a motor vehicle accident who lost vital signs completely before arrival at our trauma center. No cardiac motion was detected on ultrasound examination on arrival. Emergency department thoracotomy, open cardiac massage, massive blood transfusion, damage control laparotomy with abdominal and pelvic packing, followed by angio-embolization of pelvic bleeding, and staged abdominal exploration were performed. This case is an example showing that resuscitation of patients with blunt trauma and cardiac arrest arriving pulseless to the hospital is not always futile. PMID:24693385

  3. Medicating Relational Trauma in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…

  4. Medicating Relational Trauma in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…

  5. Transforming Cultural Trauma into Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Aboriginal populations increasingly is being called "intergenerational trauma." Restoring the cultural heritage is a central theme in the book, "Reclaiming Youth at Risk." That work describes the Circle of Courage model for positive development which blends Native child and youth care philosophy with research…

  6. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Firas F

    2015-09-01

    Guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist patients and providers in choosing appropriate health care for specific clinical conditions. Consensus exists across guidelines on one-time screening of elderly men to detect and treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ≥5.5 cm. However, the recommendations regarding other age groups, imaging intervals for small AAAs, inclusion of women, and cost-effectiveness have not been universally adopted. As many countries are considering the initiation of an AAA screening program, this is an overview on the current status of such programs. PMID:26169012

  7. Minor Trauma Causing Stroke in a Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old Caucasian male presented with sudden dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and clumsiness lasting for a couple of hours. He had a subtle trauma during a wrestling match 2 days prior to the presentation. A CT Angiogram (CTA) and MRI showed left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with anticoagulation with heparin drip in the ICU. The patient was discharged home on the third day on Lovenox-warfarin bridging. This case underscores the importance of considering VAD as a differential diagnosis in patients with sports-related symptoms especially in activities entailing hyperextension or hyperrotation of neck. Due to a varied latent period, often minor underlying trauma, and subtle presentation, a low index of suspicion is warranted in timely diagnosis and treatment of VAD. Considering recent evidence in treatment modality, either antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation may be used for treatment of VAD. PMID:25883815

  8. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  9. Acute renal infarction: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Muhammad M; Butt, Mohammed A; Syed, Yadullah; Carr, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon and under-diagnosed disease. Its clinical presentation is nonspecific and often mimics other more common disease entities. The diagnosis is usually missed or delayed, which frequently results in irreversible renal parenchyma damage. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis, as timely intervention may prevent loss of kidney function. We report a case of acute renal infarction following coronary angiography in a patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who initially presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. PMID:19839842

  10. Peritoneal Breach as an Indication for Exploratory Laparotomy in Penetrating Abdominal Stab Injury: Operative Findings in Haemodynamically Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Victor; Martin, Kate; Varma, Dinesh; Fitzgerald, Mark; Pilgrim, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injuries varies from nonoperative to operative management. The aim was to investigate whether peritoneal breach when used as an indication for exploratory laparotomy appropriately identified patients with intra-abdominal visceral injury. Methods. We conducted retrospective cohort study of all patients presenting with PAI at a major trauma centre from January 2007 to December 2011. We measured the incidence of peritoneal breach and correlated this with intra-abdominal visceral injury diagnosed at surgery. Results. 252 patients were identified with PAI. Of the included patients, 71 were managed nonoperatively and 118 operatively. The operative diagnoses included nonperitoneal-breaching injuries, intraperitoneal penetration without organ damage, or intraperitoneal injury with organ damage. The presenting trauma CT scan was reported as normal in 63%, 34%, and 2% of these groups, respectively. The total negative laparotomy/laparoscopy rate for all patients presented with PAI was 21%, almost half of whom had a normal CT scan. Conclusion. We found that peritoneal breach on its own does not necessarily always equate to intra-abdominal visceral injury. Observation with sequential examination for PAI patients with a normal CT scan may be more important than exclusion of peritoneal breach via laparoscopy. PMID:26064688

  11. A Case Report of Delayed Diagnosed Chronic Aortocaval Fistula: A Rare Complication of Penetrating Trauma to the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Beton, Osman; Kaplano?lu, Hatice; Berkan, Öcal; Y?lmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aortocaval fistula (ACP) is a rare complication of penetrating trauma to the abdomen. We report a case of traumatic ACP presenting with pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure symptoms 15 years after the initial penetrating injury. Although symptoms of pulmonary hypertension started 5 years ago, it was wrongly diagnosed and treated as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presence of a continuous abdominal bruit and history of penetrating abdominal trauma gave rise to suspicion of a fistula, which was confirmed by computed tomography and angiography. Percutaneous closure of ACP was planned, but the patient died of severe pneumonia. The clinical presentation of chronic ACP can vary from being asymptomatic to symptoms related to pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, and pulmonary embolism; thus, definitive diagnosis can be challenging. PMID:26713178

  12. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and diastasis recti.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Ian

    Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 18) or peripheral arterial disease (n = 24) were examined by a single examiner at the Mayo Clinic. Both groups were similar in terms of age and smoking history, 2 major risk factors for both abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease. Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients ranged in age from 59 to 89 (mean, 73.2) years. Seventeen of 18 (94.4%) had a history of smoking. Peripheral arterial disease patients ranged in age from 52 to 93 (mean, 70.8) years. Twenty-one of 24 (87.5%) had a history of smoking. Diastasis recti were present in 12 of 18 (66.7%) subjects with abdominal aortic aneurysm versus 4 of 24 (16.7%) subjects with peripheral arterial disease (P = .001, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). Diastasis recti are significantly more common in males with abdominal aortic aneurysm than peripheral arterial disease and may provide an important clue to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm in those at risk. PMID:18550558

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Idoguchi, Koji Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro; Okita, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Koji

    2012-10-15

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  15. Survival Following Rectal Impalement through the Pelvic, Abdominal, and Thoracic Cavities: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moncure, Michael; Konie, Jared A; Kretzer, Adam B; Dipasco, Peter J; Braxton, Carla C

    2009-01-01

    Impalement injuries are a unique form of penetrating trauma and are typically associated with a fall onto the object (Steele, 2006). We present the case of a 45-year-old man who reportedly slipped in his bathtub and fell onto a broomstick. Radiographic examination revealed a slender mass extending from his rectum to the right side of his neck. A review of English literature suggests that this is the second reported case in the last 100 years describing the successful management of an impalement injury traversing the pelvic, abdominal, and thoracic cavities. The management of this case is described. PMID:19718249

  16. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  17. Reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions.

    PubMed

    Walters, M D; Dombroski, R A; Davidson, S A; Mandel, P C; Gibbs, R S

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated prospectively a technique of delayed reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions. Forty-one consecutive postoperative obstetric and gynecologic patients with abdominal incisions that had opened because of infection, hematoma, or seroma and had intact fascia participated in the study. All wounds were first managed identically, with surgical drainage and debridement, for a minimum of 4 days. The patients then were randomized to either wound reclosure by a standardized en bloc technique (35) or healing by second intention (six). Reclosure was successful in 30 of 35 cases (85.7%). The mean time to complete healing was 15.8 days in successful cases, 67.2 days in failed cases, and 23.2 days for all patients who were reclosed. Failure to heal after reclosure was due to subcutaneous infection in two patients and seroma in three; these women were significantly heavier than those in whom reclosure was successful. There were no other major complications of wound reclosure. Patients randomized to healing by second intention required a mean of 71.8 days of wound care. The time to complete healing in the wound-reclosure group was significantly shorter compared with the group that healed by second intention (P = .002, log rank test). We conclude that en bloc reclosure of disrupted surgical incisions, compared with nonsurgical treatment, significantly decreases the time required for wound healing and has minimal morbidity. PMID:2216186

  18. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  19. A rare case of chronic traumatic diaphragmatic hernia requiring complex abdominal wall reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pakula, Andrea; Jones, Amber; Syed, Javed; Skinner, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is a rare and often under recognized complication of penetrating and blunt trauma. These injuries are often missed or there is a delay in diagnosis which can lead to enlargement of the defect and the development of abdominal or respiratory symptoms. Presentation of case We report a case of an otherwise healthy 37 year old male who was involved in a motor vehicle accident at age twelve. He presented 25 years later with vague lower abdominal symptoms and was found to have a large chronic left sided diaphragmatic hernia involving the majority of his intra-abdominal contents. Repair of the defect with a biologic mesh was undertaken and the patient also required complex abdominal wall reconstruction due to loss of intra-abdominal domain from the chronicity of the hernia. A staged closure of the abdomen was performed first with placement of a Wittmann patch. Medical management of intra-abdominal hypertension was successful and the midline fascia was sequentially approximated at the bedside for three days. The final closure was performed with a component separation and implantation of a fenestrated biologic fetal bovine mesh to reinforce the closure. In addition, a lightweight Ultrapro mesh was placed for additional lateral reinforcement. The patient recovered well and was discharged home. Discussion These injuries are rare and diagnosis is challenging. Mechanism and CT scan characteristics can aid clinicians. Conclusion Blunt diaphragmatic injury is rare and remains a diagnostic challenge. Depending on the chronicity of the injury, repair may require complex surgical decision making. PMID:25623756

  20. History of the Dental Trauma Guide.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Ahrensburg, Søren Steno

    2012-10-01

    The history of the Dental Trauma Guide dates back to 1965, where guidelines were developed for trauma records and treatment of various trauma entities at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. In 1972, a unique possibility came up at the Serum Institute in Copenhagen to test various dental trauma procedures in monkeys, which served as kidney donors in the polio vaccine production. Over the years, 40 000 dental trauma patients were treated at the Trauma Centre according to established guidelines, and 4000 of these have been enrolled in long-term follow-up of various trauma entities. This has resulted in 79 clinical studies, and 64 studies in monkeys have examined the effect of various treatment procedures and the aetiology of most healing complications. PMID:22970995

  1. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    PubMed Central

    Dierkhising, Carly B.; Ko, Susan J.; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Lee, Robert; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement) among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS) is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth. PMID:23869252

  2. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training in the ATLS and the future guidelines for trauma care in the ICU based on epidemiological studies carried out in both the North Spanish Group and the Southern one to promote development and improvement in several areas. PMID:12951298

  3. Invasive cervical resorption following trauma.

    PubMed

    Heithersay, G S

    1999-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is an insidious and often aggressively destructive form of external root resorption which may occur as a late complication following dental trauma particularly where it involves damage to cementum and supporting tissues. While this resorption may be evident clinically as a pink coronal discolouration, later with cavitation of the enamel, often there are no obvious external signs and the condition is only detected radiographically. It is characterised by the invasion of the cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue which progressively resorbs dentine, enamel and cementum. The dental pulp remains protected by an intact layer of dentine and predentine until late in the process. Ectopic calcifications can be observed in advanced lesions both within the invading fibrous tissue and deposited directly onto the resorbed dentine surface. The aetiology of invasive cervical resorption is unknown but trauma has been documented as a potential predisposing factor. A recent study by the author of 222 patients with a total of 257 teeth which displayed varying degrees of invasive cervical resorption showed that trauma alone was a potential predisposing sole factor in 14% of patients and 15.1% of teeth. Trauma in combination with bleaching, orthodontics or delayed eruption was found in an additional 11.2% of patients or 10.6% of teeth and of these a combination of trauma and bleaching occurred in a relatively high proportion of 7.7% of patients or 7.4% of teeth. This study also revealed that of other potential predisposing factors orthodontics was the most common sole factor constituting 21.2% of patients and 24.1% of teeth examined. Successful treatment of invasive cervical resorption is dependent on the extent of the resorptive process. Teeth with invasive cervical resorption have been divided into four classes. Whilst several treatment modalities are possible, a clinical evaluation of the treatment of this condition by the topical application of a 90% aqueous solution of trichloracetic acid, curettage, endodontic therapy where necessary and restoration with a glass ionomer cement has been evaluated on 94 patients with a total of 101 teeth with a minimum follow-up period of three years. Results indicate a satisfactory treatment outcome can be anticipated in Class 1, 2 and 3 cases. In Class 4 resorption no treatment or alternative therapy is recommended. Diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of development is highly desirable and therefore the patients who have a potential for the development of this condition by virtue of a history such as trauma should be monitored radiographically at intervals throughout life. PMID:11411085

  4. Accuracy of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) in Blunt Trauma Abdomen-A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subodh; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Muduly, Dillip Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Misra, Mahesh C; Chumber, Sunil; Singh, Saraman; Bhardwaj, D N

    2015-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a limited ultrasound examination, primarily aimed at the identification of the presence of free intraperitoneal or pericardial fluid. In the context of blunt trauma abdomen (BTA), free fluid is usually due to hemorrhage, bowel contents, or both; contributes towards the timely diagnosis of potentially life-threatening hemorrhage; and is a decision-making tool to help determine the need for further evaluation or operative intervention. Fifty patients with blunt trauma abdomen were evaluated prospectively with FAST. The findings of FAST were compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), laparotomy, and autopsy. Any free fluid in the abdomen was presumed to be hemoperitoneum. Sonographic findings of intra-abdominal free fluid were confirmed by CECT, laparotomy, or autopsy wherever indicated. In comparing with CECT scan, FAST had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 77.27, 100, and 79.16 %, respectively, in the detection of free fluid. When compared with surgical findings, it had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94.44, 50, and 90 %, respectively. The sensitivity of FAST was 75 % in determining free fluid in patients who died when compared with autopsy findings. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FAST were 80.43, 75 and 80 %, respectively, for the detection of free fluid in the abdomen. From this study, we can safely conclude that FAST is a rapid, reliable, and feasible investigation in patients with BTA, and it can be performed easily, safely, and quickly in the emergency room with a reasonable sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It helps in the initial triage of patients for assessing the need for urgent surgery. PMID:26730032

  5. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  6. Pearls of Mandibular Trauma Management

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, John C.; Feldman, Evan M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular trauma is a common problem seen by plastic surgeons. When fractures occur, they have the ability to affect the patient's occlusion significantly, cause infection, and lead to considerable pain. Interventions to prevent these sequelae require either closed or open forms of reduction and fixation. Physicians determining how to manage these injuries should take into consideration the nature of the injury, background information regarding the patient's health, and the patient's comorbidities. Whereas general principles guide the management of the majority of injuries, special consideration must be paid to the edentulous patient, complex and comminuted fractures, and pediatric patients. These topics are discussed in this article, with a special emphasis on pearls of mandibular trauma management. PMID:22550460

  7. Computer-assisted trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2010-05-01

    Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) is performed by digitizing the patient's anatomy, combining the images in a computerized system, and integrating the surgical instruments into the digitized image background. This allows the surgeon to navigate the surgical instruments and the bone in an improved, virtual visual environment. CAOS in traumatology is performed with images obtained by fluoroscopy, CT, or three-dimensional fluoroscopy. CAOS is used in basic trauma procedures for preoperative planning, fracture reduction, intramedullary nailing, percutaneous screw or plate fixation, and hardware or shrapnel removal. Potential benefits of CAOS include minimal invasiveness, increased accuracy, and decreased radiation exposure. Limitations include a significant learning curve, increased surgical time, requirements for special setup and equipment handling in the operating room, specialized technical support, and cost. Current evidence shows no advantage with CAOS in trauma cases compared with conventional methods. Prospective randomized trials and clinical outcomes are lacking. PMID:20435875

  8. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  9. Blast trauma in a child.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J F; Sharp, R J; Beatty, R; Medina, F

    1990-06-01

    In 1986, we cared for a four-year-old boy who was injured in the explosion of an illegal firecracker equivalent to one-third of a stick of dynamite. Although little has been reported on the injuries children sustain in an explosion, we found that this child's injuries were similar to those encountered in adults. This case is presented as illustrative of blast trauma in childhood, and as a review of blast injury. PMID:2371149

  10. Conflict theory/trauma theory.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fred

    2005-01-01

    There has been a tendency in psychoanalysis to view the effects of trauma, and our ways of working with it, as something separate from our understanding and techniques of working with intrapsychic conflict. While appreciating certain differences, the author explores, primarily via clinical examples, how an integrated perspective may be most helpful to our patients, especially in the area of the patient's capacity to reclaim feelings. PMID:15766035

  11. Penetrating nontorso trauma: the extremities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Similar to penetrating torso trauma, nontorso injuries have undergone a fascinating oscillation between invasive and noninvasive approaches. This article discusses an organized approach to the evaluation and initial treatment of penetrating extremity injuries based on regional anatomy and clinical examination. The approach is reliable, efficient and minimizes both delays in diagnosis and missed injuries. Outpatient follow-up is particularly important for patients with extremity injuries who are discharged home from the emergency department. PMID:26022152

  12. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  13. Abdominal obesity and chronic stress interact to predict blunted cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulwinder; Shen, Biing-Jiun

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal obesity and chronic stress have independent effects on cardiac autonomic regulation, and may also interact to influence cardiovascular reactivity. In addition to main effects, we hypothesized that abdominal obesity and chronic stress would interact and predict blunted cardiovascular reactivity. One hundred and twenty-two undergraduate students engaged in two stressful laboratory tasks while cardiovascular activity was assessed. Results indicated that higher abdominal obesity significantly predicted blunted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) change, while chronic stress was not directly associated with any measure of cardiovascular reactivity. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and chronic stress on SBP and MAP change such that among participants with higher chronic stress, higher abdominal obesity was significantly associated with reduced SBP and MAP reactivity. In addition, body-mass index (BMI), a measure of overall obesity, also had both main and interaction effects with chronic stress to predict blunted cardiovascular reactivity. These results suggest that abdominally obese individuals may incur difficulty in mounting appropriately-sized cardiovascular responses during acute stress, particularly when under high levels of chronic stress. PMID:23535498

  14. Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jaideepraj; Kaushal, A S; Hoong, Chia Kok

    2009-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infective condition which is common in South East Asia. It can present in various forms like cutaneous abscess, pneumonia and severe septicaemia. However, melioidosis causing abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms is extremely rare and a difficult condition to diagnose and treat. We present our management of two cases of abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms secondary to melioidosis and their subsequent outcomes. PMID:19321406

  15. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: the RAPTOR (Resuscitation with Angiography Percutaneous Treatments and Operative Resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting existing ones, to address the need for single-site flexible haemorrhage control. This manuscript therefore describes the many considerations in the design and refinement of the physical build, equipment selection, human factors evaluation of new combined treatment paradigms, and the final introduction of a RAPTOR protocol in order that others may learn from our initial efforts. PMID:24560091

  16. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach in a child with major abdominal penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Adorisio, Ottavio; Elia, Antonio; Pinzauti, Enrico; Pancani, Simone; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Lenares, Elena; Danti, Dante Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who had a lawn mower accident with subtotal gut evisceration, multiple ischemic intestinal lesions, hepatic and gastric wounds, amputation of the left forearm, and hypovolemic shock. Prompt and adequate management was carried out in tertiary level institution, based upon quick evaluation of the lesions, fluid resuscitation, surgical repair, and postoperative admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. PMID:18212607

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ruby C; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly affecting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen, but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAAs at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  18. Clinical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shikha; Pandher, Dilpreet Kaur; Huria, Anju; Mehra, Reeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal vault prolapse is one of the distressing conditions which occur after hysterectomy. This is due to the weakness or detachment of sacrouterine cardinal ligament complex from the vaginal cuff. Till now, the most accepted procedure for this condition is sacrocolpopexy. Materials and Methods: We present a cohort of patients who underwent abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) from April 2009 to August 2013. These patients were followed till April 2014 and were evaluated for subjective and objective outcomes following ASC. Results: One patient had intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative hematoma formation. One patient had vault abscess which was managed conservatively. Hundred percent success rate was noted at 1 year. Long-term patient satisfaction score was 85 (70-90). PMID:26903757

  19. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

  20. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  1. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  2. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa Demarni; Deprince, Anne P; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed. PMID:23542882

  3. Bladder Injury From Penetrating Trauma of the Inner Thigh

    PubMed Central

    Cestare, Thomas P.; Hill, Frank C.; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This is a unique case of bladder injury from a penetrating upper leg wound. The patient's initial presentation did not suggest genitourinary injury, however the patient had a relatively late episode of gross hematuria that prompted further investigation. Based on findings of bladder laceration, the patient was managed conservatively and did well. To our knowledge an injury with this particular trajectory and mechanism has not been described previously in the literature. It stands as a reminder that genitourinary trauma can have many points of origin and that a high index of suspicion is necessary during evaluation of these patients. PMID:26793561

  4. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mm?Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  5. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy. PMID:24165614

  6. Some observations relating to behind-body armour blunt trauma effects caused by ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lidén, E; Berlin, R; Janzon, B; Schantz, B; Seeman, T

    1988-01-01

    Live, anesthetised pigs were used to assess behind-armour blunt trauma effects. The thoraco-abdominal body region was covered with varying thicknesses of Kevlar fabric packets. This soft body armour was applied, either in direct contact with the thoracic wall of the animals, or with different plastic foam sheets, so-called trauma packs, between the armour and the skin. The live animals were surgically evaluated, and then sacrificed. Blocks of soft soap were subjected to equal tests and the behind-armour indentations were measured. The results indicate that serious injury to the body armour-protected chest may be caused by the impact of nonpenetrating bullets and shotgun pellets. Severe pulmonary contusions and lacerations were found when the energy transferred through the body armour was estimated to be high. PMID:3339677

  7. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  8. Assessing sexual trauma histories in homeless women.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma. PMID:26583457

  9. Antagonistic implications of sarcopenia and abdominal obesity on physical performance in COPD.

    PubMed

    van de Bool, Coby; Rutten, Erica P A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-08-01

    Decreased physical performance due to loss of muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) is prevalent in ageing and appears more pronounced in chronic disease. A comprehensive profile of the sarcopenic phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to characterise prevalence, functional implications and predictive value of sarcopenia with or without abdominal obesity in Dutch COPD patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation.505 COPD patients (aged 37-87 years; 57% male) underwent assessment of lung function, body composition and physical functioning, before entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Sarcopenia was assessed by appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) and abdominal obesity by android/gynoid percentage fat mass (A/G%FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.86.5% of patients were sarcopenic and showed lower physical functioning, while coexistent abdominal obesity (78.0%) resulted in higher physical functioning. Implications on endurance were less pronounced in women. The predictive value for physical functioning was higher for the "three-compartment" model (ASMI, bone mineral content and A/G%FM) than the "two-compartment" model (fat-free mass index and fat mass index) or "one-compartment" model (body mass index).In patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation, sarcopenia is highly prevalent in all body mass index categories and associated with impaired strength, and in men also with decreased endurance. Abdominal obesity seems to have protective effects on physical functioning. ASMI is a better predictor for physical functioning than fat-free mass index. PMID:25882802

  10. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Symptoms in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Foynes, Melissa Ming

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred thirty-three members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se. PMID:24660048

  11. Enhancing trauma education worldwide through telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies are changing the delivery of trauma care and education. Telemedicine is a tool that can be used to deliver expert trauma care and education anywhere in the world. Trauma is a rapidly-evolving field requiring access to readily available sources of information. Through videoconferencing, physicians can participate in continuing education activities such as Grand Rounds, seminars, conferences and journal clubs. Exemplary programs have shown promising outcomes of teleconferences such as enhanced learning, professional collaborations, and networking. This review introduces the concept of telemedicine for trauma education, and highlights efforts of programs that are utilizing telemedicine to unite institutions across the world. PMID:23531408

  12. Telemedicine reduces discrepancies in rural trauma care.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Michael A; Caputo, Michael; Amour, Judith; Rogers, Frederick B; Sartorelli, Kenneth; Callas, Peter W; Malone, Patrick T

    2003-01-01

    Patients injured in rural areas die at roughly twice the rate of those patients with similar injuries in urban areas. A multitude of explanations have been suggested for higher mortality rates from trauma in the rural areas of the United States. Since rural emergency room (ER) staff see far fewer traumas than ER staff at large metropolitan trauma centers, their lack of exposure to this low-volume problem certainly contributes to the problem. To address discrepancies in trauma education and the delivery of care in our rural region, a telemedicine system was utilized to provide rapid consultation from surgeons at the level 1 trauma center and to provide enhanced educational opportunities for rural ambulance emergency first responders. Clinical outcome measures and evaluation questionnaires were designed in advance of implementation. Forty-one "tele-trauma consults" were performed over the first 30 months of the project, all for major, multi-system trauma. Though many clinical recommendations were made, the system was judged to be life saving in three instances, and both rural and trauma center providers felt the system enhanced clinical care. In addition, educational sessions for rural first responders were well attended and favorably reviewed. Early results of a telemedicine system provide encouragement as a means to address discrepancies in the outcomes after major trauma in rural areas, although more work needs to be completed and evaluated. PMID:12699603

  13. Continuous regional arterial infusion and laparotomic decompression for severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Yin; Yin, Zhen-Yu; Peng, You-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal decompression plus continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) via a drug delivery system (DDS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We presented our recent experience in 8 patients with SAP. The patients developed clinical ACS, which required abdominal decompression. During the operation, a DDS was inserted into the peripancreatic artery (the catheter was inserted from the right gastroepiploic artery until it reached the junction between the pancreaticoduodenal and gastroduodenal artery). Through this DDS, a protease inhibitor, antibiotics and octreotide were infused continuously. The duration of the regional artery infusion ranged from 8 to 41 d. The outcomes and the changes in the APACHE II score, computed tomography (CT) severity index and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of the patients were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Eight patients with an initial APACHE IIscore of 18.9 (range, 13-27) and a Balthazar CT severity index of 9.1 (range, 7-10) developed severe local and systemic complications. These patients underwent subsequent surgical decompression and CRAI therapy because of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). After a mean interval of 131.9 ± 72.3 d hospitalization, 7 patients recovered with decreased APACHE II scores, CT severity indexes and IAP. The mean APACHE II score was 5.4 (range, 4-8), the CT severity index was 2.3 (range, 1-3), and IAP decreased to 7.7 mmHg (range, 6-11 mmHg) 60 d after operation. One patient died of multiple organ failure 1 wk after surgery. CONCLUSION: CRAI and laparotomic decompression might be a therapeutic option for SAP patients with ACS. PMID:22171133

  14. [The morphological characteristic of hepatorrhesis in the subjects with the blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovina, I A; Dubrovin, I A; Shestakov, A M; Volod'ko, S N

    2013-01-01

    We have elucidated certain consistent patterns of the development of hepatic lesions associated with blunt abdominal trauma including primary and secondary local and distant ruptures of the liver of different localization, e.g. in the direction of the injurious force (central and anti-shock) and apart from it (peripheral). A kick in the stomach causes local (primary and secondary) or distant ruptures of the liver. A strong impact gives rise to local secondary and distant ruptures. Compression of the body with massive objects is associated with local primary ruptures whereas falling down on the stomach results only in anti-shock ruptures. Local (primary and secondary) as well as distant (anti-shock and peripheral) ruptures of hepatic parenchyma have different morphological properties and surface relief which makes it possible to discriminate between them. The consistent patterns of hepatorrhesis provide a methodological basis for the explanation of the physical nature of liver deformation and destruction of its tissue after a blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:23789404

  15. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  16. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  17. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open.

    PubMed

    Duff, J H; Moffat, J

    1981-10-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall are usually fatal unless adequate drainage and wide debridement are possible. To follow these principles, we managed 18 seriously ill patients with abdominal sepsis by leaving the abdomen completely open. All except two of the patients had severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Eight patients had full-thickness wound infections and intra-abdominal infections refractory to the usual surgical drainage techniques. Two had necrotizing wound infections only. In 12 an upper abdominal incision was managed open, and in six the open incision was lower. As part of the initiating illness, there were eight small bowel and six colon fistulas. They were managed by colostomy in five patients and ileostomy in two. More than one organism was cultured in all patients and 12 of 18 had a positive blood culture. Respiratory failure made mechanical ventilation necessary in 13 patients for an average of 44 days. Previous adhesions, usually present, or an intact greater omentum, were necessary to prevent bowel evisceration, but three patients required paralysis and mechanical ventilation until adhesions became strong enough to prevent evisceration. There were seven deaths (39%), six caused by continuing sepsis and one from hemorrhage. In those surviving, granulation tissue grew over omentum or bowel loops to eventually seal the abdominal cavity. The late management was split-skin grafting in five and secondary closure in two. Four healed by second intention. We conclude that leaving the abdomen completely open facilitates the widest possible drainage, uncompromising debridement of the abdominal wall, and is compatible with good recovery. The ultimate result in survivors is acceptable. This technique is preferable to closing an abdominal wall of questionable viability in the face of intraperitoneal sepsis. PMID:6456563

  18. Expanding Trauma through Space and Time: Mapping the Rhetorical Strategies of Trauma Carrier Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degloma, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I detail two rhetorical strategies that trauma carrier groups--including social movement organizations, professional mental health associations, and patient advocacy groups--use to expand the relevance of trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through space and time: the social transmission of trauma and the social…

  19. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  20. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  1. Imaging of Urinary System Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joel A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Linnau, Ken F; Voelzke, Bryan B; Sandstrom, Claire K

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the kidney, ureter, and bladder permit accurate and prompt diagnosis or exclusion of traumatic injuries, without the need to move the patient to the fluoroscopy suite. Real-time review of imaging permits selective delayed imaging, reducing time on the scanner and radiation dose for patients who do not require delays. Modifying imaging parameters to obtain thicker slices and noisier images permits detection of contrast extravasation from the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, while reducing radiation dose on the delayed or cystographic imaging. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system is discussed, along with challenges and limitations. PMID:26046510

  2. Trauma, sports, and the skin.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, W F; Taylor, J S

    1985-01-01

    Dermatological disorders in athletes may occur as a result of repeated mechanical trauma, physical and chemical agents, climatic conditions, infections, infestations, and exacerbations of pre-existing skin disorders. These include black heel, tennis toe and other causes of subungual hemorrhage, friction blisters, abrasions, jogger's nipples, alopecia, calluses, and subcutaneous nodules. Contact dermatitis may occur from sports equipment, medications used to treat abrasions, and plants such as poison ivy and weeds. Herpes simplex and bacterial pyoderma may occur in wrestlers and rugby players, especially at sites of abrasion. PMID:4073040

  3. Interactive work place trauma (IWPT).

    PubMed

    Shewchuk, Muriel

    2005-06-01

    Tragically, horizontal violence and bullying behaviour being master minded by nursing colleagues is firmly entrenched in many perioperative environments--just like a serious pathological bacteria. Interactive Workplace Trauma (IWPT) is ugly, mean, destructive, demoralizing and counterproductive to efficient, effective patient care and positive staff performance. Get educated and use astute observations to ensure you clearly understand what is occurring. Make sure the staff feel safe and have the appropriate, necessary protection to deal with unacceptable conduct. Deal effectively with the bullies. Remember if it is not documented, it didn't happen! PMID:16092572

  4. Pelvic trauma and vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Scemama, U; Dabadie, A; Varoquaux, A; Soussan, J; Gaudon, C; Louis, G; Chaumoître, K; Vidal, V

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring injuries carry a high mortality rate, the main cause of which, in the first 24hours, is exsanguination. Injured patients are managed by a multidisciplinary damage-control strategy. Unstable patients should have instrumentalized hemostasis without delay. Arterial embolization is an effective way of achieving this and justifies this approach being permanently available in level 1 trauma-centers. After CT assessment of injuries, stable patients can undergo arterial embolization if active arterial bleeding or vascular damage is present. The embolization methods (selective or unselective) and agents used depend on the patient's hemodynamic stage and assessment of the injury whenever possible. PMID:26112074

  5. MR imaging of pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray S; Jadhav, Siddharth P; Swischuk, Leonard E

    2009-08-01

    Although plain radiography remains the most important and cost-effective imaging for screening and characterizing osseous injuries, it has been well recognized that pediatric fractures can occur without radiographic abnormalities. The superb capability of MR imaging in demonstrating marrow edema, cartilage defects, and soft tissue injuries makes it an essential adjunct in the further evaluation of trauma to the growing skeleton. The key MR imaging findings of growth plate injuries, stress fractures, avulsion injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, transient patellar dislocation, and soft tissue injuries are described in this article. PMID:19524195

  6. Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals. PMID:21331361

  7. [Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Debus, E S; Carpenter, S W; Tsilimparis, N; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Kölbel, T

    2013-05-01

    The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) has changed significantly since the introduction of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). In terms of perioperative morbidity and mortality, randomized multicenter trials revealed results in favour of EVAR compared to open reconstruction. However, EVAR is associated with possible late complications caused by endoleaks, stent migration, kinking and/or overstenting of side branches, making life-long follow-up necessary. Since the majority of patients requiring therapy are elderly and exhibit attendant comorbidities, EVAR has become the procedure of choice in those patients with favourable anatomy. Medicamentous and conservative treatment may be relevant in patients with small to medium-sized aneurysms. Since smoking is one of the major risk factors for the development of AAA, all patients should be advised to stop smoking. Studies on long-term statin therapy in patients following surgical AAA repair showed a reduction in both overall and cardiovascular mortality; AAA patients should therefore receive statins for secondary prevention. PMID:23591937

  8. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  9. Congenital spine deformities: a new screening indication for blunt cerebrovascular injuries after cervical trauma?

    PubMed

    Capone, Christine; Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad

    2010-12-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) carry significant morbidity if not diagnosed and treated early. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to recognize the injury patterns associated with this condition and to order the requisite imaging studies needed to diagnose it accurately. We report of BCVI associated with a congenital cervical spine malformation after blunt trauma. We recommend inclusion of cervical spine malformations to the current Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma screening criteria for BCVI and explain our rationale for the same. PMID:21129564

  10. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  11. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Deng, Xiaohui; Wei, Xiawei; Shi, Huashan; Wang, Fengtian; Ye, Tinghong; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Li, Yuli; Luo, Min; Gong, Changyang; Huang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCEC) had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10) did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001). The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fuid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days, respectively. This study confirms that PCEC hydrogel has potential application in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. PMID:23885172

  12. Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This page last reviewed on September 24, 2015 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us Your Privacy Accessibility Disclaimers FOIA U.S. Department of Health and ...

  13. Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This page last reviewed on December 29, 2015 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us Your Privacy Accessibility Disclaimers FOIA U.S. Department of Health and ...

  14. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine. PMID:23820001

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A ticking time bomb.

    PubMed

    Howell, Christopher M; Rabener, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a clinical challenge in risk assessment, recognition, treatment, and prevention. This article explores the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AAA. PMID:26840606

  16. Closure of massive abdominal wall defects: a case report using the abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Roderick M; Khuthaila, Dana K; Khalil, Abdullah J; Hammond, Dennis C

    2006-11-01

    Closure of massive abdominal wounds can be a challenging surgical problem. Presented here is a novel technique for reconstitution of the abdominal wall after severe internal injuries complicated by sepsis required a prolonged period of open abdominal dressing changes. By using an innovative and effective progressive tension band system, the fascial edges could be reapproximated over time allowing primary wound closure. This system is recommended as an effective instrument to accomplish closure of these difficult wounds. PMID:17060742

  17. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p = 0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

  18. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  19. Trauma Management of the Auricle.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Armin; Frenzel, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Smaller injuries of the auricle, such as lacerations without tissue loss, have more or less standardized treatment protocols that require thorough wound closure of each affected layer. Even extended lacerations of larger parts of the ear quite often heal with only minor irregularities. New in vivo diagnostic tools have aided the understanding of this outstanding "skin flap behavior." At the other end of the trauma severity spectrum are partial or complete amputations of the ear. Here, the debate has become more intense over the last decade. There were numerous reports of successful microvascular reattachments in the 1990s. Consequently, pocket methods and their variations have received increasing attention because the results seem to be convincing. Nevertheless, the pressure damage due to banking larger parts of the elastic cartilage in the mastoid region is tremendous, and the tissue for secondary reconstruction is severely injured. Particularly in cases of acute trauma with relevant concomitant injuries to the patient and in cases in which the amputated area is in a critical state, direct wound closure is a straightforward and safe option. Subsequent thoughtfully planned secondary reconstruction using ear or rib cartilage, or even allogenous material as an ear framework, can achieve excellent aesthetic results. PMID:26372713

  20. Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation for intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barolat, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation has been utilized for a variety of painful conditions affecting the abdominal wall, including sequelae of hernia repair, painful surgical scars, ilio-inguinal neuritis. It has also occasionally been shown to be effective in patients with intractable abdominal visceral pain. Since this is a very recent modality, no large series or prospective studies exist. The results, however, are promising and certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21422777

  1. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  2. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  3. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  4. Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses imaging of orthopedia trauma and surgery. A review of the pertinent anatomy, mechanism of injury, and radiology and orthopedic classification is provided for each topic discussed. The book employs recent advances in technique and focuses on adult skeletal trauma, and joint replacement.

  5. Tips for Teachers during Times of Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Myrna Ann; Harper, Eric

    This guide for teachers in times of trauma was updated after the events of September 11, 2001--the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These traumatic events could cause refugees to experience trauma or become re-traumatized. For many refugees, their English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are the places where they…

  6. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  7. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  8. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences. PMID:22375805

  9. The Biology of Trauma: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…

  10. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  11. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  12. The Biology of Trauma: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…

  13. Training Journalism Students To Deal with Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxson, Jan

    The School of Communications at the University of Washington initiated the Journalism and Trauma program in 1994 so that all of its journalism graduates would be informed about trauma and would consider how to interview and write about victims without doing further harm to them. The program adapts learning objectives of the pioneer Victims and the…

  14. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  15. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  16. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  17. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7?d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4?micromol·kg?1, infusion rate: 6?micromol·kg?1·min?1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to control values during convalescence. PMID:24460539

  18. Hypercoagulability following blunt solid abdominal organ injury: when to initiate anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brandon C.; Moore, Ernest E.; Barnett, Carlton; Stovall, Robert T.; Biffl, Walter L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Bensard, Denis D.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Pieracci, Fredric M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal time to initiate venous thromboembolism pharmacoprophylaxis after blunt abdominal solid organ injury is unknown. Methods Postinjury coagulation status was characterized using thromboelastography (TEG) in trauma patients with blunt abdominal solid organ injuries; TEG was divided into 12-hour intervals up to 72 hours. Results Forty-two of 304 patients (13.8%) identified underwent multiple postinjury thromboelastographic studies. Age (P = .45), gender (P = .45), and solid organ injury grade (P = .71) were similar between TEG and non-TEG patients. TEG patients had higher Injury Severity Scores compared with non-TEG patients (33.2 vs 18.3, respectively, P < .01). Among the TEG patients, the shear elastic modulus strength and maximum amplitude values began in the normal range within the first 12-hour interval after injury, increased linearly, and crossed into the hypercoagulable range at 48 hours (15.1 ± 1.9 Kd/cs and 57.6 ± 1.6 mm, respectively; P < .01, analysis of variance). Conclusions Patients sustaining blunt abdominal solid organ injuries transition to a hypercoagulable state approximately 48 hours after injury. In the absence of contraindications, pharmacoprophylaxis should be considered before this time for effective venous thromboembolism prevention. PMID:24112665

  19. Factors Associated with the Disposition of Severely Injured Patients Presenting to Non-Trauma Center Emergency Departments: Disparities by Insurance Status

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, M. Kit; Yokell, Michael A.; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Spain, David A.; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Wang, N. Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Importance Trauma is the leading cause of potential years of life lost before age 65 in the U.S. Timely care in a designated trauma center has been shown to reduce mortality by 25%. However, many severely injured patients are not transferred to trauma centers after initially presenting to non-trauma centers. Objective Determine patient and hospital level factors associated with the decision to admit rather than transfer severely injured patients who present to non-trauma center emergency departments (EDs). We hypothesized that insured patients would be more likely to be admitted than transferred compared to patients without insurance. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective analysis of the 2009 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. We included all ED encounters for major trauma (injury severity score [ISS] > 15) seen at non-trauma centers in patients aged 18–64. We excluded ED discharges and ED deaths. We quantified the absolute risk difference between admission vs. transfer by insurance status while adjusting for age, sex, injury severity, injury mechanism, weekend admission, month, urban-rural status and median income of home zip code, ED volume and teaching status, and U.S. region Main Outcome Measures Inpatient admission vs. transfer to another acute care facility. Results There were 4,513 observations from 636 non-trauma centers for analysis, representing a nationally weighted population of 19,312 non-trauma center ED encounters for major trauma in 2009. In 2009 54.5% were admitted at the non-trauma center. Compared to the uninsured, the adjusted absolute risk of admission vs. transfer was 14.2% higher (95% CI: 9.2, 19.4) for patients with Medicaid and 11.1 % higher (95% CI: 6.9, 15.4) for patients with private insurance. Other factors associated with admission vs. transfer included severe abdominal injuries (risk difference 15.8%,95% CI: 9.3, 22.3) urban teaching hospital vs. non-teaching hospital ((26.2%,15.2, 37.2), and ED volume (3.4% higher (95% CI: 1.6, 5.3%) for every additional 10,000 annual ED visits). Conclusions and Relevance Patients with severe injuries initially evaluated at non-trauma centers were less likely to be transferred if insured, and thus were at risk of receiving sub-optimal trauma care. Monitoring and optimizing trauma interhospital transfers and outcomes at the population level is warranted. PMID:24554059

  20. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  1. Sex differences in heart rate responses to script-driven imagery soon after trauma and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, Birgit; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Glucksman, Edward; Ehlers, Anke

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Trauma survivors’ physiological responses to idiosyncratic trauma reminders may be predictive of later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The majority of previous studies have been cross-sectional and have produced mixed findings. Sex differences may contribute to this heterogeneity. The present study investigated the predictive validity of heightened physiological responsivity to script-driven imagery and sex for the development of PTSD. METHODS Heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured at two weeks post-trauma in 158 assault survivors during baseline and while listening to an idiosyncratic trauma script. At 6 months, 15.2% of male and 28.1 % of female participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. RESULTS GLM and logistic regression analyses showed that HR response to script-driven imagery and sex interacted in predicting PTSD symptom severity at six months. Women had greater PTSD symptom severities overall. Female HR responders to script driven imagery showed the highest PTSD symptom severities, and were almost three times more likely to develop PTSD at six months compared to men and female nonresponders (OR = 2.72, 95% CI= 1.13-6.57). RSA responder type did not predict PTSD, OR = .64, 95%CI = .30 – 1.33. CONCLUSION Female trauma survivors who respond to trauma reminders with increased HR may be at particular risk of developing PTSD. Physiological reactivity to trauma cues may be a useful index for screening and prevention of PTSD. PMID:20947782

  2. The top 100 articles in the radiology of trauma: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Ryan Scott; Hanna, Tarek N; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma, analyze the resulting database to understand factors resulting in highly cited works, and establish trends in trauma imaging. An initial database was created via a Web of Science (WOS) search of all scientific journals using the search terms "trauma" and either "radiology" or a diagnostic modality. Articles were ranked by citation count and screened by two attending radiologists plus a tiebreaker for appropriateness. The following information was collected from each article: WOS all database citations, year, journal, authors, department affiliation, study type and design, sample size, imaging modality, subspecialty, organ, and topic. Citations for the top 100 articles ranged from 82-252, and citations per year ranged from 2.6-37.2. A plurality of articles were published in the 1990s (n?=?45) and 1980s (n?=?31). Articles were published across 24 journals, most commonly Radiology (n?=?31) and Journal of Trauma-Injury, Infection, and Critical Care (n?=?28). Articles had an average of five authors and 35 % of first authors were affiliated with a department other than radiology. Forty-six articles had sample sizes of 100 or fewer. Computed tomography (CT) was the most common modality (n?=?67), followed by magnetic resonance (MR; n?=?22), and X-ray (XR; n?=?11). Neuroradiology (n?=?48) and abdominal radiology (n?=?36) were the most common subspecialties. The 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma are diverse. Subspecialty bibliometric analyses identify the most influential articles of a particular field, providing more implications to clinical radiologists, trainees, researchers, editors, and reviewers than radiology-wide lists. PMID:26377425

  3. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA): a population based gap analysis of trauma patients in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Edward Benjamin Graham; Morrison, Jonathan James; Madureira, Ricardo Mondoni; Lendrum, Robbie; Fragoso-Iñiguez, Marisol; Edwards, Antoinette; Lecky, Fiona; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Jansen, Jan Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH) carries a high mortality in trauma as many patients exsanguinate prior to definitive haemorrhage control. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct that has the potential to bridge patients to definitive haemostasis. However, the proportion of trauma patients in whom REBOA may be utilised is unknown. Methods We conducted a population based analysis of 2012–2013 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data. We identified the number of patients in whom REBOA may have been utilised, defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3 to abdominal solid organs, abdominal or pelvic vasculature, pelvic fracture with ring disruption or proximal traumatic lower limb amputation, together with a systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients with non-compressible haemorrhage in the mediastinum, axilla, face or neck were excluded. Results During 2012–2013, 72 677 adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in England and Wales were identified. 397 patients had an indication(s) and no contraindications for REBOA with evidence of haemorrhagic shock: 69% men, median age 43 years and median Injury Severity Score 32. Overall mortality was 32%. Major trauma centres (MTCs) received the highest concentration of potential REBOA patients, and would be anticipated to receive a patient in whom REBOA may be utilised every 95 days, increasing to every 46 days in the 10 MTCs with the highest attendance of this injury type. Conclusions This TARN database analysis has identified a small group of severely injured, resource intensive patients with a highly lethal injury that is theoretically amenable to REBOA. The highest density of these patients is seen at MTCs, and as such a planned evaluation of REBOA should be further considered in these hospitals. PMID:26598631

  4. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

  5. Chronic abdominal pain caused by thoracic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, D C; Martin, S P; Schoen, R E; Jho, H D

    1995-05-01

    A patient with 7 yr of severe disabling chronic epigastric abdominal pain attributed to chronic pancreatitis was seen in consultation before a 95% pancreatectomy for pain control. Previous attempts to identify and treat the pain lead to extensive radiographic, pharmacological, endoscopic, and surgical interventions, including a Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. Pain control was poor despite implantation of a continuous intrathecal morphine infusion pump. A focused physical examination, however, raised the suspicion of thoracic disc disease, which was confirmed after myelogram with computed tomography. Disruption of the T7-T8 disc with protrusion into the vertebral canal and displacement of the spinal cord with an associated bone spur were identified. A microsurgical thoracic discectomy was performed. Immediately, the pain began resolving, and she was pain free and off her medications within several weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a herniated thoracic disc presenting as the pain of chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis of thoracic disc syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in patients with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:7733103

  6. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  7. The tip of the iceberg: Post caesarean wound dehiscence presenting as abdominal wound sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bharatam, Kaundinya Kiran; Sivaraja, P.K.; Abineshwar, N.J.; Thiagarajan, Vasundhara; Thiagarajan, D.A.; Bodduluri, Sudeep; Sriraman, K.B.; Vasantha Ragavan, A.; Priya, Shanmuga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uterine scar dehiscence can complicate caesarean section with complications like post partum hemorrhage, endomyometritis, localized/generalized peritonitis, and sepsis. Presentation of case Our patient had abdominal wound infection after LSCS surgery and features of sepsis. The wound infection was actually the presentation of a uterine scar dehiscence and localized peritonitis. Discussion Incidence of uterine scar dehiscence is around 0.6%. Presentation can be post partum hemorrhage, endomyometritis, and generalized/localized peritonitis. Peritonitis caused by uterine incisional necrosis must be dealt surgically. A high index of suspicion with appropriate investigations can highlight such problems for early treatment and cure with least morbidity especially related to further pregnancies. Conclusion Uterine scar dehiscence with infection requires high index of suspicion as rare cause for post partum localized/generalized peritonitis with sepsis. Severe abdominal wound infection after caesarean section may be associated with uterine wound dehiscence, which poses a grave risk to the mother in a future pregnancy. PMID:25728672

  8. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS), per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1%) or charge estimate (25.9%) for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701). However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied and the cost methods employed are the primary drivers for the treatment costs. Targeted research into the costs of trauma care is required to facilitate informed health service planning. PMID:22909225

  9. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation Study 3

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, N.; Achten, J.; Griffin, X. L.; Costa, M. L.; Reed, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately half of all hip fractures are displaced intracapsular fractures. The standard treatment for these fractures is either hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. The recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on hip fracture management recommends the use of ‘proven’ cemented stem arthroplasty with an Orthopaedic Device Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating of at least 3B (97% survival at three years). The Thompsons prosthesis is currently lacking an ODEP rating despite over 50 years of clinical use, likely due to the paucity of implant survival data. Nationally, adherence to these guidelines is varied as there is debate as to which prosthesis optimises patient outcomes. Design This study design is a multi-centre, multi-surgeon, parallel, two arm, standard-of-care pragmatic randomised controlled trial. It will be embedded within the WHiTE Comprehensive Cohort Study (ISRCTN63982700). The main analysis is a two-way equivalence comparison between Hemi-Thompson and Hemi-Exeter polished taper with Unitrax head. Secondary outcomes will include radiological leg length discrepancy measured as per Bidwai and Willett, mortality, re-operation rate and indication for re-operation, length of index hospital stay and revision at four months. This study will be supplemented by the NHFD (National Hip Fracture Database) dataset. Discussion Evidence on the optimum choice of prosthesis for hemiarthroplasty of the hip is lacking. National guidance is currently based on expert opinion rather than empirical evidence. The incidence of hip fracture is likely to continue to increase and providing high quality evidence on the optimum Cite this article: A. L. Sims. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation Study 3: Hemiarthroplasty Evaluation by Multicentre Investigation – WHITE 3: HEMI – An Abridged Protocol. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:18–25. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000473 PMID:26825319

  10. Blunt pancreatic trauma: A persistent diagnostic conundrum?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Atin; Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is an uncommon injury but has high morbidity and mortality. In modern era of trauma care, pancreatic trauma remains a persistent challenge to radiologists and surgeons alike. Early detection of pancreatic trauma is essential to prevent subsequent complications. However early pancreatic injury is often subtle on computed tomography (CT) and can be missed unless specifically looked for. Signs of pancreatic injury on CT include laceration, transection, bulky pancreas, heterogeneous enhancement, peripancreatic fluid and signs of pancreatitis. Pan-creatic ductal injury is a vital decision-making parameter as ductal injury is an indication for laparotomy. While lacerations involving more than half of pancreatic parenchyma are suggestive of ductal injury on CT, ductal injuries can be directly assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or encoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Pancreatic trauma also shows temporal evolution with increase in extent of injury with time. Hence early CT scans may underestimate the extent of injures and sequential imaging with CT or MRI is important in pancreatic trauma. Sequential imaging is also needed for successful non-operative management of pancreatic injury. Accurate early detection on initial CT and adopting a multimodality and sequential imaging strategy can improve outcome in pancreatic trauma. PMID:26981225

  11. Changes in Neuroticism Following Trauma Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Method Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M age = 60.55, 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at mean age 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. Results No differences in pre-and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events. PMID:23550961

  12. Blunt pancreatic trauma: A persistent diagnostic conundrum?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atin; Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-02-28

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is an uncommon injury but has high morbidity and mortality. In modern era of trauma care, pancreatic trauma remains a persistent challenge to radiologists and surgeons alike. Early detection of pancreatic trauma is essential to prevent subsequent complications. However early pancreatic injury is often subtle on computed tomography (CT) and can be missed unless specifically looked for. Signs of pancreatic injury on CT include laceration, transection, bulky pancreas, heterogeneous enhancement, peripancreatic fluid and signs of pancreatitis. Pan-creatic ductal injury is a vital decision-making parameter as ductal injury is an indication for laparotomy. While lacerations involving more than half of pancreatic parenchyma are suggestive of ductal injury on CT, ductal injuries can be directly assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or encoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Pancreatic trauma also shows temporal evolution with increase in extent of injury with time. Hence early CT scans may underestimate the extent of injures and sequential imaging with CT or MRI is important in pancreatic trauma. Sequential imaging is also needed for successful non-operative management of pancreatic injury. Accurate early detection on initial CT and adopting a multimodality and sequential imaging strategy can improve outcome in pancreatic trauma. PMID:26981225

  13. Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context

    PubMed Central

    Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

  14. Global relevance of literature on trauma.

    PubMed

    Noordin, Shahryar; Wright, James G; Howard, Andrew W

    2008-10-01

    The trauma pandemic disproportionately kills and maims citizens of low-income countries although the immediate cause of the trauma is often an industrial export of a high-income country, such as a motor vehicle. Addressing the trauma pandemic in low-income countries requires access to relevant research information regarding prevention and treatment of injuries. Such information is also generally produced in high-income countries. We reviewed two years' worth of articles from leading orthopaedic and general medical journals to determine whether the scientific literature appropriately reflects the global burden of musculoskeletal disease, particularly that due to trauma. General medical journals underrepresented musculoskeletal disease, but within musculoskeletal disease an appropriate majority of papers were regarding trauma, in particular the epidemiology and prevention of injury. Orthopaedic journals, while focusing on musculoskeletal conditions, substantially underrepresented the global burden of disease due to trauma and hardly consider injury epidemiology and prevention. If orthopaedic surgeons want to maximize their global impact, they should focus on writing about trauma questions relevant to their colleagues in low-income countries and ensuring these same colleagues have access to the literature. PMID:18685910

  15. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J; Morgan, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  16. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma: A review

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert T.; Lisco, Steven J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children from the age 1 year to 21 years old. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system following severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of TIC that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  17. Intraoperative Tension Pneumothorax in a Patient With Remote Trauma and Previous Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Soghomonyan, Suren; Sandhu, Gurneet; Rankin, Demicha

    2016-01-01

    Many trauma patients present with a combination of cranial and thoracic injury. Anesthesia for these patients carries the risk of intraoperative hemodynamic instability and respiratory complications during mechanical ventilation. Massive air leakage through a lacerated lung will result in inadequate ventilation and hypoxemia and, if left undiagnosed, may significantly compromise the hemodynamic function and create a life-threatening situation. Even though these complications are more characteristic for the early phase of trauma management, in some cases, such a scenario may develop even months after the initial trauma. We report a case of a 25-year-old patient with remote thoracic trauma, who developed an intraoperative tension pneumothorax and hemodynamic instability while undergoing an elective cranioplasty. The intraoperative patient assessment was made even more challenging by unexpected massive blood loss from the surgical site. Timely recognition and management of intraoperative pneumothorax along with adequate blood replacement stabilized the patient and helped avoid an unfavorable outcome. This case highlights the risks of intraoperative pneumothorax in trauma patients, which may develop even months after injury. A high index of suspicion and timely decompression can be life saving in this type of situation. PMID:27006957

  18. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25888993

  19. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation. PMID:20092428

  20. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  1. Abdominal aorta transplantation after programmed cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Song; Liu, Chang-Jian; Qiao, Tong; Sun, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphologic and cellular immunologic changes after homologous transplantation of the abdominal aorta in rats after programmed cryopreservation (-196 °C). METHODS: Abdominal aorta was harvested from anesthetized Spraque Dawley (SD) rats for cryopreservation (group B) or immediate implantation (group A). The survival rates and apoptotic rates of aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were examined. The patency rates, histology and cellular immunologic changes of the abdominal aorta were examined on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 after transplantation respectively. RESULTS: The survival rate of ECs after programmed cryopreservation was 90.1% ± 1.79%, about 3.4% lower than that of uncryopreservation (93.5% ± 1.96%). The apoptotic rates of ECs was increased after cryopreservation (7.15% vs 4.86%, P < 0.05). The patency rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (91.6% ± 12.9% vs 62.5% ± 26.2%, P < 0.01). CD4/CD8 ratio, TCR ? ? and CD11b/ CD18 ratio of group B were significantly lower than those of group A (P < 0.05). Revivification of the cryopreserved abdominal aorta showed normal adventitia and intact smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Cryopreservation can reduce homologous abdominal aortic antigenecity. Even if without administration of immunosuppressive agents, it is still feasible to implement homologous artery grafting in rats. PMID:14966916

  2. Factors Associated With Trauma Center Use for Elderly Patients With Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y.; Wang, Ewen; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Auerbach, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the likelihood of trauma center admission for injured elderly patients with trauma, determine trends in trauma center admissions, and identify factors associated with trauma center use for elderly patients with trauma. Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Acute care hospitals in California. Patients All patients hospitalized for acute traumatic injuries during the period from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2008 (n=430 081). Patients who had scheduled admissions for nonacute or minor trauma were excluded. Main Outcome Measure Likelihood of admission to level I or II trauma center was calculated according to age categories after adjusting for patient and system factors. Results Of 430 081 patients admitted to California acute care hospitals for trauma-related diagnoses, 27% were older than 65 years. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and system factors, compared with trauma patients aged 18–25 years, the odds of admission to a trauma center decreased with increasing age; patients aged 26–45 years had lower odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.80) of being admitted to a trauma center for their injuries than did patients 46–65 years of age (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.54–0.60), patients 66–85 years of age (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30–0.41), and patients older than 85 years (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.25–0.36). Similar patterns were found when stratifying the analysis by trauma type and severity. Living more than 50 miles away from a trauma center (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01–0.06) and lack of county trauma center (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.35) were also predictors of not receiving trauma care. Conclusion Age and likelihood of admission to a trauma center for injured patients were observed to be inversely proportional after controlling for other factors. System-level factors play a major role in determining which injured patients receive trauma care. PMID:21242421

  3. Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

  4. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Clara

    2014-03-01

    The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171

  5. Trauma Management of the Pregnant Patient.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Amie; Dantoni, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Trauma continues to be a leading cause of nonobstetric maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. Caring for the pregnant trauma patient requires a systematic and multidisciplinary approach. It is important to understand the anatomic and physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy. Accepted trauma guidelines for imaging and interventions should generally not be deviated from just because a patient is pregnant. Focus should be placed on injury prevention and education of at risk patients to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with traumatic injuries in pregnant patients. PMID:26600448

  6. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  7. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Y?lmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  8. Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  9. Minimal invasive treatment of abdominal multiorgan echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  10. [Girls' abdominal pains and gynaecological emergencies].

    PubMed

    Le Hors-Albouze, Hélène; Boutin, Aurélie; Louis-Borrione, Claude; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    Among many causes of abdominal pain in children, gynaecological ones have to be systematically considered in even no pubescent girls. Diagnosis leans on physical and US examinations and has to screen first urgent causes before frequent ones. Rare but urgent are ovarian torsions either on a normal ovary or an underlying ovarian tumor, an earlier surgery may avoid oophorectomy. Hematocolpos linked to imperforate hymen is the most common obstructive congenital abnormality of the female genital tract and the diagnosis is easy with inspection of external genitalia. Ovarian tumors are infrequent and most often begnin but torsion, rupture or bleeding complications causes acute abdominal pains. Dysmenorrhea is the most common cause of abdominal pain in pubescent girls. In adolescents, genital tract infections and rare ectopic pregnancy have also to be mentioned. PMID:21698890

  11. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment. PMID:10476527

  12. The counselor's trauma as counseling motivation: vulnerability or stress inoculation?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Mitchell, Jessica L; Baird, Stephanie; Whitfield, Sarah Roby; Meyer, Heather Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Should counselors with interpersonal trauma histories work with similarly traumatized clients? How does the work affect them? Current research is inconsistent. This study examines 101 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors' recalled motivations for trauma work, their reported subjective personal changes, and their secondary and vicarious trauma symptoms and burnout. Counselors motivated by interpersonal trauma report both more symptoms and positive changes (including dealing with their own trauma). Those seeking personal meaning report becoming more hypervigilant and self-isolating. Those saying they learned from clients rate symptoms lower, suggesting stress inoculation. Supervisors of trauma counselors should facilitate learning from clients separately from processing the counselor's trauma. PMID:20956440

  13. Role of the RAGE Axis during the Immune Response after Severe Trauma: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstern, Christoph; Koch, Christian; Hecker, Andreas; Heiss, Christian; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Weigand, Markus Alexander; Weismüller, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe traumatization induces a complex pathophysiology, driven by the patient's own immune system. The initial activation is a result of damage-associated molecular patterns, which are released from disrupted and dying cells and recognized by immune receptors, for example, RAGE. In this study we aimed to evaluate the contribution of the RAGE axis to early and late immune responses. Methods. We enrolled 16 patients with severe trauma together with 10 patients after major abdominal surgery and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were taken on admission and every 48 h for a total of 8 days. Plasma concentrations of various RAGE ligands as well as RAGE isoforms and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. Monocyte surface expression of RAGE and HLA-DR was assessed by flow cytometry. Results. High and transient levels of IL-6 and methylglyoxal characterize the early immune response after trauma, whereas samples from later time points provide evidence for a secondary release of RAGE ligands. Conclusion. Our results provide evidence for a persisting activation of the RAGE axis while classical mediators like IL-6 disappear early. Considering the immunocompromised phenotype of the monocytes, the RAGE ligands might be substantial contributors to the well-known secondary stage of impaired immune responsiveness in trauma patients. PMID:26880860

  14. CT Chest with IV Contrast Compared with CT Angiography after Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Andrea A; Stewart, Donovan; Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Sun, Beatrice; Ashrafian, Sogol; Hotz, Heidi; Chung, Rex; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Blunt aortic injury (BAI) after chest trauma is a potentially lethal condition that requires rapid diagnosis for appropriate treatment. We compared CT with IV contrast (CTI) with CT with angiography (CTA) during the initial phase of care at an urban Level I trauma center from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Overall, 281 patients met inclusion criteria with 167 (59%) CTI and 114 (41%) CTA. There were no differences between cohorts in age, gender, initial heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale. Mortality rates were similar for CTI and CTA (4% vs 8%, P = 0.20). CTI identified any chest injury in 54 per cent of patients compared with 46 per cent with CTA (P = 0.05). The rate of BAI was similar with CTI and CTA (2% vs 2%, P = 0.80), and neither modality was falsely negative. We conclude that CTI and CTA are similar at evaluating trauma patients for BAI, although CTI may be preferable during the initial assessment phase because the contrast injection may be combined with abdominal scanning and image time is reduced when whole-body CT is required. PMID:26463312

  15. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E L G; Tielliu, I F J; Ferreira, M; Zipfel, B; Adam, D J

    2010-04-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms initially required an undilated portion of the aorta below the renal arteries to safely fixate the stent-graft. More complex abdominal artic aneurysms (i.e., short-necked, juxta- and suprarenal aneurysms) were later successfully treated with fenestrated grafts. The development of branched grafts opened the way to treat thoraco-abdominal aneurysms endovascularly. In this review, a comprehensive overview of technical aspects and results of the available literature is given. Mortality rates are below 10%, with spinal cord ischemia reported between 2.7% and 20%. Target vessel branch patency invariably has been reported between 95% and 100%, with first mid-term results demonstrating evidence for durability. Most series included high-risk patients, who were denied open repair. Nevertheless, risks associated with endovascular repair of thoraco-abdominal aneurysm should be acknowledged. Technique-specific complications including perforation of small vessels due to multiple catheterization resulting in retroperitoneal hematoma, and compartment syndrome of the lower limbs should be mentioned. Technical evolution of branched grafts is ongoing. Tapering down the main graft to allow for room for the branches has resulted in easier catheterization of target vessels and insertion of bridging stent-grafts. For the same reason, the branches for celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are deliberately off-set in position. To stabilise the usually long devices, additional spiral wires have been added, to facilitate deployment in the correct orientation. Endovascular repair of thoraco-abdominal aneurysms will continue to evolve and gradually take over from open repair, in view of the much lower physical impact on the patient. PMID:20354484

  16. Albumin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Segersvärd, Ralf; Wernerman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The drop in plasma albumin concentration following surgical trauma is well known, but the temporal pattern of the detailed mechanisms behind are less well described. The aim of this explorative study was to assess changes in albumin synthesis and transcapillary escape rate (TER) following major surgical trauma, at the time of peak elevations in two well-recognized markers of inflammation. Methods This was a clinical trial of radiolabeled human serum albumin for the study of TER and plasma volume. Ten patients were studied immediately preoperatively and on the 2nd postoperative day after major pancreatic surgery. Albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique employing incorporation of isotopically labelled phenylalanine. Results Fractional synthesis rate of albumin increased from 11.7 (95% CI: 8.9, 14.5) to 15.0 (11.7, 18.4) %/day (p = 0.027), whereas the corresponding absolute synthesis rate was unchanged, 175 (138, 212) versus 150 (107, 192) mg/kg/day (p = 0.21). TER was unchanged, 4.9 (3.1, 6.8) %/hour versus 5.5 (3.9, 7.2) (p = 0.63). Plasma volume was unchanged but plasma albumin decreased from 33.5 (30.9, 36.2) to 22.1 (19.8, 24.3) g/L. (p<0.001). Conclusion Two days after major abdominal surgery, at the time-point when two biomarkers of generalised inflammation were at their peak and the plasma albumin concentration had decreased by 33%, we were unable to show any difference in the absolute synthesis rate of albumin, TER and plasma volume as compared with values obtained immediately pre-operatively. This suggests that capillary leakage, if elevated postoperatively, had ceased at that time-point. The temporal relations between albumin kinetics, capillary leakage and generalised inflammation need to be further explored. Trial Registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu: EudraCT 2010-08529-21 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194492 PMID:26313170

  17. Trauma-induced insomnia: A novel model for trauma and sleep research.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Smit S

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic events have been increasingly recognized as important precipitants of clinically significant insomnia. Trauma is an extreme form of stressful life event that generates a sustained neurobiological response triggering the onset and maintenance of insomnia. Trauma may disrupt the normal sleep-wake regulatory mechanism by sensitizing the central nervous system's arousal centers, leading to pronounced central and physiological hyperarousal. The central concept of hyperarousal has been linked to both the pathogenesis of insomnia and to the neurobiological changes in the aftermath of traumatic events, and may be a neurobiological commonality underlying trauma and insomnia. This paper presents evidence for trauma-induced insomnia and advances a model of it as an important nosological and neurobiological entity. Trauma-induced insomnia may occur in the absence of full-blown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and may also be a precursor of subsequent PTSD development. Converging lines of evidence from the neuroscience of insomnia with the neurobiology and psychophysiology of stress, fear, trauma and PTSD will be integrated to advance understanding of the condition. Preclinical and clinical stress and fear paradigms have informed the neurobiological pathways mediating the production of insomnia by trauma. Elucidating the underlying neurobiological substrates can establish novel biological markers to identify persons at risk for the condition, and help optimize treatment of the trauma-insomnia interface. Early identification and treatment of trauma-induced insomnia may prevent the development of PTSD, as well as other important sequelae such as depression, substance dependence, and other medical conditions. PMID:26140870

  18. Age of Trauma Onset and HPA Axis Dysregulation Among Trauma-Exposed Youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Vargas, Ivan; Geiss, Elisa G; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a pathway through which childhood trauma may increase risk for negative health outcomes. The HPA axis is sensitive to stress throughout development; however, few studies have examined whether timing of exposure to childhood trauma is related to differences in later HPA axis functioning. Therefore, we examined the association between age of first trauma and HPA axis functioning among adolescents, and whether these associations varied by sex. Parents of 97 youth (aged 9-16 years) completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), and youth completed the Socially-Evaluated Cold-Pressor Task (SECPT). We measured salivary cortisol response to the SECPT, the cortisol awakening response, and diurnal regulation at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Exposure to trauma during infancy related to delayed cortisol recovery from peak responses to acute stress, d = 0.23 to 0.42. Timing of trauma exposure related to diverging patterns of diurnal cortisol regulation for males, d = 0.55, and females, d = 0.57. Therefore, the HPA axis may be susceptible to developing acute stress dysregulation when exposed to trauma during infancy, whereas the consequences within circadian cortisol regulation may occur in the context of later trauma exposure and vary by sex. Further investigations are warranted to characterize HPA axis sensitivity to exposure to childhood trauma across child development. PMID:26556544

  19. Curbing Inflammation in hemorrhagic trauma: a review.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Mauricio; Padim, Pedro; Evora, Paulo Roberto B; Scarpelini, Sandro

    2015-08-01

    Trauma is one of the world's leading causes of death within the first 40 years of life and thus a significant health problem. Trauma accounts for nearly a third of the lost years of productive life before 65 years of age and is associated with infection, hemorrhagic shock, reperfusion syndrome, and inflammation. The control of hemorrhage, coagulopathy, optimal use of blood products, balancing hypo and hyperperfusion, and hemostatic resuscitation improve survival in cases of trauma with massive hemorrhage. This review discusses inflammation in the context of trauma-associated hemorrhagic shock. When one considers the known immunomodulatory effects of traumatic injury, allogeneic blood transfusion, and the overlap between patient populations, it is surprising that so few studies have assessed their combined effects on immune function. We also discuss the relative benefits of curbing inflammation rather than attempting to prevent it. PMID:26517804

  20. Aortic Valve Injury Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Hedieh; Maleki, Majid; Hosseini, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Heart valve injury following blunt chest trauma of car accidents is increasing. Although aortic valve involvement is rare, however, in survivors of blunt cardiac trauma it is the most commonly involved valve and the most frequent valve lesion is isolated injury of the noncoronary cusp of aortic valve. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old man with a history of car accident (five months before) was referred to our clinic because of shortness of breath. A holo-diastolic blowing murmur was heard on physical examination. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated severe aortic insufficiency secondary to rupture of the left coronary cusp associated with avulsion of aortic valve commissure. Conclusions: Since the aortic valve is rarely affected in blunt cardiac injury, it will be generally undiagnosed during the primary evaluation of a patient with blunt chest trauma. However, any patient presenting dyspnea after chest trauma should be examined for suspected aortic valve injury. PMID:25478541