Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury. PMID:130499
Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F
Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis. PMID:20020392
Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S
Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago. PMID:22096714
Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos
Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago.
Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos
The morbidity, mortality, and economic costs resulting from trauma in general, and blunt abdominal trauma in particular, are substantial. The "panscan" (computed tomographic [CT] examination of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis) has become an essential element in the early evaluation and decision-making algorithm for hemodynamically stable patients who sustained abdominal trauma. CT has virtually replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for the detection of important injuries. Over the past decade, substantial hardware and software developments in CT technology, especially the introduction and refinement of multidetector scanners, have expanded the versatility of CT for examination of the polytrauma patient in multiple facets: higher spatial resolution, faster image acquisition and reconstruction, and improved patient safety (optimization of radiation delivery methods). In this article, the authors review the elements of multidetector CT technique that are currently relevant for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma and describe the most important CT signs of trauma in the various organs. Because conservative nonsurgical therapy is preferred for all but the most severe injuries affecting the solid viscera, the authors emphasize the CT findings that are indications for direct therapeutic intervention. PMID:23175542
Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W
The course of history changed because of the deaths of these two men. Although the world doesn't remember Chester Allan Arthur (JAG's Vice President), Theodore Roosevelt became one of our most popular presidents. Neither president's injuries were life-threatening, but they died of postoperative complications. The technology and treatment used for penetrating abdominal trauma have changed tremendously over the past 100 years. Both presidents would survive if they sustained their injuries today. PMID:16962459
In case of suspected intra-abdominal injury, fast transport of the patient to a suitable hospital is of high priority. The initial clinical examination aims at identifying patients with potentially life-threatening bleeding that require emergency surgery. In patients with penetrating trauma, laparoscopy is favoured to exclude suspected perforation of the peritoneum. If a peritoneal perforation is identified, exploratory laparotomy is recommended to exclude or treat lacerations of the hollow viscus. Although clinical examination should be performed its sensitivity and specificity of up to 82% and 45%, respectively, are not sufficient as the sole screening method. For the further diagnostic workup, diagnostic peritoneal lavage has been completely replaced by abdominal ultrasound examination in Germany and many other countries. Focussing not only on the detection of free abdominal fluid but also searching for parenchymal organ lesions and performing repeated examinations increases accuracy up to 96%, with specificity of 99.8% and sensitivity of 72.1%. Computed abdominal tomography with a helical scanner with and without intravenous contrast media is currently the gold standard of imaging techniques to identify traumatic abdominal injuries. A sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 94.7% can be achieved. False negative findings must be expected with hollow organ injuries. Serial clinical and ultrasound examinations as well as lab testing in conjunction with repeated CT may help to identify such lesions. Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with consecutive abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction is a delayed complication from conditions such as severe intra-abdominal bleeding, major bleeding from pelvic ring fractures, and profuse fluid resuscitation. The IAP should be measured routinely in patients at risk, and decompression laparotomy may be indicated with pressures of higher than 20 mmHg. PMID:16170502
Nast-Kolb, D; Bail, H J; Taeger, G
The gallbladder is a relatively well-protected organ; consequently its rupture following blunt abdominal injury is rare and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated gallbladder rupture is extremely rare. We report a healthy Nigerian adult male who sustained isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury from riding a motor cycle (Okada). A high index of suspicion with positive bile aspirate might lead to early diagnosis. Open cholecystectomy is a safe option of treatment in a resource poor centre especially in delayed presentation and has a good outcome. PMID:23771471
Gali, B M; Ali, N; Bakari, A A; Suleiman, I E
Objectives: Trauma and appendicitis are the most common conditions of childhood for which surgical consultation is sought in emergency departments. Occasionally, appendicitis and trauma exist together, which causes an interesting debate whether trauma has led to appendicitis. We aimed to evaluate our patients with traumatic appendicitis and to discuss their properties in the light of the literature. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children of blunt abdominal trauma accompanied by appendicitis. Results: Of 29 cases of blunt abdominal trauma that had required surgical exploration, five were found to have gross findings of acute appendicitis and underwent appendicectomy. Appendicitis was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: It should be kept in mind that children managed for severe blunt abdominal trauma may develop appendicitis. If clinical outlook suggests appendicitis in cases conservatively managed for blunt abdominal trauma, physical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography and/or abdominal computed tomography should be repeated for diagnosis of traumatic appendicitis. This approach will help to protect the patients against the complications of appendicitis that are likely to develop.
Etensel, B; Yazici, M; Gursoy, H; Ozkisacik, S; Erkus, M
The ideal assessment of the blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) patient would be sensitive, specific, economical, fast, and without complications. By combining ultrasound (US) with computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), an effective alg...
A. J. Feinstein M. G. McKenney S. M. Cohn
Results of surgical treatment in 14 patients with lymphatic duct traumas of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space are presented. Diagnostics and surgical treatment in patients with lymphatic duct injuries and tactics in the presence of chronic lacteal fistula, caused by trauma are described. PMID:18577939
Chirkov, R N; Abakumov, M M; Blokhin, V N
Introduction. Combined abdominal and thoracic impalement injuries are a rare form of penetrating trauma. Nowadays, they occur more frequently as an accident and not so often as a deliberate violent action. Case Report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with chest pain and respiratory distress after he had reportedly slipped in his bathtub. Abdominal and thoracic imaging, including computed tomography (CT), confirmed a right-sided pneumothorax and a liver laceration without bleeding or further endoperitoneal trauma. A chest tube was placed. During his hospitalization in the first 24-hour period, he complained of abdominal and right shoulder pain accompanied by fever. A new abdominal and thoracic CT scanning revealed a rupture of the rectosigmoid, a rupture of right hemidiaphragm, and a foreign body in the thoracic cavity. The patient admitted that a broomstick was violently placed through his rectum, and he underwent a thoracotomy with an exploratory laparotomy. The foreign object was removed, the diaphragmatic rupture was repaired, and a Hartmann's procedure was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion. In cases of combined thoracoabdominal trauma, high index of suspicion is required when medical history is misleading and the injuries are not obvious immediately. A coordinated team effort in a well-organized trauma center is also very important.
Daskalaki, Anna; Kaimasidis, George; Chalkiadakis, George
Introduction Due to high rate of operative mortality and morbidity non-operative management of blunt liver and spleen trauma was widely accepted in stable pediatric patients, but the general surgeons were skeptical to adopt it for adults. The current study is analysis of so far largest sample (1071) of hemodynamically stable blunt liver, spleen, kidney and pancreatic trauma patients managed non operatively irrespective of severity of a single /multiple solid organ injury or other associated injuries with high rate of success. Methods Experience of 1071 blunt abdominal trauma patients treated by NOM at a tertiary care National Trauma Centre in Oman (from Jan 2001 to Dec 2011) was reviewed, analyzed to determine the indications, methods and results of NOM. Hemodynamic stability along with ultra sound, CT scan and repeated clinical examination were the sheet anchors of NOM. The patients were grouped as (1) managed by NOM successfully, (2) failure of NOM and (3) directly subjected to surgery. Results During the 10 year period, 5400 polytrauma patients were evaluated for abdominal trauma of which 1285 had abdominal injuries, the largest sample study till date. Based on initial findings 1071 patients were admitted for NOM. Out of 1071 patients initially selected 963 (89.91%) were managed non operatively, the remaining 108 (10.08%) were subjected to laparotomy due to failure of NOM. Laparotomy was performed on 214(19.98%) patients as they were unstable on admission or had evidence of hollow viscous injury. Conclusion NOM for blunt abdominal injuries was found to be highly successful in 89.98% of the patients in our study. Management depended on clinical and hemodynamic stability of the patient. A patient under NOM should be admitted to intensive care / high dependency for at least 48-72 hours for close monitoring of vital signs, repeated clinical examinations and follow up investigations as indicated.
The aim of the article was to present and discuss the phenomenon of delayed fatal spleen rupture case. A 13-year-old boy was referred to hospital because of his poor general condition, convulsions, tachypnea, shallow breathing, severe paleness, abdominal tenderness, decrease in blood pressure, low blood hemoglobin levels, leukocytosis. Abdominal pain complaints began second day night, after abdominal trauma during soccer game with classmates. Autopsy macroscopic examination revealed coagulated blood in abdominal cavity and large perisplenic haematama. Spleen with a big subcapsular and intrasplenic hematoma was observed on dissection. It is concluded that early diagnosis is the most important measure to reduce mortality. In terms of autopsy examination, proper investigation during forensic autopsy will contribute in understanding the pathophysiology of this phenomenon. PMID:22870831
Eren, Bülent; Türkmen, Nursel; Gündo?mu?, Ümit Naci
Pneumobilia is described as occurrence of free air in the gallbladder or biliary tree. There are a number of causes of pneumobilia, including surgically created biliary enteric fistula, instrumentation of the bile duct on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, emphysematous cholecystitis, and pyogenic cholangitis. Pneumobilia has also occurred following blunt abdominal trauma, but to date, no more than five cases of such injury have been reported in the literature. In this report, we present a patient struck by a motor vehicle with traumatic pneumobilia following blunt trauma to the abdomen, which was managed conservatively. PMID:21935838
Y?ld?z, Fahrettin; Coban, Sacit; Terzi, Alpaslan; Cece, Hasan; Uzunkoy, Ali
Abdominal injury in nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is an increasingly recognized cause of hospitalization in abused children. Abdominal injuries in NAT are often severe and have high rates of surgical intervention. Certain imaging findings in the pediatric abdomen, notably bowel perforation and pancreatic injury, should alert the radiologist to possible abuse and incite close interrogation concerning the reported mechanism of injury. Close inspection of the imaging study is warranted to detect additional injury sites because these injuries rarely occur in isolation. When abdominal injury is suspected in known or speculated NAT, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast material is recommended for diagnostic and forensic evaluation. Although the rate of bowel injury is disproportionately high in NAT, solid organs, including the liver, pancreas, and spleen, are most often injured. Adrenal and renal trauma is less frequent in NAT and is generally seen with multiple other injuries. Hypoperfusion complex is a constellation of abdominal CT findings that indicates current or impending decompensated shock and is most often due to severe neurologic impairment in NAT. Although abdominal injuries in NAT are relatively uncommon, knowledge of injury patterns and their imaging appearances is important for patient care and protection. PMID:24428287
Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kousari, Yeamie M; Hulett, Rebecca L; Menias, Christine O
Seventy-two cases of major abdominal trauma with an overall mortality of 29% are reviewed. Only cases of sufficient severity to require nursing in an intensive care unit are included. The incidence of injury to the various viscera is shown. Methods of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. The causes of death in this series are analysed and ways of lowering the mortality figures outlined.
Arthur, G. W.; Lane, B. E.
The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.
Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark
Background: Various investigative modalities are used to detect intra-abdominal injury requiring surgical intervention. Ultrasonography (US) is a cheap, readily available, safe and non-invasive investigation used in the evaluation of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients are subjected to no added risk of radiation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of US in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods: Patients who had US for blunt abdominal trauma were prospectively evaluated from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007. A total of 57 patients were included is this study. US results in each patient were classified as true positive (TP), false positive (FP), false negative (FN) or true negative (TN) by comparing with findings at either diagnostic peritoneal lavage or surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy of US in detecting free fluid and in detecting the visceral parenchymal injury were calculated using two by two tables. The Epi Info statistical software version 3.4.1 was used for data analysis. Results: By scanning to detect free fluid, TPs were 46, FPs three, FNs two and TNs six. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and NPV and the diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 67%, 94%, 75% and 91% respectively. By scanning to detect the parenchymal injury, TPs were 24, FPs 15, FNs 10 and TNs 8. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and NPV and diagnostic accuracy were 71%, 35%, 62%, 44% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: US has a high diagnostic value in the screening of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Scanning for the presence of free fluid yields better results than scanning for the visceral parenchymal injury.
Nnamonu, Michael I; Ihezue, Chikwem H; Sule, Augustine Z; Ramyil, Venyir M; Pam, Stephen D
Renal vascular injuries such as transection, thrombosis, dissection, and arteriovenous fistula formation are unusual but well-recognized consequences of blunt abdominal trauma. We discuss a rare case of renal artery pseudoaneurysm presenting 6 weeks after blunt abdominal trauma that was successfully treated with selective embolization. PMID:8601869
Swana, H S; Cohn, S M; Burns, G A; Egglin, T K
Introduction: Hemorrhage due to abdominal trauma is one of the most frequent causes of early mortality in polytraumatized patients. Therefore,\\u000a the initial management of abdominal trauma is an important factor in determining the outcome. The aim of this study was to\\u000a evaluate the clinical course in multiple trauma patients who sustained abdominal trauma requiring operative intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods: In this retrospective
Frank Hildebrand; Michael Winkler; Martijn van Griensven; Christian Probst; Volker Musahl; Christian Krettek; Hans-Christoph Pape
The role of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels on intra-abdominal injury in children has not been adequately studied. In this report, the accuracy of these tests in predicting the degree and extend of intra-abdominal and hepatic injury in children with blunt abdominal trauma was investigated.Eighty-seven haemodynamically stable children with multiple trauma were prospectively
Dolunay Karaduman; Akile Sarioglu-Buke; Ilknur Kilic; Ercan Gurses
Introduction Extra-hepatic bile duct injuries in children following blunt abdominal trauma are rare; early diagnosis and treatment are imperative for a good outcome. The purpose of this report is to describe the management of problems encountered in children with bile duct injuries following blunt abdominal trauma. Case Presentation A three year-old girl presented with obstructive jaundice and vomiting following blunt abdominal trauma one month prior to referral. The child was sitting in her father’s lap when the accident occurred. She was then examined by an emergency physician to assess the cause of vomiting. An abdominal ultrasonography was performed and revealed dilatation of the common bile duct. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bile duct injury following blunt trauma and its emergency management.
Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Karami, Hassan
Study Objective: We sought to determine the utility of laboratory testing after adjusting for physical examination findings in the identification of children with intra-abdominal injuries after blunt trauma. Methods: The study was a prospective observational series of children younger than 16 years old who sustained blunt trauma and were at risk for intra-abdominal injuries during a 212-year period at an
James F. Holmes; Peter E. Sokolove; William E. Brant; Michael J. Palchak; Cheryl W. Vance; John T. Owings; Nathan Kuppermann
We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace's theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation. PMID:22558817
O'Kelly, F; Lim, K T; Hayes, B; Shields, W; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V
The widespread availability of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of blunt trauma has created the possibility of overuse without clear indications. Some clinicians believe that patients with head injury, intoxication, and\\/or distracting injury have an unreliable abdominal examination and should undergo combined head and abdomen CT. The objective of this study was to evaluate which patients with
Sarah R. Wu; Shamim Shakibai; John P. McGahan; John R. Richards
Purpose:Narrative form research is introduced as a unique, qualitative approach to studying narrative material, particularly trauma narratives. This methodology incorporates new analytic tools: Narrative Form Index (NFI) and Narrative Form Index Matrix (NFIM). Research Method\\/Design: The NFI is a standard set of narrative terms that provides a critical inventory of forms useful in processing the structure, context, and whole elements
Kathie J. Albright; Colette H. Duggan; Marcy J. Epstein
Over the last century sporadic reports have described intra-abdominal injury without penetration of the abdominal cavity but the underlying mechanism of energy transfer appears variable. This article reviews the 19 documented cases of this phenomenon and discusses the mechanism of energy transfer in both primary blast injury and ballistic injury that may be responsible. PMID:22889533
Owers, Corinne; Garner, Jeff
A 7-year-old boy with a jejunal duplication had been asymptomatic until he developed severe abdominal pain following a fall. Preoperative radiographs, CT scan, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed a huge cystic lesion of the small bowel with a tear in the adjacent intestinal wall. Immediate laparotomy disclosed a severely inflamed enteric cyst attached to the dilated jejunum 120 cm distal to
Takashi Shimotake; Kazuaki Tokiwa; Jun Yanagihara; Naomi Iwai
Computed tomography (CT) is currently the diagnostic modality of choice in the evaluation of clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, including the assessment of blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries. CT signs of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries are bowel wall defect, free air, oral contrast material extravasation, extravasation of contrast material from mesenteric vessels, mesenteric vascular beading, abrupt termination of mesenteric vessels, focal bowel wall thickening, mesenteric fat stranding, mesenteric haematoma and intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal fluid. This pictorial essay illustrates CT features of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Pitfalls in interpretation of images are emphasized in proven cases. PMID:23082464
Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian; Mohamed, Siti Kamariah Che
Ultrasonography has been used as an investigation in patients with abdominal signs after blunt injury. Thirty-two patients were examined, of whom 11 had abnormal findings. Free intraperitoneal fluid was demonstrated in eight cases, seven of whom had this confirmed at subsequent laparotomy. The 21 patients with normal scans did not require abdominal intervention. It is suggested that ultrasonography is a reliable method of detecting haemoperitoneum and offers a valuable non-invasive method of investigating blunt abdominal injuries. The hepatorenal pouch is the site where free intraperitoneal fluid can be most easily demonstrated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Chambers, J A; Pilbrow, W J
The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the rupture of hydatid cysts into the abdominal cavity after trauma. We present both a new case of hydatid cyst rupture that occurred after blunt abdominal trauma and a literature review of studies published in the English language about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma; studies were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. We identified 22 articles published between 2000 and 2011 about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma. Of these, 5 articles were excluded because of insufficient data, duplication, or absence of intra-abdominal dissemination. The other 17 studies included 68 patients (38 males and 30 females) aged 8 to 76 years who had a ruptured hydatid cyst detected after trauma. The most common trauma included traffic accidents and falls. Despite optimal surgical and antihelmintic therapy, 7 patients developed recurrence. Complications included biliary fistula in 5 patients, incisional hernia in 2 patients, and gastrocutaneous fistula in 1 patient. Death occurred from intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 patient and gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary failure in 1 patient. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare and challenging for the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients.
Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kahraman, Aysegul; Yilmaz, Sezai
Background The diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma can be challenging and resource intensive. Observation with serial clinical assessments plays a major role in the evaluation of these patients, but the time required for intra-abdominal injury to become clinically apparent is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of time required for an intra-abdominal injury to become clinically apparent after blunt abdominal trauma via physical examination or commonly followed clinical values. Methods A retrospective review of patients who sustained blunt trauma resulting in intra-abdominal injury between June 2010 and June 2012 at a Level 1 academic trauma center was performed. Patient demographics, injuries, and the amount of time from emergency department admission to sign or symptom development and subsequent diagnosis were recorded. All diagnoses were made by computed tomography or at the time of surgery. Patient transfers from other hospitals were excluded. Results Of 3,574 blunt trauma patients admitted to the hospital, 285 (8%) experienced intra-abdominal injuries. The mean (SD) age was 36(17) years, the majority were male (194 patients, 68%) and the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 21 (14). The mean (SD) time from admission to diagnosis via computed tomography or surgery was 74 (55) minutes. Eighty patients (28%) required either surgery (78 patients, 17%) or radiographic embolization (2 patients, 0.7%) for their injury. All patients who required intervention demonstrated a sign or symptom of their intra-abdominal injury within 60 minutes of arrival, although two patients were intervened upon in a delayed fashion. All patients with a blunt intra-abdominal injury manifested a clinical sign or symptom of their intra-abdominal injury, resulting in their diagnosis within 8 hours 25 minutes of arrival to the hospital. Conclusion All diagnosed intra-abdominal injuries from blunt trauma manifested clinical signs or symptoms that could prompt imaging or intervention, leading to their diagnosis within 8 hours 25 minutes of arrival to the hospital. All patients who required an intervention for their injury manifested a sign or symptom of their injury within 60 minutes of arrival. Level of Evidence Therapeutic study, level IV Epidemiologic study, level III.
Jones, Edward L.; Stovall, Robert T.; Jones, Teresa S.; Bensard, Denis D.; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Jurkovich, Gregory Jerry; Barnett, Carlton C.; Pieracci, Frederic M.; Biffl, Walter L.; Moore, Ernest E.
The peritoneum is the largest and the most complex arranged serous membrane in the\\u000abody that lines both the intra-abdominal wall and the viscera contained within the\\u000aperitoneal cavity. It is capable of walling off infections and has several functions such\\u000aas the ability to synthesise, secrete or absorb. The peritoneum diminishes friction\\u000aamong abdominal viscera, thereby enabling their free
Rossen van M. E. E
\\u000a Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta resulting in pseudoaneurysm formation is very rare. Such a pseudoaneurysm may rupture\\u000a at any time, usually with fatal outcome. We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a clinically unsuspected ruptured abdominal\\u000a aorta pseudoaneurysm, which had probably formed 3 years earlier, and emphasize the CT features.
G. Gayer; A. Bass
Background: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the causes of mortality in emergency department. Free fluid in the abdomen due to intra-abdominal blunt trauma can be determined by the surface probe of ultrasound. Since the importance of this free fluid in hemodynamic stable patients with blunt trauma is associated with the unknown outcome for surgeons, this study was performed to evaluate the role of ultrasound surface probe as a screening method in evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study was done on 45 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. The patients were evaluated twice during the three-hours, including repeated ultrasound surface probe and clinical examinations. Computerized tomography was also performed. The patients were divided based on the amount of the free fluid in the abdomen during the evaluations into two groups: Fixed or increased, and decreased free fluid. The results of the different evaluated methods were compared using the sensitivity and specificity. Results: From 17 patients with CT abnormalities, free fluid increased in 14 patients (82.4%). Free fluid was decreased in three patients who were discharged well from the surgery service without any complication. Surface probe in prognosis detection had a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 92.9%. The percentage of false positive and negative ultrasound compared with CT scan was 7.1% and 17.6%. Also, positive and negative predictive value of the ultrasound with surface probe was 87.5% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion: The use of the ultrasound with surface probe in the diagnosis of free fluid in blunt abdominal trauma in hemodynamic stable patients can be considered as a useful screening method.
Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad; Kolahdouzan, Mohsen; Shafiei, Mehrnoosh
The liver is the second most commonly injured organ following blunt abdominal trauma. The stable patient with minimal physical findings with a history of blunt abdominal trauma presents a challenge for diagnosis of liver injury. This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of hepatic transaminases in predicting the presence of liver injury and its severity following blunt abdominal trauma. In this retrospective study, we included all patients who had sustained blunt abdominal injury and were treated at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. The grading of the liver injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings. One hundred and eighty-two patients with blunt abdominal trauma underwent the required blood tests and were included in the study. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessment, optimum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) thresholds were determined to be >57 U/l, 113 U/l, 595 U/l and 50 U/l. ALT >57 U/l (OR, 66.1; P<0.001) and AST >113 U/l (OR, 30.6; P<0.001) were strongly associated with the presence of liver injuries. This association was also observed in patients with elevated LDH >595 U/l (OR, 3.8; P<0.001) and GGT >50 U/l (OR, 3.0; P<0.05). None of the laboratory tests were related to the severity of the liver injuries. In patients with blunt abdominal trauma, abnormal hepatic transaminase levels are associated with liver injuries. Patients with ALT >57 U/l and AST >113 U/l are strongly associated with liver injury and require further imaging studies and close management.
TIAN, ZHIQIANG; LIU, HONG; SU, XIAOFANG; FANG, ZHENG; DONG, ZHITAO; YU, CHANGCHUN; LUO, KUNLUN
This report presents an infant in whom a unique case of chylous ascites developed after blunt abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, this case was complicated by Pseudomonas peritonitis, likely from a distant source. Our patient was treated medically and had a good overall outcome.
Alan L Beal; Christine M Gormley; D. Lee Gordon; Cassius M. C Ellis
Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta is highly fatal. We present an unusual case of an osteophyte impaling the abdominal aorta treated by endovascular repair. A 77-year-old man sustained a thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation with posterior aortic rupture between his celiac and superior mesenteric artery origins. His aortic injury was treated with a stent graft, excluding the celiac origin. He was dismissed on postoperative day 6. At 6 months, he had returned to most preinjury activities, and at 2-year follow-up, he continues to have good functional outcome. Endovascular repair may be successfully employed in select aortic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients. PMID:23810261
Vernon, Seth A; Murphy, William R C; Murphy, Todd W; Haan, James M
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare bacterial infection with dramatic course, characterized by widespread necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and superficial fascia which can often lead to death. We present a case of a 27-year-old male with NF. One day after experiencing blunt abdominal trauma caused by falling over bike handlebars, the patient was admitted to a regional hospital and treated for diffuse abdominal pain and large hematoma of the anterior abdominal wall. Due to worsening of general condition, he was referred to our hospital the following day and operated on urgently. Surgery revealed rupture of the coecum with peritonitis and abdominal wall infection. After surgery, fulminant necrotizing fasciitis developed. Antibiotics were prescribed according to wound cultures and subsequent necrectomies were performed. After 25 days, reconstruction of the abdominal wall with skin grafts was obtained. Despite all resuscitation measures including fluids, blood transfusions, and parenteral nutrition, lung infection and MODS caused death 42 days after initial operation. Blunt abdominal trauma can cause the rupture of intestine, and if early signs of peritoneal irritation should present, emergency laparotomy should be performed. Disastrous complication are rare but lethal. PMID:24740343
Pecic, Vanja; Nestorovic, Milica; Kovacevic, Predrag; Tasic, Dragan; Stanojevic, Goran
Introduction Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are rare (0.2-10.4%); however, they are the most common form of visceral artery aneurysms. Splenic artery aneurysms are important to identify, because up to 25% of the cases are complicated by rupture. Post- rupture mortality rate is 25% -70% based on the underlying cause. Herein we present a young patient with abdominal pain after blunt abdominal trauma due to rupture of an SAA. Case Presentation A 27-year-old male, without a remarkable medical history, who suffered from abdominal pain for 2 days after falling was admitted to the emergency department with hypovolemic shock. Upon performing emergency laparotomy a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was found. Conclusions It is important to consider rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm in patients with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock.
Khoshnevis, Jalalludin; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Najd Sepas, Hossein; Abbas Nejad, Masomah; Rahbari, Ali; Behnaz, Nazanin; Mahdi, Zeinab
Renal artery pseudoaneurysm is a very rare complication after blunt trauma injury. We report on a case of a 54-year-old man admitted to our hospital for right flank pain and gross hematuria, 5 days after blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of interlobar renal pseudoaneurysm was established by a computed tomography scan and confirmed by angiography. Successful superselective angioembolization was performed. This radiographic intervention is an effective and minimally invasive technique to stop active bleeding from renal artery pseudoaneurysms, when patients are hemodynamically stable and where technically feasible. A review of the literature was carried out.
Antunes-Lopes, T; Pinto, R; Morgado, P; Madaleno, P; Silva, J; Silva, C; Cruz, F
The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the bacteriology and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal trauma patients with severe intra-abdominal infection (SIAI). A total of 41 patients with SIAI induced by abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study, from which 123 abdominal pus samples were obtained. The results from laboratory microbiology and drug sensitivity were subjected to susceptibility analysis using WHONET software. A total of 297 strains were isolated in which Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 53.5 (159/297), 44.1 (131/297) and 0.7% (2/297), respectively. Anaerobic bacteria accounted for 1.7%. The five predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). E. coli was highly susceptible to cefoperazone (91%) and imipenem (98%), while Gram-positive cocci were highly susceptible to teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%). S. aureus was 100% susceptible to vancomycin and K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and amikacin (79%). P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (90%). Gram-negative bacterial infection was present in the majority of cases of SIAI. However, a large number of patients were infected by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus that exhibited significant resistance to penicillin (100%), oxacillin (100%) and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime (95%). Amongst the pathogenic bacteria that cause SIAI, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria account for a high proportion, so high-level and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initially used.
ZHANG, SHAOYI; REN, LELE; LI, YOUSHENG; WANG, JIAN; YU, WENKUI; LI, NING; LI, JIESHOU
Solitary injury of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but frequently fatal injury.\\u000a A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital after falling on his right side from a height of 5?m. Computed tomography (CT)\\u000a showed blood in the peritoneal cavity, but no liver or spleen injury. Emergency laparotomy revealed complete disruption of\\u000a the
Rodomil Kostka; Marcela Sojáková
Introduction Patients are commonly admitted to the hospital for observation following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT), despite initially negative emergency department (ED) evaluations. With the current use of screening technology, such as computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis, ultrasound, and laboratory evaluations, it is unclear which patients require observation. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intra-abdominal injury (IAI) and death in hemodynamically normal and stable BAT patients with initially negative ED evaluations admitted to an ED observation unit and to define a low-risk subgroup of patients and assess whether they may be discharged without abdominal/pelvic CT or observation. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an urban level 1 trauma center and included all BAT patients admitted to an ED observation unit as part of a BAT key clinical pathway. All were observed for at least 8 hours as part of the key clinical pathway, and only minors and pregnant women were excluded. Outcomes included the presence of IAI or death during a 40-month follow-up period. Prior to data collection, low-risk criteria were defined as no intoxication, no hypotension or tachycardia, no abdominal pain or tenderness, no hematuria, and no distracting injury. To be considered low risk, patients needed to meet all low-risk criteria. Results Of the 1,169 patients included over the 2-year study period, 29% received a CT of the abdomen and pelvis, 6% were admitted to the hospital from the observation unit for further management, 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–1%) were diagnosed with IAI, and 0% (95% CI, 0%–0.3%) died. Patients had a median combined ED and observation length of stay of 9.5 hours. Of the 237 (20%) patients who met low-risk criteria, 7% had a CT of the abdomen and pelvis and 0% (95% CI, 0%–1.5%) were diagnosed with IAI or died. Conclusion Most BAT patients who have initially negative ED evaluations are at low risk for IAI but still require some combination of observation and CT. A subgroup of BAT patients may be safely discharged without CT or observation after the initial evaluation.
Kendall, John L; Kestler, Andrew M; Whitaker, Kurt T; Adkisson, Mette-Margrethe; Haukoos, Jason S
Adult intussusception (AI) following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a rare surgical condition. We present a case of delayed diagnosis of ileocecal junction intussusception with a perforation of small bowel in a 34-year-old male with a history of fall from height. Initial exploratory laparotomy revealed shattered spleen requiring splenectomy. Initial abdominal computerized tomography scanning (CT) scan showed dilated small bowel with no organic obstruction. Patient started to improve with partial distention and was shifted to rehabilitation unit. On the next day, he experienced severe abdominal distention and vomiting. Abdominal CT showed characteristic intussusception at the distal ileum. Secondary exploratory laparotomy revealed severe adhesions of stomach and small bowel to the anterior abdominal wall with dilated small bowel loops and intussusception near the ileocecal junction with perforation of small bowel. The affected area was resected and side-to-side stapled anastomosis was performed. Though small bowel intussusception is a rare event, BAT patients with delayed symptoms of bowel obstruction should be carefully evaluated for missed intussusception.
Afifi, Ibrahim; Al-Thani, Hassan; Attique, Sajid; Khoschnau, Sherwan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat
The incidence of mesenteric injury after blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) has increased in recent years; however, relatively little attention has been paid to instances of its sequelae, especially in childhood. We present three children who had post-traumatic intestinal stenosis (PIS). A history of BAT was obtained in all. They had abdominal pain, bilious vomiting and peritoneal signs. The time intervals, the duration from the initial trauma to the onset of symptoms, ranged from 23 to 62 days. Stenotic segments were parallel to the location of the previously recognized mesenteric hematoma (MH), and resection with primary anastomosis was performed. Pathological examinations of specimens confirmed mucosal and mural ischemia and full-thickness fibrosis of the intestinal wall. In our opinion, large MH may pose an increasing risk of narrowing in the adjacent intestine at different time points. Therefore, if there is a large MH at laparotomy after BAT, it should be evacuated and the bleeding halted. For the differential diagnosis, typical BAT should be investigated carefully in cases presenting with intermittent colic abdominal pain and/or partial intestinal obstruction findings. PMID:23599207
Imamo?lu, Mustafa; Sar?han, Haluk
Background: The TRISS methodology (composite index of the Revised Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score) has become widely used by trauma centers to assess quality of care. The American College of Surgeons recommends including negative TRISS fallouts (fatally injured patients predicted to survive by the TRISS methodology) as a filter to select patients for peer review. The purpose of
Edward E. Cornwell; George C. Velmahos; Thomas V. Berne; Raymond Tatevossian; Howard Belzberg; Mark Eckstein; James A. Murray; Juan A. Asensio; Demetrios Demetriades
Introduction To evaluate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and methods A total of 133 hemodynamically stable patients were evaluated using ultrasonography (US), CEUS and multislice Computer Tomography (CT) da eliminare. Results In 133 patients, CT identified 84 lesions: 48 cases of splenic injury, 21 of liver injury, 13 of kidney or adrenal gland injury and 2 of pancreatic injury. US identified free fluid or parenchymal abnormalities in 59/84 patients positive at CT and free fluid in 20/49 patients negative at CT. CEUS revealed 81/84 traumatic injuries identified at CT and ruled out traumatic injuries in 48/49 negative at CT. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for US were 70.2%, 59.2%, 74.7% and 53.7%, respectively; for CEUS the values were 96.4%, 98%, 98.8% and 94.1%, respectively. Conclusions The study showed that CEUS is more accurate than US and nearly as accurate as CT, and CEUS can therefore be proposed for the initial evaluation of patients with blunt abdominal trauma.
Valentino, M.; De Luca, C.; Galloni, S. Sartoni; Branchini, M.; Modolon, C.; Pavlica, P.; Barozzi, L.
Introduction The optimal transfusion protocol remains unknown in the trauma setting. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine if goal-directed transfusion protocol based on standard thrombelastography (TEG) is feasible and beneficial in patients with abdominal trauma. Methods Sixty adult patients with abdominal trauma who received 2 or more units of red blood cell transfusion within 24 hours of admission were studied. Patients managed with goal-directed transfusion protocol via TEG (goal-directed group) were compared to patients admitted before utilization of the protocol (control group). Results There were 29 patients in the goal-directed group and 31 in the control group. Baseline parameters were similar except for higher admission systolic blood pressure in the goal-directed group than the control group (121.8?±?23.1 mmHg vs 102.7?±?26.5 mmHg, p?0.01). At 24 h, patients in the goal-directed group had shorter aPTT compared to patients in the control group (39.2?±?16.3 s vs 58.6?±?36.6 s, p?=?0.044). Administration of total blood products at 24 h appeared to be fewer in the goal-directed group than the control group (10.2 [7.0-43.1]U vs 14.8 [8.3-37.6]U, p?=?0.28), but this was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis including patients with ISS ?16 showed that patients in the goal-directed group had significantly fewer consumption of total blood products than patients in the control group (7[6.1, 47.0]U vs 37.6[14.5, 89.9]U, p?=?0.015). No differences were found in mortality at 28d, length of stay in intensive care unit and hospital between the two groups. Conclusions Goal-directed transfusion protocol via standard TEG was achievable in patients with abdominal trauma. The novel protocol, compared to conventional transfusion management, has the potential to decrease blood product utilization and prevent exacerbation of coagulation function.
Blunt abdominal trauma can damage the intestinal vasculature and may occasionally lead to delayed intestinal perforation, associated with a combined rate of morbidity and mortality of 25%. The diagnosis of such complications is hindered by sedation in critical patients, however, and morbimortality in this population is therefore higher. We report the case of a man with multiple injuries admitted to the intensive care unit, where delayed perforations of the sigmoid colon and cecum were diagnosed. The management of blunt abdominal trauma is reviewed and the possible causes, diagnostic approaches, and treatment options for colon injuries are discussed. PMID:17695949
Miranda, E; Arroyo, A; Ronda, J M; Muñoz, J L; Alonso, C; Martínez-Peñuelas, F; Martí-Viaño, J L
Background: A 25 year-old male was brought to the emergency room following an apparent suicide attempt by jumping from the fourth floor. Case Report: Patient had a large abdominal laceration in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). CT scan showed a sub-scapular hematoma of the liver. Due to the repeated episodes of hypotension, a laporotomy was performed and the left hepatic artery was ligated while the ductal injury was managed with a Roux-en-Y left hepatic jejunostomy and stent. Bile leakage was resolved post-operatively by day 5 and the patient was discharged home on day 13 after clearance from psychiatry. Conclusions: While non-iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary trauma is rare, a high degree of suspicion is essential, especially in cases like the one discussed in this report. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients undergoing observation.
Hasaniya, Nahidh W.; Premaratne, Shyamal; Premaratne, Ishani D.; McNamara, J. Judson
Amaç: Operatif olarak tedavi edilen karacier travmal› olgularda mortaliteye etki eden faktörlerin retrospektif olarak araflt›r›lmas› planland›. Gereç ve Yöntem: Analiz edilen parametreler yafl, cins, yaralanman›n tipi, Injury Severity Score (ISS, yaralanma a¤›rl›k derecesi), Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI, abdominal travma indeksi), yaralanan abdominal organlar›n say›s› (NIAO, number of injured abdominal organs), yap›lan ameliyatlar, has- tanede yat›fl süresi ve mortaliteydi. Ameliyat endikasyonlar›
Gülüm Altaca; Melih Kara; Gürkan Telliolu
Pancreatic fistula most commonly occur as a consequence of resective procedures and pseudocyst drainage, and rarely as a consequence of splenectomy. Conservative treatment can have good results, but it is long lasting and demands long hospitalization. In case of conservative treatment failure, operative treatment is indicated, but this has significantly higher percentage of morbidity and mortality. In selected cases, conservative treatment with somatostatine or octreotide, along with endoscopic procedure including the use of fibrin glue, significantly accelerates sanation of the fistula and reduces the length of hospitalization. We report a case of exterior pancreatic fistula due to splenectomy following blunt abdominal trauma, which were successfully treated with conservative (infusion, antibiotics, enteral nutrition, and octreotide) and endoscopic therapy. During ERCP papillotomy was performed, and good external drainage using drainage catheter was important in the patient outcome. Considering the initial secretion of 300 mL/24 h, our patient had a high output fistula. Despite that, fistula was quickly resolved after treatment. Our opinion is that octreotide therapy and unobstructed drainage of pancreatic duct into the duodenum were the most important in the rapid resolution of the fistula. PMID:17582981
Grandic, Leo; Jukic, Ivana; Simunic, Miroslav; Tonkic, Ante; Maras-Simunic, Marina; Banovi?, Josip; Vrebalov-Cindro, Veselin; Hozo, Izet
Background To determine the diagnostic Accuracy of Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and repeated FAST in the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Methods In this retrospective study we collected the data of all patients from September 2007 to July 2011 with gastrointestinal injury. The intraoperative outcome was compared with FAST technique and the repeated or delayed sonography. Results A total number of 1550 patients with blunt abdominal trauma underwent FAST in a period of 4 years in our hospital. Eighty-eight (5.67%) patients were found to have gastrointestinal injury after exploratory laparotomy. Fifty-five (62.5%) patients had isolated gastrointestinal injury and 33 (37.5%) patients had concomitant injury to the other solid organs. In those with isolated gastrointestinal injury, the sensitivity of FAST was 38.5%. Repeated ultrsonography was performed in 34 patients with false negative initial FAST after 12-24 hours. The sensitivity of repeated ultrasonography in negative initial FAST patients in detection of gastrointestinal injury was 85.2% (95% CI, 68.1%, and 94.4%). Conclusion Repeated sonography after 12 to 24 hours in patients with negative initial FAST but sustain abdominal symptom can facilitated a diagnosis of GI tract injury and can be as effective method instead of Computed tomography in developing country.
Background We present a series of patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL) and introduce a nomogram that we created to predict survival among these patients. Methods This was a retrospective study. From January 2002 to June 2012, 91 patients underwent DCL for hemorrhagic shock. We excluded patients with the following characteristics: a penetrating abdominal injury, age younger than 18 or older than 65 years, a severe or life-threatening brain injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS]???4), emergency department (ED) arrival more than 6 hours after injury, pregnancy, end-stage renal disease, or cirrhosis. In addition, we excluded patients who underwent DCL after ICU admission or later in the course of hospitalization. Results The overall mortality rate was 61.5%: 35 patients survived and 56 died. We identified independent survival predictors, which included a preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score?8 and a base excess (BE) value?-13.9 mEq/L. We created a nomogram for outcome prediction that included four variables: preoperative GCS, initial BE, preoperative diastolic pressure, and preoperative cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR). Conclusions DCL is a life-saving procedure performed in critical patients, and devastating clinical outcomes can be expected under such dire circumstances as blunt abdominal trauma with exsanguination. The nomogram presented here may provide ED physicians and trauma surgeons with a tool for early stratification and risk evaluation in critical, exsanguinating patients.
We compared the diagnostic accuracy of emergency medicine residents (EMRs) and radiology residents (RRs) in performing focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST). The cohort in this prospective study comprised 200 unstable patients (163 males and 37 females; mean ± standard deviation of age, 34.3 ± 16.4 y) who presented with trauma. These patients were evaluated using FAST, first by EMRs and subsequently by RRs. Patients with positive FAST results underwent further diagnostic procedures such as computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and laparotomy. Those with negative FAST results underwent clinical follow-up for 72 h until their condition deteriorated or they were discharged. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy in evaluating free intraperitoneal fluid were 80%, 95%, 57%, 98% and 94% when FAST was performed by EMRs and 86%, 95%, 59%, 98% and 94% when FAST was performed by RRs. The level of agreement between EMRs and RRs was moderate (? = 0.525). FAST is a useful screening tool for initial assessment of free abdominal fluid in patients with trauma. Our results indicate that EMRs can perform sonography on trauma patients as successfully as RRs. PMID:24613553
Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali; Amini, Afshin; Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Mohammadi, Parisa; Faghihi-Kashani, Sara; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Kabir, Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate features of abdominal earthquake-related crush traumas in comparison with non-earthquake injury. A cross sectional survey was conducted with 51 survivors with abdominal crush injury in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and 41 with abdominal non-earthquake injury, undergoing non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans, serving as earthquake trauma and control group, respectively. Data were analyzed between groups focusing on CT appearance. We found that injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue and fractures of lumbar vertebrae were more common in earthquake trauma group than in control group (28 vs 13 victims, and 24 vs 9, respectively; all P < 0.05); and fractures were predominantly in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae. Retroperitoneal injury in the kidney occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (29 vs 14 victims, P < 0.05). Abdominal injury in combination with thoracic and pelvic injury occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (43 vs 29 victims, P < 0.05). In conclusion, abdominal earthquake-related crush injury might be characteristic of high incidence in injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue, fractures of lumbar vertebrae in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae, retroperitoneal injury in the kidney, and in combination with injury in the thorax and pelvis. PMID:21394315
Chen, Tian-wu; Yang, Zhi-gang; Dong, Zhi-hui; Chu, Zhi-gang; Tang, Si-shi; Deng, Wen
The aim of this study was to investigate features of abdominal earthquake-related crush traumas in comparison with non-earthquake injury. A cross sectional survey was conducted with 51 survivors with abdominal crush injury in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and 41 with abdominal non-earthquake injury, undergoing non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans, serving as earthquake trauma and control group, respectively. Data were analyzed between groups focusing on CT appearance. We found that injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue and fractures of lumbar vertebrae were more common in earthquake trauma group than in control group (28 vs 13 victims, and 24 vs 9, respectively; all P < 0.05); and fractures were predominantly in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae. Retroperitoneal injury in the kidney occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (29 vs 14 victims, P < 0.05). Abdominal injury in combination with thoracic and pelvic injury occurred more frequently in earthquake trauma group than in control group (43 vs 29 victims, P < 0.05). In conclusion, abdominal earthquake-related crush injury might be characteristic of high incidence in injury of abdominal-wall soft tissue, fractures of lumbar vertebrae in transverse process of 1-2 vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae, retroperitoneal injury in the kidney, and in combination with injury in the thorax and pelvis.
Chen, Tian-wu; Dong, Zhi-hui; Chu, Zhi-gang; Tang, Si-shi; Deng, Wen
The aim of the study was to identify the possible relationship between body mass index and intra-abdominal pressure as measured\\u000a by multichannel cystometry. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting for urodynamic evaluation between January\\u000a 1995 and March 1996 was carried out. Variables identified included weight, height, intra-abdominal pressure and intravesical\\u000a pressure as recorded on multi-channel cystometrogram at first sensation
K. L. Noblett; J. K. Jensen; D. R. Ostergard
We have studied specific morphological properties of duodenal rupture depending on the topographic and anatomical features of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma suffered in a car crash (with the victim found in the passenger compartment or involved in an automobile-pedestrian accident) and a railway crash (a train-pedestrian accident) or resulting from a blunt-force trauma, a fall from height, a fall on the stomach, and traumatic compression of the body. We took into consideration the anatomical peculiarities of the duodenal rupture, such as its circular, horseshoe, and loop-like shape. The study has demonstrated that the frequency of duodenal injury associated with a blunt abdominal trauma shows a stronger dependence on the topographical and anatomical peculiarities of duodenum than on the circumstances of the case. Specifically, the circular duodenum and especially its descending portion are more readily subjected to the damage than the organs of a different shape. The position of the break with respect to the duodenal axis is an important diagnostic signs allowing to clarify circumstances of the blunt injury. Transverse ruptures are typical of strong impacts associated with the short-term interaction between the damaging object and the affected part of the body whereas longitudinal ruptures more commonly occur as a result the long-term traumatic impact. Bile imbibition of paraduodenal and peripancreatic retroperitoneal adipose tissue may be used as an additional diagnostic sign of duodenal rupture. PMID:24428049
Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovin, I A; Chirkov, R N; Dubrovina, I A; Khachaturian, B S; Mosoian, A S; Dallakian, V F
We present the case of a patient with the rare combination of chylous ascites and chylothorax resulting from penetrating abdominal injury. This patient was successfully managed with total parenteral nutrition. This case report is used to highlight the clinical features and management options of this uncommon but challenging clinical problem.
Joseph M Plummer; Michael E McFarlane; Arhcibald H McDonald
A review of the records of 288 patients sustaining blunt cervical column and/or cord injuries revealed that twelve (4.2%) had significant intra-abdominal injuries, all occult, and all detected by peritoneal lavage. Three of 58 patients in shock (BP less than 100 mm Hg) with neurologic deficits were found to have intra-abdominal injuries. Shock in another 15 was the result of major associated injuries and/or the loss of sympathetic vascular tone. Thus 40 of these 58 patients (69%) had neurogenic shock. An analysis of the mechanisms of injury and associated injuries indicated that those at risk of having significant intra-abdominal injury are those who have been injured in a vehicular crash and those who have other obvious major injuries that can cause shock. The data indicate that patients not at risk of having intra-abdominal injury can be selected for early attempts at anatomic cervical realignment in an effort to achieve return of neurologic function. PMID:6655752
Soderstrom, C A; McArdle, D Q; Ducker, T B; Militello, P R
Background. The trauma burden globally accounts for high levels of mortality and morbidity. Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) contributes significantly to this burden. Patient's evaluation for BAT remains a diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians. SSORTT gives a score that can predict the need for laparotomy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of SSORTT score in predicting the need for a therapeutic laparotomy after BAT. Method. A prospective observational study. Eligible patients were evaluated for shock and the presence of haemoperitoneum using a portable ultrasound machine. Further evaluation of patients following the standard of care (SOC) protocol was done. The accuracy of SSORTT score in predicting therapeutic laparotomy was compared to SOC. Results. In total, 195 patients were evaluated; M?:?F ratio was 6?:?1. The commonest injuries were to the head 80 (42%) and the abdomen 54 (28%). A SSORTT score of >2 appropriately identified patients that needed a therapeutic laparotomy (with sensitivity 90%, specificity 90%, PPV 53%, and NPV 98%). The overall mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion. Patients with a SSORTT score of 2 and above had a high likelihood of requiring a therapeutic laparotomy. SSORTT scoring should be adopted for routine practice in low technology settings.
Musiitwa, P. C. M.; Galukande, M.; Bugeza, S.; Wanzira, H.; Wangoda, R.
Over four years (April 2004 to December 2008) 12 patients with blunt small bowel and mesenteric injuries were treated at three hospi-tals dealing with trauma. Ten cases were victims of traffic accidents, of whom 70% wore seat belts. There were 11 small bowel injuries (4 full-thickness & 7 seromuscular) and 9 mesenteric injuries (3 with & 6 without a de-vascularized bowel segment). All were managed initially following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. Emergency room ultrasound was positive for blood in 5/7 cases (71%) and CT scan in 2/4 (50%). Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) was performed in one case and was positive for blood. PMID:19530607
Helmy, Mohamed A; Alafifi, Aser M; Ali, Ahmed H
Timely localization of a bleeding source can improve the efficacy of trauma management, and improvements in the technology of computed tomography (CT) have expedited the work-up of the traumatized patient. The classic pattern of active extravasation (ie, administered contrast agent that has escaped from injured arteries, veins, or urinary tract) at dual phase CT is a jet or focal area of hyperattenuation within a hematoma that fades into an enlarged, enhanced hematoma on delayed images. This finding indicates significant bleeding and must be quickly communicated to the clinician, since potentially lifesaving surgical or endovascular repair may be necessary. Active extravasation can be associated with other injuries to arteries, such as a hematoma or a pseudoaneurysm. Both active extravasation and pseudoaneurysm (unlike bone fragments and dense foreign bodies) change in appearance on delayed images, compared with their characteristics on arterial images. Other clues to the location of vessel injury include lack of vascular enhancement (caused by occlusion or spasm), vessel irregularity, size change (such as occurs with pseudoaneurysm), and an intimal flap (which signifies dissection). The sentinel clot sign is an important clue for locating the bleeding source when other more localizing findings of vessel injury are not present. Timely diagnosis, differentiation of vascular injuries from other findings of trauma, signs of depleted intravascular volume, and localization of vascular injury are important to convey to interventional radiologists or surgeons to improve trauma management. PMID:18936024
Hamilton, Jackson D; Kumaravel, Manickam; Censullo, Michael L; Cohen, Alan M; Kievlan, Daniel S; West, O Clark
Introduction Meckel’s diverticulum is the commonest congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. Its infrequent occurrence is mirrored by the paucity of large series of data on it in the literature. Hemorrhage, obstruction and inflammation are the three main categories of complications resulting from Meckel’s diverticulum. Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum following blunt abdominal injury is very rare indeed. We present what we believe to be the first case to be published from Africa. Case presentation A 29-year-old Nigerian Igbo man presented with progressively worsening abdominal pain following a road traffic accident. He was a front-seat passenger traveling without a seat belt. On physical examination his abdomen was distended with guarding and rigidity. A provisional diagnosis of peritonitis secondary to perforation of intestinal viscus was made. Our patient had an emergency laparotomy, where a perforated Meckel’s diverticulum was discovered. A segmental resection of his ileum and reanastomosis were done. He had postoperative surgical site infection, but was asymptomatic for three months of follow-up. Conclusion Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum is rarely suspected as a cause of peritonitis following blunt abdominal injury. This case indicates the need to be aware of the possibility to limit morbidity associated with delayed management of such a perforation.
A young civilian man experienced multiple gunshots to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and thigh. These were not amenable to direct compression by a single rescuer. This report outlines the first case in the peer-reviewed literature of manual external aortic compression after severe trauma. This technique successfully temporized external bleeding for more than 10 minutes and restored consciousness to the moribund victim. Subsequently, external bleeding could not be temporized by a second smaller rescuer, or during ambulance transfer. Therefore, we also gained insights about the possible limits of bimanual compression and when alternates, such as pneumatic devices, may be required. Research is needed to test our presumption that successful bimanual compression requires larger-weight rescuers, smaller-weight victims, and a hard surface. It is therefore unclear whether manual external aortic compression is achievable by most rescuers or for most victims. However, it offers an immediate and equipment-free life-sustaining strategy when there are limited alternatives. PMID:24161838
Douma, Matthew; Smith, Katherine E; Brindley, Peter G
We present a case of a 3-year-old male with history of minor trauma, who was brought in by ambulance from the playground where he had an acute mental status change and was noted to be hypotensive on initial evaluation. History and examination did not indicate a clear etiology of his symptoms. Point-of-care emergency ultrasonography revealed free fluid in the abdomen and expedited the care of the child's unexpected intra-abdominal hemorrhage from an occult abdominal tumor. This case demonstrates the ability of practitioners to expedite and focus care with the use of rapid assessment with ultrasonography in the pediatric emergency department. PMID:23034502
Gallagher, Rachel; Vieira, Rebecca; Levy, Jason
Gallbladder (GB) perforation is a very rare posttraumatic abdominal injury. It is potentially life-threatening, and good outcome requires early diagnosis. We present a case of isolated posttraumatic GB perforation in which the precise sonographic (US) diagnosis led us to apply proper management. Color Doppler US showed a clear to-and-fro flow signal passing through the perforation site, and contrast-enhanced US confirmed the presence of a small defect in the GB wall. When examining posttraumatic patients, the possibility of GB perforation must be kept in mind. Color Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US are the examinations of choice to detect the perforation site and show bile movement through the perforation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:301-304, 2014. PMID:24151110
Hongo, Maiko; Ishida, Hideaki; Naganuma, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Takamitu; Niwa, Makoto
There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use. PMID:24391124
Grim, Paul Francis
From July 1983 through December 1987, 300 consecutive patients with penetrating gunshot wounds of the abdomen causing visceral or vascular injuries were treated. Resuscitative thoracotomy was required in 20 patients (6.6%), and only two survived. The most commonly injured organs were the small bowel (60%), colon (41.6%), liver (29.3%), vascular structures (24.6%), stomach (17.3%), and kidney (17.0%). The overall survival rate for the series was 88.3%; however, if only the 226 patients without vascular injuries are considered, the survival rate was 97.3%. In the 35 patients who died, the blood pressure on admission was 51 mmHg, 18 required a resuscitative thoracotomy, four visceral or vascular injuries were present, and the median blood replacement was 18 units. The cause of death was perioperative shock in 30 patients (85.7%), whereas five patients (14.3%) died of sepsis and multiple organ failure. The most common postoperative complication in survivors and patients who died later in the study was an intra-abdominal abscess (3.0%). Rapid conservative operative techniques for civilian gunshot wounds leads to few postoperative complications and an excellent survival rate, especially if vascular injuries are not present.
Feliciano, D V; Burch, J M; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Mattox, K L; Jordan, G L
A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background. PMID:24293790
Moslemi, Sam; Forootan, Hamid Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam
A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background.
Moslemi, Sam; Forootan, Hamid Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam
Perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, compared to solid organ injuries, are a relatively infrequent sequela of blunt abdominal trauma in children. The purpose of this study is to review retrospectively the diagnostic modalities used in 30 children with proven traumatic intestinal perforations treated at one institution. Since computed tomography with intravenous and oral GI contrast is commonly used in the diagnosis of suspected solid organ injury from blunt abdominal trauma, we evaluated retrospectively the computed tomographic (CT) scan findings in these children in an attempt to accurately predict or suggest GI perforation. Between January 1987 and December 1993, 5,795 children were admitted. Three hundred fifty suffered blunt abdominal trauma of which 30 patients (8.5%) required surgery for a GI perforation and formed the basis for this study. Data collected were mechanisms of injury, results of admission and serial clinical examinations, results of radiologic imaging, associated injuries, operative findings, and outcome. Follow-up was obtained on all patients and averaged 2.5 years. Blows to the abdomen (handlebars, cars, kicks) were the most common cause of perforation, followed by seatbelt injuries. Eleven patients underwent immediate laparotomy an average of 0.75 hours after admission. The indication for surgery was shock (three), clinically apparent peritonitis (five), and free air on plain abdominal radiograph (three). Nineteen patients underwent "later" laparotomy, an average of 3.4 hours after admission, all because of the eventual development of peritonitis. Retrospective review of these CT scans revealed free air anterior to the liver in three, and the remaining 16 had CT findings suggestive of GI injury such as free fluid, focal fluid-filled thick-walled bowel loops, and mesenteric infiltration. There were five (26%) false negative CT scans performed an average of 5.0 hours after injury. We believe serial physical examinations are the gold standard for diagnosing pediatric GI perforation from blunt abdominal trauma. The CT scan may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of an intestinal perforation in patients who have no immediate indication for surgery. Presently, the only CT finding that is an absolute indication for laparotomy is free air (in the absence of pulmonary/mediastinal injury or barotrauma). The other CT "findings" need to be validated prospectively. PMID:8601860
Albanese, C T; Meza, M P; Gardner, M J; Smith, S D; Rowe, M I; Lynch, J M
Modalities available for the diagnosis of blunt abdominal traumatic (BAT) injuries include focused abdominal sonography for trauma, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen/pelvis. Hollow viscous and/or mesenteric injury (HVI/MI) can still be challenging to diagnose. Specifically, there is debate as to the proper management of BAT when CT findings include free peritoneal fluid but no evidence of solid organ injury (SOI). Our objective was to determine the incidence of HVI/MI and to evaluate the management of BAT patients with CT findings of peritoneal fluid without evidence of SOI. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of all BAT patients with peritoneal fluid on CT admitted to Kern Medical Center from January 1, 2003 to July 31, 2004. A total of 2651 trauma admissions yielded 79 patients. Fourteen of these had no evidence of SOI. Nonoperative management was successful in only 2 of these 14, whereas 12 required an operation, with 11 being therapeutic. Trigger to operate and time from presentation to laparotomy was hypotension in three patients (164 minutes), signs of HVI/MI on CT in two patients (235 minutes), diaphragm injury on CT in one patient (95 minutes), and for peritoneal signs in six patients (508 minutes). In BAT patients with peritoneal fluid on CT without evidence of SOI, there should be a high suspicion of HVI/MI. Relying on increasing abdominal tenderness to trigger laparotomy can result in delayed treatment. PMID:17058741
Yegiyants, Sara; Abou-Lahoud, Gilbert; Taylor, Edward
We present a case of delayed presentation of a traumatic duodenal rupture in a 15-year-old boy. He presented 12 hours after falling six feet and sustaining blunt trauma to his anterior abdominal wall. On arrival in the Emergency Department he was shocked and peritonitic. After initial resuscitation he was stable and transferred to computed tomography where free retroperitoneal air and duodenal rupture was found. He was transferred to theatre where he underwent laparotomy and successful repair of the rupture. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged nine days later. Duodenal rupture is a rare but serious complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis is difficult but missed diagnosis and delayed presentation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A high index for suspicion must be kept when dealing with blunt abdominal trauma to ensure this is not missed. PMID:21680305
The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise.
Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun
Background Assessing fracture healing in clinical trials is subjective. The new Function IndeX for Trauma (FIX-IT) score provides a simple, standardized approach to assess weight-bearing and pain in patients with lower extremity fractures. We conducted an initial validation of the FIX-IT score. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with lower extremity fractures across different stages of healing to evaluate the reliability and preliminary validity of the FIX-IT score. Patients were independently examined by 2 orthopedic surgeons, 1 orthopedic fellow, 2 orthopedic residents and 2 research coordinators. Patients also completed the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire, and convergent validity was tested with the SF-36v2. Results For interrater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficents ranged from 0.637 to 0.915. The overall interrater reliability for the total FIX-IT score was 0.879 (95% confidence interval 0.828–0.921). The correlations between the FIX-IT score and the SF-36 ranged from 0.682 to 0.770 for the physical component summary score, from 0.681 to 0.758 for the physical function subscale, and from 0.677 to 0.786 for the role–physical subscale. Conclusion The FIX-IT score had high interrater agreement across multiple examiners. Moreover, FIX-IT scores correlate with the physical scores of the SF-36. Although additional research is needed to fully validate FIX-IT, our results suggest the potential for FIX-IT to be a reliable adjunctive clinician measure to evaluate healing in lower extremity fractures. Level of evidence Diagnostic Study Level I.
Bhandari, Mohit; Wasserman, Scott M.; Yurgin, Nicole; Petrisor, Brad; Sprague, Sheila; Dent, Ricardo E.
Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a
K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong
Introduction Diaphragmatic injuries are rare consequences of thoracoabdominal trauma and they often occur in association with multiorgan injuries. The diaphragm is a difficult anatomical structure to study with common imaging instruments due to its physiological movement. Thus, diaphragmatic injuries can often be misunderstood and diagnosed only during surgical procedures. Diagnostic delay results in a high rate of mortality. Methods We report the management of a clinical case of a 45-old man who came to our observation with a stab wound in the right upper abdomen. The type or length of the knife used as it was extracted from the victim after the fight. CT imaging demonstrated a right hemothorax without pulmonary lesions and parenchymal laceration of the liver with active bleeding. It is observed hemoperitoneum and subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen, as a bowel perforation. A complete blood count check revealed a decrease in hemoglobin (7 mg/dl), and therefore it was decided to perform surgery in midline laparotomy. Conclusion In countries with a low incidence of inter-personal violence, stab wound diaphragmatic injury is particularly rare, in particular involving the right hemidiaphragm. Diaphragmatic injury may be underestimated due to the presence of concomitant lesions of other organs, to a state of shock and respiratory failure, and to the difficulty of identifying diaphragmatic injuries in the absence of high sensitivity and specific diagnostic instruments. Diagnostic delay causes high mortality with these traumas with insidious symptoms. A diaphragmatic injury should be suspected in the presence of a clinical picture which includes hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, anemia and the presence of subdiaphragmatic air in the abdomen.
... exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal disease ... trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) inflammation ...
Background Abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) predict cardiovascular mortality. A new scoring model for AAC, the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index may contribute with additional information to the commonly used Aortic Calcification Severity (AC24) score, when predicting death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated associations of MACD and AC24 with traditional metabolic-syndrome associated risk factors at baseline and after 8.3 years follow-up, to identify biological parameters that may account for the differential performance of these indices. Methods Three hundred and eight healthy women aged 48 to 76 years, were followed for 8.3 ± 0.3 years. AAC was quantified using lumbar radiographs. Baseline data included age, weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose levels. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test for relationships. Results At baseline and across all patients, MACD correlated with blood glucose (r2 = 0.1, P< 0.001) and to a lesser, but significant extent with traditional risk factors (p < 0.01) of CVD. In the longitudinal analysis of correlations between baseline biological parameters and the follow-up calcification assessment using radiographs we found LDL-cholesterol, HDL/LDL, and the ApoB/ApoA ratio significantly associated with the MACD (P< 0.01). In a subset of patients presenting with calcification at both baseline and at follow-up, all cholesterol levels were significantly associated with the MACD (P< 0.01) index. AC24 index was not correlated with blood parameters. Conclusion Patterns of calcification identified by the MACD, but not the AC24 index, appear to contain useful biological information perhaps explaining part of the improved identification of risk of cardiovascular death of the MACD index. Correlations of MACD but not the AC24 with glucose levels at baseline suggest that hyperglycemia may contribute to unique patterns of calcification indicated by the MACD.
Previous research has shown that involvement in meal preparation is positively associated with better diet quality. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between involvement in meal preparation and being overweight or obese. This study investigated whether the level of involvement in meal preparation was associated with objectively measured weight status in young adults. During 2004-2006, a national sample of 1,996 Australian adults aged 26 to 36 years completed a self-administered questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics, diet, and physical activity. Participants were asked to report who usually prepared the main meal on working days and responses were categorized as "myself," "shared," or "someone else." Waist circumference, weight, and height were measured by trained staff. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ?94 cm for men and ?80 cm for women. Overweight was defined as body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) ?25. Prevalence ratios were calculated using log binomial regression. After adjusting for age, education, and leisure time physical activity, men who shared the meal preparation had a slightly lower prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity (prevalence ratio=0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86 to 0.99) than those whose meals were usually prepared by someone else. There was no association with having sole responsibility (prevalence ratio=0.99; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.06). There were no associations between level of involvement in meal preparation and being overweight (shared responsibility prevalence ratio=0.99; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.07; sole responsibility prevalence ratio=0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05). For women, level of involvement was not associated with moderate abdominal obesity (shared responsibility prevalence ratio=0.93; 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.03; sole responsibility prevalence ratio=0.94; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.03) or being overweight (shared responsibility prevalence ratio=0.93; 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.02; sole responsibility prevalence ratio=0.93; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.02). In this sample of young adults, level of involvement in meal preparation was not strongly related to weight status. PMID:21802565
Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J
Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI), Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.
Gopinath, S.; Ganesh, B. Amirtha; Manoj, K.; Rubiya
Abdominal trauma may be blunt or penetrating and generates injuries that vary from the insignificant to the immediately life threatening. Blunt trauma to the abdomen is most common in UK and is usually due to road traffic accidents. Penetrating trauma remains relatively rare in the UK, but is increasing in many urban areas. Penetrating trauma predominates in the USA and
Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are useful for reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus, preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue is important. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT) and analyzed the correlation with the patients' age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body mass index (BMI). Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzed to determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue was significantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI. Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right) and 9.73 mm (left) at the xiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right) and 10.26 mm (left) at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneous fat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right) and 23.39 mm (left). Rectus abdominismuscle thickness decreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlation with rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy. Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominis muscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results are clinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.
Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Hyoseob; Lee, Se Il
Objective The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intraoperative blood loss (IBL) during lumbar spinal surgery. Methods Thirty patients scheduled for single level posterior lumbar interbody fusion were allocated equally to a normal group (Group 1, BMI;18.5-22.9 kg/m2), an overweight group (Group 2, BMI; 23-24.9 kg/m2), and an obese group (Group 3, BMI; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) according to BMI. IAP was measured using a urinary bladder catheter; 1) supine after anesthesia induction, 2) prone at skin incision, 3) prone at the end of surgery. In addition, IBL was also measured in the three groups. Results IAP in the supine position was not significantly different in groups 1, 2, and 3 (2.7 mm Hg, 3.0 mm Hg, and 4.2 mm Hg, respectively) (p=0.258), and IAP in the prone position at incision increased to 7.8 mm Hg, 8.2 mm Hg, and 10.4 mm Hg, respectively, in the three groups, and these intergroup differences were significant, especially for Group 3 (p=0.000). IAP at the end of surgery was slightly lower (7.0 mm Hg, 7.7 mm Hg, and 9.2 mm Hg, respectively). IBLs were not significantly different between the three groups. However, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position (p=0.022) and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that BMI affects IAP in the prone position more than in the supine position during lumbar spinal surgery. In addition, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position and with BMI. Thus, IBLs can be expected to be higher in morbidly obese patients due to an increased IAP.
Han, In Ho; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Choi, Byung Kwan; Song, Geun Sung
Summary The demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (LE DVT/PE) may differ from those with abdominal vein thrombosis (abdominal VT). Abdominal VT can be a presenting sign of an underlying prothrombotic state, and its presence in the setting of known disease might have prognostic implications different from LE DVT/PE. This study describes clinical presentations of abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE in adults and children. We analysed prospectively-collected data from consecutive consenting patients enrolled in one of seven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network Centers from August 2003 to April 2011 to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with abdominal VT. Both adults and children with abdominal VT tended to be younger and have a lower body mass index (BMI) than those with LE DVT/PE. Of patients with abdominal VT, children were more likely to have inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis than adults. For adults with venous thromboembolism (VTE), relatively more women had abdominal VT than LE DVT/PE, while the proportions with LE DVT/PE and abdominal VT by sex were similar in children. Children with abdominal VT were more likely to have diagnosed inherited thrombophilia, while trauma was more common in children with LE DVT/PE. In conclusion, both children and adults with abdominal VT were younger with a lower BMI than those with LE DVT/PE. Significant differences exist between children and adults in respect to abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE.
Landi, Daniel; Beckman, Michele G.; Shah, Nirmish R.; Bockenstedt, Paula; Grant, Althea M.; Heit, John A.; Key, Nigel S.; Kulkarni, Roshni; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Moll, Stephan; Philipp, Claire S.; Andersen, Judith C.; Ortel, Thomas L.
Genitourinary injuries occur in approx 10 to 15% of patients who suffer abdominal and pelvic injuries. Trauma to the external\\u000a genitalia. is uncommon. Whenever trauma to the genitalia occurs, consideration of a urethral injury is prudent. Prompt diagnosis\\u000a and treatment of external genital trauma aims to preserve organ structure and function and complications such as infection,\\u000a hemorrhage, and urinary extravasation.
George W. Jabren; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.
Over the last decade, the role of nonoperative management has revolutionized the specialty of trauma. However, this management paradigm has generated substantial controversy in several areas, including penetrating neck and abdominal trauma. Evidence-based analysis will be the ultimate guideline to determine what is optimal management. To prevent the pendulum from swinging too far, there should always exist a high index of suspicion to possible complications associated with the nonoperative approach. Also, the specific choice of management should be institution- and resource dependent.
Britt, L. D.; Cole, Frederic J.; Collins, Jay N.; Weireter, Leonard J.
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with adverse physiologic\\u000a consequences. The ACS ismost commonly diagnosed in patients sustaining abdominal or pelvic trauma, or suffering some other\\u000a intraabdominal hemorrhagic catastrophe. Recently, several groups have reported cases in which patients sustaining extra-abdominal\\u000a trauma developed ACS following acute resuscitation with crystalloids or blood. This secondary ACS
We have classified. esophageal trauma into three major categories: (1) Iatrogenic trauma including endoscopic perforation, trauma due to dilatation, surgical trauma, tube trauma, radiation trauma, and drug trauma; (2) Self-induced trauma including foreign bodies, corrosive or drug ingestion, and postemetic trauma; (3) Direct trauma including penetrating trauma and blunt trauma. Discussion and illustrative cases are presented.
Leon Love; Andrew E. Berkow
Introduction Isolated vital signs (for example, heart rate or systolic blood pressure) have been shown unreliable in the assessment of hypovolemic shock. In contrast, the Shock Index (SI), defined by the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure, has been advocated to better risk-stratify patients for increased transfusion requirements and early mortality. Recently, our group has developed a novel and clinical reliable classification of hypovolemic shock based upon four classes of worsening base deficit (BD). The objective of this study was to correlate this classification to corresponding strata of SI for the rapid assessment of trauma patients in the absence of laboratory parameters. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, data for 21,853 adult trauma patients were retrieved from the TraumaRegister DGU® database and divided into four strata of worsening SI at emergency department arrival (group I, SI <0.6; group II, SI ?0.6 to <1.0; group III, SI ?1.0 to <1.4; and group IV, SI ?1.4) and were assessed for demographics, injury characteristics, transfusion requirements, fluid resuscitation and outcomes. The four strata of worsening SI were compared with our recently suggested BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Results Worsening of SI was associated with increasing injury severity scores from 19.3 (± 12) in group I to 37.3 (± 16.8) in group IV, while mortality increased from 10.9% to 39.8%. Increments in SI paralleled increasing fluid resuscitation, vasopressor use and decreasing hemoglobin, platelet counts and Quick’s values. The number of blood units transfused increased from 1.0 (± 4.8) in group I to 21.4 (± 26.2) in group IV patients. Of patients, 31% in group III and 57% in group IV required ?10 blood units until ICU admission. The four strata of SI discriminated transfusion requirements and massive transfusion rates equally with our recently introduced BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Conclusion SI upon emergency department arrival may be considered a clinical indicator of hypovolemic shock in respect to transfusion requirements, hemostatic resuscitation and mortality. The four SI groups have been shown to equal our recently suggested BD-based classification. In daily clinical practice, SI may be used to assess the presence of hypovolemic shock if point-of-care testing technology is not available.
Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751
Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke
Indicadores antropométricos de obesidade abdominal: revisão dos artigos indexados na biblioteca SciELO Anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity: review of the papers indexed on SciELO electronic library
Resumo - Recorreu-se à revisão sistemática de artigos originais publicados no período de 1993 a 2007 e indexados na Scientific Electronic Library Online - SCIELO, a fim de identificar os indicadores antropométricos utilizados na detecção da obesidade abdominal em diferentes subgrupos populacionais e sintetizar os resultados observados quanto à relação entre estes indicadores e comorbidades associadas à obesidade. Na análise
Egito Carvalho; Mauro Virgilio; Gomes de Barros
The introduction of trauma teams has improved patient outcome independently. The aim of establishing a trauma team is to ensure the early mobilization and involvement of more experienced medical staff and thereby to improve patient outcome. The team approach allows for distribution of the several tasks in assessment and resuscitation of the patient in a 'horizontal approach', which may lead to a reduction in time from injury to critical interventions and thus have a direct bearing on the patient's ultimate outcome. A trauma team leader or supervisor, who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to guidelines, should lead the trauma team. There is a major national and international variety in trauma team composition, however crucial are a surgeon, an Emergency Medicine physician or both and anaesthetist. Advanced Trauma Life Support training, simulation-based training, and video review have all improved patient outcome and trauma team performance. Developments in the radiology, such as the use of computed tomography scanning in the emergency room and the endovascular treatment of bleeding foci, have changed treatment algorithms in selected patients. These developments and new insights in shock management may have a future impact on patient management and trauma team composition. PMID:24980423
Tiel Groenestege-Kreb, D; van Maarseveen, O; Leenen, L
Population growth in central Florida has increased the need for continuing education for trauma nurses. A project was undertaken in 1974 to develop a comprehensive continuing education program on trauma nursing for registered nurses that can be a prototype for the state, and to implement the program in Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties.…
Dorner, Joyce J.
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare condition that can follow any blunt trauma. Associated intra-abdominal injuries are infrequent. In this study, we are reporting three cases, diagnosed as abdominal wall hernia associated with herniation of bowel loops due to blunt trauma. In one case, injury of the herniated bowel was seen. In western medical literature, only few cases have been reported especially with intra-abdominal injuries.
Singal, Rikki; Dalal, Usha; Dalal, Ashwani Kumar; Attri, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Raman; Gupta, Anupama; Naredi, Bikash; Kenwar, Deepesh Benjamin; Gupta, Samita
Background\\/Purpose: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate abdominal closure in patients with abdominal wall defects, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal bleeding, and infection. Increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) leads to respiratory compromise, organ hypoperfusion, and a high mortality rate. This study evaluates the efficacy of continuous direct monitoring of IAP and gastric tissue pH in detecting impending ACS. Methods: Ten mongrel puppies weighing
S. A. Engum; B. Kogon; E. Jensen; J. Isch; C. Balanoff; J. L. Grosfeld
Complex trauma refers to traumatic events that are chronic, interpersonal, and occur within the context of caregiving relationships; the term also describes the pattern of symptoms associated with such experiences. This article explores the prevalence, causes, and phenomenology of complex trauma in children and adolescents. The investigators also describe family-related and system-related issues, assessment strategies, diagnostic challenges, and clinical intervention options. PMID:24656584
Kliethermes, Matthew; Schacht, Megan; Drewry, Kate
With the increasing performance of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and insertion of an increasing number of intravascular devices, the size of arterial punctures has been increasing. A consistent minority of these procedures will result in vascular injuries requiring treatment. At the same time, the regionalized nature of trauma care in the United States has resulted in a large number of vascular surgeons who are exposed to vascular trauma only when iatrogenic. The most common injuries observed are caused by percutaneous vascular instrumentation and include hemorrhage and pseudoaneurysm that may compress adjacent structures, fistula, acute occlusion, and embolization. Injuries unique to balloon angioplasty/stenting include arterial rupture and dissection. Indwelling intravascular devices are another common source of iatrogenic vascular injury ranging from arterial rupture to thrombosis and embolization. Much less common injuries are observed in orthopedic and abdominal/laparoscopic operations but show reproducible causes/patterns. Finally, pediatric iatrogenic vascular trauma is relatively common because of the small size of the vasculature, but the natural history and management is markedly different from that in adults. PMID:9876035
Nehler, M R; Taylor, L M; Porter, J M
Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic therapy based on radial arterial pulse pressure variation and continuous cardiac index trending reduces postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery: a multi-center, prospective, randomized study
Introduction Several single-center studies and meta-analyses have shown that perioperative goal-directed therapy may significantly improve outcomes in general surgical patients. We hypothesized that using a treatment algorithm based on pulse pressure variation, cardiac index trending by radial artery pulse contour analysis, and mean arterial pressure in a study group (SG), would result in reduced complications, reduced length of hospital stay and quicker return of bowel movement postoperatively in abdominal surgical patients, when compared to a control group (CG). Methods 160 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery were randomized to the SG (79 patients) or to the CG (81 patients). In the SG hemodynamic therapy was guided by pulse pressure variation, cardiac index trending and mean arterial pressure. In the CG hemodynamic therapy was performed at the discretion of the treating anesthesiologist. Outcome data were recorded up to 28 days postoperatively. Results The total number of complications was significantly lower in the SG (72 vs. 52 complications, p = 0.038). In particular, infection complications were significantly reduced (SG: 13 vs. CG: 26 complications, p = 0.023). There were no significant differences between the two groups for return of bowel movement (SG: 3 vs. CG: 2 days postoperatively, p = 0.316), duration of post anesthesia care unit stay (SG: 180 vs. CG: 180 minutes, p = 0.516) or length of hospital stay (SG: 11 vs. CG: 10 days, p = 0.929). Conclusions This multi-center study demonstrates that hemodynamic goal-directed therapy using pulse pressure variation, cardiac index trending and mean arterial pressure as the key parameters leads to a decrease in postoperative complications in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01401283.
Background: Recent reports have described resuscitation-induced, “secondary” abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in trauma patients without intra-abdominal injuries. We have diagnosed secondary ACS in a variety of nontrauma as well as trauma patients. The purpose of this review is to characterize patients who develop secondary ACS.Methods: Our prospective ACS database was reviewed for cases of secondary ACS. Physiologic parameters and outcomes
Walter L Biffl; Ernest E Moore; Jon M Burch; Patrick J Offner; Reginald J Franciose; Jeffrey L Johnson
Massive ventral hernias may result from a variety of clinical situations. One such clinical situation, a common problem in trauma patients, is abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome frequently results in a massive abdominal defect when primary closure after surgical decompression is not possible. We offer a technique for repairing these massive ventral hernias by first expanding the lateral abdominal wall muscles, fasciae, and skin with tissue expanders and then closing the defect with elements of the "components separation" method. Additionally we present other clinical situations resulting in a massive ventral hernia that were repaired using this technique. PMID:12013296
Admire, Anthony A; Dolich, Matthew O; Sisley, Amy C; Samimi, Kian J
Intra-abdominal and extraperitoneal actinomycosis are rare infections, caused by different Actinomyces species. However, they have been diagnosed more frequently in the last ten years. We report three cases of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review of the last eight years. All three patients were diagnosed by means of histopathologic examination only. In one case, an intrauterine device (IUD) was associated with the infection. Therapy consisted of surgical resection of the inflammatory, infected tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. All patients are free of recurrence. Abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal pathology of insidious onset, especially when an IUD is in place. Even when infection had spread extensively, combined operative and antibiotic therapy cured most of the cases. PMID:14616714
Wagenlehner, F M E; Mohren, B; Naber, K G; Männl, H F K
BackgroundThe term secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been applied to describe trauma patients who develop ACS but do not have abdominal injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe major trauma victims who developed secondary ACS during standardized shock resuscitation.
Zsolt Balogh; Bruce A McKinley; Christine S Cocanour; Rosemary A Kozar; John B Holcomb; Drue N Ware; Frederick A Moore
Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma
M. Kortesniemi; T. Kiljunen; A. Kangasmäki
Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize. If bilateral, adrenal\\u000a trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point\\u000a to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality. In the past, before\\u000a the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult,
Alex O. Sinelnikov; Hani H. Abujudeh; David Chan; Robert A. Novelline
Objective: TraumaSCAN-Web (TSW) is a computerized decision support system for assessing chest and abdominal penetrating trauma which utilizes 3D geometric reasoning and a Bayesian network with sub- jective probabilities obtained from an expert. The goal of the present study is to determine whether a trauma risk prediction approach using a Bayesian network with a predefined structure and probabilities learned from
Bilal A. Ahmed; Michael E. Matheny; Phillip L. Rice; John R. Clarke; Omolola I. Ogunyemi
Ocular traumas represent a major public health problem with poorly understood ramifications at both the individual and community levels. Any of the ocular structures can be damaged in the case of closed globe injury. These lesions, often multiple, may appear immediately or in a delayed fashion. Classifications have been developed recently in order to better inform the patient of the visual prognosis. However, significant efforts are still needed, on the one hand, to assess and develop new therapies, and on the other hand, to implement effective policies to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:22463853
Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.
Cripps, N. P.; Cooper, G. J.
Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238
Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.
Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul
The management of penetrating abdominal trauma has evolved considerably over the last 30 years. The goal of any algorithm for penetrating abdominal trauma should be to identify injuries requiring surgical repair and avoid unnecessary laparotomy with its associated morbidity. We describe a case where the infusion of povidone-iodine (Videne) and air into the wound uncovered the peritoneal breach clinically and guided the radiologist to the site of the internal injury. This case report raises an intriguing possible role for povidone-iodine and air to be used both for wound toilet and to aid identification of occult wound tracks on computed tomography imaging. We advocate the routine use of wound irrigation with a mixture of povidone-iodine and air as described, in a select group of patients, as an adjunct to diagnosis before abdominal computed tomography scanning. PMID:21592714
Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Ganapathi, Senthil; Hagger, Robert
Background Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Results Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. Conclusion The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings.
Calderale, Stefano Massimiliano; Sandru, Raluca; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone; Beuran, Mircea; Ribaldi, Sergio; Coletti, Massimo; Gambale, Giorgio; Paun, Sorin; Russo, Livio; Baldoni, Franco
Pancreatic trauma is a rare event, accounting for approximately 3% of all blunt abdominal traumas. The related mortality is quite high, around 5-30%, mostly due to the associated haemorrhagic lesions and to the delay in establishing the diagnosis, while pancreatic damage is directly responsible for death in only 5-10% of cases. We report here on a case of severe pancreatic trauma, underestimated initially and treated surgically at a later stage. The literature shows that the main difficulty in cases of pancreatic trauma is still related to failure recognizing the injury or to the frequent delay in diagnosing the condition, above all in haemodynamically unstable patients. In these cases, as in the one treated in this report, the clinical evidence and the priority accorded to the treatment of the shock are factors that tend to limit thorough examination. In haemodynamically stable patients, on the other hand, the multislice CT-scan and MR pancreatography-wirsungography are useful for the diagnosis. The treatment can be either conservative or surgical, depending on the extent of the damage, especially to the Wirsung duct. Surgical treatment with preservation of the entire pancreatic parenchyma, as performed in our case, even if technically demanding, makes it possible to maintain the function of the pancreas, thus reducing the risk of metabolic complications. PMID:16729615
La Greca, Gaetano; Castello, Giorgio; Barbagallo, Francesco; Conti, Pietro; Latteri, Saverio; Randazzo, Valentina; Gresta, Sebastiano; Bonaccorso, Rosario; Russello, Domenico
Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children.
Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.
Trauma is the leading cause of mortality in children over one year of age in industrialized countries. In this retrospective study we reviewed all chest trauma in pediatric patients admitted to Mansoura University Emergency Hospital from January 1997 to January 2007. Our hospital received 472 patients under the age of 18. Male patients were 374 with a mean age of 9.2±4.9 years. Causes were penetrating trauma (2.1%) and blunt trauma (97.9%). The trauma was pedestrian injuries (38.3%), motor vehicle (28.1%), motorcycle crash (19.9%), falling from height (6.7%), animal trauma (2.9%), and sports injury (1.2%). Type of injury was pulmonary contusions (27.1%) and lacerations (6.9%), rib fractures (23.9%), flail chest (2.5%), hemothorax (18%), hemopneumothorax (11.8%), pneumothorax (23.7%), surgical emphysema (6.1%), tracheobronchial injury (5.3%), and diaphragm injury (2.1%). Associated lesions were head injuries (38.9%), bone fractures (33.5%), and abdominal injuries (16.7%). Management was conservative (29.9%), tube thoracostomy (58.1%), and thoracotomy (12.1%). Mortality rate was 7.2% and multiple trauma was the main cause of death (82.3%) (P<.001). We concluded that blunt trauma is the most common cause of pediatric chest trauma and often due to pedestrian injuries. Rib fractures and pulmonary contusions are the most frequent injuries. Delay in diagnosis and multiple trauma are associated with high incidence of mortality. PMID:22749624
Ismail, Mohamed Fouad; al-Refaie, Reda Ibrahim
Interventricular septum rupture following blunt chest trauma is a rare cardiac injury that sometimes is difficult to diagnose. It has a high mortality rate, especially when in cases of hemodynamic instability requiring early surgical repair. We report the case of an 18-year old man who suffered blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and hemorrhagic shock who required emergency abdominal surgery on three occasions. He was diagnosed of traumatic rupture of interventricular septum that had not been detected in the initial echocardiography, but was suspected after the right heart catheterism. Urgent cardiac surgery was performed 72 hours later because of hemodynamic instability. PMID:19232209
Gandía-Martínez, Francisco; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Martínez-Gil, Iñigo; Campo-Prieto, Alberto; Parra-Morais, Laura; Citores-González, Rafael
\\u000a Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome are life-threatening complications in severely injured\\u000a patients. They may trigger a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with subsequent fatal outcome. Early identification of high-risk\\u000a patients, close monitoring including repeated measuring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and early or even prophylactic\\u000a surgical decompression of the abdomen may effectively lower morbidity and mortality. Following abdominal decompression,
Intercostal herniation is very rarely and sporadically reported in the literature. Intercostal hernia can occur following blunt trauma and may be associated with rib fractures. We present a case of a patient who presented with rib fractures, diaphragmatic rupture, and intrathoracic herniation of abdominal contents with subsequent herniation of both lung and abdominal contents through an intercostal defect. The patient was successfully treated with primary surgical repair of the diaphragm and intercostal hernia. The presentation, pathophysiology, and management of this rare clinical entity are discussed. PMID:23198242
Sarkar, Debkumar; Warta, Melissa; Solomon, Jason
Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias from blunt trauma usually occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions where the force is tangential, sudden, and severe. Although rare, these hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Open repairs can be challenging and unsuccessful due to avulsion of muscle directly from the iliac crest, with or without bone loss. A laparoscopic approach to traumatic abdominal wall hernia can aid in the delineation of the hernia and allow for a safe and effective repair. Case Description: A 36-year-old female was admitted to our Level 1 trauma center with a traumatic abdominal wall hernia located in the right flank near the iliac crest after being involved in a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the presence of an abdominal wall defect that was unapparent on physical examination. The traumatic abdominal wall hernia in the right flank was successfully repaired laparoscopically. One-year follow-up has shown no sign of recurrence. Discussion: A traumatic abdominal wall hernia rarely presents following blunt trauma, but should be suspected following a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Frequently, repair is complicated by the need to have fixation of mesh to bony landmarks (eg, iliac crest). In spite of this challenge, the laparoscopic approach with tension-free mesh repair of a traumatic abdominal wall hernia can be accomplished successfully using an approach similar to that taken for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
Wilson, Kenneth L.; Rosser, James C.
Trauma education has evolved over the past 30 years from an unstructured preceptorship to standardised courses offered worldwide. The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course has formed the backbone of trauma management philosophy and has spawned a series of courses aimed at specific patient populations and health care groups. Trauma education and assessment for advanced trainees has taken the form of formal clinical fellowships. In addition to clinical experience, a number of tools have been validated in aiding trauma education including use of videotape review and simulation technology. Future emphasis on development and validation of teaching and assessment techniques could improve trauma education and secondarily impact trauma outcomes worldwide. PMID:18502425
Hogan, Michael P; Boone, Darrell C
Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13
Kapoor, V. K.
Summary Background Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease. Methods We used individual records from 58 cohorts to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 SD higher baseline values (4·56 kg/m2 higher BMI, 12·6 cm higher waist circumference, and 0·083 higher waist-to-hip ratio) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification. Serial adiposity assessments were used to calculate regression dilution ratios. Results Individual records were available for 221?934 people in 17 countries (14?297 incident cardiovascular disease outcomes; 1·87 million person-years at risk). Serial adiposity assessments were made in up to 63?821 people (mean interval 5·7 years [SD 3·9]). In people with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher, HRs for cardiovascular disease were 1·23 (95% CI 1·17–1·29) with BMI, 1·27 (1·20–1·33) with waist circumference, and 1·25 (1·19–1·31) with waist-to-hip ratio, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. After further adjustment for baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol, corresponding HRs were 1·07 (1·03–1·11) with BMI, 1·10 (1·05–1·14) with waist circumference, and 1·12 (1·08–1·15) with waist-to-hip ratio. Addition of information on BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio to a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not importantly improve risk discrimination (C-index changes of ?0·0001, ?0·0001, and 0·0008, respectively), nor classification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk (net reclassification improvement ?0·19%, ?0·05%, and ?0·05%, respectively). Findings were similar when adiposity measures were considered in combination. Reproducibility was greater for BMI (regression dilution ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·93–0·97) than for waist circumference (0·86, 0·83–0·89) or waist-to-hip ratio (0·63, 0·57–0·70). Interpretation BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, whether assessed singly or in combination, do not importantly improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction in people in developed countries when additional information is available for systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and lipids. Funding British Heart Foundation and UK Medical Research Council.
The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration
The review includes discussions in the following areas: Burns--General, treatment, special types, research; Radiation; Wounds--Gas gangarene, tetanus, healing; Shock; Emergency rooms and mass casualties; Trauma--Chest and neck; cardiovascular, abdominal, ...
W. R. Waters D. M. Riddell
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) may be useful in continuous non-invasive monitoring of suspected abdominal bleeding in battlefield casualties subsequent to blunt trauma. We are developing a novel EIT system involving an electrode array applied only ...
E. A. Ross R. Sadleir
INTRODUCTION Laparostomy techniques have advanced since the advent of damage control surgery for the critically injured patient. Numerous methods of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) are described in the literature with most reports focusing on trauma. We describe a modified technique for TAC and report its use in a series of critically ill non-trauma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eleven patients under the care of one consultant underwent TAC over a 36-month period. A standardised technique was used in all cases and this is described. Severity of illness at the time of the first laparotomy was assessed using the Portsmouth variant of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM). RESULTS Nineteen TACs were performed in 11 patients with a variety of serious surgical conditions. In-hospital mortality was zero despite seven of the patients having an individual P-POSSUM predicted mortality in excess of 50%. The laparostomy dressing proved simple in construction, facilitated nursing care and was well-tolerated in the critical care environment. All patients underwent definitive fascial closure during the index admission. CONCLUSIONS Laparostomy is a useful technique outwith the context of trauma. We have demonstrated the utility of the modified Opsite® sandwich vacuum pack for TAC in a series of critically ill patients with a universally favourable outcome. This small study suggests that selective use of TAC may reduce surgical mortality.
Wilde, JM; Loudon, MA
Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. They can arise from either high or low impact trauma and can be associated with significant associated injury. We present the case of a 27-year-old male involved in a high-impact road traffic accident resulting in a TAWH. He sustained significant disruption to the abdominal wall and sustained injuries to the thoracic cage. Operative management was undertaken with a porcine dermal collagen mesh, using a bridge technique.
Davey, Simon R.; Smart, Neil J.; Wood, James J.; Longman, Robert J.
This paper presents an overview of the psychological effects of trauma on children and adolescents with specific attention to the epidemiology of traumatic experiences, risk factors, developmental effects, the types of traumatic experiences albeit a single event trauma or a chronic process trauma, the spectrum of clinical presentations, psychiatric and psychological comorbidities as well as assessment and therapeutic principles. In
John A. Shaw
The effects of trauma can roll on unchecked like a spirit of death. In its path are strewn its once vibrant victims. Human bonds are rent asunder by the disgrace of trauma. These are the youngsters who have been verbally bashed, physically battered, sexually assaulted, and spiritually exploited. Other traumas of childhood neglect include: (1)…
Chambers, Jamie C.
This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008
This study sought to evaluate injury causes and patient outcomes in young children with abdominal injuries. Cases of blunt abdominal injury (N = 927) to children ages 0 to 4 years were extracted from the National Pediatric Trauma Registry®. Measures included hospital utilization (days hospitalized, intensive care unit use, and surgery) and patient outcome (in-hospital fatality, discharge to rehabilitation facility,
Matthew Trokel; Carla DiScala; Norma C. Terrin; Robert D. Sege
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574
Hunt, Leanne; Frost, Steve A; Hillman, Ken; Newton, Phillip J; Davidson, Patricia M
A 62-year-old male with no significant medical history developed thromboembolic complications in the lower limbs shortly after\\u000a an assault which involved punching and kicking to the trunk. Laparotomy revealed intra-abdominal injuries and an abdominal\\u000a aortic aneurysm. Death from multi-organ failure and sepsis occurred 9 days post-injury. The discussion concentrates on blunt\\u000a force trauma to the abdominal aorta, specifically on causation, mechanisms
Andrew Meikle Davison
Selective nonoperative management of abdominal visceral lesions is one of the most important and challenging changes that occurred in the traumatized patient care over the last 20 years. The main advantage of this type of management is the avoidance of unnecessary/nontherapeutic laparotomies. The trauma surgeons who deal with this type of treatment are worried of missed abdominal injuries. Modern diagnostic tools (spiral CT, ultrasound, angiography, laparoscopy) allow the trauma surgeon to accurately characterize the lesions to be nonoperative addressed. This literature review discusses the main elements of selective nonoperative management of principle solid visceral lesions (liver, spleen, kidney). We highlight the advantages and limitations of the main diagnostic instruments used for evaluation of trauma patiens allocated to nonoperative management. PMID:20726296
Beuran, M; Negoi, I; P?un, S; Runcanu, A; Venter, D; Iordache, F; Chiotoroiu, A
Introduction Gastric emphysema or pneumatosis is a rare finding. Early endoscopy and urgent laparotomy is advised in post-trauma patients. Case Presentation A 29 year old man presented with blunt abdominal injury following a high-speed motorbike crash He complained of abdominal pain and abdomen was distended. CT abdomen revealed air in the gastric wall with disruption of gastric mucosa. He had normal white cell counts, bleeding parameters and blood gases. He was treated conservatively with nasogastric decompression, intravenous analgesics and antibiotics with which he recovered well. Conclusions Early surgical management is indicated in post-trauma patients in whom bowel infarction is suspected. In a stable patient, a negative laparotomy is a major additional stress post trauma - conservative management with close clinical observation is a suitable management alternative.
Sen, Indrani; Samarasam, Inian; Chandran, Sudhakar; Mathew, George
In order to provide data on human tolerance to blunt abdominal impact a literature study and laboratory tests were carried out to determine the major causes of abdominal injury, injury mechanisms, a quantitative relationship between input and occurrence o...
D. L. Beckman J. H. McElhaney R. L. Stalnaker V. L. Roberts
... of the structures within the abdomen or the abdominal wall. In addition, pain messages originating in the chest, ... lungs) Pulmonary embolism (blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ...
Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide). The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting. PMID:24841027
Napon, A M; Bandré, E; Nikiéma, Z; Diallo, O; Ouédraogo, I; Kaboret, S Douamba; Lougué Sorgho, L C; Alfidja, A; Boyer, L
Failure to diagnose abdominal pregnancies can have disastrous morbidity/mortality consequences for mother and fetus. To make the diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy requires that the physician have a high index of suspicion and that he or she have a good understanding of the risk factors of abdominal pregnancy. This article presents data suggesting that maternal cocaine use is a risk factor for abdominal pregnancy, reviews the literature on the maternal/fetal effects of maternal cocaine use and the risk factors of abdominal pregnancy, and analyzes 55 cases of abdominal pregnancy. Maternal cocaine use correlated with a 20% rate of increase in the incidence of abdominal pregnancy compared with the 70% rate of decrease in the "before cocaine" time period. Recommendations are offered for management.
Audain, L.; Brown, W. E.; Smith, D. M.; Clark, J. F.
Childhood trauma is a common occurrence and has been associated with psychosis and suggested as a risk factor leading to psychosis and schizophrenia in adulthood. This article introduces the scope of the problem and discusses the evidence for causal relationships between childhood adversities and increased risk for psychosis. The relationship between specific types of trauma and their association with specific psychotic symptoms is described, as well as the manifestations of co-occurring trauma effects and psychosis in adolescents. Clinical presentations and the use of diagnostic instruments, diagnostic comorbidities, and evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions to treat effects of trauma in youth with psychotic illnesses are discussed. PMID:24012077
Dvir, Yael; Denietolis, Brian; Frazier, Jean A
Background Impalement injury is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department (ED), and penetrating thoraco-abdominal injuries demand immediate life-saving measures and prompt care. Massive penetrating trauma by impalement in a pediatric case represents a particularly challenging presentation for emergency providers in non-trauma center settings. Case presentation We report a case of 10 year old male who presented in our ED with an alleged history of fall from an approximately 15 foot tall coconut tree, landing over an upright bamboo stake approximately 50 centimeter long, resulting in a trans-abdomino, trans-thoracic injury. In addition to prompt resuscitation and hospital transfer, assessment of damage to vital structures in conjunction with surgical specialty consultation was an immediate goal. Conclusion This article describes a case study of an impalement injury, relevant review of the available literature, and highlights the peculiar strategies required in the setting of a resource limited ED.
The Trauma Information Pages, provided by psychologist David Baldwin, provide information about traumatic stress for clinicians and researchers in the field. The pages include information on trauma symptoms, connections to trauma resources including full text articles and an EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) bibliography, general support information including grief, stress, and mental health pointers, disaster handouts and links, and links to other trauma and trauma related sites. The Trauma Pages are searchable.
Baldwin, David V.
Fourteen men with traumatic rupture of the small gut are analysed. Seven had alcohol intoxication. The diagnosis was made pre-operatively in eight. Ileal ruptures were the commonest, (11 of 14). Two patients died. PMID:263364
Minja, B M; Mahalu, W; Hiza, P R
Controversy exists surrounding the appropriate indications for intravenous pyelography (IVP) in assessing blunt renal injuries in children. Forty-one consecutive cases of suspected blunt renal injuries, who had an IVP performed between January 1988 and December 1990 at The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, were examined by a retrospective chart review. Eighty percent of the IVPs were normal. Of the eight
Aijaz Hashmi; Terry Klassen
A 30-year old man with no trauma history presented to our department of dermatology with a 2-year history of abdominal painful masses. The spontaneous pain and tenderness in the abdominal region gradually worsened. Physical examination revealed 3 firm, irregular subcutaneous nodules measuring 1 x 0.5 cm, which were movable and unattached to the overlying skin. One of the nodules was ulcerated (Figure 1). Histopathologic examination showed spindle-shaped fibroblast cells intermingled with gangliocyte-like giant cells in the hypodermis with an infiltrate made of lymphocytes and histiocytes (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The immunohistochemical staining showed the negativity of the fusiform cells and the gangliocyte-like cells to anti-S100 protein and to anti-smooth muscle actin. PMID:24933852
Zaraa, Ines; Zaouak, Anissa; El Euch, Dalenda; Chelly, Ines; Haouet, Slim; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel
Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74%) children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26%) children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine) and 139 (92%) children responded to AED out of which 111 (74%) children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18%) had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74%) of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56%) were females and 36 (32.43%) were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9-12 years. Temporal wave discharges were 39 (35.13%) of the total abnormal EEG's. All the children were started on AEDs and those with abnormal EEG showed 100% response to treatment while 27 (18%) children with normal EEG also responded to treatment. Twelve (8%) children did not have any improvement in symptoms. Conclusions: A diagnosis of AE must be considered in children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain, especially in those with suggestive history, and an EEG can save a child from lot of unnecessary investigations and suffering.
Kshirsagar, V. Y.; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia; Wingkar, K. C.
Diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt abdominal trauma requires a high index of suspicion. This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of multidetector computed tomogram (MDCT) in the diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. All patients with thoracoabdominal blunt trauma with diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed on radiologic evaluation during a 3-year period (i.e., from June 2004 to June 2007) were analyzed. Nineteen patients with diaphragmatic injuries in 117 patients with blunt thoracoabdominal injury (16.23%) were studied. Age range was 8-60 years (mean 34 years). Male-female ratio was 18:1. Various features seen on CT scan were diaphragmatic discontinuity in 13 (68.42%), thickened diaphragm in 10 (52.63%), "collar sign" in 8 (42.10%), visceral herniation in 12 (63.15%), dependent viscera sign in 8 (42.10%), and segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm in 1 patient (5.88%). Two patients presented with delayed rupture. In the rest mean duration between time of injury and performance of CT scan was 44.35 h (range 3-288 h). Fourteen patients underwent operative management. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MDCT scan were 100, 93, and 95%, respectively. Three patients (15.78%) expired. MDCT is a highly accurate modality for detecting traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:23904715
Magu, Sarita; Agarwal, Shalini; Singla, Sham
In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail. PMID:12866751
Isolated spontaneous dissection of the abdominal aorta is such a rare entity and there are only a few cases reported in literature up to date. A 42-year old male was admitted to the hospital with mild pain in the lower abdomen and back that had began seven days prior to admission together with the sudden onset of the ischemic symptoms of the left leg (ischemic ulcers of the calf gangrenous toe and pallor foot). Patient denied any trauma, hypertension history was negative, while he was active cigarette smoker. MSCT and digital subtracted angiography have shown a dissection of the abdominal aorta approximately two centimeters below the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery extending in the left common iliac artery, with no sign of the aneurysmatic dilatation of the abdominal aorta. Emergent surgery was performed with aorto-biiliacal bypass graft interposition, amputation of the left toe and necrectomy of the left calf Postoperative follow up and local vascular condition were satisfied. Even though is rare entity, isolated abdominal aorta dissection accounts for approximately 2-4% of all aortic dissection. Nowadays therapeutic regimen includes endovascular, open surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24611358
Ivkosi?, Ante; Budincevi?, Hrvoje; Krstonijevi?, Zoran; Bari?, Marko; Lojo, Nermin; Trajbar, Dubravka; Gorski, Dinko; Suknai?, Slaven; Suci?, Tena
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.
Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin
Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients.
Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.
PRESENTED IN PART AT THE FOLLOWING ACADEMIC MEETINGS: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m(2) (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775
Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M
During a 6-year period, 52 patients with nonpenetrating trauma to the diaphragm were treated in eight acute care hospitals, serving a 15-county area of Michigan. Charts were reviewed to identify patterns of injury, treatment, and outcome. Preoperative diagnosis was made in 50 per cent of cases based on chest x-ray findings; the remainder were diagnosed intraoperatively. Clinical examination revealed respiratory distress, decreased breath sounds, or elevated hemidiaphragm in 81 per cent of patients. Forty-two per cent of patients sustained significant head injuries. Fractures were present in 75 per cent of patients. Major chest injury was found in 92 per cent. Intra-abdominal organs were herniated in 67 per cent of cases with the stomach being most common (54%). The spleen was the most commonly injured abdominal organ (60%). The left diaphragm was injured in 75 per cent of cases; 2 per cent were bilateral. The most common postoperative complication was pneumonia. Mortality in this series was 13 per cent, with no case being related to the diaphragmatic injury. The authors conclude that blunt injuries to the diaphragm in the multiply-injured patient present a clinical diagnostic challenge requiring a high index of suspicion. Optimal care requires a multi-disciplinary critical care team to manage the high incidence of associated central nervous system, orthopedic, and chest injuries and associated high mortality rates. PMID:1596031
Ilgenfritz, F M; Stewart, D E
Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The
Judith A. Cohen; Anthony P. Mannarino; Laura K. Murray
BACKGROUND: Trauma resuscitations are high-pressure, time-critical events during which health care providers form ad hoc teams to rapidly assess and treat injured patients. Trauma team members experience varying levels of workload during resuscitations resulting from the objective demands of their role-specific tasks, the circumstances surrounding the event, and their individual previous experiences. The goal of this study was to determine factors influencing workload experienced by trauma team members during pediatric trauma resuscitations. METHODS: Workload was measured using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (TLX). TLX surveys were administered to four trauma team roles: charge nurse, senior surgical resident (surgical coordinator), emergency medicine physician, and junior surgical resident or nurse practitioner (bedside clinician). A total of 217 surveys were completed. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to examine the relationship between workload and patient and clinical factors. RESULTS: Bedside clinicians reported the highest total workload score (208.7), followed by emergency medicine physicians (156.3), surgical coordinators (144.1), and charge nurses (129.1). Workload was higher during higher-level activations (235.3), for events involving intubated patients (249.0), and for patients with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 (230.4) (p, 0.001 for all). When controlling for potential confounders using multiple linear regression, workload was increased during higher level activations (79.0 points higher, p = 0.01) and events without previous notification (38.9 points higher, p = 0.03). Workload also remained significantly higher for the bedside clinician compared with the other three roles (p ? 0.005 for all). CONCLUSION: Workload during pediatric trauma resuscitations differed by team role and was increased for higher-level activations and events without previous notification. This study demonstrates the validity of the TLX as a tool to measure workload in trauma resuscitation. PMID:23032804
Parsons, Samantha E; Carter, Elizabeth A; Waterhouse, Lauren J; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; O'Connell, Karen J; Burd, Randall S
This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of November, 2009 to October, 2010. Two hundred & fifty (250) patients of both sexes and all ages with ocular trauma were selected randomly for this study. A detailed history of patients, duration of trauma, relation of trauma with work, visual status prior to injury, any surgery prior to injury & patients were alcoholic or not were taken. Male patients were 190(76%) and female patients were 60(24%). Majority of patients were 11-20 years group (39.2%). Most of patients (40%) attended into hospital within 60 hours of ocular trauma. Accidental occupational trauma were more common (51.2%) and assault injury were less common (12.8%). Greater number of ocular trauma was caused by sharp objects (59.2%) and less number of ocular trauma was caused by chemical injuries (2.4%). Open globe injuries were more common (62%) than closed globe injury (38%). Visual acuity on admission between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number (64%) and also on discharge between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number of cases (50%). Most of the patients came from poor socioeconomic group (60%). PMID:21804497
Hossain, M M; Mohiuddin, A A; Akhanda, A H; Hossain, M I; Islam, M F; Akonjee, A R; Ali, M
Over the last two decades, experimental and clinical data have begun to shape a more discriminating approach to intravascular (IV) fluid infusions in the resuscitation of trauma patients with presumed internal hemorrhage. This approach takes into account the presence of potentially uncontrollable hemorrhage (e.g., deep intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic injury) versus a controllable source (e.g. distal extremity wound). This limitation on fluid resuscitation is particularly applicable in the case of patients with penetrating truncal injury being transported rapidly to a nearby definitive care center. Meanwhile, longstanding debates over the type of fluid that should be infused remain largely unresolved and further complicated by recent clinical trials that did not demonstrate support for either hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers or hypertonic saline. However, there is also growing evidence that does support the increased use of fresh frozen plasma as well as tourniquets, and intra-osseous devices. While a more discriminating approach to fluid infusions have evolved, it has also become clear that positive pressure ventilatory support should be limited in the face of potential severe hemorrhage due to the accompanying reductions in venous return. Controversies over prehospital endotracheal tube placement are confounded by this factor as well as the effects of paramedic deployment strategies and related skills usage. Beyond these traditional areas of focus, a number of very compelling clinical observations and an extensive body of experimental data has generated a very persuasive argument that intravenous estrogen and progesterone may be of value in trauma management, particularly severe traumatic brain injury and burns. PMID:21952600
Wigginton, J G; Roppolo, L; Pepe, P E
The association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries is reported to be as high as 89 per cent. Because prior studies were small series or case reports, we conducted a multicenter review to learn the true association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries as well as diagnostic trends. Trauma registry data, medical records, and radiology reports from 7 trauma centers were used to characterize 79 trauma patients with Chance fractures. Initial methods of abdominal assessment were computed tomography (CT) scan (79%), clinical examination (16%), and diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) (5%). Twenty-six (33%) patients had intraabdominal injuries of which hollow viscus injuries predominated (22%). Twenty patients (25%) underwent laparotomy. The presence of an abdominal wall contusion and automobile restraint use were highly predictive of intra-abdominal injury and the need for laparotomy. The association between a Chance fracture and intra-abdominal injury is not as high as previously reported. CT scan has become the primary modality to assess the abdominal cavity of patients with Chance fractures, whereas the role of DPL has diminished. PMID:15986977
Tyroch, Alan H; McGuire, Emmett L; McLean, Susan F; Kozar, Rosemary A; Gates, Keith A; Kaups, Krista L; Cook, Charles; Cowgill, Sarah M; Griswold, John A; Sue, Larry A; Craun, Michael L; Price, Jan
Serious abdominal injuries resulting from sport are rare. The potential for misdiagnosis is significant and the consequences may be serious. Patients with abdominal pain should be taken very seriously and investigated with appropriate diagnostic equipment. Sporting bodies have a responsibility to address safety within a particular sport and to change the rules where necessary as injury patterns are identified. ?????
Ryan, J. M.
The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…
Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.
Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations.
Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto
Operation brain trauma therapy (OBTT) is a multicenter, pre-clinical, drug screening and brain injury biomarker development consortium for TBI. OBTT includes investigators at the Safar Center (University of Pittsburgh), the University of Miami, WRAIR, Vir...
P. M. Kochanek
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) ... someone is thinking about killing themselves, call the Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255) http://www. ...
Partial Contents: MIILITARY NEUROSURGERY- HeaD INJURIES, SPINAL CORD INJURIES, Management of Neurosurgical Casualtes in the Korean War- INTRODUCTORY NOTE, HISTORICAL DATA, ORGANIZATIONAL DATA, CRANIOCerebral Trauma-GeNeRAL COnsiderations DiFFerential Diag...
L. D. Heaton
In response to injury, cells and tissues drive a steady DC ionic current through themselves. This injury current and its associated electrical field is one component in the control system governing the overall tissue response to trauma. We first electroph...
R. B. Borgens
This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Several mathmatical developments at the Chemical Systems Laboratory have revealed new dimensions in the use of shock trauma data to characterize and evaluate the sev...
Presented is a 50-year-old female who sustained a rare blunt traumatic chylothorax. Traumatic chylothoracies are usually the result of penetrating trauma and disruption of the thoracic duct. Diagnosis and treatment are discussed. The diagnosis is sometimes difficult in the trauma setting due to the possible presence of an underlying hemothorax or empyema and the usual delayed onset of chylothorax. Increased vigilance will allow physicians to properly diagnose and treat this condition early to avoid having to ligate the thoracic duct.
Arellano, Jason J.; Takabe, Kazuaki; Barrett, Leonard; Faust, Glenn; Angus, L.D. George
Investigation of paediatric skeletal trauma requires careful consideration of not only the site of injury, but the proposed\\u000a mechanism of trauma and the age of the child. Ultrasound is increasingly being used to detect and delineate musculoskeletal\\u000a injury, either as the primary imaging modality or as an adjunct to other modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI). The advent of high
Background and Objective The regional trauma system with the trauma center as its center is a model for health care networks. However, trauma center maturation has not been defined in the literature. The authors’ hypothesis was that maturation of the trauma center would affect quantitatively both process and patient outcome. Materials and Methods A total of 15,303 trauma patients were admitted from 1987 to 1995. Annual admissions increased from 813 to 2669. Resources were generated as patient volume increased. Time to the operating room, length of stay, and complications were determined. TRISS methodology was used to calculate z scores and w values to compare actual with predicted mortality rates. Results Time to the operating room for laparotomy decreased from 62 ± 73 to 35 ± 47 minutes, from 32 ± 32 to 20 ± 17 minutes in hypotensive patients, and for craniotomy decreased from 88 ± 54 to 67 ± 49 minutes. The incidence of infectious, airway, neurologic, orthopedic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and procedure-related complications declined significantly. Z scores and w values increased for penetrating and blunt injuries. Deaths for patients with ISS >15 declined significantly. Hospital length of stay decreased for all ranges of injury severity. Conclusions As the trauma center matured, the process of delivering patient care became more efficient. The result was improved survival, fewer complications, and a shorter length of stay.
Peitzman, Andrew B.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Stinson, Christine; Udekwu, Anthony O.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Harbrecht, Brian G.
Bowel and mesenteric injuries are relatively uncommon but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition is crucial, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) now has a central role in the evaluation of patients with a history of trauma. In this review, we describe the MDCT appearances of bowel and mesenteric injuries with reference to findings at surgery. Emphasis is placed on the importance of an understanding of mechanism of injury when interpreting CT findings following abdominal trauma. PMID:24606835
Khan, I; Bew, D; Elias, D A; Lewis, D; Meacock, L M
Traumatic abdominal wall herniation (TAWH) caused by direct trauma from bicycle handlebars are rare. There are only 21 reported cases of handlebar hernias. An 11-year-old boy presented to the emergency room soon after falling from his bicycle and hitting his right lower quadrant on the handlebars. The patient’s vital signs and initial laboratory studies were normal. Physical exam showed a
J. Goliath; V. Mittal; J. McDonough
In cases of trauma, medical indexes are used by paramedics to report the condition of the patient to the hospital. Presents a scenario in which students act as paramedics at the scene of an earthquake and use the index called capillary refill to report the severity of the trauma and predict probable survival. (MDH)
Crouse, Richard J.; Sloyer, Clifford W.
Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751
Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention
Jeffrey Bailey; Marc J Shapiro
This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280
Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C
Male athletes seeking improvement in the detail of their abdominal musculature have traditionally utilized vigorous exercise and a tightly controlled diet. Abdominal etching is a technique devised to enhance the appearance of the abdominal musculature by removing fat with liposuction at variable levels. The abdominal musculature is topographically visualized as the linea alba, linea semilunaris, and the transverse tendinous intersections
Henry A. Mentz; Mark D. Gilliland; Christopher K. Patronella
Abdominal aortic injury after blunt trauma is a rare event, as these injuries occur much less frequently than do those of\\u000a the thoracic aorta. We present an unusual case of fatal abdominal aortic compression with presumed compression associated\\u000a with a fracture-dislocation of the T11 vertebral body after a short fall, which to our knowledge is the first reported case\\u000a of
Michael M. Herskowitz; Wen Wang; George Agriantonis
The last several decades have seen many advances in the recognition and prevention of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and its precursor, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). There has also been a relative explosion of knowledge in the critical care, trauma, and surgical populations, and the inception of a society dedicated to its understanding, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). However, there has been almost no recognition or appreciation of the potential presence, influence, and management of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), IAH, and ACS in pregnancy. This review highlights the importance and relevance of IAP in the critically ill parturient, the current lack of normative IAP values in pregnancy today, along with a review of the potential relationship between IAH and maternal diseases such as preeclampsia-eclampsia and its potential impact on fetal development. Finally, current IAP measurement guidelines are questioned, as they do not take into account the gravid uterus and its mechanical impact on intra-vesicular pressure.
Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal
We report a case of fatal abdominal thorotrast granuloma seen in a 65-year-old man who had undergone a femoral angiography of thorotrast with some accidental extravasation 49 years previously. As the thorotrast granuloma gradually increased in size, it caused ureteral obstruction, venous thrombosis, and perforation of the urinary bladder and rectum. Symptomatic abdominal thorotrast granuloma is quite rare and this is the first reported case of the granuloma associated with perforation through the urinary bladder and rectum. PMID:1286232
Ishii, H; Tanaka, A; Nakayama, Y; Kuroda, Y; Kuramoto, H; Ibayashi, H
Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as sustained intra-abdominal pressure greater than 20 mm Hg (with or without abdominal perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg) associated with new organ failure or dysfunction. The syndrome is associated with 90% to 100% mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. Nurses are responsible for accurately measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children with abdominal compartment syndrome and for alerting physicians about important changes. This article provides relevant definitions, outlines risk factors for abdominal compartment syndrome developing in children, and discusses an instructive case involving an adolescent with abdominal compartment syndrome. Techniques for measuring intra-abdominal pressure, normal ranges, and the importance of monitoring in the critical care setting for timely identification of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome also are discussed. PMID:23203955
Newcombe, Jennifer; Mathur, Mudit; Ejike, J Chiaka
This living document, Model Trauma System Planning and Evaluation, is a guide to modern statewide trauma system development. It modernizes the HRSA 1992 Model Trauma Care System Plan. The document is designed to provide trauma care professionals, public h...
Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas.
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.
Optimal care of the injured patient requires the delivery of appropriate, definitive care shortly after injury. Over the last 30 to 40 years, civilian trauma systems and trauma centres have been developed in the United States based on experience gained in military conflicts, particularly in Korea and Vietnam. A similar process is evolving in Canada. National trauma committees in the US and Canada have defined optimal resources to meet the goal of rapid, appropriate care in trauma centres. They have introduced programs (verification or accreditation) to externally audit trauma centre performance based on these guidelines. It is generally accepted that implementing trauma systems results in decreased preventable death and improved survival after trauma. What is less clear is the degree to which each facet of trauma system development contributes to this improvement. The relative importance of national performance guidelines and trauma centre audit as integral steps toward improved outcomes following injury are reviewed. Current Trauma Association of Canada guidelines for trauma centres are presented and the process of trauma centre accreditation is discussed.
Simons, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Andrew
Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.
Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients.
Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas
Resuscitative thoracotomy has an integral role for open cardiac massage and can be preformed after penetrating trauma with cardiovascular collapse. Its role in blunt trauma is questionable. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent an emergency department (ED) resuscitative thoracotomy. The goal was to define the role of resuscitative thoracotomy in blunt trauma at our institution. Forty-two patients underwent a resuscitative thoracotomy, 26 penetrating trauma (61.9%) and 16 blunt trauma (38.1%). Of these (n=16), there were 13 thoracic injuries (81.2%), eight cardiac injuries (50.0%), seven isolated abdominal injuries (43.7%) and 13 multiple (two or more locations) injuries (81.2%). Therapeutic interventions included pericardiotomy in 14 (87.5%), cardiac repair in three (18.7%), and pulmonary laceration repair in two (12.5%). All study patients had signs of life in the field; 13 maintained signs of life in transit (81.3%) and 12 upon admission to ED (75%). Average time from field to ED was 10.72 +/- 5.74 minutes. There were two survivors after blunt trauma (12.5%) and one after penetrating trauma (3.8%). Signs of life in the field and a cardiac repair were independent predictors of survival after blunt trauma (p=0.001 and p=0.004 respectively). We conclude that in select trauma patients after blunt injury with cardiovascular collapse, resuscitative thoracotomy still has a vital role. PMID:19634633
Kalina, Michael; Teeple, Erin; Fulda, Gerard
Advanced abdominal pregnancies with live twin fetuses are extremely rare and are misdiagnosed in up to 60% of the cases. Such a case is presented here, highlighting the diagnostic and management challenges encountered. A high index of suspicion in making the diagnosis of this rare variety of ectopic pregnancy, emphasizing adherence to basic imaging principles, and appropriate placental management is very important in reducing the associated morbidity and mortality.
Mpogoro, FJ; Gumodoka, B; Kihunrwa, A; Massinde, AN
We examined relations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with dimensions of trauma, including environment (Domestic vs. Community) and proximity (Indirect vs. Direct trauma) among inner-city youth. Participants (n = 65) reported traumatic events they had experienced on a version of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index Trauma Exposure Screen, and reported PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Checklist--Civilian version (PCL-C). High rates of trauma and PTSD were found, consistent with other reports of inner-city youth. The 49% of youth surveyed met criteria for PTSD on the PCL-C symptom scale with a score cutoff of 35. Females reported elevated PTSD symptom scores and a higher incidence of Domestic trauma than did males but similar incidence of other trauma types. When males and females were combined, Domestic trauma significantly correlated with each of the PTSD symptom clusters of intrusions, numbing/avoidance, and hyperarousal. When participants with Community trauma were excluded from analyses to reduce confounding environmental influence, Domestic trauma marginally correlated with numbing/avoidance symptoms. Our findings suggest that Domestic trauma may result in more emotional numbing/avoidance symptoms than other types of trauma. Further analyses suggested that Community trauma may result in more intrusions and hyperarousal symptoms rather than emotional numbing. Environmental aspects of trauma, rather than the proximity of trauma, may have greater impact on presentation of PTSD. Future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24834747
Post, Marina; Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Schmidt, Adam T; Avci, Gunes; Wilde, Elisabeth A; McCauley, Stephen R
Trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and acute blood loss contributes to a large portion of mortality in the early post-trauma period. The recognition of lethal triad of coagulopathy, hypothermia and acidosis has led to the concepts of damage control surgery and resuscitation. Recent experience with managing polytrauma victims from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars has led to a few significant changes in clinical practice. Simultaneously, transfusion practices in the civilian settings have also been extensively studied retrospectively and prospectively in the last decade. Early treatment of coagulopathy with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells (FFP:platelet:RBC), prevention and early correction of hypothermia and acidosis, monitoring of hemostasis using point of care tests like thromoboelastometry, use of recombinant activated factor VII, antifibrinolytic drugs like tranexamic acid are just some of the emerging trends. Further studies, especially in the civilian trauma centers, are needed to confirm the lessons learned in the military environment. Identification of patients likely to need massive transfusion followed by immediate preventive and therapeutic interventions to prevent the development of coagulopathy could help in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled hemorrhage in trauma patients. PMID:22096774
Bhananker, Sanjay M; Ramaiah, Ramesh
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…
Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan
INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is a rare entity. Most cases occur in children, following an injury from the bicycle handle bar. In adults, it usually results from road traffic accidents (RTA). We present one of the largest reported cases of TAWH following RTA managed by delayed mesh repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 35 yr old obese male with RTA was diagnosed with TAWH with 19 cm × 15 cm defect in left flank. As there were no intra abdominal injuries and overlying skin was abraded, he was planned for elective repair after 6 months. On exploration a defect of 30 cm × 45 cm was found extending from midline anteriorly to 8 cm short of midline posteriorly in transverse axis and costal margin to iliac crest in craniocaudal axis. After restoration of bowel into abdominal cavity, primary closure or even approximation of muscular defect was not possible thus a mesh closure using 60 cm × 60 cm prolene mesh in subcutaneous plane was done. After 4 months follow up, patient is healthy and has no recurrence. DISCUSSION Emergent surgical management of TAWH is usually favoured due to high incidence of associated intra abdominal injuries. Delayed repair may be undertaken in selected cases. CONCLUSION TAWH, although rare, should be suspected in cases of RTA with abdominal wall swellings. With time, the hernia defect may enlarge and muscles may undergo atrophy making delayed repair difficult.
Yadav, Siddharth; Jain, Sunil K.; Arora, Jainendra K.; Sharma, Piyush; Sharma, Abhinav; Bhagwan, Jai; Goyal, Kaushal; Sahoo, Bhabani S.
Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.
As members of an American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma-designated level II trauma center, we decided to review our experience with vascular trauma. In addition, we sought to characterize the vascular injuries presented and to compare our outcomes to the general trauma population.A review of all vascular trauma admissions from January 1997 through January 2000 was performed. The William Beaumont Army Medical Center (WBAMC) trauma registry data base was searched for vascular injuries utilizing 3 different search criteria: organ system, operation/procedure, and ICD-9 codes. Injuries were then characterized by age, gender, site of injury, injury severity score (ISS), mechanism, and need for surgery. Mortality rates were computed for both vascular and nonvascular trauma populations. Statistical analysis of the data was determined by Student t test and z score.Between January 1997 and January 2000, there were 1398 patients admitted to the trauma service at WBAMC. Of these, 48 patients (3.4%) had vascular injuries. The mean ISS for all nonvascular traumas was 8.4 +/- 8.9. The mean ISS for those with vascular injuries was 17.9 +/- 12.6 (p < 0.001). Blunt trauma accounted for 90% of all nonvascular admissions. Penetrating trauma accounted for 10% of all nonvascular admissions. In the vascular trauma population, blunt trauma accounted for 56% and penetrating trauma accounted for 39%. Five percent of the vascular injuries identified were iatrogenic. Surgical intervention was required in 85.4% and 44.2% of the vascular and nonvascular trauma populations, respectively. The mortality rate for nonvascular admissions was 4.8% (65/1350). Those with vascular injuries had a mortality rate of 20.8% (10/48). For trauma patients requiring an operation, the mortality rate was 4.5% (27/597). For patients with vascular injuries who required an operation, the mortality rate was 25.7% (9/35) (p = 0.007).Vascular trauma represents a small percentage of all trauma admissions. These patients have a higher ISS on admission and more of them require surgical intervention. The operative and overall mortality rates are higher in patients with vascular injuries than in the general trauma population. PMID:11120308
The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556
Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia
A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described.
Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of wound dehiscence after repeat trauma laparotomy. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult trauma patients who underwent laparotomy at an urban level 1 trauma center during the past 5 years. Patients were divided into single (SL) and multiple laparotomy (ML) groups. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. Data were analyzed using chi2, t testing, and ANOVA. Overall dehiscence rate was 0.7 per cent. Multiple laparotomy patients had damage control, staged management of their injuries, or abdominal compartment syndrome as the reason for reexploration. SL and ML patients had similar age and sex. ML patients had a higher rate of intra-abdominal abscess than SL patients (13.7% vs 1.2% P < 0.0001), but intra-abdominal abscess did not predict wound dehiscence in the ML group (P = 0.24). This was true in spite of the fact that ML patients had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) than SL patients (21.68 vs 14.35, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, wound infection did not predict dehiscence. Patients undergoing repeat laparotomy after trauma are at increased risk for wound dehiscence. This risk appears to be associated with intraabdominal abscess and ISS, but not wound infection. Surgeons should leave the skin open in the setting of repeat trauma laparotomy, which will allow serial assessment of the integrity of the fascial closure. PMID:15986970
Swaroop, Mamta; Williams, Michael; Greene, Wendy Ricketts; Sava, Jack; Park, Kenneth; Wang, Dennis
We report two cases of penetrating thoraco-abdominal injuries who presented to our trauma centre. One with stab to lower left chest and the other one had pallet injury to right upper abdomen. The clinical presentation, radiological investigations and operative intervention are reviewed. PMID:24841025
Donati-Bourne, Jack; Bader, Mohammad I; Parikh, Dakshesh; Jester, Ingo
Intra-abdominal infections are more common in the elderly and carry greater associated morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a Intra-abdominal infections in the elderly have atypical presentations, frequently resulting in delayed diagnosis. The absence\\u000a of any one symptom or sign rarely excludes a diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Obstruction of a hollow viscus, followed by distension, ischemia, and bacterial proliferation is a common pathophysiologic\\u000a evolution in the infections
Meghann L. Kaiser; Samuel Eric Wilson
Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images
Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj
Background Emergency laparoscopic exploration can be used to identify the causative pathology of acute abdominal pain. Laparoscopic surgery\\u000a also allows treatment of many intraabdominal disorders. This report was prepared to describe the effectiveness of laparoscopic\\u000a surgery compared to laparotomy or nonoperative treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A panel of European experts in abdominal and gynecological surgery was assembled and participated in a consensus conference\\u000a using
S. Sauerland; F. Agresta; R. Bergamaschi; G. Borzellino; A. Budzynski; G. Champault; A. Fingerhut; A. Isla; M. Johansson; P. Lundorff; B. Navez; S. Saad; E. A. M. Neugebauer
Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use. PMID:19505417
Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F
Increased level of in vivo thrombin activity represents the essential mark of prethrombotic state. In order to assess the influence of surgical trauma on the constitution of prethrombotic state immediately after the surgical intervention, dynamic estimations of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) have been done in a group of 18 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery and in the group of 25 patients who underwent the replacement of artificial hip, and who were on preventive treatment with subcutaneous heparin. At the same time the presence of soluble fibrinmonomer complex and, in the group of patients on heparin treatment, the concentration of plasma heparin were examined. The investigations were done before the surgical intervention and on the first, third and seventh postoperative day. Our dynamic study showed the existence of certain relation between the surgical trauma and values of FPA which were the expression of intensity of in vivo thrombin activity. The mean values of FPA increased markedly on the first postoperative day in comparison with the preoperative levels. On the third postoperative day significant reduction of FPA was observed and on the seventh day marked increase was found only in patients who were not on heparin prevention. Although preventive application of subcutaneous heparin did not affect the whole blood coagulability it showed a suppressive impact on the thrombin activity level in examined surgical patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2465225
Luci?, A; Povazan, L; Beri?-Maskarel, K; Krajcinovi?, J; Lazi?, R; Canak, V; Filipov, P
When a new student first begins to push flies, an immediate skill that must be learned is sorting the sexes. In Drosophila melanogaster several sexually dimorphic characters can be used to readily distinguish males from females including abdominal pigmentation, male sex combs and genital morphology. Another, often-overlooked, sexual dimorphism is adult abdominal segment number. Externally, adult Drosophila males possess one fewer abdominal segment than females; the terminal pre-genital segment apparently either absent or fused with the next-most anterior segment. Beyond known roles for the homeotic protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B) and the sex-determining transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) as key regulators of this trait, surprisingly little is known about either the morphogenetic processes or the downstream genetics responsible for patterning these events. We have explored both and found that rapid epithelial reorganization during pupation eliminates a nascent terminal male segment. We found this Abd-B-dependent process results from sex- and segment-specific regulation of diverse developmental targets including the wingless gene and surprisingly, dsx itself.1,2 Here, I review our observations and discuss this trait as a model to explore both dynamics of epithelial morphogenesis as well as the evolution of developmental mechanisms.
Yoder, John H.
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psy- chiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely repre- sents a heterogenous group of disorders, peripheral neu- ropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain
DOUGLAS A. DROSSMAN; EMERAN A. MAYER; QASIM AZIZ; DAN L. DUMITRASCU; HUBERT MÖNNIKES; BRUCE D. NALIBOFF
Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume
Andrea Aliverti; Dario Bovio; Irene Fullin; Raffaele L. Dellacà; Antonella Lo Mauro; Antonio Pedotti; Peter T. Macklem; Fabien Tell
Trauma has assumed epidemic proportion. 10% of global road accident deaths occur in India. Hypoxia and airway mismanagement are known to contribute up to 34% of pre-hospital deaths in these patients. A high degree of suspicion for actual or impending airway obstruction should be assumed in all trauma patients. Objective signs of airway compromise include agitation, obtundation, cyanosis, abnormal breath sound and deviated trachea. If time permits, one should carry out a brief airway assessment prior to undertaking definitive airway management in these patients. Simple techniques for establishing and maintaining airway patency include jaw thrust maneuver and/or use of oro- and nas-opharyngeal airways. All attempts must be made to perform definitive airway management whenever airway is compromised that is not amenable to simple strategies. The selection of airway device and route- oral or -nasal, for tracheal intubation should be based on nature of patient injury, experience and skill level.
Khan, Rashid M; Sharma, Pradeep K; Kaul, Naresh
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a patient with multiple injuries involves a different approach than in a nontrauma\\u000a patient. Although the basic principles are the same as dealt with in other chapters of this book, CPR in the trauma victim\\u000a has to address prevention of cardiopulmonary failure from problems exclusive to the injured patient. This chapter concentrates\\u000a on these issues and
Rao R. Ivatury; Kevin R. Ward
Distortions and inversions of Kohut's phase of grandiosity play a major role in multi-generational patterns of child-abuse and neglect. Such families are considered ‘upside down’ in their organization: parents enact unmet needs for mirroring and grandiose assertion, while the child experiences anxiety and endures a split between defensive compliance and a turbulent, trauma-ridden inner life. Within the space of this
William J. Purcell
Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…
Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.
Trauma remains the leading cause of death under the age of 35 years. England and Wales lost 252,000 working years from accidental deaths, including poison, in 1992. In this country, preventable deaths from trauma are inappropriately high. In many hospitals there are not enough personnel; in the majority, there are no recognisable trauma care systems, which can reduce preventable deaths to a minimum. The appropriateness of trauma centres for this country is being assessed in Stoke-on-Trent, and a report is due out later this year. Even if the recommendation is made to establish such centres, it is unlikely that many will be set up. Consequently most hospitals will have to rely on their own resources to set up and run a trauma team. This type of trauma care system is the subject of this article.
Adedeji, O. A.; Driscoll, P. A.
Split-thickness skin graft coverage of exposed and granulating intestines within large abdominal wall defects provides a life-saving permanent biologic dressing. The resultant abdominal wall defect often is closed with mesh, which may infect and fistulize. This report describes bilateral advancement flaps of the external oblique and recti muscles in 11 patients treated over 3 years. The defects, which averaged 16 x 24 cm, were due to necrotizing fasciitis subsequent to trauma with bowel perforation (3 patients), multiple ventral herniorrhaphies (2 patients), perforated diverticulitis (4 patients), and perforated peptic ulcer (2 patients). Eight patients were initially treated elsewhere where closure was achieved by split-thickness skin graft in five patients or mesh in 3 patients; 3 developed enterocutaneous fistulae and were transferred for closure while receiving long-term antibiotic and total parenteral nutrition therapy. All 11 patients had successful primary closure. The 8 patients operated on electively had primary healing; 2 developed seromas. Two of the three patients operated on urgently developed superficial wound infections; both healed by second intent without compromise of the primary closure. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the linea alba survives despite necrotizing fasciitis, (2) a tension-free primary closure is feasible; (3) morbidity is minimal, and (4) the long-term result is excellent. PMID:9655268
Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M
Background Trauma occurs in 7% of pregnancies and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the mother and fetus. Objectives The present study was conducted in Kashan in 2009–2010 to evaluate the causes of trauma in pregnancy. Patients and Methods This descriptive study analyzed data from 32 pregnant women with trauma who were referred to the maternity hospital from 2009 to 2010. Data included age, gestational age, mother’s occupation, cause of trauma, maternal-fetal complications, gravidity, and parity. The diagnosis of maternal and fetal complications was based on clinical examinations by a gynecologist and results of blood tests, urine analysis tests, and sonography. Data were analyzed as frequency distributions. Results the causes of trauma included falling (9 cases (28.1%)), abdominal trauma (8 cases ( 25%)), spousal feud (3 cases (9.4%)), motorcycle accident (2 cases (6.25%)), car accident (2 cases (6.25%)), falling from a motorcycle (2 cases (6.25%)), falling or fainting resulting in head trauma (1 case (3.1%)), pain from crossing over a bump in the car (1 cases (3.1%)), and unspecified causes (4 cases (12.55%)). The causes of traumas occurred between 5 and 40 weeks of gestation. In 17.2% of the cases, trauma occurred prior to 20 weeks of gestation. However, there was no significant relationship between the cause of trauma and maternal age or gestational age. Vaginal bleeding and retroplacental clots were reported in 2 (6.25%) cases and 1 (3.1%) case, respectively. Conclusions Nearly half of the women presenting with trauma had experienced spousal feud or domestic violence; therefore, it is necessary to recognize spousal abuse and provide adequate support to traumatized pregnant women.
Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Sooky, Zahra; Mesdaghinia, Azam
Because exposure to potentially traumatic events is common (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, & Hughes, 1995), the mechanisms through which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms develop is a critical area of investigation (Ozer, Best, Lipsey, & Weiss, 2003). Among the mechanisms that may predict PTSD symptoms is spiritual struggle, a set of negative religious cognitions related to understanding or responding to stressful events. Although prominent theories emphasize cognitive factors in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, they have not explicitly addressed spiritual struggle. The present prospective study tested the role of spiritual struggle in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms following trauma. We assessed exposure to trauma and non-trauma events during the first year of college, spiritual struggle due to the most stressful event, and PTSD symptoms resulting from the index event. Spiritual struggle partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms. Interestingly, some individual subscales of spiritual struggle (specifically, Punishing God Reappraisal, Reappraisal of God's Powers, and Spiritual Discontent) partially mediated the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptoms; however, reappraisal of the event to evil forces did not relate to PTSD symptoms. These results suggest that spiritual struggle is an important cognitive mechanism for many trauma victims and may have relevance for cognitive therapy for PTSD. PMID:22308201
Wortmann, Jennifer H; Park, Crystal L; Edmondson, Donald
A medical partnership program between Boston University School of Medicine and the Emergency Hospital, of Yerevan, armenia, has been developed to improve the care of the injured in that city. The Emergency Hospital, a trauma center, was site-visited by experts from a Level I trauma center who evaluated prehospital and hospital-based emergency and trauma services and made system-wide recommendations. Recognizing
Erwin F. Hirsch; Kirsten Levy
Despite the prevalence of blunt hepatic trauma in humans, there are few rodent models of blunt trauma that can be used to study the associated inflammatory responses. We present a mouse model of blunt hepatic trauma that was created by using a cortical contusion device. Male mice were anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine and placed in left lateral recumbency. A position of 2 mm ventral to the posterior axillary line and 5 mm caudal to the costal margin on the right side was targeted for impact. An impact velocity of 6 m/s and a piston depth of 12 mm produced a consistent pattern of hepatic injury with low mortality. All mice that recovered from anesthesia survived without complication for the length of the study. Mice were euthanized at various time points (n = 5 per group) until 7 d after injury for gross examination and collection of blood and peritoneal lavage fluids. Some mice were reanesthetized for serial monitoring of hepatic lesions via MRI. At 2 h after trauma, mice consistently displayed laceration, hematoma, and discoloration of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, with intraabdominal hemorrhage but no other gross injuries. Blood and peritoneal lavage fluid were collected from all mice for cytokine analysis. At 2 h after trauma, there were significant increases in plasma IL10 as well as peritoneal lavage fluid IL6 and CXCL1/KC; however, these levels decreased within 24 h. At 7 d after trauma, the mice had regained body weight, and the hepatic lesions, which initially had increased in size during the first 48 h, had returned to their original size. In summary, this technique produced a reliable, low mortality, murine model that recreates features of blunt abdominal liver injury in human subjects with similar acute inflammatory response. PMID:24210016
Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A; Hwang, Haejin; Hampel, Joseph A; Yu, Bi; Raghavendran, Krishnan
Objective: To describe risks for, and microbiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of, war trauma associated infections from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Background: The invasion of Iraq resulted in casualties from high-velocity gunshot, shrapnel, and blunt trauma injuries as well as burns. Infectious complications of these unique war trauma injuries have not been described since the 1970s. Methods: Retrospective record review of all trauma casualties 5 to 65 years of age evacuated from the Iraqi theatre to U.S. Navy hospital ship, USNS Comfort March to May 2003.War trauma-associated infection was defined by positive culture from a wound or sterile body fluid (ie, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) and at least two of the following infection-associated signs/symptoms: fever, dehiscence, foul smell, peri-wound erythema, hypotension, and leukocytosis. A comparison of mechanisms of injury, demographics, and clinical variables was done using multivariate analysis. Results: Of 211 patients, 56 met criteria for infection. Infections were more common in blast injuries, soft tissue injuries, >3 wound sites, loss of limb, abdominal trauma, and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS). Wound infections accounted for 84% of cases, followed by bloodstream infections (38%). Infected were more likely to have had fever prior to arrival, and had higher probability of ICU admission and more surgical procedures. Acinetobacter species (36%) were the predominant organisms followed by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species (14% each). Conclusions: Similar to the Vietnam War experience, gram-negative rods, particularly Acinetobacter species, accounted for the majority of wound infections cared for on USNS Comfort during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Multidrug resistance was common, with the exception of the carbapenem class, limiting antibiotic therapy options.
Petersen, Kyle; Riddle, Mark S.; Danko, Janine R.; Blazes, David L.; Hayden, Richard; Tasker, Sybil A.; Dunne, James R.
Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize. If bilateral, adrenal trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality. In the past, before the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult, and the diagnosis was often made only at surgery or postmortem. Today, the diagnosis of adrenal injuries can be quickly and accurately made with CT. This retrospective review was carried out to identify, describe, and analyze different CT appearances of adrenal injuries and correlated with associated injuries and observed clinical context and outcomes. A patient cohort of CT-detected adrenal injuries was identified through a radiology software research tool by searching for keywords in radiology reports. The identified CT scans were reviewed and correlated with the patients' available clinical chart data and follow-up. Between April 1995 and October 2004, 73 cases of CT-detected adrenal injuries were identified, including 48 men and 25 women, with an age range 6 to 90 years and a mean age of 42.7 years. Of the cases, 77% were right-sided, 15% were left-sided, and 8% were bilateral. The causes of injuries were motor vehicle collisions (75%), falls (14%), sports related (4%), and miscellaneous causes (7%). Associated trauma included injuries of the liver (43%), spleen (23%), lung (19%), and kidney (18%), as well as pneumothoraces/hemothoraces (22%). Skeletal injuries included fractures of the ribs, clavicles, and/or scapulae (39%), pelvis and hips (30%), and the spine (23%). Isolated adrenal trauma was seen in only 4% of the cases. The CT findings of adrenal trauma were focal hematoma (30%), indistinct (27%) or enlarged (18%) adrenal gland, gross (15%) or focal (7%) adrenal hemorrhage, and adrenal mass (11%). Associated CT findings included periadrenal fat stranding (93%), retroperitoneal hemorrhage (22%), and thickened diaphragmatic crura (10%). Active adrenal bleeding was seen in one case (1.4%). The incidence of adrenal trauma was estimated to be 0.86%. Surgical management was required only for the associated injuries. The most common CT manifestations of adrenal trauma include focal hematoma, indistinct or ill-defined adrenal gland, adrenal enlargement or mass, and gross or focal adrenal hemorrhage in a normal-sized gland. Periadrenal stranding is very common. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage and crural thickening are also important associated findings. Operative intervention is typically required only for the associated injuries, which commonly accompany adrenal trauma. PMID:17252249
Sinelnikov, Alex O; Abujudeh, Hani H; Chan, David; Novelline, Robert A
BACKGROUND: In 1990, Ramirez introduced a new procedure to close abdominal wall hernia (AWH), called “components separation technique (CST)”. Thanks to endoscopy, surgical repair possibilities have risen, reducing the operative trauma and preserving vascular and neuronal anatomical structures. This report aims to describe a single port endoscopic approach for CST to repair the abdominal wall of a patient undergoing surgery for abdominal aneurysm and already subject to placement of a mesh for AWH. METHODS: We performed endoscopic-assisted CST, using a single-port access with a gasless technique. CONCLUSION: CST is a useful procedure to close large abdominal wall incisional hernia avoiding the use of mesh, notably under contamination, when prosthetic material use is contraindicated. The endoscopic-assisted CST produces same results than the conventional open separation technique and also minimised tissue trauma that ensures blood supply and prevents postoperative wounds complications. The described single port method was found to be safe and effective to close large midline abdominal hernias when a primary open or laparoscopic closure is not feasible or when patients have been previously treated with abdominal meshes.
Rulli, Francesco; Villa, Massimo; Tucci, Gianfranco
As a whole, abdominal surgeons possess excellent videoendoscopic surgical skills. However, the limitations of laparoscopy—such as reduced range of motion and instrument dexterity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field—have inspired even the most accomplished laparoscopists to investigate the potential of surgical robotics to broaden their application of the minimally invasive surgery paradigm. This review discusses data obtained from articles
Eric J. Hanly; Mark A. Talamini
Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery.
Sofocleous, Constantinos T., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip [New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Section of Vascular and Interventional, Department of Radiology (United States); Schubert, Johanna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapies (United States)
AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the preoperative diagnostic approaches and management of colonic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS: A total of 82 patients with colonic injuries caused by blunt trauma between January 1992 and December 2005 were enrolled. Data were collected on clinical presentation, investigations, diagnostic methods, associated injuries, and operative management. Colonic injury-related mortality and abdominal complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Colonic injuries were caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. Of the 82 patients, 58 (70.3%) had other associated injuries. Laparotomy was performed within 6 h after injury in 69 cases (84.1%), laparoscopy in 3 because of haemodynamic instability. The most commonly injured site was located in the transverse colon. The mean colon injury scale score was 2.8. The degree of faecal contamination was classified as mild in 18 (22.0%), moderate in 42 (51.2%), severe in 14 (17.1%), and unknown in 8 (9.8%) cases. Sixty-seven patients (81.7%) were treated with primary repair or resection and anastomosis. Faecal stream diversion was performed in 15 cases (18.3%). The overall mortality rate was 6.1%. The incidence of colonic injury-related abdominal complications was 20.7%. The only independent predictor of complications was the degree of peritoneal faecal contamination (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Colonic injuries following blunt trauma are especially important because of the severity and complexity of associated injuries. A thorough physical examination and a combination of tests can be used to evaluate the indications for laparotomy. One stage management at the time of initial exploration is most often used for colonic injuries.
Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Chen, Li; Tao, Si-Feng; Song, Ping; Xu, Shao-Ming
This 1000-page book contains over 1700 illustrations, is presented in two volumes and subdivided into 23 chapters. After brief chapters of Introduction and General Anatomy, a section on Skeletal Biomechanics is presented. The Epidemiology of Fractures chapter examines, among other things, the effects of age on the frequency and distribution of fractures. In the chapter on Classifications of Fractures, the author describes the character of traumatic forces such as angulating, torsional, avulsive, and compressive, and then relates these to the resultant fracture configurations. The Fracture Treatment chapter presents an overview of treatment principles. Other chapters deal with specific problems in pediatric trauma, fracture healing and nonhealing, and fracture complications.
Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…
Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.
Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma.
Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.
Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.
Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is common and presents with varied symptoms. Pleural effusion as a complication of physical abuse has not been described in the past. We report the case of a 10-week-old infant who presented with multiple nonspecific complaints that included respiratory distress, refusal to feed, constipation, and lethargy. Sepsis was the working diagnosis on admission, but a massive pleural effusion and rib fractures seen on chest imaging ultimately led to the diagnosis of nonaccidental trauma. This interesting case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for abuse irrespective of atypical presenting signs. PMID:22217891
Sagar, Malvika; Shukla, Samarth; Bradley-Dodds, Kelly
Historical consideration will cover four periods in the history of trauma: the precursors; the founders; the upholders; the innovators. A necessary distinction between stress and trauma will then be made so as to better conceive the notion of trauma.
N. Chidiac; L. Crocq
Objective: To determine the causes of acute abdominal pain in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to compare the clinical and laboratory data, especially antiphospholipid antibodies and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), between lupus enteritis (gastrointestinal vasculitis) and acute abdominal pain without lupus enteritis in patients with SLE.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out for all patients admitted with SLE
C-K Lee; M S Ahn; E Y Lee; J H Shin; Y-S Cho; H K Ha; B Yoo; H-B Moon
Urinary bladder ruptures (UBR) typically result from either blunt or penetrating trauma, or from iatrogenic surgical injuries. Patients typically present with symptoms including lower abdominal pain, haematuria, dysuria and anuria. Here, we report on a rare case of spontaneous bladder perforation. A 60-year-old, Caucasian woman initially presented with lower abdominal pain and diarrhoea, and was subsequently found to have an elevated serum creatinine level. A CT cystogram revealed a leak from the bladder. The patient consented to exploratory laparotomy and repair of the non-traumatic bladder perforation. At the time of the last follow-up, given the fact that the patient's urodynamics were unremarkable and that she was emptying her bladder well (repeat postvoid residual was zero), the patient was informed that she did not require future urological follow-up unless difficulties arise. PMID:24925535
Cusano, Antonio; Abarzua-Cabezas, Fernando; Meraney, Anoop
OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate the long-term trends in the use of angiography and embolization for abdominopelvic injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Utilization rates for pelvic and abdominal angiography, arterial embolization, and CT were analyzed for trauma patients with pelvic fractures and liver and kidney injuries admitted to a level 1 trauma center from 1996 to 2010. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate trends in the use of angioembolization. RESULTS. A total of 9145 patients were admitted for abdominopelvic injuries during the study period. Pelvic angiography decreased annually by 5.0% (95% CI, -6.4% to -3.7%) from 1996 to 2002 and by 1.8% (-2.4% to -1.2%) from 2003 to 2010. Embolization rates for these patients varied from 49% in 1997 to 100% in 2010. Utilization of pelvic CT on the day of admission increased significantly during this period. Abdominal angiography for liver and kidney injuries decreased annually by 3.3% (95% CI, -4.8% to -1.8%) and 2.0% (-4.3% to 0.3%) between 1996 and 2002 and by 0.8% (95% CI, -1.4% to -0.1%) and 0.9% (-2.0% to 0.1%) from 2003 to 2010, respectively. Embolization rates ranged from 25% in 1999 to 100% in 2010 for liver injuries and from 0% in 1997 to 80% in 2002 for kidney injuries. Abdominal CT for liver and kidney injuries on the day of admission also increased. CONCLUSION. A significant decrease in angiography use for trauma patients with pelvic fractures, liver injuries, and kidney injuries from 1996 to 2010 and a trend toward increasing embolization rates among patients who underwent angiography were found. These findings reflect a declining role of angiography for diagnostic purposes and emphasize the importance of angiography as a means to embolization for management. PMID:24848853
Roudsari, Bahman S; Psoter, Kevin J; Padia, Siddharth A; Kogut, Matthew J; Kwan, Sharon W
The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM). We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium), family history, social (alcohol, smoking) or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging. PMID:23256650
Vyas, Dinesh; Pihl, Kerent; Kavuturu, Srinivas; Vyas, Arpita
Intraabdominal fat is a metabolically active tissue that may undergo necrosis through a number of mechanisms. Fat necrosis is a common finding at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic findings of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include torsion of an epiploic appendage, infarction of the greater omentum, and fat necrosis related to trauma or pancreatitis. In addition, other pathologic processes that involve fat may be visualized at computed tomography, including focal lipohypertrophy, pathologic fat paucity (lipodystrophies), and malignancies such as liposarcoma, which may mimic benign causes of fat stranding. Because fat necrosis and malignant processes such as liposarcoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis may mimic one another, knowledge of a patient's clinical history and prior imaging studies is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:22084185
Kamaya, Aya; Federle, Michael P; Desser, Terry S
This review considers current trauma scoring systems and databases and their relevance to improving patient care. Single physiological measures such as systolic arterial pressure have limited ability to diagnose severe trauma by reflecting raised intracranial pressure, or significant haemorrhage. The Glasgow coma score has the greatest prognostic value in head-injured and other trauma patients. Trauma triage tools and imaging decision rules-using combinations of physiological cut-off measures with mechanism of injury and other categorical variables-bring both increased sophistication and increased complexity. It is important for clinicians and managers to be aware of the diagnostic properties (over- and under-triage rates) of any triage tool or decision rule used in their trauma system. Trauma registries are able to collate definitive injury descriptors and use survival prediction models to guide trauma system governance, through individual patient review and case-mix-adjusted benchmarking of hospital and network performance with robust outlier identification. Interrupted time series allow observation in the changes in care processes and outcomes at national level, which can feed back into clinical quality-based commissioning of healthcare. Registry data are also a valuable resource for trauma epidemiological and comparative effectiveness research studies. PMID:25038159
Lecky, F; Woodford, M; Edwards, A; Bouamra, O; Coats, T
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children aged 1 to 21 years. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury. Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution, and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system after severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of trauma-induced coagulopathy that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507
Christiaans, Sarah C; Duhachek-Stapelman, Amy L; Russell, Robert T; Lisco, Steven J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Pittet, Jean-François
The development of disseminated (miliary) abdominal tuberculosis (TB) in patients following operations which affect their immunity, such as laparoscopic gastric bypass, is rare. The authors report the case of middle aged woman, who a few months after undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity (body mass index 49), presented with generalised fatigability and abnormal liver function. A CT scan
Khalid Alhajri; Nasser Alzerwi; Khalid Alsaleh; Hussam Bin Yousef; Mohamed Alzaben
Recent reports suggest an increased incidence of abdominal tuberculosis in the United States, particularly in high-risk groups.\\u000a The aim of this study was to review the spectrum of abdominal tuberculosis and its surgical management at a tertiary referral\\u000a center in the United States. The medical records of patients treated for abdominal tuberculosis at our institution between\\u000a January 1992 and June
Imran Hassan; Emmanouil S. Brilakis; Rodney L. Thompson; Florencia G. Que
Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury.
Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato
Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury. PMID:23986858
Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato
A 37-year-old woman who sustained blunt chest trauma as a result of a car accident was found unconscious at the accident site with signs of circulatory compromise. Computed tomographic trauma screening excluded thoracic, intracranial, and intra-abdominal bleeding, or other pathologic findings, except a small circumferential hemopericardium. Echocardiography revealed a hemopericardium that was partially clotted and the beginning of compression of the right ventricle. Because of progressive hemodynamic compromise, the decision was made for operative exploration. After a median sternotomy, the resultant excessive bleeding necessitated extracorporeal circulation. Careful inspection revealed isolated rupture of the upper right pulmonary vein, which was successfully repaired. PMID:21440159
Ouda, Ahmed; Kappert, Utz; Ghazy, Tamer; Weise, Matthias; Ebner, Bernd; Tugtekin, Sems-Malte; Matschke, Klaus
Victims of traumatic events who experience re-traumatization often develop a highly ambivalent relationship to God and all religiosity as extremely conflictual. On the one hand, they may choose to blame God for not having protected them, for having left them to feel so alone, for having been indifferent to them or they may even turn their wrath upon God, as the source of cruelty. Often though, the traumas experienced by individuals prompt them to turn to God and religion in search of help. This gives reason for the need of new and up-to-date research that can help elucidate why some people choose to seek help in religion and others turn away from it. PMID:23187617
Goste?nik, Christian; Slavi?, Tanja Repi?; Lukek, Saša Poljak; Cvetek, Robert
Tournament water skiing is an increasingly popular and internationally successful sport in Great Britain, despite the climate. The kinematics and injury patterns of the three disciplines will be unfamiliar to most clinicians and are described, with estimation of the stresses. Advances in equipment over the last 15 years have reduced the risk of severe injury in the tricks event, while high speed impacts are responsible for the majority of trauma in slalom and jump. There is a surprisingly high incidence of injury to the lumbar spine during the high impact jump event. Comparison with findings in other sports suggests that the spine may be damaged by overuse, particularly before skeletal maturity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7
Roberts, S N; Roberts, P M
Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a magnetic resonance imaging-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application of MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, it offers a safer, less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that it is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and the pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062
Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Ehman, Richard L
Eighty two aortic replacements of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms have been performed during the last 6 years. There were 72 male and 10 female patients, and the average age was 71.33 years. Hemorrhagic shock on the admission was observed in 45 patients, and 13 have been operated urgently without any diagnostic procedures. The transperitoneal approach have been used for the operation. Two aorto duodenal and one aorto caval fistulas, have been found. Only exploration (three patients died immediately after laparotomy and 6 after cross clamping) has been done in 9 cases, and the aortic replacement in 70 cases (27 with tubular, and 43 with bifurcated graft). In 3 cases and axillobifemoral bypass had to be done. During the operation eleven patients died, and 30 in postoperative period, during the period between one and 40 days. Total intrahospital mortality rate was 50%, compared with 3.5% for 250 electively operated patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms in same period. In postoperative period the most important cause of death was multiple organs failures. Statistically significant greater mortality rate (p > 0.01%) was found in cases of late operative treatment, hemorrhagic shock, intra-operational bleeding, ruptured front wall, suprarenal cross clamping and in patients older than 75 year. In complicated cases such as juxtarenal aneurysm, 3 sutures parachute technique for proximal anastomosis, a temporary transection of the left renal vein, and intraaortal balloon occlusive catheter for proximal bleeding control are recommended. PMID:10951761
Lotina, S I; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Stojanov, P L; Velimirovi?, D B; Djuki?, P L; Cinara, I S; Vojnovi?, B M; Savi?, D V
Approximately 50% of children under the age of 15 are victims of various kinds of injuries in the orofacial region. Post-traumatic complications may occur, including crown discolouration, cervical root fracture, ankylosis, root resorption and tooth loss. The most severe complication after dental injury in primary dentition can affect the developing permanent tooth germ, and various consequences may be seen several years later when the permanent tooth erupts. In the permanent dentition, the most severe dental injury affects the surrounding alveolar bone structure and will lead to loss of the tooth. Current literature emphasises that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory and that delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should a paediatrician know, and more importantly, how should he/she advise parents and caretakers? In an emergency situation such as tooth avulsion, reimplantation within 30 min is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If reimplantation of the tooth is impossible, milk, saline or even saliva are the preferred transport media. The prognosis for an avulsed tooth depends upon prompt care, which is a determinant factor for successful treatment of the traumatised tooth. In all other dental trauma cases, it is important to refer the child to a paediatric dentist, to follow up the healing process and reduce late post-traumatic complications. With timely interventions and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for healing following most dental injuries is good. In conclusion, it is important that paediatricians are able to inform parents and caretakers about all possible and long-lasting consequences of different dental injuries. PMID:20058022
Emerich, Katarzyna; Wyszkowski, Jacek
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized as a disorder of exaggerated defensive physiological arousal. The novel aim of the present research was to investigate within PTSD a potential dose-response relationship between past trauma recurrence and current comorbidity and intensity of physiological reactions to imagery of trauma and other aversive scenarios. Methods A community sample of principal PTSD (n = 49; 22 single-trauma exposed, 27 multiple-trauma exposed) and control (n = 76; 46 never-trauma exposed, 30 trauma exposed) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and the eye-blink response (orbicularis occuli) was recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. Results Overall, PTSD patients exceeded control participants in startle reflex, autonomic responding, and facial expressivity during idiographic trauma imagery and, though less pronounced, showed heightened reactivity to standard anger, panic, and physical danger imagery. Concerning subgroups, control participants with and without trauma exposure showed isomorphic patterns. Within PTSD, only the single-trauma patients evinced robust startle and autonomic responses, exceeding both control participants and multiple-trauma PTSD. Despite greater reported arousal, the multiple-trauma relative to single-trauma PTSD group showed blunted defensive reactivity associated with more chronic and severe PTSD, greater mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity, and more pervasive dimensional dysphoria (e.g., depression, trait anxiety). Conclusions Whereas PTSD patients generally show marked physiological arousal during aversive imagery, concordant with self-reported distress, the most symptomatic patients with histories of severe, cumulative traumatization show discordant physiological hyporeactivity, perhaps attributable to sustained high stress and an egregious, persistent negative affectivity that ultimately compromises defensive responding.
McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; Shumen, Joshua R.; Bradley, Margaret M.
Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000). Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense). Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood) to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood). Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.
Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing
The initial reactions of the blood components and the intima of the rabbit abdominal aorta have been observed following mechanical trauma. The endothelium was removed by the insertion of a roughened metal probe into the lumen of the vessel, thus exposing the subendothelial fibres and the internal elastic lamina. On restoration of the blood flow, platelets and later leucocytes adhered
B. L. Sheppard; J. E. French
This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An
F. M. Vanhoenacker; A. I. De Backer; B. Op de Beeck; M. Maes; R. Van Altena; D. Van Beckevoort; P. Kersemans; A. M. De Schepper
BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process.
Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.
Background Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in
Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has been associated with both trauma and insecure attachment styles. Betrayal Trauma Theory proposes survivors of interpersonal trauma may remain unaware of betrayal in order to maintain a necessary attachment. This preliminary study reports on the relations between self-reports of betrayal trauma experiences and borderline personality characteristics in a college sample. Using multiple regression, betrayal was
Laura A. Kaehler; Jennifer J. Freyd
Gastrointestinal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma in childhood are seldom. In 30% of the patients, the site of injury is the duodenum. In 60% associated injuries including other abdominal or extraabdominal lesions are found. Most frequently duodenal damage consists in parietal haematoma, seldom in duodenal laceration. Duodenal haematoma can be resolved non-operatively in 50%. Operation is recommended for children in whom there is no evidence of partial resolution of the obstruction after 10-14 days or in cases with development of a parietal laceration with peritonitis and/or retroperitonitis. For diagnostic computed tomography is the examination of choice. PMID:7960916
Fasolini, F; Lichtenhahn, P; Aeberhard, P
Background Trauma is the most prevalent cause of death in the young. Insight into cause and time of fatal pediatric and adolescent trauma is important for planning trauma care and preventive measures. Our aim was to analyze cause, severity, mode and seasonal aspects of fatal pediatric trauma. Methods Review of all consecutive autopsies for pediatric fatal trauma during a 10-year period within a defined population. Results Of all pediatric trauma deaths (n = 36), 70% were males, with the gender increasing with age. Median age was 13 years (range 2–17). Blunt trauma predominated (by road traffic accidents) with most (n = 15; 42%) being "soft" victims, such as pedestrians/bicyclist and, 13 (36%) drivers or passengers in motor vehicles. Penetrating trauma caused only 3 deaths. Prehospital deaths (58%) predominated. 15 children (all intubated) reached hospital alive and had severely deranged vital parameters: 8 were hypotensive (SBP < 90 mmHg), 13 were in respiratory distress, and 14 had GCS < 8 on arrival. Emergency procedures were initiated (i.e. neurosurgical decompression, abdominal surgery or pelvic fixation for hemorrhage) in 12 patients. Probability of survival (Ps) was < 33% in over 75% of the fatalities. A bimodal death pattern was evident; the initial peak by CNS injuries and exsanguinations, the latter peak by CNS alone. Most fatalities occurred during spring (53%) or summertime (25%). Conclusion Fatal pediatric trauma occurs most frequently in boys during spring/summer, associated with severe head injuries and low probability of survival. Preventive measures appear mandated in order to reduce this mortality in this age group.
S?reide, Kjetil; Kruger, Andreas J; Ellingsen, Christian L; Tjosevik, Kjell E
Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)
Rasmussen, Edie M.
Abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nearly all bacteria causing abdominal infections are derived from the endogenous flora of the alimentary tract. The resulting infection is typically polymicrobial and comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. They can be classified by their severity as uncomplicated and complicated or by their origin as community or hospital acquired. Escherichia
Dietrich Hasper; Joerg C. Schefold; Daniel C. Baumgart
Background and Purpose: A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most urgent surgical conditions with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment. Patients and Methods: This study included 229 subsequent patients (83% males, 17% females, age 67.0 ± 7.5 years) with a ruptured abdominal aortic
Miroslav Markovi?; Lazar Davidovi?; Živan Maksimovi?; Dušan Kosti?; Ilijas ?inara; Slobodan Cvetkovi?; Radomir Sindjelic; Petar M. Seferovi?; Arsen D. Risti?
... causes that should be considered when evaluating a child with chronic abdominal pain. Some of those causes are not very serious ... none of these more severe problems cause abdominal pain in most children with chronic or recurrent bellyaches. Instead, the pain is usually “ ...
In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)
Haycock, Christine E.
Authors inform about the group of 8 patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurred as a compli- cation in large blunt injury of abdominal cavity. To the ACS diagnose, the measurement of intracystic pressure is used routinely, whose values correlate fully with values of intraabdominal pressure (IAP). In case of increasing values of IAP over 25 mm Hg with positive
Leopold Pleva; Jaroslav Mayzlíkb
Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in the world, accounting for 500,000-600,000 procedures annually in the USA; the abdominal route for hysterectomy is the preferred route in 60-80% of these operations. Although the number of total abdominal hysterectomies performed annually has decreased, the number of subtotal abdominal hysterectomies increased by >400%. The major indications for abdominal hysterectomy include abnormal uterine bleeding, myomata uteri, adenomyosis, endometriosis, neoplasia, and chronic salpingitis. The basis for selection for subtotal versus total hysterectomy has little in the way of factual data to support it and may actually present some significant disadvantages, such as continued menstruation and cervical prolapse. The detailed technique for performing intrafascial abdominal hysterectomy relies heavily on precise knowledge of pelvic anatomy and compulsive detail to tissue handling. The consistent and correct usage of prophylactic antimicrobials, measures to prevent thromboemboli, and procedures to avoid urinary retention are key to the overall success of the surgery. PMID:15985251
Baggish, Michael S
The psychological consequences of sexual trauma among survivors have been widely studied, but research investigations continue, in part, because rates of violence against girls and women remain high. The National Violence Against Women Survey found that 1...
M. Stone M. P. Koss N. P. Yuan
Background Diaphragmatic rupture after blunt abdominal injury is a rare trauma condition. Delayed diagnosis is not uncommon especially in the emergency room setting. Associated injuries often shift diagnosis and treatment priorities towards other more life-threatening conditions. Case presentation We present a challenging case of a young male with combined abdominal and head trauma. Repeated episodes of vomiting dominated on clinical presentation that in the presence of a deep scalp laceration and facial bruising shifted differential diagnosis towards a traumatic brain injury. However, a computed tomography scan of the brain ruled out any intracranial pathology. Finally, a more meticulous investigation with additional imaging studies confirmed the presence of diaphragmatic rupture that justified the clinical symptoms. Conclusions The combination of diaphragmatic rupture with head injury creates a challenging trauma scenario. Increased level of suspicion is essential in order to diagnose timely diaphragmatic rupture in multiple trauma patients.
Background Thoracic injury overall is the third most common cause of trauma following injury to the head and extremities. Thoracic trauma\\u000a has a high morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 25% of trauma-related deaths, second only to head trauma.\\u000a More than 70% of cases of blunt thoracic trauma are due to motor vehicle collisions, with the remainder caused by falls or
Anastasia Oikonomou; Panos Prassopoulos
This paper expands upon Ferenczi's concept of the wise baby and explores the dynamics of ignorance and compensatory ideals of wisdom as reactions to trauma and as manifestations of "double conscience," shame dynamics and Oedipal shame. Focusing on feelings of ignorance, of knowing and not knowing and their relation to trauma, the author elaborates on the dynamics of fantasies of wisdom, adumbrating implications for psychoanalytic technique. PMID:21818096
This article reviews the essential primary and secondary injuries attributable to traumatic brain injury (TBI) which causes one third of all injury deaths in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, assaults, guns, sports, and recreational activities are the major causes of TBI. Secondary peak incidences of TBI occur in infants and children and the elderly. Conditions that increase risk for accidents include alcoholism, prior head injury, prior meningitis, seizure disorders, mental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. However, gunshot wounds to the head are steadily increasing and since 1990 have caused more deaths each year than motor vehicle accidents. The incidence, severity, etiology, and specific types of injuries have been assessed in clinicopathologic studies of head injuries. The pathologic features of both the primary and secondary lesions attributed to TBI should be understood by anyone caring for head-injured patients. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images mirror the pathologic abnormalities found in head trauma. Radiologists must accurately interpret the CT and MR images of injured patients. Forensic pathologists have long appreciated the characteristic focal lesions, such as coup and contracoup contusions, that occur in falls or vehicle accidents, but the understanding of diffuse injuries has been more elusive. Understanding the nature of the focal and diffuse injuries is critical to understanding the morbidity and mortality of brain injury. PMID:12391630
Hardman, John M; Manoukian, Anthony
The management of perioral injuries is a complex topic that must take into consideration the unique anatomy, histology, and function of the lips to best restore form and function of the mouth after injury. Basic reconstructive principles include three-layered closure for full-thickness lip lacerations. Additionally, special care is needed to ensure an aesthetic repair of the cosmetically complex and important vermillion border, philtrum, and Cupid's bow. Infraorbital and mental nerve blocks provide lip anesthesia for laceration repair without distorting crucial aesthetic landmarks. Prophylactic antibiotics are usually indicated in perioral injuries due to wound contamination with saliva. Perioral burn management is controversial; however, most lip burns can first be managed conservatively. Splinting, plasties, and other reconstructive options are available after secondary healing of perioral burns. Hypertrophic scars are common in the perioral area after trauma. The mainstays of treatment for hypertrophic scars on the lips are silicone elastomer sheeting and intralesional steroid injections. For large perioral defects, a myriad of reconstructive options are available, ranging from primary closure, cross-lip flaps, and local tissue transfer, to free tissue transfers such as radial forearm free flaps, innervated gracilis free flaps, anterolateral thigh free flaps, and osteocutaneous free flaps. PMID:21086229
Grunebaum, Lisa Danielle; Smith, Jesse E; Hoosien, Gia E
Between 1988 and 2000 a total of 33 patients with traumatic tracheobronchial lesions were diagnosed and treated. The trauma was penetrating in 7 (stab and gun-shot), blunt in 10 (car accidents, compression and falling from heights) and iatrogenic in 16 of them (postintubational--15, after foreign body extraction--1). The main clinical and radiological features were subcutaneous emphysema, hemoptysis, respiratory insufficiency, pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients by early fiberoptic bronchoscopy. "Watch and see" tactics with massive antibiotics therapy was followed in 4 (12%) patients. A surgical treatment was carried out in 29 (88%) patients as follows: simple repair--19 (58%), left pneumonectomy--2 (6%), tracheal resection and anastomosis "end to end"--2 (6%), tracheostomy--1 (3%), thoracocenthesis and drainage--3 (9%) and cervical mediastinotomy--2 (6%). The operative mortality was 9%. The cause of death in these 3 patients were associated brain and spinal cord injuries. In the rest of patients the early and long-term postoperative results were considered very good. PMID:12515032
Petrov, D; Obretenov, E; Kala?dzhiev, G; Plochev, M; Kostadinov, D
Fetal trauma in blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon, but traumatic fetal head injury is almost universally fatal to the fetus. Placental abruption is the most common injury to the gravid uterus in trauma, and when the mother survives, it is the most common cause of fetal death. The imaging diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult since there are only three cases reported in the literature of intrauterine skull fractures on plain films [3, 8, 10], ultrasound is in sensitive in the diagnosis of placental abruption , and the most sensitive test to diagnose placental abruption is external fetal monitoring with devices that measure uterine tone and contractility and fetal heart rate . The diagnosis of fetal trauma and placental abruption may be made on contrast enhanced CT performed through the abdomen and pelvis of pregnant trauma patients. For these reasons, it is useful for the radiologist interpreting the CT scan to recognize fetal head injuries and placental abruption in pregnant trauma patients.Fig. 7 Axial scans through the bony pelvis demonstrate an unstable pelvic fracture with posterior pelvic ring disruption.There is a zone 2 fracture of the left sacrum and a fracture of the left obturator ring (arrowheads) PMID:22237696
Sadro, Claudia T; Zins, Andrea M; Debiec, Kate; Robinson, Jeffrey
Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.
Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.
Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models of TIC with regard to their ability to accurately characterize known mechanisms of coagulopathy and/or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. A literature review was performed. Structured search of the indexed online database MEDLINE/PubMed in July 2010 identified 43 relevant articles containing 23 distinct animal models of TIC. The main aim of 26 studies was to test a therapeutic and the other 17 were conducted to investigate pathophysiology. A preponderance of porcine models was identified. Three new models demonstrating an endogenous acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) have offered new insights into the pathophysiology of TIC. Independent or combined effects of induced hypothermia and metabolic acidosis have been extensively evaluated. Recently, a pig model of TIC has been developed that features all major etiologies of TIC, although not in correct chronological order. This review identifies a general lack of experimental research to keep pace with clinical developments. Tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock are fundamental initiating events that prime the hemostatic system for subsequent iatrogenic insults. New animal models utilizing a variety of species that accurately simulate the natural clinical trajectory of trauma are urgently needed. PMID:22197179
Frith, Daniel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Brohi, Karim
Background Providing anesthesia and managing airways in the electrophysiology suite can be challenging because of its unique setting outside of the conventional operating room. We report our experience of several cases of reported airway trauma including tongue and pharyngeal hematoma and vocal cord paralysis in this setting. Methods We analyzed all of the reported airway trauma cases between December 2009 and January 2011 in our cardiac electrophysiology laboratories, and compared these cases to those without airway trauma. Data from 87 cases, including 16 cases with reported airway trauma (trauma group) and 71 cases without reported airway trauma from the same patient population pool at the same time period (control group), were collected via review of medical records. Results Airway trauma was reported for 16 patients (0.7%) in 14 months among 2434 anesthetic cases. None of these patients had life-threatening airway obstruction. The avoidance of muscle relaxants during induction in patients with a body mass index less than 30 was found to be a significant risk factor for airway trauma (p=0.04, odds ratio 10, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 482). Tongue or soft tissue bite occurred in two cases where soft bite block was not used during cardioversion. No statistically significant difference was found between the trauma and control groups for preprocedure anticoagulation, anticoagulation during the procedure, or reversal of heparin at the end of the procedure. Conclusion The overall incidence of reported airway trauma was 0.7% in our study population. Tongue injury was the most common airway trauma. The cause seems to have been multifactorial; however, airway management without muscle relaxant emerged as a potential risk factor. Intubation with muscle relaxant is recommended, as is placing a soft bite block and ensuring no soft tissue is between the teeth before cardioversion.
Yan, Zhe; Tanner, Jonathan W.; Lin, David; Chalian, Ara A.; Savino, Joseph S.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Liu, Renyu
Four patients, 3 women aged 39, 36 and 58 and a man aged 51, had been experiencing recurring bouts of abdominal pain for periods varying from a few months to years. The pain could be provoked by palpation of a small circumscript area in the lower abdomen. A positive Carnett's sign (pain intensification during palpation while contracting the abdominal muscles by raising the head, whilst lying flat) may aid the diagnosis. An injection ofa local anaesthetic agent confirmed the diagnosis of nerve entrapment and appeared therapeutic in one patient. The other three patients experienced long-term relief following surgical nerve excision. Establishing a diagnosis in patients with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is often delayed due to physicians being unaware of this condition. Most patients have to undergo numerous investigations including laparoscopies and explorative laparotomies, often to no avail. This syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic abdominal pain syndromes. PMID:16999272
Roumen, R M H; Scheltinga, M R M
A traumatic infra-renal aortic dissection is a rare but life-threatening injury that follows deceleration injuries. The mechanism of blunt abdominal aortic injury involves both direct and indirect forces. The successful management of patients with traumatic injuries depends on a prompt suspicion of the injury and early diagnosis and therapy. Missed injuries in trauma patients are well-described phenomena and implementation of the ATLS® trauma schedule led to a decrease in the number of missed injuries, but trauma computed tomography (CT) scans in injured patients are still not standard. We report on a 54-year old Caucasian female patient who was involved in a car accident. The fellow passenger of the car was seriously injured. The patient had been previously treated at two different hospitals, and a dislocated acetabular fracture had been diagnosed. Because of this injury, the patient was transferred to our institution, a level 1 trauma-center where, according to the nature of the accident as a high-energy trauma, a complete polytrauma management was performed at the time of admission. During the body check, a moderate tension of the lower parts of the abdomen was detected. During the CT scan, an aneurysm of the infra-renal aorta with a dissection from the height of the second lumbar vertebral body to the iliac artery was observed. The patient required an operation on the day of admission. After 19 days post-trauma care the patient was able to leave our hospital in good general condition. Therefore, missed injuries in multiple injury patients could be fatal, and it is essential that the orthopedic surgeon leaves room for suspicion of injuries based on the nature of the trauma. Traumatic injuries of the abdominal aorta are rare. According to the ATLS® trauma schedule, all of the patients who have experienced high-energy trauma and associated fractures should undergo routine screening using a trauma CT scan with contrast agents to detect potential life-threatening injuries. In case of abdominal trauma, an aortic dissection, which can easily be overlooked, has to be considered.
Godry, Holger; Rolleke, Guido; Mumme, Achim; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Gothner, Martin
A traumatic infra-renal aortic dissection is a rare but life-threatening injury that follows deceleration injuries. The mechanism of blunt abdominal aortic injury involves both direct and indirect forces. The successful management of patients with traumatic injuries depends on a prompt suspicion of the injury and early diagnosis and therapy. Missed injuries in trauma patients are well-described phenomena and implementation of the ATLS® trauma schedule led to a decrease in the number of missed injuries, but trauma computed tomography (CT) scans in injured patients are still not standard. We report on a 54-year old Caucasian female patient who was involved in a car accident. The fellow passenger of the car was seriously injured. The patient had been previously treated at two different hospitals, and a dislocated acetabular fracture had been diagnosed. Because of this injury, the patient was transferred to our institution, a level 1 trauma-center where, according to the nature of the accident as a high-energy trauma, a complete polytrauma management was performed at the time of admission. During the body check, a moderate tension of the lower parts of the abdomen was detected. During the CT scan, an aneurysm of the infra-renal aorta with a dissection from the height of the second lumbar vertebral body to the iliac artery was observed. The patient required an operation on the day of admission. After 19 days post-trauma care the patient was able to leave our hospital in good general condition. Therefore, missed injuries in multiple injury patients could be fatal, and it is essential that the orthopedic surgeon leaves room for suspicion of injuries based on the nature of the trauma. Traumatic injuries of the abdominal aorta are rare. According to the ATLS® trauma schedule, all of the patients who have experienced high-energy trauma and associated fractures should undergo routine screening using a trauma CT scan with contrast agents to detect potential life-threatening injuries. In case of abdominal trauma, an aortic dissection, which can easily be overlooked, has to be considered. PMID:24744835
Godry, Holger; Rölleke, Guido; Mumme, Achim; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Gothner, Martin
Systemic air embolism is a potentially fatal condition. Although venous embolism is commonly reported after deep sea diving or neurosurgical procedures, arterial embolism is rare. It usually occurs because of lung trauma after biopsy or lung resection but can rarely affect patients of blunt or penetrating trauma to chest managed on positive pressure ventilation. We report a case of road traffic accident with head injury, with normal primary survey of chest and abdomen who developed fatal systemic arterial air embolism immediately after intubation. Postmortem CT scan revealed huge amounts of air in left side of the heart, ascending aorta, arch of aorta, bilateral internal carotids and all right-sided intracranial arteries. In emergency departments of non-specialised centres, such complications are universally fatal. Thus, extreme caution needs to be exercised while managing patients of blunt trauma on mechanical ventilation even if the chest and abdominal examinations are normal. PMID:23417941
Yadav, Siddharth; Jain, Shalabh; Aggarwal, Puneet; Gupta, Ritu
Among solid organ blunt traumas, the liver and spleen are mostly subject to injury. In addition, the liver is also commonly injured in penetrating traumas because of its size, location, and the ease of injury to the "Glisson Capsule". Several enzymes are known to be elevated following trauma. In our study, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in 57 patients with blunt trauma to the liver and compared these values to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma trauma grading system. Additionally, we compared the enzyme level elevations in these patients to the enzyme levels of 29 healthy subjects. As expected, we found significant elevations in enzyme levels of trauma patients compared to the control group. The calculated point estimates were not significantly different between grades 1 and 2 trauma. However, grade 3 trauma group showed a significant increase in enzyme levels. PMID:23793528
Arslan, Gozde; Gemici, Aysegul Akdogan; Yirgin, Inci Kizildag; Gulsen, Esma; Inci, Ercan
Two-hundred ninety-nine patients who sustained penetrating ballistic trauma to the abdomen were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 133 patients with shell fragment injuries from mortar artillery and Group B of 166 patients with bullet injuries from rifles and automatic or semiautomatic weapons. Both groups were analyzed retrospectively in order to compare the extent of injury and outcome. In Group A, the findings at laparotomy were negative in 15 of 133 patients (10%) compared with 9 of 166 patients (5%) in Group B (p less than 0.05). The most commonly injured abdominal organs in Group A were the colon (42%), liver (22%), small bowel (20%), stomach (14%), diaphragm (11%), spleen (10%), major vessels (40%) [corrected], and kidney (9%). The abdominal organs commonly injured in Group B were the colon (50%), small bowel (41%), liver (33%), major vessels (20%), diaphragm (17%), stomach (15%), spleen (15%), and kidney (15%). Associated extra-abdominal injuries were present in 26% of Group A patients and in 21% of Group B patients (p greater than 0.05) [corrected]. Major postoperative complications occurred in 7.5% and 8.4% of the patients in Group A and Group B, respectively (p less than 0.05). Perioperative mortality was 2.3% in Group A versus 7.2% in Group B (p less than 0.01). Our data suggest that high energy bullets to the abdomen cause higher tissue penetration and a greater blast effect than shell fragments. PMID:2030519
Georgi, B A; Massad, M; Obeid, M
Injuries to the inferior vena cava (IVC) are highly lethal and are usually associated with gunshot wounds. Blunt injury to the IVC is a rare entity that is usually located in the retrohepatic space. We present the case of an infrarenal caval disruption in a 9-year-old as a result of minimal blunt trauma. A computed tomography scan showed that the patient had a large retroperitoneal hematoma associated with IVC disruption and proximal thrombus just below the renal veins. There was no evidence of either arterial or other intra-abdominal injuries. The patient had a fall in hematocrit and abdominal tenderness prompting operative exploration. Before laparotomy, bilateral balloon occlusion devices were placed in both femoral veins. The patient was noted to have a total disruption of his IVC just above the origin of his iliac veins. The anterior two-third of the IVC was avulsed, thus leaving the posterior portion against the retroperitoneum. Given the patient's hemodynamic instability and amount of venous damage, the IVC was oversewn and a damage control operation was undertaken. The following day, the patient was brought back to the operating room for a second-look laparotomy and abdominal closure. A pathologic examination revealed a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Blunt injury to the IVC is a rare entity and its location outside of the retrohepatic space should alert the surgeon to a potential underlying malignant etiology. PMID:20932712
Hurie, Justin; Ehrlich, Peter; Castle, Valerie; Eliason, Jonathan L
The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016
Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S
Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.
This is a retrospective study on the outcome using the TRISS methodology of 94 significantly injured patients over a 24-month period, managed by the Hospital Trauma Team in a general hospital since the formation of the Team in August 1994. There were 37 deaths and nine (24.3%) of these were 'potentially preventable' according to TRISS methodology. Seven of these nine 'potentially preventable or unexpected deaths' were transferred from a nearby district hospital where there was no acute operative facilities. There was no significant difference between the sex, age, mode of injury or Injury Severity Score between the direct admission and transfer-in cases and the M-statistic values of the two groups were similar. Five of the nine deaths happened in the first 4 months after the formation of the Trauma Team and the other four were scattered in the subsequent 20 months. The rate of preventable deaths was 50% (five out of 10 deaths) in the first 4 months, and was 15% (four out of 26) in the subsequent period. The probable causes for the 'potentially preventable trauma deaths' were delay owing to interhospital transfer, delay in activation of the trauma team, unidentified intra-peritoneal haemorrhage, failure to control haemorrhage and delayed or inadequate definitive operation. The evident improvement in the reduction of unexpected trauma deaths were likely associated with the success factors of the improvement of the multi-disciplinary cooperation including mutual understanding, simultaneous patient assessment, higher readiness to use diagnostic peritoneal lavage or ultrasonography to evaluate blunt abdominal trauma, earlier senior participation in patient care, shortening in response time of supportive facilities and a gradual cultural change towards dedicated trauma patient care. Further reduction in unexpected deaths can be expected if better prehospital triage by ambulance staff is attained to transfer trauma patients to the most appropriate instead of the nearest hospital. PMID:9827831
Kam, C W; Kitchell, A K; Yau, H H; Kan, C H
This study extends the work completed with pathological gamblers and substance abusers, looking at associations between a history of trauma and comorbid substance dependence, impulsivity, measures of problem severity, and personality variables. We studied 111 patients admitted to the gambling treatment program at the Brecksville VA Medical Center and found that 64% of gamblers reported a history of emotional trauma; 40.5%, physical trauma; and 24.3%, sexual trauma. Most of this trauma occurred in childhood. A history of trauma was associated with a greater relative frequency of suicide attempts and drug and alcohol dependence, more severe scores in measures of psychiatric distress, and limited effects on personality functioning. PMID:16449091
Kausch, Otto; Rugle, Loreen; Rowland, Douglas Y
Opinion statement The diagnosis of functional abdominal pain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing\\u000a to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be\\u000a supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominal pain is\\u000a critical for successful
Yuri A. Saito; Jean C. Fox
During an abdominal surgery, life-threatening events such as severe bradycardia and massive hemorrhage may occur. Reflex bradycardia may arise with surgical manipulation of abdominal contents. Anesthetic agents such as propofol or remifentanil increase the risk of bradycardia. Epidural analgesia using local anesthetics during an abdominal surgery also increases the occurrence of bradycardia and hypotension. Combination of these three factors causes severe bradycardia during the abdominal surgery. Anesthesiologist has to pay close attention to heart rate during the abdominal surgery. The surveillance of Anesthesia-Related Critical Incidents in Japan conducted by Japan Society of Anesthesiologist (JSA) shows that life-threatening events due to hemorrhage during abdominal surgery accounted for 43.9% of all perioperative life-threatening events due to hemorrhage. When we find critical hemorrhage, we have to manage the condition in accordance with "The guideline for critical intraoperative hemorrhage" published by JSA and the Japan Society of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy. The pneumoperitoneum required for laparoscopy induces physiologic changes that complicate anesthetic management and could cause CO2-subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, endobronchial intubation, and gas embolism. During laparoscopy, blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram, end-tidal CO2, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry must be continuously monitored. PMID:19462794
Suzuki, Akira; Sato, Shigehito
Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility could not be preserved in 3 of them. Eleven women had stage IA2 disease (42.3%), 14 (53.8%) women had stage IB1 disease, and 1 (3.8%) woman had stage IB2 disease. Histologic subtypes were 15 (57.6%) squamous, 8 (30.7%) adenocarcinoma, and 3 (11.5%) adenosquamous. There were no major intraoperative complications in both hospitals. Early postoperative complications were mainly related to the type C parametrectomy—bladder dysfunction for more than 7 days (8 [30.7%] women) and prolonged constipation (6 [23.0%] women). Other complications consisted in symptomatic lymphocele in 2 (7.6%) patients, which were drained. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 4–43 months). Up to the present time, there has been 1 (3.8%) recurrence in our series. Most patients did not experience late postoperative complications. Three (11.5%) women are amenorrheic, and 1 (3.8%) woman developed a cervical stenosis. Of the 23 women who have normal menstruation and maintained their fertility, a total of 7 (30.4%) women have attempted pregnancy, and 3 (42.8%) of them achieved pregnancy spontaneously. These pregnancies ended in 2 first trimester miscarriages and 1 live birth at term by cesarean delivery. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ART preserves fertility and maintains excellent oncological outcomes with low complication rates.
Capilna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela
Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. Studies in subsequent years have validated this technique by demonstrating decreased mortality and immediate post-operative complications. The indications for damage control laparotomy have evolved to encompass abdominal compartment syndrome, abdominal sepsis, vascular and acute care surgery cases. The perioperative critical care provided to these patients, including sedation, paralysis, nutrition, and fluid management strategies may improve closure rates and recovery. In the rare cases of inability to primarily close the abdomen, there are a number of reconstructive strategies that may be used in the acute and chronic phases of abdominal closure.
With a substantial donation from William Dart of Mason, Michigan, the Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma started its work at Michigan State University, and has grown significantly over the past decade and a half. Currently located at the University of Washington, the Center is a Ã¢ÂÂglobal network of journalists, journalism educators and health professionals dedicated to improving media coverage of trauma, conflict and tragedy.Ã¢ÂÂ On their site, visitors can learn about fellowship opportunities, read fact sheets about trauma research, and peruse their in-house blog. Journalists will appreciate the Ã¢ÂÂQuick TipsÃ¢ÂÂ section on the homepage, as it covers a broad range of subjects, such as how to cover disasters, murder, suicide, and domestic violence in a sensitive manner. The site also has a rather impressive series of case studies on reporting on such events as the Columbine massacre and the genocide in Rwanda.
Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625
Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar
Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented.
Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan
Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma.
Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar
Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research.
Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R
INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain.
Crispin-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, Maria Cristina; Orendo-Velasquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.
The open abdomen has become an important approach for critically ill patients who require emergent abdominal surgical interventions. This treatment, originating from the concept of damage control surgery, was first applied in severe traumatic patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve formal abdominal fascial closure by several attempts and adjuvant therapies (fluid management, nutritional support, skin grafting, etc.). Up to the present, open abdomen therapy becomes matured and is multistage-approached in the management of patients with severe trauma. However, its application in patients with intra-abdominal infection still presents great challenges due to critical complications and poor clinical outcomes. This review focuses on the specific use of the open abdomen in such populations and detailedly introduces current concerns and advanced progress about this therapy.
Nurses' role within the Joint Theater Trauma System's trauma performance improvement program spans the entire trauma continuum. Nurses serve as trauma nurse coordinators at combat zone medical treatment facilities, flight nurses within the US Air Force Ae...
C. M. Martin J. S. Fecura K. D. Martin R. M. Bolenbaucher T. Cotner-Pouncy
Trauma from widespread collective violence such as genocide and ethnic cleansing has not been discussed from a global perspective. It will be argued that the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling is inadequate for understanding victims of collective violence from around the world. Phenomenology and liberation philosophy will be discussed as alternatives to understanding trauma from collective violence that move beyond the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling. The insights gained from these alternative approaches will contribute to the development of nursing education, research, and practice relevant to the health of victims of collective violence around the globe. PMID:18214779
Ray, Susan L
It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of American youth experience a potentially life-threatening event before 18 years of age and that half have experienced multiple potentially traumatic events. Race, ethnicity, and culture influence the frequency and nature of these traumas and also the ways in which children react to traumatic events. The authors discuss the varied influences of cultural background on these reactions to trauma, the varying presentations of diverse children experiencing troubling reactions, and the need to provide treatment to children and their families in a fashion that is culturally sensitive and acceptable to diverse families. PMID:21056351
Harris, Toi Blakley; Carlisle, L Lee; Sargent, John; Primm, Annelle B
Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ?50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:22644671
Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J
This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.
Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.
There is a growing recognition of the strong association between psychoactive substan ceabuse and violence. Repeated exposure to violent trauma is particularly salient for women. Moreover, violent trauma may play a role in the etiologies of depression, substance abuse, and trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For the female methadone patient, an untreated trauma-related disorder can be a
Denise Hien; Frances R. Levin
BACKGROUND: Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an
Stefano Massimiliano Calderale; Raluca Sandru; Gregorio Tugnoli; Salomone Di Saverio; Mircea Beuran; Sergio Ribaldi; Massimo Coletti; Giorgio Gambale; Sorin Paun; Livio Russo; Franco Baldoni
This paper presents TraumaSCAN, a prototype computer system for assessing the effects of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. TraumaSCAN combines geometric reasoning about potentially injured anatomic structures with (probabilistic) diagnostic reasoning about the consequences of these injuries. We also present results obtained from testing TraumaSCAN retrospectively on 26 actual gunshot wound cases.
Ogunyemi, O.; Clarke, J. R.; Webber, B.; Badler, N.
Counselors in all settings work with clients who are survivors of trauma. Vicarious trauma, or counselors developing trauma reactions secondary to exposure to clients' traumatic experiences, is not uncommon. The purpose of this article is to describe vicarious trauma and summarize the recent research literature related to this construct. The…
Trippany, Robyn L.; Kress, Victoria E. White; Wilcoxon, S. Allen
Post operative foreign body in the abdominal cavily, though rare continues to occur in surgical practice. Symptoms may start early with abdominal pain but usually have a varying course, ofter leading 10 the formation of gossypiboma. This is usually a great source of embarrassment to the surgeon and the centre, and of serious detrimental effect to the patient. A case report of a 27-year-old trader with intra-abdominal foreign body is presented to highlig at the similarity in presentation with abdominal lymphoma and the need to explore carefully masses in the abdominal cavity especially in patients who have had surgery in the past. A high index of suspicious is required on the part of the clinician in addition to appropriate radiological and sonologic assessment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment ameliorates the patients suffering and brings them back to life. PMID:23457869
Kpolugbo, J; Alili, U; Abubakar, M
The purpose of this study was to investigate intergenerational relationships between trauma and dissociation. Short and long\\u000a term consequences of betrayal trauma (i.e., trauma perpetrated by someone with whom the victim is very close) on dissociation\\u000a were examined in a sample of 67 mother–child dyads using group comparison and regression strategies. Experiences of high betrayal\\u000a trauma were found to be
Annmarie C. Hulette; Laura A. Kaehler; Jennifer J. Freyd
Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge injury. Intraocular foreign bodies undetectable by CT were identified by B-scan ultrasonography in our patient. This case highlights the importance of additional ultrasonography when evaluating severe ocular trauma. And ophthalmologists should consider the possibility of penetrating injury caused by blank ammunition.
Complex trauma occurs repeatedly and escalates over its duration. In families, it is exemplified by domestic violence and child abuse and in other situations by war, prisoner of war or refugee status, and human trafficking. Complex trauma also refers to situations such as acute\\/chronic illness that requires intensive medical intervention or a single traumatic event that is calamitous. Complex trauma
Christine A. Courtois
We examined outcomes of a promising 21-session trauma treatment model for children aged 3 to 17 and their caregivers. All children in treatment had experienced at least one traumatic event. The treatment intervention was rooted in theories of trauma and attachment and combines parent training with cognitive behavioral therapy to form a comprehensive trauma treatment program. We report on 27
Valerie E. Copping; Diane L. Warling; David G. Benner; Donald W. Woodside
Objective : To quantify the prevalence of return to work after major trauma, and to investigate the determinants of postinjury work status. Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting : University Medical Centre Utrecht, a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Method : All severely injured (ISS > 16) adult (age = 16+) trauma survivors admitted from January 1999 to December 2000
Herman R Holtslag; Marcel W Post; Chris van der Werken; Eline Lindeman
The concept of trauma first came to light as far back as the First World War, when soldiers returned from the battlefield with debilitating shell shock. Things have moved on since then, and trauma is being recognised within the addiction field. Charlie Shults of Life Works, talks about his approach to treatment and argues for a trauma approach to all
Background: This study is concerned with relationships between childhood trauma history, dissociative experiences, and the clinical phenomenology of chronic schizophrenia. Sampling and Methods: Seventy patients with a schizophrenic disorder were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scales, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Childhood trauma scores were correlated
Vedat Sar; Okan Taycan; Nurullah Bolat; Mine Özmen; Alaattin Duran; Erdinç Öztürk; Hayriye Ertem-Vehid
Trauma patients are thought to be at high risk for iatrogenic retained foreign bodies (RFBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate this incidence. All cases of RFB after cavitary trauma surgery were identified by review of Morbidity and Mortality reports at a Level 1 trauma center from January 1998 to December 2005 and confirmed by the Octagon Risk Management System. Over 8 years, 10,053 trauma operations were performed (2075 laparotomies, 377 thoracotomies, and 74 sternotomies). Three cases (0.1%) of RFB (all sponges) occurred during one single-stage and two damage control laparotomies. The counts were correct before definitive closure in two of three cases. No postoperative x-rays were obtained in any of the cases. RFB diagnosis occurred between days 3 and 9, one on a routine chest x-ray and the other two on abdominal computed tomography scans during a septic workup. Four-month to 8-year follow up documented one pleural effusion and one abscess resulting from the RFB. Iatrogenic RFBs after emergent cavitary trauma surgery occur at a rate of 0.12 per cent and are associated with significant morbidity. In addition to standard preventive strategies, in emergent cases with risk factors such as requiring damage control, before final cavity closure, even with a correct sponge count, radiographic evaluation is warranted. PMID:17983075
Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Salim, Ali; Brown, Carlos; Rhee, Peter; Browder, Timothy; Belzberg, Howard; Demetriades, Demetrios
This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and hip flexion during the performance of the sit-up is discussed. The sit-up performed with foot fixation, and the bilateral straight leg raise can compound hip muscle imbalance, and both hyperextend and hyperflex the lumbar spine and are therefore not recommended. The importance of muscular control of pelvic tilt is considered with reference to muscle imbalance around the pelvis. It is recommended that a musculoskeletal assessment should be performed before prescribing abdominal exercises. Exercise therapy to re-educate control of pelvic tilt is described. Intra-abdominal pressure, and the effects of abdominal exercise on this mechanism, and lumbar stabilization are examined. The importance of training specificity is stressed.
Norris, C M
Penetrating cardiac injuries, secondary to gunfire, constitute the most lethal forms of cardiothoracic trauma with their potential fatality. We report our experience of managing two such cases who presented with haemorrhagic shock and cardiac tamponade, in a collapsed state. Prompt resuscitation and early surgical intervention (midline sternotomy and cardiorrhaphy) was successfully performed with a favourable outcome. PMID:14764261
Abbas, Safdar; Riaz, Mohammad Nasim; Zameer, Mohammad; Khan, Asif Ali; Ahmad, Waqar
Head injury, either alone or in combination with multiple injuries, is common in children. Its pattern is different in children compared to adults, with diffuse cerebral swelling rather than localized hematoma being most common. The pathophysiology of pediatric head trauma is not yet clearly elucidated, but may be closely related to changes in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. The
R. C. Pascucci
Undergoing a traumatic experience can be a life-changing event, having a significant impact on individuals, families, communities, workplaces and societies. Traumatology is therefore a complex field of study demanding a sophisticated level of understanding to serve as a theory base. This article explores the potential for existentialist philosophy to make an important contribution to our understanding of trauma and its
Neil Thompson; Mary Walsh
Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…
The elderly currently represent 11 per cent of the Australian population. By the year 2051 it has been estimated that 24 per cent of the population will be older than 65 years. One of the hazards facing the elderly is the risk of trauma. With this in mind, this paper has two major aims: one is to review the incidence
Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries. PMID:24168118
Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W
One of the biggest challenges facing Aboriginal populations increasingly is being called "intergenerational trauma." Restoring the cultural heritage is a central theme in the book, "Reclaiming Youth at Risk." That work describes the Circle of Courage model for positive development which blends Native child and youth care philosophy with research…
Reconstruction of complex defects of the central abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, it is our goal to review pertinent anatomy, pre- and postoperative care regimens, and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the central abdomen.
Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.
Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.
Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges.
Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert
Background The presentation of two cases with tuberculous enteritis and tuberculous peritonitis respectively. Patients and methods: Cases 1 ? 53 year old immigrant male, with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis and previous treatment, presented with anorexia, fatigue, intermittent abdominal pain, hoarseness and loss of weight during the past month. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars and volume loss of the left upper lobe, while laryngoscopy revealed ulceration and oedema at the left aryepiglottic fold. On day 2 of his hospitalization in ENT clinic, patient presented acute abdominal pain, requiring surgical intervention. Surgical findings were a perforation of the small intestine, an edematous and friable mucosa and a widespread of ulcers. Bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Pathology results of the obtained biopsy samples from the small intestine and larynx revealed the presence of chronic caseating granuloma. Anti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was administrated and patient improved gradually. Case 2. A 69 year old female with a medical history of end-stage renal disease treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presented with fever, fatigue and abdominal pain during the past weeks. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars of the upper lobes and CT of the abdomen was normal. The number of cells in peritoneal dialysis fluid was increased with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. An initial diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis was made and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administrated, without improvement. The cultures of the peritoneal fluid were negative for common bacteria. Tuberculin sensitivity test was positive. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain of the peritoneal fluid was positive for acid-fast bacilli and culture identified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. ?nti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was started and patient responded promptly with resolution of abdominal pain and remission of fever. Conclusions A high index of suspicion must be maintained for abdominal tuberculosis in high-risk for tuberculosis patients who present with abdominal symptoms.
Antoniadou, Maria; Tsikrika, Evangelia; Koutsampasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ziakou, Paraskevi; Koutras, Christos
A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803
Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John
Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004
Seo, A Young; Kim, Nayoung; Oh, Dong Hyun
Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978
Sullivan, Stephen Norman
Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.
Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C
Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527
Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Each year, almost one in six children in the United States require emergency department (ED) care for the treatment of injuries, and more than 10,000 children die from injuries. Severely injured children need to be transported to a facility that is staffed 24/7 by personnel experienced in the management of children, and that has all the appropriate equipment to diagnose and manage injuries in children. Anatomical, physiological, and emotional differences between adults and children mean that children are not just scaled-down adults. Facilities receiving injured children need to be child and family friendly, in order to minimize the psychological impact of injury on the child and their family/carers. Early recognition and treatment of life-threatening airway obstruction, inadequate breathing, and intra-abdominal and intra-cranial hemorrhage significantly increases survival rate after major trauma. The initial assessment and management of the injured child follows the same ATLS(®) sequence as adults: primary survey and resuscitation, followed by secondary survey. A well-organized trauma team has a leader who designates roles to team members and facilitates clear, unambiguous communication between team members. The team leader stands where he/she can observe the entire team and monitor the "bigger picture." Working together as a cohesive team, the members perform the primary survey in just a few minutes. Life-threatening conditions are dealt with as soon as they are identified. Necessary imaging studies are obtained early. Constant reassessment ensures that any deterioration in the child's condition is picked up immediately. The secondary survey identifies other injuries, such as intra-abdominal injuries and long-bone fractures, which can result in significant hemorrhage. The relief of pain is an important part of the treatment of an injured child. PMID:23181205
McFadyen, J Grant; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M
Nonpenetrating or blunt ocular trauma, orbital trauma and systemic trauma may cause a variety of posterior segment abnormalities. Blunt ocular trauma may cause damage to the retina (commotio retinae), retinal pigment epithelium (retinal pigment epithelial edema), choroid (choroidal rupture) and optic nerve (optic nerve evulsion) alone or in combination. Traumatic macular holes and retinal detachment or dialysis may also occur after blunt ocular trauma. Trauma to the orbital tissues adjacent to the globe can cause concussive forces with damage to multiple structures within the eye (chorioretinitis sclopetaria). Systemic trauma may result in diffuse retinopathy (Purtscher's retinopathy, shaken baby syndrome) or localized retinal abnormalities (whiplash retinopathy, fat embolism syndrome). Alterations in intravascular (Valsalva retinopathy) or intracranial pressure (Terson's syndrome) due to a variety of causes may result in preretinal or vitreous hemorrhage and associated visual loss. The purpose of this report is to review each of these entities of traumatic posterior segment abnormalities. PMID:2191381
Williams, D F; Mieler, W F; Williams, G A
Background Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement) among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS) is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.
Dierkhising, Carly B.; Ko, Susan J.; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Lee, Robert; Pynoos, Robert S.
Invasive cervical resorption is an insidious and often aggressively destructive form of external root resorption which may occur as a late complication following dental trauma particularly where it involves damage to cementum and supporting tissues. While this resorption may be evident clinically as a pink coronal discolouration, later with cavitation of the enamel, often there are no obvious external signs and the condition is only detected radiographically. It is characterised by the invasion of the cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue which progressively resorbs dentine, enamel and cementum. The dental pulp remains protected by an intact layer of dentine and predentine until late in the process. Ectopic calcifications can be observed in advanced lesions both within the invading fibrous tissue and deposited directly onto the resorbed dentine surface. The aetiology of invasive cervical resorption is unknown but trauma has been documented as a potential predisposing factor. A recent study by the author of 222 patients with a total of 257 teeth which displayed varying degrees of invasive cervical resorption showed that trauma alone was a potential predisposing sole factor in 14% of patients and 15.1% of teeth. Trauma in combination with bleaching, orthodontics or delayed eruption was found in an additional 11.2% of patients or 10.6% of teeth and of these a combination of trauma and bleaching occurred in a relatively high proportion of 7.7% of patients or 7.4% of teeth. This study also revealed that of other potential predisposing factors orthodontics was the most common sole factor constituting 21.2% of patients and 24.1% of teeth examined. Successful treatment of invasive cervical resorption is dependent on the extent of the resorptive process. Teeth with invasive cervical resorption have been divided into four classes. Whilst several treatment modalities are possible, a clinical evaluation of the treatment of this condition by the topical application of a 90% aqueous solution of trichloracetic acid, curettage, endodontic therapy where necessary and restoration with a glass ionomer cement has been evaluated on 94 patients with a total of 101 teeth with a minimum follow-up period of three years. Results indicate a satisfactory treatment outcome can be anticipated in Class 1, 2 and 3 cases. In Class 4 resorption no treatment or alternative therapy is recommended. Diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of development is highly desirable and therefore the patients who have a potential for the development of this condition by virtue of a history such as trauma should be monitored radiographically at intervals throughout life. PMID:11411085
Heithersay, G S
The decision to stop or continue resuscitation in a patient with blunt trauma and cardiac arrest arriving pulseless to the hospital has always been controversial. While many authors still believe that it is a futile effort, with no chance of success for complete neurological recovery, some recent reports have challenged the idea. Here we report complete recovery of a severely injured patient following a motor vehicle accident who lost vital signs completely before arrival at our trauma center. No cardiac motion was detected on ultrasound examination on arrival. Emergency department thoracotomy, open cardiac massage, massive blood transfusion, damage control laparotomy with abdominal and pelvic packing, followed by angio-embolization of pelvic bleeding, and staged abdominal exploration were performed. This case is an example showing that resuscitation of patients with blunt trauma and cardiac arrest arriving pulseless to the hospital is not always futile. PMID:24693385
Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Northcutt, Ashley; Youssef, Asser M
Objective: To report our experience with erosion of permanent suture or mesh material after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy by the same surgeon over 8 years. Demographic data, operative notes, hospital records, and office charts were reviewed after sacrocolpopexy. Patients with erosion of either suture or mesh were treated initially with
Neeraj Kohli; Peggy M Walsh; Todd W Roat; Mickey M Karram
A variety of disorders-including infectious, inflammatory, hereditary, and metabolic diseases-may affect both the brain and abdominal cavity, and the findings in one region may help establish the diagnosis or limit the differential diagnosis. Establishing an accurate early diagnosis enables clinicians to adequately manage these unusual diseases and potentially avert life-threatening complications. For example, an early diagnosis of Gardner syndrome enables annual sigmoid- or colonoscopy and ultrasonography. In many conditions, abdominal manifestations precede neurologic manifestations and may have prognostic significance. Patients with celiac disease more often present with abdominal manifestations such as duodenitis, slow transit time, reversal of the jejunal-ileal fold pattern, and transient small bowel intussusception than with intracranial manifestations. In other conditions, the neurologic manifestations may be the same as the presenting symptoms. For example, patients with Gardner syndrome may initially present with multiple mandibular or sinonasal osteomas. In addition, sarcoidosis may manifest with multifocal enhancing dural masses. Abdominal and neurologic manifestations may even occur simultaneously, as in several of the phakomatoses such as neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Ultimately, familiarity with the appearances of these conditions allows radiologists to pinpoint a diagnosis, even when imaging findings in either location are nonspecific. PMID:23322834
Bhavsar, Anil S; Verma, Sadhna; Lamba, Ramit; Lall, Chandana G; Koenigsknecht, Vincent; Rajesh, Arumugam
Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease
Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux
BACKGROUND There is minimal literature comparing self-inflicted (SI) with non–self-inflicted (NSI) anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASW). METHODS Adult patients treated at a level 1 trauma center from 2006 through 2011 with an AASW were reviewed. RESULTS There were 215 patients with an AASW; 20% were SI. NSI patients had more nonabdominal injuries (47% vs 16%, P < .01) and disposition directly to the operating room (45% vs 26%, P = .02). Intra-abdominal injury rates were similar. One hundred twenty-eight patients had isolated AASWs; 28% were SI. SI patients had higher admission rates (86% vs 63%, P = .01). One hundred three patients had isolated stable/asymptomatic AASWs; 31% were SI. SI patients had more admissions (84% vs 52%, P < .01), had higher intensive care unit admission rates (23% vs 5%, P = .01), longer LOS (3.2 vs 1.4, P < .01), and higher hospital charges ($18,000 vs $11,000, P < .01). The rates of intra-abdominal injury were again similar. CONCLUSIONS Controlling for extra-abdominal injuries, SI AASW patients have similar rates of intra-abdominal injury but use more resource.
Banerjee, Aman; Zhou, Hannah Y.; Kelly, Katherine B.; Downs, Bianca D.; Como, John J.; Claridge, Jeffrey A.
Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases.
Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.
OBJECTIVE- To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, complications, and outcome of dogs and cats treated surgically for major abdominal evisceration. DESIGN- Retrospective case series. ANIMALS- 8 dogs and 4 cats. PROCEDURES- Medical records from January 1998 through March 2008 were reviewed to identify animals that underwent surgery for major abdominal evisceration. Data regarding cause of evisceration, signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables were collected. Details of treatment, duration of hospitalization, and outcome were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables on the number of days of hospitalization. RESULTS- Major abdominal evisceration was secondary to a traumatic event in 4 animals and to postsurgical dehiscence in 8 animals. All animals had evisceration of the intestines and gross contamination with dirt, leaves, or litter. Two animals eviscerated the spleen, and 1 animal had a perforated colon and was leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. All animals underwent exploratory abdominal surgery. Surgical procedures performed included resection of compromised intestine, body wall repair, diaphragmatic hernia repair, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and primary colonic repair. All animals survived to discharge from the hospital. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1 to 7 days). Factors associated with an increase in duration of hospitalization included evisceration secondary to trauma, high lactate concentration at time of admission, and small body size. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE- Despite the dramatic appearance of major abdominal evisceration in cats and dogs, prompt and aggressive medical and surgical intervention can provide a favorable outcome. PMID:19527132
Gower, Sara B; Weisse, Chick W; Brown, Dorothy C
Abdominal adhesions, whether caused by peritoneal trauma, radiation, infection, or a congenital condition, are associated with a wide range of complications. These complications include chronic abdominal or pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesive small bowel obstruction. Such adhesions render re-operation difficult, with attendant risks of inadvertent enterostomy and increased operation time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in the prevention of abdominal adhesions in an experimental animal study. A laparotomy was performed on Wistar rats to induce the formation of adhesions on the cecum and the intra-abdominal area (1 × 2 cm). A superficial layer of the underlying muscle from the right abdominal wall was also shaved and prepared for aseptic surgery. The rats were divided into four groups according to the duration of HBO therapy; five additional groups were designated according to the conditions of HBO therapy. When the rats were evaluated according to adhesion area and grade, a statistically significant difference was observed between the control and HBO treatment groups (p < 0.005). Results from this study suggest that HBO treatment could reduce adhesion formation; and further suggest that HBO therapy may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postoperative peritoneal adhesion.
Chen, Ming-Jenn; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Yi-Chiang
Temporal bone fractures are mostly due to high-energy head trauma with high rates of concurrent intracranial and cervical spine injuries and belong to the wider spectrum of lateral skull base trauma. Given that the temporal bone represents the most complex bone structure in the human body, containing a multitude of vital neurovascular structures, variable clinical presentations may arise from such fractures, ranging from asymptomatic courses to serious consequences, such as conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss, vascular and/or cranial nerve injury as well as cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The present paper presents typical clinical sequelae and provides a detailed illustration of characteristic imaging findings related to temporal bone injury. Last but not least, in the final section of the manuscript the focus is placed on distinct anatomic structures which may mimic fracture lines and, thus, entail a high potential for misclassification as temporal bone fractures. PMID:24706249
Zimmer, A; Reith, W
The number of labor accident casualties between 2003 and 2012 has ranged from 110,000 to 130,000 per year in Japan. Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) program was established for major trauma and has been developed in emergency rooms. Surgical intervention to fractures in extremities includes various methods such as internal fixation with plates and screws including locking compression plate system, interlocking nailing system and external fixation. Definitive treatment for spinal cord injury is still unsolved. Cell transplantation therapy using iPS cells is anticipated to be applied clinically. Some problems still remain in the certification criteria for residual disabilities caused by labor accidents. The criteria should be revised at some early date. PMID:24605521
Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5%) who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%); one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation); one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.
The diagnostic process for evaluating suspected abusive head trauma in infants and children has evolved with technological\\u000a advances in neuroimaging. Since Caffey first described a series of children with chronic subdural hematomas and multiple long\\u000a bone fractures, radiologists have played an important role, along with pediatricians and pathologists, in evaluating abused\\u000a children. Neuroimaging modalities include ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI
Gary L. HedlundLori; Lori D. Frasier
Background To examine the association between patient complications and admission to level 1 trauma centers (TC) compared to non-trauma centers (NTC). Study Design A retrospective cohort study of data derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT). Patients were recruited from 18 level 1 TC and 51 NTC in 15 regions encompassing 14 states. Trained study nurses, using standardized forms, abstracted the medical records of the patients. The overall number of complications per patient was identified as well as the presence or absence of 13 specific complications. Results Patients treated in TC were more likely to have any complication compared to NTC with an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 1.34 (95% CI 1.03, 1.74). For individual complications, only urinary tract infection RR 1.94 (95% CI 1.07, 3.17) was significantly higher in TC. TC patients were more likely to have three or more complications, RR 1.83 (95% CI 1.16, 2.90). Treatment variables that are surrogates for markers of injury severity, such as use of pulmonary artery catheters, multiple operations, massive transfusions (> 2,500mL packed red blood cells), and invasive brain catheters, occurred significantly more often in TC. Conclusions Trauma centers have a slightly higher incidence rate of complications even after adjusting for patient case mix. Aggressive treatment may account for a significant portion of TC-associated complications. PA catheter use and intubation had the most influence on overall TC complication rates. Further study is needed to provide accurate benchmark measures of complication rates and to determine their causes.
Ang, Darwin N; Rivara, Frederick P; Nathens, Avery; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Maier, Ronald V; Wang, Jin; MacKenzie, Ellen J
Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic.
McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Paediatric interventional radiology plays a cornerstone role in the management of paediatric trauma. In the acute setting,\\u000a interventional radiology techniques allow minimally invasive control of haemorrhage or re-establishment of blood flow. Percutaneous\\u000a stenting and drainage can allow disruptions in urinary or biliary systems to heal without the need for further surgery. Interventional\\u000a radiology techniques also have a significant role in
Manrita K. Sidhu; Mark J. Hogan; Dennis W. W. Shaw; Thomas Burdick
Objectives Obesity has been demonstrated to alter a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. The effect of obesity on severely injured patients, however, remains incompletely defined. We sought to unravel potential physiologic and genomic alterations induced by obesity in severely injured blunt trauma patients. Design A retrospective review of clinical and genomic information contained in the Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury multicenter trauma-related database examining the relationship between body mass index and the early genomic response from peripheral blood leukocytes to patient outcome following severe blunt trauma was performed. Setting Multicenter collaboration between university-based academic trauma centers. Patients Severely injured blunt trauma patients enrolled in the database. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Univariate analysis of 455 severely injured trauma patients using the National Institutes of Health/World Health Organization body mass index classification system revealed significant increases in morbidity, including longer intensive care unit stays and a greater number of ventilator days, cardiac arrests, episodes of acute renal failure, and patients developing multiple organ failure. Regression modeling identified body mass index class as being independently associated with adverse outcomes and increased morbidity but an inverse relationship with mortality in patients who suffered severe blunt traumatic injury. Initial leukocyte genomic expression patterns between 163 patients in the four different body mass index groupings did not differ; however, analysis of gene differences between body mass index classes occurring over time demonstrated significant changes in 513 probe sets with significant pathway differences being related to cellular metabolism. Conclusions Increasing body mass index is associated with increased morbidity following severe blunt trauma. The initial blood leukocyte inflammatory response to blunt trauma does not appear to differ significantly between patients despite increasing body mass index. Resolution of the inflammatory response may differ between patients on the basis of body mass index; however, additional work is needed to clarify the potential causality of this finding.
Winfield, Robert D.; Delano, Matthew J.; Dixon, David J.; Schierding, William S.; Cendan, Juan C.; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Cobb, J. Perren; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Maier, Ronald V.; Cuschieri, Joseph
Objective To investigate effects of pediatric head trauma on parent mental health, parent-child relationship and family functioning 2 weeks after discharge. Methods Ninety-seven mothers and 37 fathers of 106 preschool children hospitalized with head injury completed Mental Health Inventory (MHI), Parenting Stress Index, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II (FACES II) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)
JoAnne M. Youngblut; Dorothy Brooten
This paper describes a self-report measure, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, which yields a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of various types of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence. Data on this measure are presented for two large samples of college students and for a small clinical sample of subjects with a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder.
Barbara Sanders; Evvie Becker-Lausen
\\u000a The abdominal wall protects and contains the abdominal viscera, and serves to position and stabilize the thorax and upper\\u000a body in space during movement. Components of the abdominal wall may be completely replaced if needed. The internal protective\\u000a function of the abdominal wall can be replaced with synthetic meshes, fascial flaps, or grafts. External skin can usually\\u000a be replaced with
Gregory A. Dumanian
The trauma care system in Japan was set up in the 1960s in response to social problems caused by traffic accidents and has since been altered extensively. First-aid and patient transfer are performed by emergency personnel belonging to a fire station. Instead of 'western-style trauma centres', three types of facilities exist: (1) primary emergency care facilities for treating mild cases not requiring hospitalisation; (2) secondary emergency hospitals directed to treating moderately severe disease or injury; (3) tertiary emergency hospitals corresponding to the emergency departments of university hospitals, or lifesaving emergency centres, able to manage the most severe cases such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and polytrauma. Although the quantity of emergency facilities and hospitals appears sufficient, the quality of emergency care needs to be improved. This could be accomplished by the unification of small hospitals to create larger hospitals, and/or by the establishment of trauma centres, as well as by improvements in relevant education and training. PMID:12951296
Tanaka, Tadashi; Kitamura, Nobuya; Shindo, Masateru
This study examined whether growth hormone treatment deprived the intestinal tract of glutamine after trauma. Piglets were treated with growth hormone 24 units daily 3 days before and at the start of the trauma (GH-3, n = 8) or at the start of the trauma only (GH-1, n = 8). Eight piglets acted as non-treated controls. The trauma consisted of a standardized abdominal surgical procedure. Primed constant infusions of U-14C-glutamine were given. Intestinal, hepatic, renal and hindleg glutamine fluxes were measured. Growth hormone treatment increased mean(s.e.m.) net intestinal glutamine uptake: GH-3, 39.7(9.4) and 48.7(12.7) mumol/min; GH-1, 33.2(5.5) and 25.7(12.3) mumol/min; controls, 19.5(10.3) and 2.0(15.3) mumol/min at 1 h and 5 h after trauma, respectively, (P = 0.02). The treatment increased glutamine oxidation (P = 0.025), and decreased hindleg glutamine net (P = 0.0052) and absolute release (P = 0.0063), glutamine rate of appearance (P = 0.01), and percentage of glucose coming from glutamine (P = 0.05). Growth hormone treatment before trauma increased intestinal glutamine uptake. PMID:7648157
Mjaaland, M; Unneberg, K; Jenssen, T G; Revhaug, A
Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of fetal- embryonal fat tissue. Asymptomatic abdominal mass, progressive abdominal distension, and radiolucent fat density mass on computed tomography are the main diagnostic criteria. Our patient was a 3-year old female who had been noted by mom to have abdominal distention almost since birth. The patient seemed to be having progressive abdominal distention, but
Jill Flippin; John Pohl; David Easley; Donald Cooney; Jose Santiago; Ludvik Donner
Background: Multiple methods exist to manage in the intensive care unit the patient with an open abdomen. An increasingly common method is the vacuum packed technique. This method accommodates considerable ex- pansion of intra-abdominal contents and should obvi- ate the potential development of the abdominal com- partment syndrome (ACS). Despite this, some patients with these temporary abdominal dressings will go
Vicente H. Gracias; Benjamin Braslow; Jon Johnson; John Pryor; Rajan Gupta; Patrick Reilly; C. William Schwab
Intentional penetrating wounds, self inflicted or inflicted by others, are increasingly common. As a result, it can be difficult for the forensic examiner to determine whether the cause is self-inflicted or not. This type of trauma has been studied from a psychological perspective and from a surgical perspective but the literature concerning the forensic perspective is poorer. The objective of this study was to compare the epidemiology of abdominal stab wounds so as to distinguish specific features of each type. This could help the forensic scientist to determine the manner of infliction of the wound. We proposed a retrospective monocentric study that included all patients with an abdominal wound who were managed by the visceral surgery department at Angers University Hospital. Demographic criteria, patient history, circumstances and location of the wound were noted and compared. A comparison was drawn between group 1 (self inflicted wound) and group 2 (assault). This study showed that the only significant differences are represented by the patient's prior history and the circumstances surrounding the wound, i.e. the scene and time of day. In our study, neither the site, nor the injuries sustained reveal significant clues as to the origin of the wound. According to our findings, in order to determine the cause, the forensic examiner should thus carefully study the circumstances and any associated injuries. PMID:23622473
Venara, Aurélien; Jousset, Nathalie; Airagnes, Guillaume; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde
An unexpected infant death is usually investigated with a complete autopsy. If evidence of prior trauma is found at autopsy in these cases, suspicion is raised for nonaccidental trauma. In a young infant, the residua of trauma received during birth has the potential to be incorrectly interpreted as nonaccidental trauma. We report a the findings of a 4 1/2-month-old-infant that died unexpectedly with a healing linear skull fracture and a circular lesion over the calvarium found at autopsy. Though this lesion was concerning, the remainder of the autopsy and the histological findings did not support a diagnosis of recent trauma. Review of the literature describing birth injuries made the diagnosis of healing, residual birth trauma more convincing in this case. PMID:20384915
Patonay, Bryan C; Oliver, William R
Context: Patients treated in intensive care units (ICU) though receive the best medical attention are found to suffer from trauma typically attributed to the ICU environment. Biopsychosocial approach in ICUs is found to minimize ICU trauma. Aims: This study investigates the role of psychosocial care on patients in ICU after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Settings and Design: The study included 250 post-operative CABG patients from five corporate hospitals. The combination of between subject and correlation design was used. Materials and Methods: The ICU psychosocial care scale (ICUPCS) and ICU trauma scale (ICUTS) were used to measure the psychosocial care and trauma. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and simple and multiple regression were applied. Results: Hospitals significantly differed in psychosocial care provided in ICUs. Higher the psychosocial care in ICU, lower was the ICU trauma experienced and vice versa. Psychosocial care was a significant major predictor of ICU trauma. Conclusions: The study suggests emphasis on psychosocial aspects in ICU care for optimizing prognosis.
Chivukula, Usha; Hariharan, Meena; Rana, Suvashisa; Thomas, Marlyn; Swain, Sunayana
There is consistent empirical evidence for a trauma-dissociation relation in general population samples and in psychiatric patients. However, contradictory findings have been reported on this relation among substance abusers. The present study attempts to resolve these inconsistencies by testing a series of hypotheses related to problems regarding the measurement of childhood abuse, the measurement of psychological dissociation, and the potential existence of substance abuse as a form of chemical dissociation. Alcoholic patients (N = 155) were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Structured Trauma Interview (STI), the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The DES showed good psychometric properties. Substantial rates of traumatization and PTSD were observed, as well as a significant trauma-PTSD relation. However, the mean DES score was low (11.4) and dissociation was not related to trauma (childhood or lifetime) or to PTSD. Years of lifetime regular medicine use, however, was significantly correlated with the severity of dissociative symptoms and PTSD, particularly in males. Overall, these findings suggest that absence of a trauma-dissociation relation in alcoholics may not be due to measurement problems of childhood abuse and/or dissociation. Rather, a trauma-dissociation link may not exist, particularly in male alcoholics, because these individuals may abuse substances to achieve dissociative-like states. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the utility of the DES in alcoholic samples and to examine the notion of chemical dissociation. PMID:11994837
Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; van den Brink, Wim
Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes\\u000a of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma,\\u000a although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis.
Phua Hwee Tang; Choie Cheio Tchoyoson Lim
Injuries remain the leading cause of death in children and young adults. Management of multiple trauma patients has improved in recent years by quality initiatives (trauma network, S3 guideline "Polytrauma"). On this basis, strong links with preclinical management, structured treatment algorithms, training standards (ATLS®), clear diagnostic rules and an established risk- and quality management are the important factors of a modern emergency room trauma care. We describe the organizational components that lead to successful management of trauma in hospital. PMID:23235903
Boschin, Matthias; Vordemvenne, Thomas
Introduction The goal of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt splenic trauma (BST) is to preserve the spleen. The advantages of NOM for minor splenic trauma have been extensively reported, whereas its value for the more severe splenic injuries is still debated. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available published evidence on NOM in patients with splenic trauma and to compare it with the operative management (OM) in terms of mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay. Methods For this systematic review we followed the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses" statement. A systematic search was performed on PubMed for studies published from January 2000 to December 2011, without language restrictions, which compared NOM vs. OM for splenic trauma injuries and which at least 10 patients with BST. Results We identified 21 non randomized studies: 1 Clinical Controlled Trial and 20 retrospective cohort studies analyzing a total of 16,940 patients with BST. NOM represents the gold standard treatment for minor splenic trauma and is associated with decreased mortality in severe splenic trauma (4.78% vs. 13.5% in NOM and OM, respectively), according to the literature. Of note, in BST treated operatively, concurrent injuries accounted for the higher mortality. In addition, it was not possible to determine post-treatment morbidity in major splenic trauma. The definition of hemodynamic stability varied greatly in the literature depending on the surgeon and the trauma team, representing a further bias. Moreover, data on the remaining analyzed outcomes (hospital stay, number of blood transfusions, abdominal abscesses, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection) were not reported in all included studies or were not comparable, precluding the possibility to perform a meaningful cumulative analysis and comparison. Conclusions NOM of BST, preserving the spleen, is the treatment of choice for the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades I and II. Conclusions are more difficult to outline for higher grades of splenic injury, because of the substantial heterogeneity of expertise among different hospitals, and potentially inappropriate comparison groups.
Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the agency personnel working with these clients. Within the body of trauma-informed literature, little attention has been devoted specifically to the initial investigative response and its role in controlling for system induced trauma to the child, family, and caseworker. Training child protection services (CPS) workers on the impact of trauma in child maltreatment forensic investigations and the worker's role in anticipating and mitigating the effects of trauma during the investigative process is rarely addressed in the trauma-informed literature. This article reports on a training strategy to infuse trauma information into an existing forensic child maltreatment investigation curriculum with the goal of enhancing CPS caseworker's knowledge, skills, and values concerning the importance of viewing investigations and their associated tasks through a trauma lens. PMID:22533042
Pence, Donna M
"Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented.
Cheatham, Michael L
An 18-year-old Asian woman with a history of substance abuse presented to the Emergency Department with right-sided abdominal pain and hematuria of several months duration. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant and suprapubic tenderness. Liver function tests were normal. Urinalysis showed: large blood, 30-50 red blood cells/high-powered field, and no bacteria. She underwent a CT of the abdomen and pelvis following oral and intravenous contrast. PMID:24580064
Connors, N J; Grino, A; Tunik, M G; Hoffman, R S
Vicarious trauma, a disruption in schemas and worldview often accompanied by symptoms similar to those of posttraumatic stress disorder, occurs as a result of chronic secondary exposure to traumatic material. The aim of this study was to examine the role of personal trauma history, social support, and experience level in the development of vicarious trauma among licensed social workers in
Lynn M. Michalopoulos; Elizabeth Aparicio
Despite the high prevalence of traumatic experiences and attachment disruptions among clients in child congregate care treatment settings, until recently there has been little formal training on trauma for staff serving this population. Staff trauma training is one important intervention for agencies aiming to implement trauma-informed care (TIC), a term describing an international trend in mental health care whereby treatment
Steven M. Brown; Courtney N. Baker; Patricia Wilcox
Background Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented. Methods A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012. Results and conclusion Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.
This site is the index of a book used in a geochemistry course taught by W. M. White at Cornell University. There are 15 chapters and a table of contents available. All of the chapters are large PDF files and take some time to download. Figures and exercises accompany the text.
White, William M.; Department Of Earth And Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell U.
Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/
Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals.
Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank
Heterotopic ossification (HO) can be defined as the pathological formation of bone in extra-skeletal tissues. There has been a substantial amount of recent research on the pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment of HO and traumatic conditions associated with the development of HO. This research has advanced our understanding of this disease and helped to clarify evidence-based approaches to both the prophylaxis and treatment of HO. This article reviews the literature on these topics with a focus on their application in orthopaedic trauma.
Nauth, Aaron; Giles, Erica; Potter, Benjamin K.; Nesti, Leon J.; O'Brien, Frederick P.; Bosse, Michael J.; Anglen, Jeffrey O.; Mehta, Samir; Ahn, Jaimo; Miclau, Theodore; Schemitsch, Emil H.
Trauma Systems: Establishing Standards, Systems and Information Management Systems, Pathophysiology of Trauma: Biomechanics of Injury, Head Injury, Metabolic Responses, ARDS, Trauma Team Care: Priorities, Team Dynamics, Role of the Team Leader, Impact of ...
C. M. Grande
The purpose of this retrospective study is to provide financial analysis of the difference between regular trauma patients and Trauma Medcom patients treated at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC). BAMC treats over 800 trauma patients annually; therefore, t...
K. A. Fristoe
\\u000a A 5-year-old, 22-kg boy, previously healthy, is brought to the emergency room following a terrorist bombing at his school.\\u000a He was in a remote corner of the gym when the bomb went off, also in the gym. He is writhing in pain in the ER, clutching\\u000a his stomach, short of breath, and bleeding from his left ear. He has a
Robert S. Holzman; Thomas J. Mancuso; Navil F. Sethna; James A. DiNardo
Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms that most often arise from muscle aponeurosis and have been associated with both trauma and pregnancy. The etiology of desmoids has not been determined. We report the case of anterior abdominal wall desmoid tumor in a female patient with previous history of cesarean section. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a large mass mimicking a large hematoma or an intraabdominal mass. The tumor was removed by wide excision with safe margins. The abdominal wall defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Subsequent histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Desmoid tumors in females are often associated with pregnancy or occur post-partum. The reasons behind this association are unclear. The most common sites are in the abdominal muscles.
Trigui, Khaled; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Sassi, Selim; Chebbi, Fathi; Touinsi, Hassen; Sassi, Sadok
Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms that most often arise from muscle aponeurosis and have been associated with both trauma and pregnancy. The etiology of desmoids has not been determined. We report the case of anterior abdominal wall desmoid tumor in a female patient with previous history of cesarean section. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a large mass mimicking a large hematoma or an intraabdominal mass. The tumor was removed by wide excision with safe margins. The abdominal wall defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Subsequent histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Desmoid tumors in females are often associated with pregnancy or occur post-partum. The reasons behind this association are unclear. The most common sites are in the abdominal muscles. PMID:23593530
Trigui, Khaled; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Sassi, Selim; Chebbi, Fathi; Touinsi, Hassen; Sassi, Sadok
Background Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about\\u000a the subset of children who are victims of abuse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period,
Melissa A. Hilmes; Marta Hernanz-Schulman; Christopher S. Greeley; Lisa M. Piercey; Chang Yu; J. Herman Kan
We report an unusual presentation of a sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumour, possibly arising from the diaphragm, masquerading as a hepatic mass in a young female without any history of surgery or trauma. Histopathology ruled out a hepatic origin of the tumour as was inferred from pre- and intraoperative evaluation. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity of lesional fibroblastic cells for ?-catenin and negativity for CD34, CD117, EMA, SMA, desmin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and ALK1 thereby confirming the diagnosis of a desmoid tumour. There exist only a few reports in the literature on desmoids related to the diaphragm, but only one on a diaphragmatic desmoid that is possibly primary.
Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Chatterjee, Shamita; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti
We report an unusual presentation of a sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumour, possibly arising from the diaphragm, masquerading as a hepatic mass in a young female without any history of surgery or trauma. Histopathology ruled out a hepatic origin of the tumour as was inferred from pre- and intraoperative evaluation. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity of lesional fibroblastic cells for ?-catenin and negativity for CD34, CD117, EMA, SMA, desmin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and ALK1 thereby confirming the diagnosis of a desmoid tumour. There exist only a few reports in the literature on desmoids related to the diaphragm, but only one on a diaphragmatic desmoid that is possibly primary. PMID:23091764
Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Chatterjee, Shamita; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti
Mesenteric fibromatosis is a benign fibrous tumor, characterized by proliferations of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, locally aggressive but non-metastasizing. It can occur rarely in association with familial adenomatous polyposis or sporadically (related with previous trauma, abdominal surgery or prolonged estrogens intake). Small bowel mesentery is the most common site of origin of mesenteric fibromatosis. The authors report a case of a 47-years-old male with a large mass involving the mesentery of the first jejunal loops. The patient was symptomatic for nausea and referred an increasing abdominal circumference; a CT scan showed a huge mass (34 × 29 × 15 cm) very close to the superior mesenteric vessel roots. The surgical treatment consisted in the en bloc removal of the mass weighting 13 kg. PMID:22410827
Menegazzo, M; Tonello, M; Bardini, R
Rib fractures are a common skeletal manifestation of non-accidental injury (NAI) in infants and young children and are generally\\u000a considered to be highly specific for abuse. There are, however, relatively few descriptions of fractures involving the costochondral\\u000a junctions in NAI. We present three children (two boys, one girl; 7, 18, and 36 months of age) with anterior rib fractures\\u000a which
Chaan S. Ng; Christine M. Hall
Ruptures of the duodenum remains one of pending problems of the emergency surgery, which is also stipulated by the relative rarity of such injury. The study is based on experimental part, carried out on 47 dogs, and analysis of surgical treatment of 51 patients with duodenal ruptures. The results allowed optimizing surgical tactics and post-traumatic purulent complications prophylaxy in such patients. PMID:19738555
Chirkov, R N; Abakumov, M M; Dubrovin, I A
Chylothorax following blunt chest trauma is rare; we found only 19 cases reported. We describe an unusual patient with chylothorax from closed chest injury. The diagnosis is made from thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy fluid. Thoracostomy in the definitive therapeutic modality. Nonoperative or, when necessary, operative treatment of chylothorax after blunt trauma can lead to a successful outcome in 90% of cases. PMID:3418769
Dulchavsky, S A; Ledgerwood, A M; Lucas, C E
Many individuals who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder have histories of childhood trauma that may have contributed to their difficulty regulating affect. Dialectical behavioral therapy focuses on helping these patients to regulate emotional states and achieve behavioral control in Stage 1 so they can tolerate therapy that is focused on trauma and emotional experiencing in a Stage 2 treatment.
An estimated 7% of the U.S. population is exposed to traumas/disasters each year. In the military, traumatic events caused by training, war, and combat, are an expected part of life. Understanding individual, unit and community responses to traumas/disast...
R. J. Ursano, C. S. Fullerton, K. M. Wright, J. E. McCarroll, A. E. Norwood
Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…
Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah
This guide for teachers in times of trauma was updated after the events of September 11, 2001--the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These traumatic events could cause refugees to experience trauma or become re-traumatized. For many refugees, their English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are the places where they…
Adkins, Myrna Ann; Harper, Eric
Only a few studies have described the microscopic pathology of the articular cartilage after trauma. In the present animal study, we demonstrate the effect of trauma on the articular cartilage of the patella and determine the histological changes. Traumatic injury of the patella was experimentally induced in 45 white New Zealand rabbits aged 4 to 6 months old. The articular
Ioannis K. Triantafillopoulos; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos; Panorea K. Politi; Panayiotis A Nikiforidis
Accidents are a frequent cause of death in children older than 1 year. The most frequent causes of death by accident are traffic accidents, drowning, intentional injuries, burns, and falls. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one component of the set of actions needed to obtain initial stabilization of a child with serious trauma. In the first few minutes after the accident, cardiorespiratory arrest can occur due to airway obstruction or inadequate ventilation, massive blood loss or severe brain damage; cardiorespiratory arrest in this setting has a dismal outcome. When arrest occurs hours after trauma, it is usually caused by hypoxia, hypovolemia, hypothermia, intracranial hypertension, or electrolyte disturbances. The first response to trauma should include three objectives: to protect (scenario assessment and implementation of safety measures), to alert (activation of the emergency medical system) and to help (initial trauma care). Initial trauma care includes primary and secondary surveys. The primary survey involves several consecutive steps: A. airway and cervical spine stabilization, B. breathing, C. circulation and hemorrhage control, D. neurological dysfunction, and E. exposure. The secondary survey consists of assessment of the victim by means of anamnesis, sequential physical examination (from head to limbs) and complementary investigations. During emergency trauma care, specific procedures such as extrication and mobilization maneuvers, cervical spine control by means of bimanual immobilization, and cervical collar placement or helmet removal. If a cardiorespiratory arrest occurs during initial trauma care, resuscitation maneuvers must be immediately started with the specific adaptations indicated in children with trauma. PMID:17340788
Domínguez Sampedro, P; Cañadas Palazón, S; de Lucas García, N; Balcells Ramírez, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V
Maxillary sinus foreign bodies are commonly due to penetrating trauma and iatrogenic events. A foreign body is usually identified during initial assessment and subsequently removed. We present a rare method of maxillary sinus trauma with retained and subsequent discharged foreign body twelve years following the initial injury.
Blythe, RJ; Abbas-Ali, M
Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…
Pence, Donna M.
During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…
Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.
Background In the context of increasing obesity prevalence, the relationship between large visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. In a clinical sample of severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI], 46 kg/m2) with fasting normoglycemia (n=40) or dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose+diabetes; n=20), we sought to determine the usefulness of anthropometric correlates of VAT and associations with dysglycemia. Methods VAT volume was estimated using multi-slice computer tomography; anthropometric surrogates included sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (Si), and beta-cell dysfunction, measured by insulin secretion (AIRg) and the disposition index (DI), were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Compared to fasting normoglycemic women, individuals with dysglycemia had greater VAT (P<0.001) and SAD (P=0.04), but BMI, total adiposity and Si were similar. VAT was inversely associated with AIRg and DI after controlling for ancestry, Si, and total adiposity (standardized beta, ?0.32 and ?0.34, both P<0.05). In addition, SAD (beta=0.41, P=0.02) was found to be a better estimate of VAT volume than WC (beta=0.32, P=0.08) after controlling for covariates. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that VAT volume, followed by SAD, outperformed WC and BMI in identifying dysglycemic participants. Conclusions Increasing VAT is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and dysglycemia in very obese women. In the presence of severe obesity, SAD is a simple surrogate of VAT, and an indicator of glucose dysregulation.
Kahn, Henry S.; Gasevic, Danijela; Liang, Zhe; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Torres, William E.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Lin, Edward
In this case report, we present a case of young male with left sided acute appendicitis who presented with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. The purpose of this report is to increase awareness in the emergency physicians and young surgeons of this rare presentation, with high suspicion of index could lead to facilitate early recognition and decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:24034196
Akram, Hammad; Siddiqui, Zakaur Rab
An adhesion occurs when two tissues that normally freely move past each other attach via a fibrous bridge. Abdominal adhesions place a tremendous clinical and financial burden on public health. Adhesions develop after nearly every abdominal surgery, commonly causing female infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and, most frequently, small bowel obstruction. A National Hospital Discharge Survey of hospitalizations between 1998 and 2002 reported that 18.1% of hospitalizations were related to abdominal adhesions annually accounting for 948,000 days of inpatient care at an estimated cost of $1.18 billion. This review discusses the current or proposed therapies for abdominal adhesions. While many therapies for abdominal adhesions have been attempted, the need for a definitive therapy to prevent or even reduce abdominal adhesions still exists. PMID:20036389
Ward, Brian C; Panitch, Alyssa
The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique.
Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture.
Vorp, David A.
BackgroundKeeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients.MethodsPatients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion\\/fluid infusion
Li Shao; Hong Zheng; Feng-Ju Jia; Hui-Qin Wang; Li Liu; Qi Sun; Meng-Ying An; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Hao Wen
Background: multi-organ failure is a leading cause of death following aneurysm surgery, especially in the emergency setting. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an important factor in the development of multi-organ failure. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome may reduce mortality following aneurysm surgery.Methods: a descriptive review of the literature from a Medline search.Results and
I. M Loftus; M. M Thompson
The Authors report the case of a patient symptomatic for fever, weight loss and abdominal pain submitted to abdominal sonography and CT which identified a mass of the pancreatic head. The patient underwent laparotomy plus biopsy; the istologic and bacteriological diagnosis demonstrated a tuberculous lymphoadenitis in spite of a normal cutaneous tuberculin test. Abdominal localization of TBC infection therefore is increasing in epidemiological studies, and thus it must be included in the differential diagnosis of subdiaphragmatic disease. PMID:9296597
Casolino, V; Arcuri, V; Fontana, I; Tommasi, G V; Manolitsi, O; Valente, R; Valente, U
Although injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, few prior studies exist on the costs of trauma care. This article estimates treatment costs of care for 12 months following injury. Primary and secondary data were collected on over 5000 moderate-to-severely injured patients 18-84 years of age discharged from 69 US hospitals. Acute and post-acute costs of care were estimated from a combination of data sources: UB92 hospital bills, patient surveys, medical record abstracts, and where available, Medicare claims. Key analysis variables were demographic characteristics, insurance status and nature and severity of injury. Mean 1-year cost per patient of trauma care in our population was $75,210. On average, 58% of cost was accounted for by the index hospitalization. Total 1-year treatment cost of adult major trauma in the USA was conservatively estimated to be US$27 billion annually (2005). PMID:20384565
Weir, Sharada; Salkever, David S; Rivara, Frederick P; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Nathens, Avery B; Mackenzie, Ellen J
Abdominal apoplexy, or idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage, is a rare and often fatal condition resulting from a variety of disease processes affecting the arterial and venous abdominal vasculature. Preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of abdominal apoplexy are challenging. The source of bleeding may remain elusive even after careful autopsy dissection given the absence of intravascular pressure. Despite these challenges, early diagnosis and rapid treatment remain central to a successful outcome, as nonsurgical mortality has approached 100%. Presented here are two fatal cases of abdominal apoplexy, one involving a patient with arterial dissection of the gastroduodenal artery and one involving rupture of the superior mesenteric-portal venous system with perivascular pseudoaneurysm formation.
Harbour, Lori N.; Koch, Meghan S.; Louis, Thomas H.; Fulmer, James M.
Use of allogeneic blood products to treat pediatric trauma may be challenged, particularly in relation to safety. We report successful treatment of a child with severe abdominal and pelvic injuries with preemptive fibrinogen supplementation followed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided, goal-directed hemostatic therapy. Fibrinogen concentrate was administered (total dose: 2 g), while transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate was avoided. Activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged and Quick values were low but ROTEM clotting time values remained normal, therefore, no thrombin-generating drugs were considered necessary. This case shows the potential for hemostatic treatment with coagulation factor concentrates to be applied to pediatric trauma. PMID:22964782
Ziegler, Bernhard; Schimke, Christa; Marchet, Peter; Stögermüller, Birgit; Schöchl, Herbert; Solomon, Cristina
In industry, especially in the automobile industry, improvements in efficiency could be demonstrated by quality management and quality circles. There is no doubt that in medicine, major trauma is also a very complex challenge.The German Association for Trauma Surgery published the White Paper on the Management of the Seriously Injured in 2006. The White Paper specifies the demand for quality of care, sets the level of structural requirements for trauma care and postulates the cooperation of regional hospitals within a network of dedicated trauma centres. The Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria (TNO) was the first certified trauma network in Germany. One of the reasons for this success is the fact that cooperation between trauma surgeons has already had a long tradition in this geographic area. The key factor is communication which is supported by all technical and organisational means. The formal installation of quality circles on each level of trauma care, e.g. within and across institutions, was accepted by all partners within the network. The goal is the improvement of patient care in trauma above and beyond the guidelines of the White Paper. This paper shows the instruments used to enhance the quality of trauma care within a network. PMID:21286905
Ernstberger, A; Koller, M; Nerlich, M
Background To decrease the burden of injuries it is essential to have an overview of trauma patterns and its management at regional trauma centers. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate some patterns of trauma and trauma-related therapeutic interventions at our trauma center. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 19530 trauma cases admitted to the emergency department and hospital wards of Shohada University Hospital during 2007-2008 were assessed. Results Of the 19530 trauma cases, 14960(76.7%) were males. Mean (SD) of age was 31(19.9) years. The elderly aged 65 and above, comprised 10% (1953) of the participants; while 44 were infants. Falls and traffic injuries were the most common cause of injuries among trauma patients. Most of the mortalities were men comprising 74% of the 57 deaths. Reduction of fractures and dislocations were the most common types of operations among trauma patients. Conclusions Young men form the target group for possible interventions to decrease the burden of trauma following falls and traffic accidents.
Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ziapour, Behrad; Deljavan, Reza
AIM: To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in São José do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1st July 2004 to 30th June 2005. We included all patients attending the center's emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS) ? 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS ? 2 and there were 45 (12%) deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4%) car crashes, 75 (20.1%) falls, 46 (12.3%) motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7%) stabbings, 22 (5.9%) accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6%) bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6%) shootings, and 54 (14.5%) other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60%) were grade 2, 101 (27%) were grade 3, 27 (7.2%) were grade 4, 18 (4.9%) were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8%) grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. CONCLUSION: Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate.
Cury, Francisco; Baitello, Andre Luciano; Echeverria, Rodrigo Florencio; Espada, Paulo Cesar; Pereira de Godoy, Jose Maria
Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 6464 children. We measured growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures: Body mass index, fat mass index (body fat mass/height(2)), lean mass index (body lean mass/height(2)), android/gynoid fat ratio measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and sc and preperitoneal abdominal fat measured by ultrasound at the median age of 6.0 years (90% range, 5.7-7.4). Results: We observed that weight gain in the second and third trimesters of fetal life and in early, mid, and late infancy were independently and positively associated with childhood body mass index (P < .05). Only infant weight gain was associated with higher fat mass index, android/gynoid fat ratio, and abdominal fat in childhood (P < .05). Children with both fetal and infant growth acceleration had the highest childhood body mass index, fat mass index, and sc abdominal fat, whereas children with fetal growth deceleration and infant growth acceleration had the highest value for android/gynoid fat ratio and the lowest value for lean mass index (P < .05). Conclusions: Growth in both fetal life and infancy affects childhood body mass index, whereas only infant growth directly affects measured total body and abdominal fat. Fetal growth deceleration followed by infant growth acceleration may lead to an adverse body fat distribution in childhood. PMID:24712569
Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Manniesing, Rashindra; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Duijts, Liesbeth; Durmu?, Bü?ra; Jaddoe, Vincent W V
Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M(age) = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. No differences in pre- and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events. PMID:23550961
Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C
Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS), per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1%) or charge estimate (25.9%) for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701). However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied and the cost methods employed are the primary drivers for the treatment costs. Targeted research into the costs of trauma care is required to facilitate informed health service planning.
The current study extends previous investigation of schizotypy as a vulnerability factor for trauma-related intrusions through the use of a clinical sample. Fifty people seeking psychological interventions after experiencing a distressing or traumatic event completed measures of positive schizotypy, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology, peritraumatic dissociation, and mood. Individuals scoring high in positive schizotypy were vulnerable to experiencing more frequent trauma-related intrusions along with wider posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology, including hypervigilance, avoidance, and low mood. Results are discussed within a theoretical context, suggesting that certain information processing styles associated with high schizotype individuals may account for a vulnerability to trauma-related intrusions. PMID:17220741
Marzillier, Sarah L; Steel, Craig
It's been 30 years since an endovascular technique to control traumatic hemorrhage was first described. Despite major technical advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic technology, and a great deal of experience since then, endovascular techniques are rarely considered as part of frontline management for vascular trauma. This review considers the literature and calls for better planning and implementation of diagnostic and image=guided therapeutic facilities. Endovascular techniques should be an essential part of vascular trauma management along with endovascular specialists, partners in trauma teams.
Nicholson, Anthony A. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Dept. of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com
The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171
Borderline Personality Disorder has been linked to both trauma and insecure attachment styles. Betrayal Trauma Theory proposes those who have experienced interpersonal trauma may remain unaware of betrayal in order to maintain a necessary attachment. This study attempts to replicate the association between self-reported betrayal trauma experiences and borderline personality characteristics found by Kaehler and Freyd (2009); however, this project
Laura A. Kaehler; Jennifer J. Freyd
Trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock who only transiently respond or do not respond to fluid therapy and\\/or the administration of blood products have exsanguinating injuries. Recognising shock due to (exsanguinating) haemorrhage in trauma is about constructing a synthesis of trauma mechanism, injuries, vital signs and the therapeutic response of the patient. The aim of prehospital care of bleeding trauma patients
L. M. G. Geeraedts; H. A. H. Kaasjager; A. B. van Vugt; J. P. M. Frölke