Sample records for abdominal trauma index

  1. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  2. Abdominal trauma in war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Rignault

    1992-01-01

    In war, the percentage of casualties with abdominal wounds on battle-fields is near 20%. Roughly half of these casualties die almost immediately from bleeding. Wounding agents are most often either bullets or fragments from various detonating devices. Severity of pathology induced by these agents and prolonged lag time between injury and treatment constitute major differences between peace and war abdominal

  3. Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Uranues, Selman; Popa, Dorin Eugen; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Schrittwieser, Rudolph

    2015-06-01

    If morbidity and mortality are to be reduced in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, first priority goes to prompt and accurate determination of peritoneal penetration and identification of the need for surgery. In this setting, laparoscopy may have an important impact on the rate of negative or non-therapeutic laparotomies. We analyzed indications and patient selection criteria for laparoscopy in penetrating trauma along with outcomes. The analysis focused on identification of peritoneal penetration and injuries to the diaphragm, small intestine, and mesentery. Results from the early phase of laparoscopy were compared with those from recent decades with more advanced laparoscopic equipment and instruments and more experienced surgeons. A systematic review of the role of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma shows a sensitivity ranging from 66.7 to 100 %, specificity from 33.3 to 100 % and accuracy from 50 to 100 %. Publications from the 1990s found trauma laparoscopy to be inadequate for detecting intestinal injuries and so to lead to missed injuries. Twenty-three of the 50 studies including the most recent ones report sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100 %. Laparoscopy is more cost effective than negative laparotomy. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively on stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of morbidity, accuracy in detecting diaphragmatic and intestinal injuries, and elimination of prolonged hospitalization for observation, so reducing the length of stay and increasing cost effectiveness. PMID:25446491

  4. Major Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niten Singh

    \\u000a The increasing popularity of non-operative management for trauma patients is predicated on excellent imaging, the ability\\u000a to percutaneously control bleeding and repair blood vessels, and the resources to closely monitor patients in a well-stocked\\u000a intensive care unit. For example, whereas just a few years ago a patient with a gunshot wound to the flank that was hemodynamically\\u000a stable would likely

  5. Recognising and assessing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Anthony; Whiting, Dean

    2015-03-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is common following major traumatic injury but may not be recognised quickly enough and is therefore a cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Emergency department nurses have a major role to play in reducing the incidence of unrecognised abdominal trauma by enhancing their knowledge and skills. They can do this by attending trauma-related courses, taking on more expanded roles, carrying out full and comprehensive physical assessments, and ensuring that members of the multidisciplinary team use the wide range of diagnostic adjuncts available to them. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal cavity, explains abdominal trauma, gives an overview of advanced abdominal assessment techniques and diagnostic adjuncts, and reviews some management strategies for uncontrolled haemorrhage that have been adopted in the UK. PMID:25746888

  6. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  7. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S; Hamid, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  8. Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD

    E-print Network

    Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 2315 Stockton Blvd., PSSB 2100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA Ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal trauma has evolved over the past 30 years. The use of ultrasound for abdominal trauma

  9. [Surgical management of blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Wu, C L; Chou, M C

    1993-09-01

    From 1986 to 1990, 175 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were hospitalized and operated on in Kuang Tien General Hospital. Included were 140 males and 35 females with a mean age of 33 years (range: 2 to 82). The mean duration of the follow-up was 42 months. We classified the severity of the injured organs with the organ injury scale which was published by the Organ Injury Scaling (O.I.S.) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (A. A. S. T.) in 1989 and 1990. Among the patients, 12 cases were treated with splenorrhaphy. Eighty-two cases underwent splenectomy. Four cases underwent partial resection of the liver. Three cases required repair of the inferior vena cava. Seventeen cases were treated with partial resection of the small intestine and anastomosis. Seven cases underwent colostomy. Three cases were treated with distal pancreatectomy. Nineteen cases underwent nephrectomy. One case was treated with partial nephrectomy. The mortality rate was 6.3%, and the morbidity rate 20.6%. The most frequent postoperative complications related to blunt abdominal trauma in the patients who survived the initial operation were wound infection (8.0%), small bowel obstruction (4.0%), pulmonary infection (2.3%), intra-abdominal abscesses (2.3%), pancreatitis (1.7%), pancreatic fistula (1.7%), and pseudocyst (0.6%). PMID:8271328

  10. Damage control in trauma and abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Brett H; Rotondo, Michael F

    2010-09-01

    Damage control surgery, initially formalized <20 yrs ago, was developed to overcome the poor outcomes in exsanguinating abdominal trauma with traditional surgical approaches. The core concepts for damage control of hemorrhage and contamination control with abbreviated laparotomy followed by resuscitation before definitive repair, although simple in nature, have led to an alteration in which emergent surgery is handled among a multitude of problems, including abdominal sepsis and battlefield surgery. With the aggressive resuscitation associated with damage control surgery, understanding of abdominal compartment syndrome has expanded. It is probably through avoiding this clinical entity that the greatest improvement in surgical outcomes for various emergent surgical problems has occurred in the past two decades. However, with its success, new problems have emerged, including increases in enterocutaneous fistulas and open abdomens. But as with any crisis, innovative strategies are being developed. New approaches to control of the open abdomen and reconstruction of the abdominal wall are being developed from negative pressure dressing therapies to acellular allograft meshes. With further understanding of new resuscitative strategies, the need for damage control surgery may decline, along with its concomitant complications, at the same time retaining the success that damage control surgery has brought to the critically ill trauma and general surgery patient in the past few years. PMID:20724875

  11. Blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lock, J S; Huffman, A D; Johnson, R C

    1987-06-01

    This review of blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is based on one case summary and 32 cases from the literature. Motor vehicle accidents caused about half of the reported cases. In 69% of the cases the diagnosis was made in the immediate or early period. Associated injuries were present in 71% of the cases. Most injuries occurred at the inferior mesenteric artery (33%) or the renal arteries (24%). Overall mortality was 27%. Lower extremity ischemia evident on physical examination may suggest the diagnosis. When blunt abdominal aortic injury is suspected without distal ischemia, aortography may be used to define or exclude the injury and further therapy. Only minimal intimal disruptions should be managed nonoperatively. PMID:3298665

  12. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma in a civilian trauma service.

    PubMed

    Howes, N; Walker, T; Allorto, N L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2012-05-01

    This report looks at the group of patients who required a laparotomy for blunt torso trauma at a busy metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. Methods. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the surgical services of the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan complex. This registry is interrogated retrospectively. All patients who required admission for blunt torso trauma over the period September 2006 - September 2007 were included for review. Proformas documenting mechanism of injury, age, vital signs, blood gas, delay in presentation, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and operative details were completed. Results. A total of 926 patients were treated for blunt trauma by the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan services during the period under consideration. A cohort of 65 (8%) required a laparotomy for blunt trauma during this period. There were 17 females in this group. The mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA) (27), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA) (21), assault (5), fall from a height (3), bicycle accident (6), quad bike accident (1) and tractor-related accident (2). The following isolated injuries were discovered at laparotomy: liver (9), spleen (5), diaphragm (1), duodenum (2), small bowel (8), mesentery (8) bladder (10), gallbladder (1), stomach (2), colon/rectum (2) and retrohepatic vena cava (1). The following combined injuries were discovered: liver and diaphragm (2), spleen and pancreas (1), spleen and liver (2), spleen, aorta and diaphragm (1), spleen and bladder (1) and small bowel and bladder (2). Eighteen patients in the series (26%) required relaparotomy. In 10 patients temporary abdominal containment was needed. The mortality rate was 26% (18 patients). There were 6 deaths from massive bleeding, all within 6 hours of operation, and 3 deaths from renal failure; the remaining 9 patients died of multiple organ failure. There were 8 negative laparotomies (7%). In the negative laparotomy group false-positive computed tomography (CT) scan findings were a problem in 3 cases, in 1 case hypotension and a fractured pelvis on admission prompted laparotomy, and in the other cases clinical findings prompted laparotomy. All patients who underwent negative laparotomy survived. There were 10 pelvic fractures, 5 lower limb fractures, 2 spinal injuries, 4 femur fractures and 2 upper limb fractures. CT scans were done in 25 patients. In 20 patients the systolic blood pressure on presentation was <90 mmHg and in 41 the pulse rate was >110 beats/min. In 16 patients there was a base excess of <-4 on presentation. Conclusion. Laparotomy is needed in less than 10% of patients who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Solid visceral injury requiring laparotomy presents with haemodynamic instability. Hollow visceral injury has a more insidious presentation and is associated with a delay in diagnosis. CT scan is the most widely used investigation in blunt abdominal trauma. It is both sensitive and specific for solid visceral injury, but its accuracy for the diagnosis of hollow visceral injury is less well defined. Clinical suspicion must be high, and hollow visceral injury needs to be actively excluded. PMID:22622098

  13. The effect of blunt abdominal trauma on appendix vermiformis

    PubMed Central

    Etensel, B; Yazici, M; Gursoy, H; Ozkisacik, S; Erkus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma and appendicitis are the most common conditions of childhood for which surgical consultation is sought in emergency departments. Occasionally, appendicitis and trauma exist together, which causes an interesting debate whether trauma has led to appendicitis. We aimed to evaluate our patients with traumatic appendicitis and to discuss their properties in the light of the literature. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children of blunt abdominal trauma accompanied by appendicitis. Results: Of 29 cases of blunt abdominal trauma that had required surgical exploration, five were found to have gross findings of acute appendicitis and underwent appendicectomy. Appendicitis was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: It should be kept in mind that children managed for severe blunt abdominal trauma may develop appendicitis. If clinical outlook suggests appendicitis in cases conservatively managed for blunt abdominal trauma, physical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography and/or abdominal computed tomography should be repeated for diagnosis of traumatic appendicitis. This approach will help to protect the patients against the complications of appendicitis that are likely to develop. PMID:16299198

  14. Diagnosis of Bowel Injuries fromBlunt Abdominal Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravka Vidmar; Alojz Pleskovic; Martin Tonin

    2003-01-01

    Background: Patients with bowel injuries resulting from blunt abdominal trauma show no reliable clinical or radiologic signs on initial examination. The mechanism of injury is the only element of some diagnostic value. Intestinal injury may be evaluated by ultrasonography (US), plain abdominal radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and diagnostic laparoscopy. This paper is a retrospective study of diagnostic procedures used in

  15. Pancreatic Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hasanovic, Jasmin; Agic, Mirha; Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Jakubovic-Cickusic, Amra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic injuries are not common after blunt and penetrating trauma, but can be challenging to diagnose and manage. Case report: Twenty-three year old man, injured during a fall from a motorcycle two days earlier, was admitted to Department of Surgery, University Clinical Centre Tuzla because of suspicion of pancreatic trauma. Immediately after hospitalization, patient underwent laboratory and radiological tests that revealed the existence of pancreatic trauma, so we opted for urgent surgical treatment. Surgery and early postoperative course were normal and the patient was discharged on the ninth postoperative day. Conclusion: Proper diagnosis and well-selected surgical treatment significantly increases the chances for recovery of these patients. PMID:26005266

  16. Laparoscopy in Non-Trauma Abdominal Emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua R. Karas; Roberto Bergamaschi

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The role for laparoscopy has evolved throughout the years and more evidence has become available to support its use in abdominal\\u000a emergencies. Although the literature has expanded and more randomized controlled trials are available, skepticism persists\\u000a concerning the use of laparoscopy in emergency situations. We attempt to provide the readers with a concise review and highlight\\u000a the most relevant

  17. Early laparoscopic approach to pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Adarsh; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. A timely accurate diagnosis of such injury is difficult and also the management remains controversial. Here, we reported the successful use of laparoscopy to diagnose, characterize and treat blunt pancreatic trauma in a 28-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle crash. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed peripancreatic fat stranding suggestive of pancreatic injury. With persistent clinical signs of peritonitis and laboratory investigations suggestive of pancreatitis, the patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of the lesser sac. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The management of patients with blunt pancreatic injuries should be tailored to individual situations. Our experience suggests that a timely laparoscopic management of traumatic pancreatic injury is safe approach in selected cases. PMID:25477017

  18. Biliary peritonitis due to “fallen” hydatid cyst after abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Melih; Tihan, Deniz; Fersahoglu, Tuba; Cavda, Faruk; Titiz, Izzet

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic hydatid cysts may cause serious complications. Intraperitoneal rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is rarely seen and the prognosis can be fatal. By experience, we know that it might be difficult to diagnose an unruptured cyst expulsed into the peritoneal cavity. In this report, we present the case of a 54-year-old man with an intraperitoneal cystic mass of 10 cm of diameter which had extruded out from the liver due to a blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:19561943

  19. Abdominal trauma at the Southern Surgical Association, 1888-1987.

    PubMed Central

    Nance, F C

    1988-01-01

    Since 1888 98 papers have been presented to the Southern Surgical Association (SSA) dealing directly or indirectly with abdominal trauma. The papers reflect the progress over the century in the management of this injury. Almost two-thirds of the papers have originated from the major city hospitals of the south. An interest in abdominal trauma has been manifest among the officers of SSA. Twenty-two presidents have presented papers or taken part in discussions. Four 25-year eras were identified. In the earliest, exploration of abdominal wounds was firmly established as a principle. The second period was characterized by consolidation of principles and strengthening of supportive care. The third era encompassing World War II marked a nadir in productivity. In the last 25 years a reawakened interest has resulted in a marked increase in the number and quality of presentations, which have increasingly focused on specific organ injuries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3291795

  20. Evaluation of antibiotic therapy following penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R C; Thal, E R; Johnson, N A; Gollihar, L N

    1985-01-01

    Postoperative infection accounts for significant morbidity and mortality following penetrating abdominal trauma. During a 2 1/2-year period, December 1980 through June 1983, 257 patients sustaining penetrating abdominal injury were initially treated at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas. Following the patient's written consent, they were prospectively randomized to receive, prior to surgery, intravenous clindamycin 600 mg every 6 hours and tobramycin 1.2 mg/kg every 6 hours (CT), or cefamandole 1 gm every 4 hours (M), or cefoxitin 1 gm every 4 hours (C). The antibiotics were continued for 48 hours. Major organ injuries in the three groups were comparable. The overall infection rate was significantly less in the cefoxitin group (13%), compared to cefamandole at 29%, and was comparable to the combination of clindamycin/tobramycin at 20%. The most significant difference followed colon injury. There were 96 patients who sustained colon injuries and the infection rate was CT 33%, M 62%, and C 19% (p = 0.002). If nonoperative wound infections were excluded from the colon group and only severe infections were evaluated, the infection rate was CT 18%, M 38%, and C 13% (p = 0.021). The infection rate was higher in the shock patients and tended to increase as age increased. Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent aerobes isolated along with anaerobes. Five of six Bacteroides isolates from major infections occurred in the cefamandole group; two of which were in bacteremic patients. The hospital stay corresponded with infection rates, being 11.4 days (CT), 13.1 days (M), and 9.4 days (C). The results of this study indicate that cefoxitin is comparable to the combination of clindamycin/tobramycin and superior to cefamandole when used before surgery in patients sustaining penetrating abdominal trauma. The study suggests that antibiotic coverage should be against aerobes and anaerobes. Routine administration of an aminoglycoside is unnecessary. PMID:3994433

  1. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pancreatitis, paediatrics, and trauma.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Ejike, Janeth C; Leppäniemi, Ari; De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Laet, Inneke; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction among patients with trauma and sepsis. However, the impact of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) among pediatric, pregnant, non-septic medical patients, and those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), obesity, and burns has been studied less extensively. The aim of this review is to outline the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) for the above patient populations. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed to identify relevant studies. There is an increasing awareness of IAH in general medicine. The incidence of IAH and, to a lesser extent, ACS is high among patients with SAP. IAH should always be suspected and IAP measured routinely. In children, normal IAP in mechanically ventilated patients is approximately 7 ± 3 mm Hg. As an IAP of 10-15 mm Hg has been associated with organ damage in children, an IAP greater than 10 mm Hg should be considered IAH in these patients. Moreover, as ACS may occur in children at an IAP lower than 20 mm Hg, any elevation in IAP higher than 10 mm Hg associated with new organ dysfunction should be considered ACS in children until proven otherwise. Monitor IAP trends and be aware that specific interventions may need to be instituted at lower IAP than the current ACS definitions accommodate. Finally, IAH and ACS can occur both in abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma patients. Early mechanical hemorrhage control and the avoidance of excessive fluid resuscitation are key elements in preventing IAH in trauma patients. IAH and ACS have been associated with many conditions beyond the general ICU patient. In adults and in children, the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and the prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early during their treatment (with a low threshold to initiate IAP monitoring). Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 20 mm Hg, especially in patients developing difficulty with ventilation. Although on-operative measures should be instituted first, one should not hesitate to resort to surgical decompression if they fail. PMID:25973660

  2. Nutrition support for the patient with an open abdomen after major abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blake McKibbin; Gail Cresci; Michael Hawkins

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveNutrition support in the severely injured trauma patient is crucial to minimize the hypermetabolic stress response. Even though enteral nutrition is the preferred method of feeding, it is not always feasible after multiple trauma. We present a complex nutritional case in a patient who sustained severe abdominal trauma with a severe liver injury, rib fractures, and pulmonary contusion.

  3. Laparoscopic splenectomy in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Narendra

    2009-01-01

    Splenic rupture is a frequent consequence of blunt abdominal trauma. Removal of the spleen (splenectomy) or alternative conservative procedures (splenorrhaphy, partial splenectomy and haemostatic collagen application) are surgical treatment options. Splenectomy was first described in 1910 by Sutherland. Laparoscopic splenectomy was first described in 1991 by Delaitre and Maignien. Since then significant improvements in instrumentation and technology such as harmonic scalpel, endovascular staplers have increased its ease of performance. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a ruptured spleen has been reported only in a few cases, in which a hand-assisted technique was used. We present the first reported case from India (to the best of our knowledge) of a successful removal of a ruptured spleen by means of a totally laparoscopic technique. PMID:20040803

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy in a case of blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Arun; Agarwal, Narendra

    2009-01-01

    Splenic rupture is a frequent consequence of blunt abdominal trauma. Removal of the spleen (splenectomy) or alternative conservative procedures (splenorrhaphy, partial splenectomy and haemostatic collagen application) are surgical treatment options. Splenectomy was first described in 1910 by Sutherland. Laparoscopic splenectomy was first described in 1991 by Delaitre and Maignien. Since then significant improvements in instrumentation and technology such as harmonic scalpel, endovascular staplers have increased its ease of performance. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a ruptured spleen has been reported only in a few cases, in which a hand-assisted technique was used. We present the first reported case from India (to the best of our knowledge) of a successful removal of a ruptured spleen by means of a totally laparoscopic technique. PMID:20040803

  5. Diagnostic Delay Increases Morbidity in Children with Gastrointestinal Perforation from Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayrettin Öztürk; Abdurrahman Önen; Selçuk Otçu; Ali ?hsan Dokucu; Yusuf Ya?mur; Mete Kaya; Selçuk Yücesan

    2003-01-01

    .  \\u000a \\u000a Purpose: Intestinal perforation due to blunt abdominal trauma is rarely seen in children and delayed diagnosis is a major concern.\\u000a Because the potential risk factors affecting morbidity are not well known, we evaluated whether diagnostic delay increases\\u000a morbidity in gastrointestinal perforation from blunt abdominal trauma in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Twenty-nine children with gastrointestinal perforation caused by blunt abdominal trauma, admitted

  6. Left External Iliac and Common Femoral Artery Occlusion Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma without Associated Bone Injury

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Park, Il Hwan; Do, Hye-jin; Bae, Keum Seok; Oh, Joong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause peripheral vascular injuries. However, blunt abdominal trauma rarely results in injuries to the external iliac and common femoral arteries, which often stem from regional bone fractures. Here, we present the case of a patient who had experienced trauma in the lower abdominal and groin area three months before presenting to the hospital, but these injuries did not involve bone fractures and had been managed conservatively. The patient came to the hospital because of left lower leg claudication that gradually became severe. Computed tomography angiography confirmed total occlusion of the external iliac and common femoral arteries. The patient underwent femorofemoral bypass grafting and was discharged uneventfully. PMID:26078931

  7. The role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma – review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sosada, Krystyn; Piecuch, Jerzy; ?urawi?ski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of urgent explorative laparotomy as a standard procedure in the treatment of abdominal penetrating wounds is controversial. Mandatory surgical intervention for penetrating abdominal trauma yields a high rate of negative laparotomies in the absence of visceral injuries. Laparoscopy is an alternative diagnostic procedure inspecting the peritoneum for signs of perforation and excluding significant intra-abdominal injuries. Following current guidelines, diagnostic laparoscopy should be used with caution only in selected cases due to the limited amount of reliable data confirming the effectiveness of such treatment. We present a review of the literature analysing the role of diagnostic laparoscopy in abdominal trauma. PMID:23255969

  8. The role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma - review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wiewióra, Maciej; Sosada, Krystyn; Piecuch, Jerzy; Zurawi?ski, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    The necessity of urgent explorative laparotomy as a standard procedure in the treatment of abdominal penetrating wounds is controversial. Mandatory surgical intervention for penetrating abdominal trauma yields a high rate of negative laparotomies in the absence of visceral injuries. Laparoscopy is an alternative diagnostic procedure inspecting the peritoneum for signs of perforation and excluding significant intra-abdominal injuries. Following current guidelines, diagnostic laparoscopy should be used with caution only in selected cases due to the limited amount of reliable data confirming the effectiveness of such treatment. We present a review of the literature analysing the role of diagnostic laparoscopy in abdominal trauma. PMID:23255969

  9. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n?=?70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n?=?40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeĺ from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT?trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n?=?17) as result of operative management or later (n?=?11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals. PMID:25124882

  10. Role of exploratory laparoscopy in haemodynamically stable patient with a penetrating abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad-Sharizan, Emira Nur Shafina; DiNicola, Valerio V.

    2015-01-01

    A young lady presented to the hospital following a penetrating abdominal trauma. She was haemodynamically stable during the initial assessment. Despite fruitless finding from blood test, plain radiograph and computed tomographic scanning, a bowel contusion was found during an explorative laparoscopy. Here, we highlight the need for laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in haemodynamically stable patient with a penetrating abdominal trauma. PMID:26139644

  11. Management and outcome of abdominal shotgun wounds. Trauma score and the role of exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, B A; Oller, D W; Meyer, A A; Napolitano, L M; Rutledge, R; Baker, C C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The management and outcome of 138 abdominal shotgun wounds were examined over a 5-year period. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been proposed that exploratory laparotomy may be unnecessary and even overused in a subset of patients with abdominal shotgun wounds. METHODS: Data on shotgun wound patients from October 1987 through March 1992 from a statewide trauma registry were examined. Patients with abdominal shotgun wounds were identified and compared with patients with nonabdominal shotgun wounds. RESULTS: Of 516 shotgun wound patients, 138 (26.7%) had abdominal wounds and 88 (63.8%) had exploratory laparotomies. Abdominal shotgun wounds resulted in significantly longer number of intensive care unit days (4.3 vs. 2.5, p < 0.05), a greater number of blood units transfused (7.8 vs. 2.4, p < 0.05), and a higher mortality (15.9% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.05) when compared with nonabdominal shotgun wounds. When stratified for trauma score, the mortality for abdominal shotgun wounds always was significantly greater than for nonabdominal shotgun wounds. All abdominal shotgun wound patients with trauma scores less than ten died. The negative laparotomy rate for abdominal shotgun wound patients with normal trauma scores was 9.4%. No patient with a negative laparotomy died. CONCLUSION: Abdominal shotgun wounds are a particularly lethal subset of shotgun wounds. Although some abdominal shotgun wound patients can be managed without laparotomy, the morbidity and mortality for these injuries are substantial, even in patients with normal trauma score. Clinical judgment is an excellent predictor of the need for laparotomy. PMID:7717780

  12. Computed tomography in the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, D M; Thal, E R; Coln, D; Weigelt, J A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT in pediatric patients with blunt trauma. Correlation of the CT-identified injuries and intraoperative findings with comparison to the results of DPL was performed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Clinical evaluation frequently is unreliable in determining the presence of intra-abdominal injury in children with blunt trauma. Peritoneal lavage has been used to establish the need for operative intervention and has been found to be safe, efficient, and reliable (98%). In many institutions, abdominal CT scans are used to evaluate these children. Because most reports involve nonoperative management, operative confirmation of CT-identified injuries is available only for those children in whom nonoperative treatment is unsuccessful. METHODS: Sixty children sustaining blunt abdominal trauma were included in the study. CT scans with both oral and IV contrast were performed before open lavage, and positive results were confirmed by operation in 18 patients. RESULTS: CT had a sensitivity of 67%, however, only 60% of the actual organ injuries were identified by the scan. In contrast, DPL has a sensitivity of 94%. Both studies were equally specific (100%). DPL was also more accurate, 98% as compared with 89% for CT. CONCLUSIONS: Although the abdominal CT scan is useful in evaluating children with blunt abdominal trauma, a number of significant injuries were missed. Based on the low sensitivity of the CT, the authors suggest diagnostic peritoneal lavage may offer advantages over CT as the initial study in the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:8452405

  13. Combined Abdominal and Spine Injuries after High Energy Flexion-Distraction Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Woltmann; Rudolph Beisse; Henrik Eckardt; Michael Potulski; Volker Bühren

    2007-01-01

    Combined abdominal (AT) and spine (ST) trauma in the multiply traumatized patient (MT) requires optimal clinical management.\\u000a At the Traumacenter Murnau, Germany all multiply injured patients (injury severity score ? 16) are registered in a large prospective\\u000a database (DGU-Tramaregister). From 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2004, 731 multiply injured patients (ISS ? 16) were admitted\\u000a to the Trauma Center

  14. Blunt abdominal trauma in children: epidemiology, management, and management problems in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Ameh; L. B. Chirdan; P. T. Nmadu

    2000-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in children in developed countries. In tropical Africa, it is only beginning to assume\\u000a importance as infections and malnutrition are controlled. In developed countries, the availability of advanced imaging modalities\\u000a has now reduced the necessity for laparotomy to less than 10% following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) in children. This report\\u000a reviews the epidemiology,

  15. Intra-abdominal injury following blunt trauma becomes clinically apparent within 9 hours

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edward L.; Stovall, Robert T.; Jones, Teresa S.; Bensard, Denis D.; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Jurkovich, Gregory Jerry; Barnett, Carlton C.; Pieracci, Frederic M.; Biffl, Walter L.; Moore, Ernest E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma can be challenging and resource intensive. Observation with serial clinical assessments plays a major role in the evaluation of these patients, but the time required for intra-abdominal injury to become clinically apparent is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of time required for an intra-abdominal injury to become clinically apparent after blunt abdominal trauma via physical examination or commonly followed clinical values. Methods A retrospective review of patients who sustained blunt trauma resulting in intra-abdominal injury between June 2010 and June 2012 at a Level 1 academic trauma center was performed. Patient demographics, injuries, and the amount of time from emergency department admission to sign or symptom development and subsequent diagnosis were recorded. All diagnoses were made by computed tomography or at the time of surgery. Patient transfers from other hospitals were excluded. Results Of 3,574 blunt trauma patients admitted to the hospital, 285 (8%) experienced intra-abdominal injuries. The mean (SD) age was 36(17) years, the majority were male (194 patients, 68%) and the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 21 (14). The mean (SD) time from admission to diagnosis via computed tomography or surgery was 74 (55) minutes. Eighty patients (28%) required either surgery (78 patients, 17%) or radiographic embolization (2 patients, 0.7%) for their injury. All patients who required intervention demonstrated a sign or symptom of their intra-abdominal injury within 60 minutes of arrival, although two patients were intervened upon in a delayed fashion. All patients with a blunt intra-abdominal injury manifested a clinical sign or symptom of their intra-abdominal injury, resulting in their diagnosis within 8 hours 25 minutes of arrival to the hospital. Conclusion All diagnosed intra-abdominal injuries from blunt trauma manifested clinical signs or symptoms that could prompt imaging or intervention, leading to their diagnosis within 8 hours 25 minutes of arrival to the hospital. All patients who required an intervention for their injury manifested a sign or symptom of their injury within 60 minutes of arrival. Level of Evidence Therapeutic study, level IV Epidemiologic study, level III. PMID:24662866

  16. Relationship between abdominal trauma or surgery and mesenteric panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Taylan; Canyigit, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare disease characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation of mesenteric fat tissue. Several etiologic and/or associated factors have been reported in the literature so far. Although trauma or surgery is one of the potential etiologic factors for mesenteric panniculitis, to the best of our knowledge, no strong correlation has been shown in the literature until now. PMID:20027693

  17. Bacteriology and drug susceptibility analysis of pus from patients with severe intra-abdominal infection induced by abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHAOYI; REN, LELE; LI, YOUSHENG; WANG, JIAN; YU, WENKUI; LI, NING; LI, JIESHOU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the bacteriology and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal trauma patients with severe intra-abdominal infection (SIAI). A total of 41 patients with SIAI induced by abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study, from which 123 abdominal pus samples were obtained. The results from laboratory microbiology and drug sensitivity were subjected to susceptibility analysis using WHONET software. A total of 297 strains were isolated in which Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 53.5 (159/297), 44.1 (131/297) and 0.7% (2/297), respectively. Anaerobic bacteria accounted for 1.7%. The five predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). E. coli was highly susceptible to cefoperazone (91%) and imipenem (98%), while Gram-positive cocci were highly susceptible to teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%). S. aureus was 100% susceptible to vancomycin and K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and amikacin (79%). P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (90%). Gram-negative bacterial infection was present in the majority of cases of SIAI. However, a large number of patients were infected by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus that exhibited significant resistance to penicillin (100%), oxacillin (100%) and a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime (95%). Amongst the pathogenic bacteria that cause SIAI, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria account for a high proportion, so high-level and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initially used. PMID:24940451

  18. Variation in Specialists’ Reported Hospitalization Practices of Children Sustaining Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sokolove, Peter E.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Vance, Cheryl W.; Lee, Moon O.; Morris, Beth A.; Holmes, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) are often hospitalized despite no intervention. We identified factors associated with emergency department (ED) disposition of children with BAT and differing computed tomography (CT) findings. Methods: We surveyed pediatric and general emergency physicians (EPs), pediatric and trauma surgeons regarding care of 2 hypothetical asymptomatic patients: a 9-year-old struck by a slow-moving car (Case 1) and an 11-month-old who fell 10 feet (Case 2). We presented various abdominal CT findings and asked physicians about disposition preferences. We evaluated predictors of patient discharge using multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for hospital and ED characteristics, and clinician experience. Pediatric EPs served as the reference group. Results: Of 2,003 eligible surveyed, 636 (32%) responded. For normal CTs, 99% would discharge in Case 1 and 88% in Case 2. Prominent specialty differences included: for trace intraperitoneal fluid (TIF), 68% would discharge in Case 1 and 57% in Case 2. Patients with TIF were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.82; Case 2: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.79). Patients with renal contusions were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32, 0.95) and more likely by general EPs (Case 1: OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.25, 2.69; Case 2: OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.14, 4.89). Conclusion: Substantial variation exists between specialties in reported hospitalization practices of asymptomatic children after abdominal trauma with minor CT findings. Better evidence is needed to guide disposition decisions. PMID:23447755

  19. [Peritoneal lavage as diagnostic aid in contuse abdominal trauma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I; Klett, T; Gürth, W

    1980-06-01

    Peritoneal lavage is a reliable and valuable diagnostic aid in contuse abdominal trauma. It is particularly useful in unconscious and polytraumatised patients. The present article discusses the indications and results obtained with this method. 96.5 per cent positive results were obtained with 132 patients, whereas false negative results were recorded with 3.5 per cent. The present study has confirmed the importance of this method, which should be employed as a routine measure in every contusion, especially in patients who have lost consciousness and have been polytraumatised. PMID:6111186

  20. Blunt abdominal trauma in children: epidemiology, management, and management problems in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ameh, E A; Chirdan, L B; Nmadu, P T

    2000-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in children in developed countries. In tropical Africa, it is only beginning to assume importance as infections and malnutrition are controlled. In developed countries, the availability of advanced imaging modalities has now reduced the necessity for laparotomy to less than 10% following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) in children. This report reviews the epidemiology, management, and unnecessary laparotomies for pediatric BAT in a developing country in a retrospective review of 57 children aged 15 years or less at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria over 12 years. The average age was 9 years and the male-female ratio 3.8:1. Seventy-four percent (74%) of abdominal injuries in children were due to blunt trauma. The commonest causes of injury were road traffic accidents (RTA) (57%), 88% in pedestrians and 59% in children aged 5-9 years. Falls were the cause of trauma in 36%, 60% of them aged 10-15 years. Other causes of injury were sports in 5% and animals in 2%. Diagnosis was clinical, supported by diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis. Two patients had ultrasonography, and none had computed tomography. Fifty-three patients had a laparotomy, 2 died before surgery, 1 was managed nonoperatively, and in 1 surgery was declined. There were 34 splenic injuries, 20 treated by splenic preservation, splenectomy in 13, and non-operative in 1. Fourteen gastrointestinal injuries were treated in 12 patients. Of 9 hepatic injuries, 4 were minor and were left untreated, 3 were repaired, 1 was packed to arrest hemorrhage, and a lacerated accessory liver was excised. Four injuries to the urinary tract (bladder contusion 2, bladder rupture 1, ruptured hydronephrotic kidney 1) were treated accordingly. There were 4 retroperitoneal hematomas associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and 2 pancreatic contusions. One lacerated gallbladder was treated by cholecystectomy and a ruptured left hemidiaphragm was repaired transperitoneally. In retrospect, 27 (51%) patients could have been managed by observation (splenic injury 20, liver injury 5, bladder contusion 2) using advanced imaging modalities. One patient developed an intra-abdominal abscess following splenorrhaphy. The average hospital stay was 17 days. Mortality was 8 (14.5%) from gastric perforation (3), liver injury (2), splenic injury (1), and 2 patients died before surgery. BAT in this population results predominantly from RTA in pedestrians. Laparotomy may be avoided in 51% of cases if advanced imaging modalities are readily available. PMID:11057553

  1. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fabio; Miele, Vittorio; Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice in the assessment of multiple trauma patients. However, in patients who suffered from low-energy abdominal trauma, the use of CT is controversial, since the probability of injury is low and therefore most of the studies are normal. Thus, conventional US imaging has increasingly been employed as the initial imaging modality in the work-up of minor traumatic emergency condition. More recently, the introduction of a new contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) technique, using second-generation ultrasound contrast agents, has led to a notable increase in the diagnostic accuracy of US in many organs. Therefore, in trauma patients, following assessment with conventional US imaging, a CEUS exam can be performed, to provide a more reliable assessment of solid organ injuries. CEUS has the potential to detect active bleeding from a variety of traumatic origins. Similar to CT, active extravasation is considered when there is evidence of contrast agent collection with echogenicity similar to that of an adjacent vessel. On the other hand, at least some drawbacks have to be addressed, including operator competence and reduced panoramic view. Moreover, CEUS, like conventional US imaging, cannot depict some lesions, such as diaphragmatic ruptures, bowel, and mesenteric traumatic injuries. This technique represents a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be performed at patient's bedside and is therefore extremely helpful for the follow-up of solid organs traumas managed conservatively, especially in pediatric patients and women of fertile age. Moreover, it may reduce the number of CT scans and expedite patient discharge. PMID:24060814

  2. A rare case of hepatic duct injury from blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hasaniya, Nahidh W.; Premaratne, Shyamal; Premaratne, Ishani D.; McNamara, J. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 25 year-old male was brought to the emergency room following an apparent suicide attempt by jumping from the fourth floor. Case Report: Patient had a large abdominal laceration in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). CT scan showed a sub-scapular hematoma of the liver. Due to the repeated episodes of hypotension, a laporotomy was performed and the left hepatic artery was ligated while the ductal injury was managed with a Roux-en-Y left hepatic jejunostomy and stent. Bile leakage was resolved post-operatively by day 5 and the patient was discharged home on day 13 after clearance from psychiatry. Conclusions: While non-iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary trauma is rare, a high degree of suspicion is essential, especially in cases like the one discussed in this report. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients undergoing observation. PMID:23826446

  3. A case of thoracic splenosis in a post-splenectomy patient following abdominal trauma: Hello Howell–Jolly

    PubMed Central

    Viviers, Petrus J.

    2014-01-01

    Seeding of splenic tissue to extra-abdominal sites is a relatively infrequent consequence of open abdominal trauma. Immunological function of these small foci of ectopic splenic tissue is unknown and their use in determining the splenic function may be limited. In this case report, a patient is described who had previously undergone an emergency splenectomy. The absence of Howell–Jolly bodies on the blood smear in a patient who had previously undergone surgical splenectomy raised the suspicion of splenosis. The immunological features as well as non-invasive evaluation of these ill-defined splenic tissue sites are discussed. PMID:25988041

  4. A case of thoracic splenosis in a post-splenectomy patient following abdominal trauma: Hello Howell-Jolly.

    PubMed

    Viviers, Petrus J

    2014-08-01

    Seeding of splenic tissue to extra-abdominal sites is a relatively infrequent consequence of open abdominal trauma. Immunological function of these small foci of ectopic splenic tissue is unknown and their use in determining the splenic function may be limited. In this case report, a patient is described who had previously undergone an emergency splenectomy. The absence of Howell-Jolly bodies on the blood smear in a patient who had previously undergone surgical splenectomy raised the suspicion of splenosis. The immunological features as well as non-invasive evaluation of these ill-defined splenic tissue sites are discussed. PMID:25988041

  5. [Characteristics of duodenal ruptures depending on topographical and anatomical properties of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovin, I A; Chirkov, R N; Dubrovina, I A; Khachaturian, B S; Mosoian, A S; Dallakian, V F

    2013-01-01

    We have studied specific morphological properties of duodenal rupture depending on the topographic and anatomical features of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma suffered in a car crash (with the victim found in the passenger compartment or involved in an automobile-pedestrian accident) and a railway crash (a train-pedestrian accident) or resulting from a blunt-force trauma, a fall from height, a fall on the stomach, and traumatic compression of the body. We took into consideration the anatomical peculiarities of the duodenal rupture, such as its circular, horseshoe, and loop-like shape. The study has demonstrated that the frequency of duodenal injury associated with a blunt abdominal trauma shows a stronger dependence on the topographical and anatomical peculiarities of duodenum than on the circumstances of the case. Specifically, the circular duodenum and especially its descending portion are more readily subjected to the damage than the organs of a different shape. The position of the break with respect to the duodenal axis is an important diagnostic signs allowing to clarify circumstances of the blunt injury. Transverse ruptures are typical of strong impacts associated with the short-term interaction between the damaging object and the affected part of the body whereas longitudinal ruptures more commonly occur as a result the long-term traumatic impact. Bile imbibition of paraduodenal and peripancreatic retroperitoneal adipose tissue may be used as an additional diagnostic sign of duodenal rupture. PMID:24428049

  6. The role of video-assisted laparoscopy in management of patients with small bowel injuries in abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor Sitnikov; Abdulkadir Yakubu; Vagan Sarkisyan; Michail Turbin

    2009-01-01

    Background  Patients with small bowel injuries (SBI) in abdominal trauma have no clear clinical or radiological signs on initial examination.\\u000a This leads to delay in appropriate surgical interventions with consequent high morbidity and mortality. In this paper we demonstrate\\u000a the role of video-assisted laparoscopy (VAL) in management of such patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and materials  819 patients with SBI were evaluated retrospectively between 1994

  7. Diagnostic laparoscopy as an adjunct to selective conservative management of solid organ injuries after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Townsend, M C; Flancbaum, L; Choban, P S; Cloutier, C T

    1993-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) as an adjunct in patient selection for conservative management of solid organ injuries (SOI) following blunt abdominal trauma, 15 patients with injuries documented by computed tomographic (CT) scanning were prospectively evaluated. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed in an attempt to characterize SOI, to evaluate the abdomen for associated occult injuries, and to select patients for conservative management or laparotomy. The 15 patients had CT evidence of 17 SOIs (nine spleen, eight liver), and DL allowed adequate visualization of 15 of the 17 injuries. Occult hollow viscus injury was discovered in 2 of 15 patients (one colon, one small bowel) and required laparotomy. In the remaining 13 patients, DL revealed ongoing hemorrhage in four patients and poor visualization in one patient that prompted laparotomy (four splenorrhaphy, one hepatorrhaphy). Conservative management was employed in the treatment of eight patients with findings of minor injury or adequate hemostasis on DL. The average transfusion requirement in this group was 1.8 U. No patient failed conservative management. There were no complications attributable to DL. These data demonstrate that DL may become an effective adjunct in patient selection for conservative management of SOI following blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:8411292

  8. Trauma patient adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden and severity of lung, head, and abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Hileman, Barbara M; Ransom, Kenneth J; Malik, Rema J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that lung injury and rib cage fracture quantification would be associated with adverse outcomes. Subjects and methods: Consecutive admissions to a trauma center with Injury Severity Score ? 9, age 18-75, and blunt trauma. CT scans were reviewed to score rib and sternal fractures and lung infiltrates. Sternum and each anterior, lateral, and posterior rib fracture was scored 1 = non-displaced and 2 = displaced. Rib cage fracture score (RCFS) = total rib fracture score + sternal fracture score + thoracic spine Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Four lung regions (right upper/middle, right lower, left upper, and left lower lobes) were each scored for % of infiltrate: 0% = 0; ? 20% = 1, ? 50% = 2, > 50% = 3; total of 4 scores = lung infiltrate score (LIS). Results: Of 599 patients, 193 (32%) had 854 rib fractures. Rib fracture patients had more abdominal injuries (p < 0.001), hemo/pneumothorax (p < 0.001), lung infiltrates (p < 0.001), thoracic spine injuries (p = 0.001), sternal fractures (p = 0.0028) and death or need for mechanical ventilation ? 3 days (Death/Vdays ? 3) (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ? 3 was independently associated with RCFS (p < 0.001), LIS (p < 0.001), head AIS (p < 0.001) and abdominal AIS (p < 0.001). Of the 193 rib fracture patients, Glasgow Coma Score 3-12 or head AIS ? 2 occurred in 43%. A lung infiltrate or hemo/pneumothorax occurred in 55%. Thoracic spine injury occurred in 23%. RCFS was 6.3 ± 4.4 and Death/Vdays ? 3 occurred in 31%. Death/Vdays ? 3 rates correlated with RCFS values: 19% for 1-3; 24% for 4-6; 42% for 7-12 and 65% for ? 13 (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ? 3 was independently associated with RCFS (p = 0.02), LIS (p = 0.001), head AIS (p < 0.001) and abdominal AIS (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ? 3 association was better for RCFS (p = 0.005) than rib fracture score (p = 0.08) or number of fractured ribs (p = 0.80). Conclusion: Rib fracture patients have increased risk for truncal injuries and adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden. Severity of head, abdominal, and lung injuries also influence rib fracture outcomes.

  9. Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene Vernhet; Charles-Henri Marty-Ane; Alvian Lesnik; Regis Chircop; Olivier Serres-Cousine; Eric Picard; Henry Mary; Jean Paul Senac

    1997-01-01

    We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients were treated with Wallstents, one with

  10. Emergency Ultrasound Predicting the Need for Therapeutic Laparotomy among Blunt Abdominal Trauma Patients in a Sub-Saharan African Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Musiitwa, P. C. M.; Galukande, M.; Bugeza, S.; Wanzira, H.; Wangoda, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The trauma burden globally accounts for high levels of mortality and morbidity. Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) contributes significantly to this burden. Patient's evaluation for BAT remains a diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians. SSORTT gives a score that can predict the need for laparotomy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of SSORTT score in predicting the need for a therapeutic laparotomy after BAT. Method. A prospective observational study. Eligible patients were evaluated for shock and the presence of haemoperitoneum using a portable ultrasound machine. Further evaluation of patients following the standard of care (SOC) protocol was done. The accuracy of SSORTT score in predicting therapeutic laparotomy was compared to SOC. Results. In total, 195 patients were evaluated; M?:?F ratio was 6?:?1. The commonest injuries were to the head 80 (42%) and the abdomen 54 (28%). A SSORTT score of >2 appropriately identified patients that needed a therapeutic laparotomy (with sensitivity 90%, specificity 90%, PPV 53%, and NPV 98%). The overall mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion. Patients with a SSORTT score of 2 and above had a high likelihood of requiring a therapeutic laparotomy. SSORTT scoring should be adopted for routine practice in low technology settings. PMID:24688794

  11. Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, A B

    1991-03-01

    The need for planning and development of statewide trauma prevention and trauma service systems is or should be a high priority--if one sets priorities on criteria that address important factors such as cost to benefits in reduction of life years lost and reduction of disability and costs of long-term rehab services, etc. Prevention of injury and first class trauma care will lessen our heavy human burdens (loss of life and disability) and reduce our long-term outlays for rehabilitation, etc. Obviously our first line of intervention should be prevention--all educational, regulatory and automatic protectors (seat belts, gun restrictions, air bags) that will lower injury rates. A state trauma system must be planned for the larger universe than individual institutions or communities. We must educate our public that the only practical way to provide services for major trauma is through regionalized systems that they somehow must help support. The recent emphasis on making the health services industry a "competitive market" has discouraged public interest and support for regionalized health systems. Our best chances for funding such systems are probably through user fees, sin taxes and surcharges on fines, etc. We need the elements or principles of a plan and present it to the public and to their representatives in the courthouses, city halls and state capital of our state. We need to generate public discussion and understanding on the problem, the potential for saving lives and preventing disability. To do any less would mean our failure to meet our duties as health professionals and public health officials. PMID:2033637

  12. Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélčne Vernhet; Charles-Henri Marty-Ané; Alvian Lesnik; Régis Chircop; Olivier Serres-Cousiné; Eric Picard; Henry Mary; Jean Paul Senac

    1997-01-01

    We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia\\u000a in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the\\u000a last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients\\u000a were treated with Wallstents, one with

  13. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Falcone, John L; Garrett, Kevin O

    2010-07-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of bowel obstruction. It is characterized anatomically by a narrowed aortomesenteric angle, causing a mechanical obstruction at the third portion of the duodenum. Patients usually present after prolonged confinement in the supine position, significant acute weight loss, application of body casts, and severe burns with symptoms of a small bowel obstruction. We present the case of a healthy 22-year-old male athlete with SMA syndrome that occurred after blunt abdominal injury in the setting of mild chronic weight loss; he was treated nonoperatively. PMID:20484075

  14. Abdominal gunshot wounds. An urban trauma center's experience with 300 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Burch, J M; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Mattox, K L; Jordan, G L

    1988-01-01

    From July 1983 through December 1987, 300 consecutive patients with penetrating gunshot wounds of the abdomen causing visceral or vascular injuries were treated. Resuscitative thoracotomy was required in 20 patients (6.6%), and only two survived. The most commonly injured organs were the small bowel (60%), colon (41.6%), liver (29.3%), vascular structures (24.6%), stomach (17.3%), and kidney (17.0%). The overall survival rate for the series was 88.3%; however, if only the 226 patients without vascular injuries are considered, the survival rate was 97.3%. In the 35 patients who died, the blood pressure on admission was 51 mmHg, 18 required a resuscitative thoracotomy, four visceral or vascular injuries were present, and the median blood replacement was 18 units. The cause of death was perioperative shock in 30 patients (85.7%), whereas five patients (14.3%) died of sepsis and multiple organ failure. The most common postoperative complication in survivors and patients who died later in the study was an intra-abdominal abscess (3.0%). Rapid conservative operative techniques for civilian gunshot wounds leads to few postoperative complications and an excellent survival rate, especially if vascular injuries are not present. PMID:3421760

  15. [Immunological aspects in spleen ruptures surgery due to closed abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The remote results of immunity investigation in 30 patients after organ-preserving surgery and in 30 patients after splenectomy forspleen rupture are presented in the article. Indexes of cellular and humoral immunity were normal and life quality did not differ from that in healthy individuals after organ-preserving operations with splenic artery ligation. Splenectomy leads to deterioration of life quality and disorders in cellular immunity including decrease of T-helpers/inductors cells (CD4), immunoregulatory index (CD3/CD4) and general number of T-lymphocytes (CD3) in some cases on background of compensatory increase of normal killers (CD16). It was observed significant decrease of IgG and IgM levels. Values of IgA and cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF remained normal. Level of immunosuppression is reduced due to development of splenosis. PMID:26031956

  16. Utility of bispectral index in the management of multiple trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Saeed; Parchani, Ashok; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in multiple trauma patients has become a common practice in monitoring the sedation levels. We aimed to assess the utility of BIS in the trauma intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the trauma ICU at Hamad General Hospital in Qatar between 2011 and 2012. Patients were divided in two groups: Group I (without BIS monitoring) and Group II (with BIS monitoring). The depth of sedation was clinically evaluated with Ramsey Sedation Scale, changes in vital signs and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level. Use of sedatives, analgesics, and muscle relaxants were also recorded. Data were compared using Chi-square and Student t-tests. Results: A total of 110 mechanically ventilated trauma patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36 ± 14 years. The rate of head injury was greater in Group I when compared with Group II (94% vs. 81%, P = 0.04). In comparison to Group I, patients in Group II had lower GCS and higher mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) (6.3 ± 2.5 vs. 7.4 ± 2.7 and 25.5 ± 8.5 vs. 21.2 ± 4.7, respectively, P = 0.03). The used midazolam dose was less in Group II in comparison to Group I (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.03). Also, fentanyl dose was less in Group II (152 ± 58 vs. 187 ± 59, P = 0.004). The rate of agitation, failure of extubation and tracheostomy in Group II were lower than those in Group I, P = 0.001. The length of stay for patients Group I was longer (14.6 ± 7.1 vs. 10.2 ± 5.9 days) in comparison to group II, P = 0.001. Conclusion: Management of multiple trauma patients in the trauma ICU with BIS monitoring was found to be associated with better outcomes. BIS monitoring is a guide for adjusting the dosage of sedative agents. It can also minimize agitation, failure of extubation, and length of stay in ICU. PMID:25317356

  17. [Paraplegia and dissection of the abdominal aorta after closed trauma. Apropos of a case. Current review of the literature (1982-1993)].

    PubMed

    Solovei, G; Alame, A; Bardoux, J; Cart, P; Vix, J; Petit, J; Dion, J J; Ribere, R

    1994-05-01

    A case of dissection with thrombosis of the subrenal abdominal aorta after blunt trauma led to paraplegia and bilateral ischaemia of the lower limbs in addition to acute abdominal signs. A review of the recent literature (1982-1993) revealed 32 reported cases. The patients were predominantly male and most often victims of an automobile accident (18 cases) or crushing trauma (6 cases). The clinical picture associated diverse degrees of abdominal signs, ischaemia and sensorial-motor impairment of the lower limbs. The diagnosis was established immediately on D0 in only 18 cases, early on days 1 to 7 in 4 cases and was late (day 8 to day 30) in 5 cases or very late (beyond day 30) in 6 cases. The difficulty in immediate diagnosis was related to the absent or incomplete vascular symptomatology or the late onset of the first signs. When a lesion of the aorta was suspected, an arteriography, angioscanner or peroperative exploration led to diagnosis. Neurological signs were frequent (10 cases including 8 with paraplegia) and generally related to ischaemia of the peripheral nerves. They may lead to denate from the diagnosis of vascular lesions. Fractures of the intima (17 cases) was the most frequent aortic lesion which also involved fracture of the media in a number of cases. Dissection was associated in 7 cases and complete or partial thrombosis of the aorta in 7. False aneurysms observed in 6 cases are the usual pathological form in cases of late diagnosis. Nearly all of the lesions were subrenal. Damage to abdominal organs was frequently observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7989410

  18. Abdominal imaging in child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Raissaki; Corinne Veyrac; Eleonore Blondiaux; Christiana Hadjigeorgi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Abdominal injuries in abused children are less common than musculoskeletal and craniocerebral injuries; however they carry\\u000a high mortality and morbidity rates. In every case of trauma, regardless of aetiology, radiologists are responsible for the\\u000a documentation and evaluation of injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Injuries  Any abdominal injury pattern maybe observed following physical abuse and none is specific for abuse. However, a high index\\u000a of suspicion

  19. The effect of body mass index on posttraumatic transfusion after pelvic trauma.

    PubMed

    Richards, Justin E; Morris, Brent J; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Sweeney, Kyle R; Tressler, Marc A; Obremskey, William T; Kregor, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    The impact of body mass index (BMI) on posttraumatic blood transfusion after pelvic trauma is not well known. We conducted a retrospective review of trauma registry data over a 5-year period. Patients were stratified by BMI as normal: less than 25 kg/m(2), overweight: 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese: 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), and morbidly obese: 40 kg/m(2) or greater. Fractures were identified as "likely to receive transfusion" based on literature. Multivariable logistic regression modeling evaluated the relationship between BMI and initial posttraumatic transfusion. A second regression model was created to test the effect of BMI after adjusting for fractures "less likely to receive transfusion." Sixty-six of 244 patients (27.3%) received transfusion (mean: 1.1 ± 2.3 units). Morbid obesity was associated with transfusion (less than 55.6 vs 24.8%; P < 0.05) and units of total blood transfused (2.2 ± 2.9 vs 1.0 ± 2.2 mL; P < 0.05). The average age of patients who received a blood transfusion was significantly older compared with patients who did not receive a transfusion (45.4 ± 18.8 vs 36.1 ± 16.1 years; P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, morbid obesity was a significant risk factor for transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 12.0). Adjusting by age and fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion," morbid obesity remained a risk factor for transfusion (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 12.9). Morbid obesity represented a significant risk factor for posttraumatic transfusion in isolated pelvic trauma, even for fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion." PMID:25760198

  20. The Component Separation Index: A Standardized Biometric Identity in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Michael R.; Apostolides, John; Rodriguez, Eduardo D.; Manson, Paul N.; Gens, David; Scalea, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of traumatic ventral hernias often requires additional techniques to the abdominal wall component separation, such as the use of interpositional reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix or other mesh to bridge the defect. Methods: We have developed a new value termed the “Component Separation Index” to evaluate ventral hernia defects. Choosing a fixed point on a preoperative axial computed tomographic scan (aorta) and the medial leading edges of the rectus abdominus muscles, we determined the angle of diastasis of the hernia. This angle is divided by 360° giving a relative value of the transverse defect size as compared to the estimated circular body habitus for that specific patient. A retrospective review of 36 cases of ventral hernia repairs was performed. The Component Separation Index was calculated from the preoperative computed tomographic scans obtained before repair. Group 1 (n = 18) required component separation for closure. Group 2 (n = 18) required component separation and placement of interpositional mesh to span the hernia defect. Results: The Component Separation Index values were then compared using the student t test for each group. The mean Component Separation Index for group 1 was 0.11 with standard deviation of 0.06. The mean Component Separation Index for group 2 was 0.21 with standard deviation of 0.04 (P < .0001). As this value approaches 0.21, the likelihood of an interpositional repair in addition to component separation becomes much greater. Conclusions: While there is no substitute for clinical acumen when evaluating these defects, objective measurements can provide a valuable additional tool for the surgeon facing these challenging cases. PMID:22461951

  1. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

    2001-01-01

    Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

  2. Visceral injury in electrical shock trauma: proposed guideline for the management of abdominal electrocution and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Evelyne GSC; Júnior, Gerson A Pereira; Neto, Bruno F Muller; Freitas, Rodrigo A; Yaegashi, Lygia B; Almeida, Carlos E Fagotti; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Victims of electrical burns account for approximately 5% of admissions to major burn centers. The first case of visceral injury caused by electrical burns was described in 1927 by Simonin, who reported perforation of the small intestine. Other rare cases were reported over the following years. The colon and small intestine were the organs most frequently affected. Less frequently involved organs were the heart, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, lung, and kidney. We highlight the potential fatal visceral injuries after the electrical trauma. This study provides a review on this topic and proposes a management flowchart that should be adopted by the multidisciplinary team to treat these patients. Conclusion: Visceral injuries are rare in electrical burns victims, but it can be severe and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, sometimes requiring a more interventional approach. PMID:24624308

  3. Development and preliminary validation of a Function IndeX for Trauma (FIX-IT)

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Mohit; Wasserman, Scott M.; Yurgin, Nicole; Petrisor, Brad; Sprague, Sheila; Dent, Ricardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing fracture healing in clinical trials is subjective. The new Function IndeX for Trauma (FIX-IT) score provides a simple, standardized approach to assess weight-bearing and pain in patients with lower extremity fractures. We conducted an initial validation of the FIX-IT score. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with lower extremity fractures across different stages of healing to evaluate the reliability and preliminary validity of the FIX-IT score. Patients were independently examined by 2 orthopedic surgeons, 1 orthopedic fellow, 2 orthopedic residents and 2 research coordinators. Patients also completed the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire, and convergent validity was tested with the SF-36v2. Results For interrater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficents ranged from 0.637 to 0.915. The overall interrater reliability for the total FIX-IT score was 0.879 (95% confidence interval 0.828–0.921). The correlations between the FIX-IT score and the SF-36 ranged from 0.682 to 0.770 for the physical component summary score, from 0.681 to 0.758 for the physical function subscale, and from 0.677 to 0.786 for the role–physical subscale. Conclusion The FIX-IT score had high interrater agreement across multiple examiners. Moreover, FIX-IT scores correlate with the physical scores of the SF-36. Although additional research is needed to fully validate FIX-IT, our results suggest the potential for FIX-IT to be a reliable adjunctive clinician measure to evaluate healing in lower extremity fractures. Level of evidence Diagnostic Study Level I. PMID:24067526

  4. Therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Stephen Smith; William R. Fry; Diane J. Morabito; Richard H. Koehler; Claude H. Organ

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the therapeutic potential of emergent laparoscopy in the trauma setting, a retrospective review was performed in a busy urban trauma center.Patients and methods: Between December 1991 and October 1993, 133 hemodynamically stable patients with suspected abdominal injury were evaluated laparoscopically. All laparoscopic procedures were performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. Mechanism of injury was stab

  5. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  6. Blunt and penetrating trauma to the abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Garner

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal trauma may be blunt or penetrating and generates injuries that vary from the insignificant to the immediately life threatening. Blunt trauma to the abdomen is most common in UK and is usually due to road traffic accidents. Penetrating trauma remains relatively rare in the UK, but is increasing in many urban areas. Penetrating trauma predominates in the USA and

  7. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  8. A case of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Georgina C; Claydon, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  9. A case of abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Georgina C.; Claydon, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injuries resulting from the use of nail guns have been described in the literature; however, to date there has been no report of a nail gun injury to the abdomen. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male tradesperson who suffered a penetrating nail gun injury to the epigastrium, resulting in multiple injuries to the bowel and an inferior vena caval injury with massive haemorrhage. This case demonstrates the wide range of injuries capable of being inflicted by a single penetrating injury, and emphasizes the need for proper training and safety measures in the use of nail guns. PMID:25687444

  10. Development and Initial Validation of the Satisfaction and Recovery Index (SRI) for Measurement of Recovery from Musculoskeletal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Walton, David M; MacDermid, Joy C; Pulickal, Mathew; Rollack, Amber; Veitch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a need for a generic patient-reported outcome (PRO) that is patient-centric and offers sound properties for measuring the process and state of recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. This study describes the construction and initial validation of a new tool for this purpose. Methods: A prototype tool was constructed through input of academic and clinical experts and patient representatives. After evaluation of individual items, a 9-item Satisfaction and Recovery Index (SRI) was subject to psychometric evaluation drawn from classical test theory. Subjects were recruited through online and clinical populations, from those reporting pain or disability from musculoskeletal trauma. The full sample (N = 129) completed the prototype tool and a corresponding region-specific disability measure. A subsample (N = 46) also completed the Short-Form 12 version 2 (SF12vs). Of that, a second subsample (N = 29) repeated all measures 3 months later. Results: A single factor ‘health-related satisfaction’ was extracted that explained 71.1% of scale variance, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95. A priori hypotheses for cross-sectional correlations with region-specific disability measures and the generic Short-form 12 component scores were supported. The SRI tool was equally responsive to change, and able to discriminate between recovered/non-recovered subjects, at a level similar to that of the region-specific measures and generally better than the SF-12 subscales. Conclusion: The new SRI tool, as a measure of health-related satisfaction, shows promise in this initial evaluation of its properties. It is generic, patient-centered, and shows overall measurement properties similar to that of region-specific measures while allowing the potential benefit of comparison between clinical conditions. Despite early promising results, additional properties need to be explored before the tool can be endorsed for routine clinical use. PMID:25320652

  11. Trauma to the External Genitalia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Jabren; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    Genitourinary injuries occur in approx 10 to 15% of patients who suffer abdominal and pelvic injuries. Trauma to the external\\u000a genitalia. is uncommon. Whenever trauma to the genitalia occurs, consideration of a urethral injury is prudent. Prompt diagnosis\\u000a and treatment of external genital trauma aims to preserve organ structure and function and complications such as infection,\\u000a hemorrhage, and urinary extravasation.

  12. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abdominal tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... develop abdominal adhesions. 1 Surgery in the lower abdomen and pelvis, including bowel and gynecological operations, carries ...

  13. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Intra-Abdominal Pressure and Blood Loss in Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, In Ho; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Choi, Byung Kwan; Song, Geun Sung

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intraoperative blood loss (IBL) during lumbar spinal surgery. Methods Thirty patients scheduled for single level posterior lumbar interbody fusion were allocated equally to a normal group (Group 1, BMI;18.5-22.9 kg/m2), an overweight group (Group 2, BMI; 23-24.9 kg/m2), and an obese group (Group 3, BMI; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) according to BMI. IAP was measured using a urinary bladder catheter; 1) supine after anesthesia induction, 2) prone at skin incision, 3) prone at the end of surgery. In addition, IBL was also measured in the three groups. Results IAP in the supine position was not significantly different in groups 1, 2, and 3 (2.7 mm Hg, 3.0 mm Hg, and 4.2 mm Hg, respectively) (p=0.258), and IAP in the prone position at incision increased to 7.8 mm Hg, 8.2 mm Hg, and 10.4 mm Hg, respectively, in the three groups, and these intergroup differences were significant, especially for Group 3 (p=0.000). IAP at the end of surgery was slightly lower (7.0 mm Hg, 7.7 mm Hg, and 9.2 mm Hg, respectively). IBLs were not significantly different between the three groups. However, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position (p=0.022) and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that BMI affects IAP in the prone position more than in the supine position during lumbar spinal surgery. In addition, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position and with BMI. Thus, IBLs can be expected to be higher in morbidly obese patients due to an increased IAP. PMID:22500198

  14. Temporary abdominal closure followed by definitive abdominal wall reconstruction of the open abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Howdieshell; Charles D. Proctor; Erez Sternberg; Jorge I. Cué; J. Sheppard Mondy; Michael L. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundInability to close the abdominal wall after laparotomy for trauma may occur as a result of visceral edema, retroperitoneal hematoma, use of packing, and traumatic loss of tissue. Often life-saving, decompressive laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure require later restoration of anatomic continuity of the abdominal wall.

  15. Current Concepts in Splenic Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian E. Dupuy; Vassilios Raptopoulos; Mitchell P. Fink

    1995-01-01

    Despite its protected location inside the rib cage, the spleen remains the most commonly injured organ after blunt abdominal trauma. The clinical decision-making process of splenic injury management continues to evolve due to improvements in surgical technique and noninvasive assessment. Splenic preservation techniques and splenic injury grading systems using computerized tomography were developed due to an increased understanding of the

  16. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  17. Reconstruction after pancreatic trauma by pancreaticogastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Gonzalo Martín; Morillas, Patricia Jiménez; Pino, José C. Rodríguez; Canis, José M. Morón; Argenté, Francesc X. González

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic lesions are very infrequent after closed abdominal trauma (5% of cases) with a complication rate that affects 30–40% of patients, and a mortality rate that can reach 39%. In our experience, closed abdominal traumatisms occurring at typical popular horse-riding festivals in our region constitute a high risk of pancreatic trauma. The purpose of the present paper is to raise awareness about our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic lesions secondary to closed abdominal traumatism. Presentation of case We present the clinical cases of two young patients who, after suffering blunt abdominal trauma secondary to the impact of a horse during the celebration of typical horse-riding festival, were diagnosed with pancreatic trauma type III. The treatment was surgical in both cases and consisted in performing a pancreaticogastric anastomosis with preservation of the distal pancreas and spleen. The postoperative period was uneventful and, at present, both patients are asymptomatic. Discussion Signs and symptoms caused by pancreatic lesion are unspecific and difficult to objectify. With some limitations CT is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis and staging in the acute phase. The Wirsung section is indication for surgical treatment. The most extended surgical procedure in these cases is the resection of pancreatic body, tail, and spleen. Conclusion The identification of a pancreatic injury after closed abdominal trauma requires a high suspicion based on the injury mechanism. A safer option may be the distal pancreatic preservation with pancreaticogastric anastomosis in grade III lesions with healthy pancreatic tissue. PMID:25744560

  18. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Somendra; Vyas, Kailash C

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias are rare injuries despite the high incidence of blunt abdominal traumas. The mechanism of this injury includes a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure and extensive shear forces applied to the abdominal wall. We report a case of traumatic hernia of the anterior abdominal wall in a 42-year-old woman presented with blunt injury of the upper abdomen. She was attacked by a bull. She had a clinically evident abdominal fascial disruption with intact skin and was hemodynamically stable. The presence of localized pain, bruising and a reducible swelling or a cough impulse suggested the diagnosis. An emergency mesh repair of the defect was performed, and she recovered well. PMID:25972694

  19. Common Reactions After Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview Adult Interviews Adult Self Report Child Measures Deployment Measures DSM-5 Validated Measures PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request Form List of ...

  20. Delayed repair for traumatic abdominal wall hernia: is it safe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sall; H. El Kaoui; S. M. Bouchentouf; A. Ait Ali; A. Bounaim; A. Hajjouji; H. Baba; M. Fahssi; A. Alhyane; A. Zentar; K. Sair

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias after trauma have been recognized for more than a century, with the first case reported as occurring\\u000a after a fall. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) after blunt trauma are uncommon. The timing of definitive repair, early\\u000a or delayed, is not clear. We report a case on TAWH and mesenteric avulsion, highlighting the reasons for immediate or delayed

  1. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to change position for additional pictures. • A lower GI series is an x-ray exam that is ... ultrasound. However, abdominal x rays, a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series, and computerized tomography (CT) scans can diagnose ...

  2. Unsuspected tracheal rupture in blunt thoracic trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Huang; Ronald E. Needs; Hensley A. B. Miller; J. Hugh Devitt

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the discovery and management of an unanticipated injury during fibreoptic tracheal\\u000a intubation. A 23-yr-old man sustained blunt cervical, thoracic and abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He was brought\\u000a to the operating room for urgent management of his abdominal and cervical spine injuries. Examination of his airway during\\u000a awake fibreoptic tracheal

  3. Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fasanmade, Olufemi A.; Odeniyi, Ifedayo A.; Amira, Christiana O.; Okubadejo, Njideka U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between anthropometric indices (obesity and abdominal adiposity) and the presence of an atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with major cardiovascular risk factors (type 2 diabetes mellitus-T2DM, hypertension-HBP, and concomitant disease). Materials and Methods: Using a prospective design, 278 patients with T2DM, HBP, or concomitant disease, attending out-patient diabetes and hypertension clinics at a tertiary institution in Nigeria were evaluated. All patients were cholesterol-lowering oral medication na?ve. Demographic and clinical data and anthropometric measurements were documented. Fasting lipid profiles were measured in all cases. The cut-off points for defining dyslipidaemia were: Elevated total cholesterol (TC) (mg/dL) ?200, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C) (mg/dL) ?100, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (mg/dL) <40 for men and <50 for women, and high triglycerides (TG) (mg/dL) ?150 mg/dL. Results: We found a significantly higher mean BMI (kg/m2) in the HBP group (30.5 ± 6.0) compared to T2DM (28.1 ± 5.9) and concomitant HBP and T2DM groups (29.4 ± 5.2) (ANOVA; P = 0.02). The most frequent dyslipidaemia was elevated LDL-C in 92 (96.8%) HBP, 73 (85.9%) T2DM and 79 (80.6%) concomitant disease. The frequency of low HDL-C was highest in T2DM (68.2%) compared to the other 2 groups (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Only TG levels were found to relate with any anthropometric index (waist circumference (WC) in this case) in Nigerians with major cardiovascular risk factors in this study. Routine anthropometric indices do not appear to be reliable surrogates for atherogenicity measured by abnormalities in TC, LDL-C and HDL-C. PMID:24665155

  4. Blunt Trauma Causing Delayed Cardiac TamponadeEchocardiographic Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark N. Allen; Michele Nanna; Gerson S. Lichtenberg; Richard S. Meltzer

    1988-01-01

    A 17-year-old patient suffered multiple trauma from a motor vehicle accident that involved blunt chest trauma. During the initial hospitalization and laparotomy for abdominal injuries, the cardiac silhouette remained normal on chest roentgenogram and there were no signs of pericardial tamponade. He went home and returned 2 weeks later with a 3 to 4-day history of increasing dyspnea and findings

  5. Elderly trauma.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Renee Semonin

    2015-01-01

    Across the world, the population is aging. Adults 65 years and older make up one of the fastest growing segments of the US population. Trauma is a disease process that affects all age groups. The mortality and morbidity that result from an injury can be influenced by many factors including age, physical condition, and comorbidities. The management of the elderly trauma patient can present some unique challenges. This paper addresses the differences that occur in the management of elderly patient who has been injured. This paper also includes a discussion of how to prevent injury in the elderly. PMID:26039652

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  7. 'Not just little adults' - a pediatric trauma primer.

    PubMed

    Overly, Frank L; Wills, Hale; Valente, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    This article describes pediatric trauma care and specifically how a pediatric trauma center, like Hasbro Children's Hospital, provides specialized care to this patient population. The authors review unique aspects of pediatric trauma patients broken down into anatomy and physiology, including Airway and Respiratory, Cardiovascular Response to Hemorrhage, Spine Injuries, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Thoracic Injuries and Blunt Abdominal Trauma. They review certain current recommendations for evaluation and management of these pediatric patients. The authors also briefly review the topic of Child Abuse/Non-accidental Trauma in pediatric patients. Although Pediatric Trauma is a very broad topic, the goal of this article is to act as a primer and describe certain characteristics and management recommendations unique to the pediatric trauma patient. PMID:24400309

  8. Constitutive modelling of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Miller, K

    2000-03-01

    Abdominal organs are very susceptible to trauma. In order to protect them properly against car crash and other impact consequences, we need to be able to simulate the abdominal organ deformation. Such simulation should account for proper stress-strain relation as well as stress dependence on strain rate. As the step in this direction, this paper presents three-dimensional, non-linear, viscoelastic constitutive models for liver and kidney tissue. The models have been constructed basing on in vivo experiments conducted in Highway Safety Research Institute and the Medical Centre of The University of Michigan (Melvin et al., 1973). The proposed models are valid for compressive nominal strains up to 35% and fast (impact) strain rates between 0.2 and 22.5 s(-1). Similar models can find applications in computer and robot assisted surgery, e.g. the realistic simulation of surgical procedures (including virtual reality) and non-rigid registration. PMID:10673121

  9. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Calderale, Stefano Massimiliano; Sandru, Raluca; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone; Beuran, Mircea; Ribaldi, Sergio; Coletti, Massimo; Gambale, Giorgio; Paun, Sorin; Russo, Livio; Baldoni, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Background Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Results Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. Conclusion The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings. PMID:19019230

  10. Burn Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brian Boyd

    \\u000a Burn trauma is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It causes a spectrum of disability\\u000a and deformity primarily by damaging the integumentary system of its victims. However, it is the systemic effects caused by\\u000a sepsis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, shock, inhalation injury and myone-crosis that are the usual agents of death. Patients\\u000a must be

  11. Hope Thinking and Past Trauma Mediate the Relationships of Body Mass Index with Perceived Mental Health Treatment Need and Mental Health Treatment Use

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Andrea N.; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Greater body mass is associated with a greater risk of mental health conditions and more frequent mental health treatment use. However, factors that might influence perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use among those of greater weight, including hope thinking, trauma history, and perceived mental health treatment stigma, are not well understood. Objective To determine if hope thinking, trauma history, and/or perceived mental health treatment stigma mediate the relationships of BMI with perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use. Method Primary care clinic patients in the Midwest United States (N = 196; BMI range = 18.5 to 47, mean = 29.26 ± 6.61, median = 27.90) were recruited to complete a battery of self-report measures that assessed perceived mental health treatment need, mental health treatment use, hope thinking (Trait Hope Scale), trauma history (a single-item traumatic event history screen from the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), and perceived mental health treatment stigma (Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help). Results Reduced hope thinking and a greater incidence of past trauma accounted for greater perceived mental health treatment need and greater mental health treatment use among those of greater BMI. BMI was not related to perceived unmet mental health treatment need. Conclusion Increased perceived mental health treatment need and mental health treatment use among those of greater BMI may be explained by lower hope thinking and a greater incidence of trauma in this population. Heavier patients may benefit from interventions designed to augment hope and address traumatic histories. PMID:25556357

  12. Current concepts in splenic trauma.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, D E; Raptopoulos, V; Fink, M P

    1995-01-01

    Despite its protected location inside the rib cage, the spleen remains the most commonly injured organ after blunt abdominal trauma. The clinical decision-making process of splenic injury management continues to evolve due to improvements in surgical technique and noninvasive assessment. Splenic preservation techniques and splenic injury grading systems using computerized tomography were developed due to an increased understanding of the spleen's importance in the body's immunological defense system and awareness of the spleen's resiliency after injury. The concept of splenic salvage using splenorrhaphy and nonoperative management was initially applied to the pediatric population during the 1970s, with great success. Application of splenic salvage to hemodynamically stable adult patients with known or unknown splenic injury has demonstrated that adults can be less predictable in their clinical course. Despite the rigorous attention splenic trauma has received, it remains a controversial subject in the surgical and the radiological literature. PMID:10155174

  13. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  14. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  15. Self-Harm and Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview Adult Interviews Adult Self Report Child Measures Deployment Measures DSM-5 Validated Measures PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request Form List of ...

  16. The evaluation of an abdominal aortic tourniquet for the control of pelvic and lower limb hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Coleman, Martin; Parker, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Despite improved body armor, hemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Trauma to the junctional areas such as pelvis, groin, and axilla can be life threatening and difficult to manage. The Abdominal Aortic Tourniquet (AAT) is a prehospital device capable of preventing pelvic and proximal lower limb hemorrhage by means of external aortic compression. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the AAT. Serving soldiers under 25 years old were recruited. Basic demographic data, height, weight, blood pressure, and abdominal girth were recorded. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify blood flow in the common femoral artery (CFA). The AAT was applied while the CFA flow was continuously monitored. The balloon was inflated until flow in the CFA ceased or the maximum pressure of the device was reached. A total of 16 soldiers were recruited. All participants tolerated the device. No complications were reported. Blood flow in the CFA was eliminated in 15 out of 16 participants. The one unsuccessful subject was above average height, weight, body mass index, and abdominal girth. This study shows the AAT to be effective in the control of blood flow in the pelvis and proximal lower limb and potentially lifesaving. PMID:24183765

  17. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  18. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePLUS

    JAMA PATIENT PAGE Abdominal Hernia Common abdominal hernias Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Direct inguinal hernia Intestinal loop Umbilical annulus Peritoneum Peritoneum Abdominal wall Intestinal ...

  19. Relationship between trauma narratives and trauma pathology.

    PubMed

    Amir, N; Stafford, J; Freshman, M S; Foa, E B

    1998-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between posttrauma pathology and the level of articulation (complexity) in rape narratives recounted by victims shortly after the assault. Degree of articulation was operationalized as the reading level of the narrative as determined by a computer program. Shortly after the trauma, reading level was correlated with severity of anxiety but not with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Degree of the narrative articulation shortly after the trauma, however, was related to severity of later PTSD. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the less developed trauma narratives hinder recovery from trauma. PMID:9565923

  20. Early Ureteral Luminal Enhancement on Computed Tomography in a Renal Trauma Patient: A Characteristic Sign of Communication between Artery and Collecting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobumaro Ihara; Naobumi Yashiro; Kensuke Itoh; Takeshi Kasai

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with blunt abdominal trauma following a fall from a three-meter-high roof. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) obtained in early phase showed intense contrast enhancement in the urinary tract as dense as artery. This finding was considered characteristic of traumatic communication between artery and collecting system. In cases of blunt abdominal trauma, contrast-enhanced

  1. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum due to blunt trauma

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, J. C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The subject is reviewed and a further case of retroperitoneal rupture of the second part of the duodenum due to blunt abdominal trauma in a child is reported. The equivocal initial clinical signs and characteristic X-rays are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

  2. Management of Blunt Trauma to the Spleen (Part 1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Abbas Banani

    2010-01-01

    Spleen is the most frequent solid organ to be injured in blunt abdominal trauma. Considering its important role in providing immunity and preventing infection by a variety of mecha- nisms, every attempt should be made, if possible, to salvage the traumatized spleen at any age particularly in children. Af- ter primary resuscitation, mandatory requirements for non- operative management include absence

  3. Children, Adolescents and Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Shaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the psychological effects of trauma on children and adolescents with specific attention to the epidemiology of traumatic experiences, risk factors, developmental effects, the types of traumatic experiences albeit a single event trauma or a chronic process trauma, the spectrum of clinical presentations, psychiatric and psychological comorbidities as well as assessment and therapeutic principles. In

  4. Conservative treatment in splenic trauma.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, A; Sicoli, F; Calise, F; Iavazzo, E; Salvatore, M; Mansi, L

    1993-06-01

    Conservative management of splenic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma is receiving increasing support following delineation of the role of the spleen in preventing infections. This report describes experience with the treatment of 215 consecutive cases treated between 1982 and 1989. A total of 38 patients underwent non-operative management (NOM), 16 splenorrhaphy, 16 partial splenectomy, 60 splenectomy with autotransplantation and 85 splenectomy alone. All patients, regardless of the treatment received, were assessed before discharge and periodically with a maximum follow-up of 5 years. During the follow-up period immunohaematological studies were performed that demonstrated an almost normal activity in the autotransplantation group when compared with the simple splenectomy group. No major complications were observed in the autotransplantation group; a good function and morphology of the re-implanted splenic tissue was always evident by radioisotopic, echographic and histological studies. A conservative approach should always be considered in splenic trauma. In cases where NOM, splenorrhaphy and partial resection are unsafe, splenectomy with autotransplantation should be considered as this simple and reliable technique allows preservation of splenic function. PMID:7687674

  5. Thoraco- abdominal impalement injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impalement injury is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department (ED), and penetrating thoraco-abdominal injuries demand immediate life-saving measures and prompt care. Massive penetrating trauma by impalement in a pediatric case represents a particularly challenging presentation for emergency providers in non-trauma center settings. Case presentation We report a case of 10 year old male who presented in our ED with an alleged history of fall from an approximately 15 foot tall coconut tree, landing over an upright bamboo stake approximately 50 centimeter long, resulting in a trans-abdomino, trans-thoracic injury. In addition to prompt resuscitation and hospital transfer, assessment of damage to vital structures in conjunction with surgical specialty consultation was an immediate goal. Conclusion This article describes a case study of an impalement injury, relevant review of the available literature, and highlights the peculiar strategies required in the setting of a resource limited ED. PMID:24592862

  6. Traumatic appendicitis in minor blunt abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Boulas, Konstantinos; Liapis, Apostolos; Georgiou, Eleftheria; Vrakas, Xenos

    2012-06-01

    Trauma has been reported as a cause of appendicitis on several cases in the literature. The present study reports the relationship between blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) of injury severity score less than 4 and appendicitis. A 17-year-old girl developed appendicitis after a minor BAT. An ecchymosis at the right lower quadrant misled the diagnosis, which was made 1 day later. Laparotomy revealed an inflamed appendix, a few enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, contusion, as well as punctuated bleeding sites of the caecum. Moreover, based on a brief literature review, the different pathophysiological mechanisms and the difficulties of diagnosis of this entity are discussed. It is suggested that appendicitis should be considered as a possibility in the setting of right lower quadrant pain following minor BAT, when there is clinical suspicion of an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:22672177

  7. Clinical presentation of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV seronegative adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Bolukbas; Fusun F Bolukbas; Tulin Kendir; Remzi A Dalay; Nihat Akbayir; Mehmet H Sokmen; Ali T Ince; Mithat Guran; Erkan Ceylan; Guray Kilic; Oya Ovunc

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis usually takes a long time and requires a high index of suspicion in clinic practice. Eighty-eight immune-competent patients with abdominal tuberculosis were grouped according to symptoms at presentation and followed prospectively in order to investigate the effect of symptomatic presentation on clinical diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: Based upon the clinical presentation, the patients

  8. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Samuel T.W.; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  9. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  10. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  11. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

  12. Blunt pancreatic trauma with main pancreatic duct disruption managed successfully with total parenteral nutrition: Report of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Shirai; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Yoichi Yamadera; Tetsuya Ohtani; Terukazu Muto; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    1995-01-01

    Although surgery is the usual treatment of choice for pancreatic trauma with disruption of the main pancreatic duct, we report herein the case of a patient in whom blunt pancreatic trauma with disruption of the proximal main pancreatic duct was successfully managed by conservative treatment. An 18-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain 22 days after being involved in a car

  13. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  14. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  15. Correlation between urinalysis and intravenous pyelography in pediatric abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aijaz Hashmi; Terry Klassen

    1995-01-01

    Controversy exists surrounding the appropriate indications for intravenous pyelography (IVP) in assessing blunt renal injuries in children. Forty-one consecutive cases of suspected blunt renal injuries, who had an IVP performed between January 1988 and December 1990 at The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, were examined by a retrospective chart review. Eighty percent of the IVPs were normal. Of the eight

  16. Splenic injuries in children after blunt abdominal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen C Benya; Dorothy I Bulas

    1996-01-01

    Management of splenic injuries in children has evolved over the past two decades. Splenectomies or splenorrhaphies are now performed infrequently, with the majority of hemodynamically stable children with splenic injuries managed nonoperatively. This article reviews the imaging features of acute splenic injuries in children as well as the appearance of healing splenic injuries. Follow-up evaluation and outcomes in children with

  17. David Baldwin's Trauma Information Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baldwin, David V.

    The Trauma Information Pages, provided by psychologist David Baldwin, provide information about traumatic stress for clinicians and researchers in the field. The pages include information on trauma symptoms, connections to trauma resources including full text articles and an EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) bibliography, general support information including grief, stress, and mental health pointers, disaster handouts and links, and links to other trauma and trauma related sites. The Trauma Pages are searchable.

  18. Advances in trauma care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Plani; J. Goosen

    The burden of trauma is increasing worldwide [1], but in a very uneven fashion [2, 3]. It is decreasing in the developed world, to the point that trauma surgery as a career is sought by very few surgical residents\\u000a in the United States [4, 5], while resources are overburdened in the developing world.

  19. Trauma Surveillance in Cape Town, South Africa: An Analysis of 9236 Consecutive Trauma Center Admissions.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Andrew; Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Schuurman, Nadine; Matzopoulos, Richard; Zargaran, Eiman; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Fawcett, Vanessa; Taulu, Tracey; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-04-30

    IMPORTANCE Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In many low- and middle-income countries, formal trauma surveillance strategies have not yet been widely implemented. OBJECTIVE To formalize injury data collection at Groote Schuur Hospital, the chief academic hospital of the University of Cape Town, a level I trauma center, and one of the largest trauma referral hospitals in the world. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a prospective study of all trauma admissions from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011, at Groote Schuur Hospital. A standard admission form was developed with multidisciplinary input and was used for both clinical and data abstraction purposes. Analysis of data was performed in 3 parts: demographics of injury, injury risk by location, and access to and maturity of trauma services. Geographic information science was then used to create satellite imaging of injury "hot spots" and to track referral patterns. Finally, the World Health Organization trauma system maturity index was used to evaluate the current breadth of the trauma system in place. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The demographics of trauma patients, the distribution of injury in a large metropolitan catchment, and the patterns of injury referral and patient movement within the trauma system. RESULTS The minimum 34-point data set captured relevant demographic, geographic, incident, and clinical data for 9236 patients. Data field completion rates were highly variable. An analysis of demographics of injury (age, sex, and mechanism of injury) was performed. Most violence occurred toward males (71.3%) who were younger than 40 years of age (74.6%). We demonstrated high rates of violent interpersonal injury (71.6% of intentional injury) and motor vehicle injury (18.8% of all injuries). There was a strong association between injury and alcohol use, with alcohol implicated in at least 30.1% of trauma admissions. From a systems standpoint, the data suggest a mature pattern of referral consistent with the presence of an inclusive trauma system. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The implementation of injury surveillance at Groote Schuur Hospital improved insights about injury risk based on demographics and neighborhood as well as access to service based on patterns of referral. This information will guide further development of South Africa's already advanced trauma system. PMID:24789507

  20. Trauma: the seductive hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Steven

    2003-01-01

    In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail. PMID:12866751

  1. Assessment of workload during pediatric trauma resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Samantha E; Carter, Elizabeth A; Waterhouse, Lauren J; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; O'Connell, Karen J; Burd, Randall S

    2012-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma resuscitations are high-pressure, time-critical events during which health care providers form ad hoc teams to rapidly assess and treat injured patients. Trauma team members experience varying levels of workload during resuscitations resulting from the objective demands of their role-specific tasks, the circumstances surrounding the event, and their individual previous experiences. The goal of this study was to determine factors influencing workload experienced by trauma team members during pediatric trauma resuscitations. METHODS: Workload was measured using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (TLX). TLX surveys were administered to four trauma team roles: charge nurse, senior surgical resident (surgical coordinator), emergency medicine physician, and junior surgical resident or nurse practitioner (bedside clinician). A total of 217 surveys were completed. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to examine the relationship between workload and patient and clinical factors. RESULTS: Bedside clinicians reported the highest total workload score (208.7), followed by emergency medicine physicians (156.3), surgical coordinators (144.1), and charge nurses (129.1). Workload was higher during higher-level activations (235.3), for events involving intubated patients (249.0), and for patients with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 (230.4) (p, 0.001 for all). When controlling for potential confounders using multiple linear regression, workload was increased during higher level activations (79.0 points higher, p = 0.01) and events without previous notification (38.9 points higher, p = 0.03). Workload also remained significantly higher for the bedside clinician compared with the other three roles (p ? 0.005 for all). CONCLUSION: Workload during pediatric trauma resuscitations differed by team role and was increased for higher-level activations and events without previous notification. This study demonstrates the validity of the TLX as a tool to measure workload in trauma resuscitation. PMID:23032804

  2. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  3. Segmental abdominal zoster paresis.

    PubMed

    Jandolo, B; Biolcati, G; Montanari, U; Pietrangeli, A; Fazio, M

    1987-01-01

    A case of uncommon feature of herpes zoster, a segmental abdominal paresis, is described. The importance of searching a motor defect in the thoracoabdominal segments and the utility of the electromyographic examination are stressed. PMID:2961042

  4. Normal Abdominal CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  5. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

  6. Abdominal wall competence in transverse abdominal island flap operations.

    PubMed

    Hartrampf, C R

    1984-02-01

    This study critically evaluates the abdominal wall in 82 patients following breast and chest wall reconstruction using the transverse abdominal island flap operation. Experience with these patients led to an awareness of the important muscle and ligamentous structures in the anterior abdominal wall. An operative procedure is presented for selective harvesting of the transverse abdominal island flap in a manner that preserves viability of the flap and at the same time reestablishes abdominal competence. PMID:6230981

  7. Pancreatic pseudocyst in a child due to blunt andominal trauma during a football game

    PubMed Central

    Giakoustidis, A; Antoniadis, N; Giorgakis, I; Tsoulfas, G; Dimitriadis, E; Giakoustidis, D

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocyst in children due to abdominal trauma is a rare entity. We report a 14-year-old boy suffering from acute pancreatitis due to blunt abdominal trauma that occurred during a football game, and resulted in a large pseudocyst formation. The child was treated conservatively for the post traumatic acute pancreatitis for 4 weeks and thereafter he was followed up for another 2 weeks. At the end of the 6 weeks after the first insult, the child underwent an open cystgastrostomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and the child was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. PMID:23930062

  8. Bilateral renal hemorrhage due to polyarteritis nodosa wrongly attributed to blunt trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall G. Warnock; Anu Roy; Colin H. Jones; Ihab El Madhoun

    2009-01-01

    Background. A 36-year-old, previously healthy man presented to an accident and emergency department with right-sided abdominal pain 7 days after he sustained a trauma to his right flank. He was using no medication other than over-the-counter analgesics since his injury.Investigations. Complete blood count, serum creatinine measurement, liver function tests, hepatitis B and C screening, abdominal CT, renal angiography, surgical exploration

  9. Trauma program development.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    The development of a strong trauma program is clearly one of the most important facets of successful business development. Several recent publications have demonstrated that well run trauma services can generate significant profits for both the hospital and the surgeons involved. There are many aspects to this task that require constant attention and insight. Top notch patient care, efficiency, and cost-effective resource utilization are all important components that must be addressed while providing adequate physician compensation within the bounds of hospital financial constraints and the encompassing legal issues. Each situation is different but many of the components are universal. This chapter addresses all aspects of trauma program development to provide the graduating fellow with the tools to create a new trauma program or improve an existing program in order to provide the best patient care while optimizing financial reward and improving care efficiency. PMID:24918830

  10. Imaging in orbital trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken Y.; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C.; Tao, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

  11. Head Trauma, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or all parts of the head: the scalp, skull, brain, spinal fluid, and blood vessels. Head trauma ... or both. External injuries can cause a fractured skull. An internal injury, such as the brain hitting ...

  12. Trauma, dissociatie en hypnose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onno van der Hart

    1993-01-01

    Samenvatting  De hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift bood mij als redacteur van het door Else de Haan besproken boek Trauma, dissociatie en hypnose (Van der Hart, 1991) de gelegenheid op haar kritische opmerkingen te reageren.

  13. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries. Consequently, reducing the mortality and complication rates from firearm injuries is still a serious problem. Despite all of these efforts, there is still a need to determine the optimum treatment strategy to achieve this end goal. PMID:26131219

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  15. Role of the surgeon in non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Naik-Mathuria, Bindi; Akinkuotu, Adesola; Wesson, David

    2015-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The management of these patients often involves many care providers including the surgeon. Victims of NAT often present with multiple injuries and as such should be treated as trauma patients with complete trauma evaluation including primary, secondary and tertiary surveys. Common injury patterns in NAT include extremity fractures, closed head injury and intra-abdominal injury. Brain imaging is of importance to rule out acute or sub-acute intracranial hemorrhage. Children under the age of 5 years with acute intracranial pathology should also be evaluated by an ophthalmologist to rule out retinal hemorrhages, which are considered pathognomonic for child abuse from violent shaking. In instances when abdominal injury is suspected, prompt evaluation by a surgeon is recommended along with CT imaging. Finding of extremity fractures should prompt evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. At our institution, all patients with suspected NAT are admitted to the pediatric surgery service for complete evaluation and management. We encourage other pediatric trauma centers to employ a similar approach so that these complicated patients are managed safely and effectively. PMID:25772160

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  17. Transfusion practices in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

    2014-01-01

    Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

  18. Advances in prehospital trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773

  19. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    PubMed

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use. PMID:19505417

  20. Patterns of Abdominal Injuries in Frontal and Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2000-01-01

    Public awareness for safety and vehicle improvements has contributed to significant reduction in injuries secondary to motor vehicle crashes. The spectrum of trauma has shifted from one region of the body to another with varying consequences. For example, airbags have minimized head and neck injuries for adults while emphasizing the lower regions of the human body. Studies have concentrated on the changing patterns of these injuries in frontal impacts. However, there is almost a paucity of data with regard to the characterization of abdominal injuries. Consequently, this study was conducted to determine the patterns of abdominal injuries in frontal and side impacts with an emphasis on more recent crashes. In particular, the frequency and severity of trauma were investigated with a focus on the various abdominal organs (e.g., spleen and liver). Results indicate that side crashes contribute to a large percentage of injuries to the abdomen. The liver and spleen organs are most vulnerable; therefore, it may be beneficial to apply concerted efforts to focus on injury biomechanics research and prioritization activities in these areas of the abdomen. These data may be of benefit to develop anthropomorphic dummies with improved biofidelity. PMID:11558081

  1. Case scenario - thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Michelet, P; Boussen, S

    2013-01-01

    Among trauma patients, blunt chest trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We report the case of an 85-year old patient under new oral anticoagulant implicated in a multiple-vehicle accident. The patient presented a complex thoracic trauma involving multiple rib fractures, flail chest, hemothorax and lung contusions. All the thoracic lesions were situated at the left side. Despite the absence of neurological lesion and hemodynamic instability, the patient required the admission in our intensive care unit related to the worsening of a respiratory distress. This respiratory distress resulted from the association of the thoracic injuries with related hypoxemia and a high level of pain. The management of this case included the reversal of the anticoagulant therapy, use of non-invasive ventilation, the placement of a paravertebral block and the surgical fixation of the flail chest. We provide a discussion of the risk/benefit balance for all the medical and surgical strategies used in this case as the interest of chest ultrasonography in thoracic trauma situations. PMID:23916516

  2. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  3. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  4. Pelvic fractures: epidemiology and predictors of associated abdominal injuries and outcomes 1 1 No competing interests declared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetrios Demetriades; Marios Karaiskakis; Konstantinos Toutouzas; Kathleen Alo; George Velmahos; Linda Chan

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pelvic fractures are often associated with major intraabdominal injuries or severe bleeding from the fracture site.OBJECTIVE:To study the epidemiology of pelvic fractures and identify important risk factors for associated abdominal injuries, bleeding, need for angiographic embolization, and death.METHODS:Trauma registry study on pelvic fractures from blunt trauma. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of severe pelvic fractures, associated

  5. Exsanguination in trauma: A review of diagnostics and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Geeraedts, L M G; Kaasjager, H A H; van Vugt, A B; Frölke, J P M

    2009-01-01

    Trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock who only transiently respond or do not respond to fluid therapy and/or the administration of blood products have exsanguinating injuries. Recognising shock due to (exsanguinating) haemorrhage in trauma is about constructing a synthesis of trauma mechanism, injuries, vital signs and the therapeutic response of the patient. The aim of prehospital care of bleeding trauma patients is to deliver the patient to a facility for definitive care within the shortest amount of time by rapid transport and minimise therapy to what is necessary to maintain adequate vital signs. Rapid decisions have to be made using regional trauma triage protocols that have incorporated patient condition, transport times and the level of care than can be performed by the prehospital care providers and the receiving hospitals. The treatment of bleeding patients is aimed at two major goals: stopping the bleeding and restoration of the blood volume. Fluid resuscitation should allow for preservation of vital functions without increasing the risk for further (re)bleeding. To prevent further deterioration and subsequent exsanguinations 'permissive hypotension' may be the goal to achieve. Within the hospital, a sound trauma team activation system, including the logistic procedure as well as activation criteria, is essential for a fast and adequate response. After determination of haemorrhagic shock, all efforts have to be directed to stop the bleeding in order to prevent exsanguinations. A simultaneous effort is made to restore blood volume and correct coagulation. Reversal of coagulopathy with pharmacotherapeutic interventions may be a promising concept to limit blood loss after trauma. Abdominal ultrasound has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for detection of haemoperitoneum. With the development of sliding-gantry based computer tomography diagnostic systems, rapid evaluation by CT-scanning of the trauma patient is possible during resuscitation. The concept of damage control surgery, the staged approach in treatment of severe trauma, has proven to be of vital importance in the treatment of exsanguinating trauma patients and is adopted worldwide. When performing 'blind' transfusion or 'damage control resuscitation', a predetermined fixed ratio of blood components may result in the administration of higher plasma and platelets doses and may improve outcome. The role of thromboelastography and thromboelastometry as point-of-care tests for coagulation in massive blood loss is emerging, providing information about actual clot formation and clot stability, shortly (10min) after the blood sample is taken. Thus, therapy guided by the test results will allow for administration of specific coagulation factors that will be depleted despite administration with fresh frozen plasma during massive transfusion of blood components. PMID:19135193

  6. Radiology of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    David, V

    1999-01-01

    Radiology plays an integral role in the evaluation of patients with significant abdominal pain. The cross-sectional modalities (computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) are widely used, but there is sometimes confusion about how to use each test appropriately. We review how each test is done, consider the strengths and weaknesses of each modality, and discuss how to use them in an intelligent, cost-effective manner. PMID:10795217

  7. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  8. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early through measurements of IAP. Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 15 mm Hg, especially if pressures reach above 20 mm Hg with new onset organ failure. Although non-operative measures come first, surgical decompression must not be delayed if these fail. Percutaneous drainage of ascites is a simple and potentially effective tool to reduce IAP if organ dysfunction develops, especially in burn patients. Escharotomy may also dramatically reduce IAP in the case of abdominal burns. PMID:25973659

  9. Ultrasound in Combat Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Harrison

    \\u000a Ultrasound is an important part of the initial trauma workup, no matter the setting. Most surgeons will be practicing at a\\u000a Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in theatre; however, as a part of a FST you might not have a CT scanner available. In austere\\u000a scenarios, US can be invaluable in directing resuscitative and operative management, but US should also be

  10. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao R. Ivatury; Kevin R. Ward

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a patient with multiple injuries involves a different approach than in a nontrauma\\u000a patient. Although the basic principles are the same as dealt with in other chapters of this book, CPR in the trauma victim\\u000a has to address prevention of cardiopulmonary failure from problems exclusive to the injured patient. This chapter concentrates\\u000a on these issues and

  11. Lower urinary tract trauma.

    PubMed

    Sandler, C M; Goldman, S M; Kawashima, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews and illustrates bladder and urethral injuries, including their mechanisms of injury, imaging diagnosis, systems for classification, and the accuracy/pitfalls of the diagnostic methods. The bulk of this review will focus on lower urinary tract injuries caused by high speed, wide impact blunt trauma which is the most common mechanism of lower urinary tract injury encountered in civilian practice. PMID:9542018

  12. Pediatric abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Gordy, Carrie; Kuns, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric abusive head trauma is a significant contributor to pediatric morbidity and mortality in the United States. Signs and symptoms can be vague, nonspecific, and difficult to recognize. This article increases the healthcare provider's level of suspicion and ability to recognize early warning signs of abuse. It also addresses evidence-based prevention strategies. This information is useful to nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physicians who work with children and families in any capacity. PMID:23659807

  13. Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM). We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium), family history, social (alcohol, smoking) or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging. PMID:23256650

  14. [The Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma 2009].

    PubMed

    Kühne, C A; Mand, C; Sturm, J; Lackner, C K; Künzel, A; Siebert, H; Ruchholtz, S

    2009-10-01

    In 2009, 3 years after the foundation of the Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma (TraumaNetzwerkD DGU), the majority of German hospitals participating in the treatment of seriously injured patients is registered in regional trauma networks (TNW). Currently there are 41 trauma networks with more than 660 hospitals in existence, 18 more are registered but are still in the planning phase. Each Federal State has an average of 39 trauma centres of different levels taking part in the treatment of seriously injured patients and every trauma network has an average catchment area of 8708 km(2). The most favourable geographical infrastructure conditions exist in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the least favourable in Sachsen-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. A total of 95 hospitals have already fulfilled the first audit of the structural, personnel and qualitative requirements by the certification bodies. Examination of the check lists of 26 hospitals showed shortcomings in the clinical structure so that these hospitals must be rechecked after correction of the shortcomings. A total of 59 hospitals throughout Germany were successfully audited and only one failed to fulfil the requirements. Because of the varying sizes of the trauma networks there are differences in the areas covered by each trauma network and trauma centre. Concerning the process of certification and auditing (together with the company DIOcert) it could be seen that by careful examination of the check lists of each hospital unforeseen problems during the audit could be avoided. The following article will present the current state of development of the Trauma Network of the German Society for Trauma and describe the certification and auditing process. PMID:19756455

  15. Trauma-related Infections in Battlefield Casualties From Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kyle; Riddle, Mark S.; Danko, Janine R.; Blazes, David L.; Hayden, Richard; Tasker, Sybil A.; Dunne, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe risks for, and microbiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of, war trauma associated infections from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Background: The invasion of Iraq resulted in casualties from high-velocity gunshot, shrapnel, and blunt trauma injuries as well as burns. Infectious complications of these unique war trauma injuries have not been described since the 1970s. Methods: Retrospective record review of all trauma casualties 5 to 65 years of age evacuated from the Iraqi theatre to U.S. Navy hospital ship, USNS Comfort March to May 2003.War trauma-associated infection was defined by positive culture from a wound or sterile body fluid (ie, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) and at least two of the following infection-associated signs/symptoms: fever, dehiscence, foul smell, peri-wound erythema, hypotension, and leukocytosis. A comparison of mechanisms of injury, demographics, and clinical variables was done using multivariate analysis. Results: Of 211 patients, 56 met criteria for infection. Infections were more common in blast injuries, soft tissue injuries, >3 wound sites, loss of limb, abdominal trauma, and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS). Wound infections accounted for 84% of cases, followed by bloodstream infections (38%). Infected were more likely to have had fever prior to arrival, and had higher probability of ICU admission and more surgical procedures. Acinetobacter species (36%) were the predominant organisms followed by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species (14% each). Conclusions: Similar to the Vietnam War experience, gram-negative rods, particularly Acinetobacter species, accounted for the majority of wound infections cared for on USNS Comfort during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Multidrug resistance was common, with the exception of the carbapenem class, limiting antibiotic therapy options. PMID:17457175

  16. A Case of Pediatric Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Components Separation within the Austere War Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Jennifer; Kumar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructive surgeons supporting military operations are required to definitively treat severe pediatric abdominal injuries in austere environments. The safety and efficacy of using a components separation technique to treat large ventral hernias in pediatric patients in this setting remains understudied. Components separation technique was required to achieve definitive closure in a 12-month-old pediatric patient in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Her course was complicated by an anastomotic leak after small bowel resection. Her abdominal was successfully reopened, the leak repaired, and closed primarily without incident on postinjury day 9. Abdominal trauma with a large ventral hernia requiring components separation is extremely rare. A pediatric patient treated with components separation demonstrated minimal complications, avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome, and no mortality. PMID:25426363

  17. Abdominal Superficial Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf; Gepner, Yftach; Shemesh, Elad; Chassidim, Yoash; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Ben Avraham, Sivan; Witkow, Shula; Liberty, Idit F.; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sarusi, Benjamin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Unlike visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the association between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and obesity-related morbidity is controversial. In patients with type 2 diabetes, we assessed whether this variability can be explained by a putative favorable, distinct association between abdominal superficial SAT (SSAT) (absolute amount or its proportion) and cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 73 patients with diabetes (mean age 58 years, 83% were men) and cross-sectionally analyzed fat distribution at S1-L5, L5-L4, and L3-L2 levels. Patients completed food frequency questionnaires, and subgroups had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. RESULTS Women had higher %SSAT (37 vs. 23% in men; P < 0.001) despite a similar mean waist circumference. Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.046) and HbA1c (P = 0.006) were both lower with increased tertile of absolute SSAT. In regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, and classes of medical treatments used in this patient population, increased %SSAT was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c (? = ?0.317; P = 0.013), decreased daytime ambulatory blood pressure (? = ?0.426; P = 0.008), and increased HDL cholesterol (? = 0.257; P = 0.042). In contrast, increased percent of deep SAT (DSAT) was associated with increased HbA1c (? = 0.266; P = 0.040) and poorer heart rate variability parameters (P = 0.030). Although total fat and energy intake were not correlated with fat tissue distribution, increased intake of trans fat tended to be associated with total SAT (r = 0.228; P = 0.05) and DSAT (r = 0.20; P = 0.093), but not with SSAT. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal SAT is composed of two subdepots that associate differently with cardiometabolic parameters. Higher absolute and relative distribution of fat in abdominal SSAT may signify beneficial cardiometabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22344612

  18. Intra-abdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Shirah, Gina R; O'Neill, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial, but all require prompt identification, diagnosis, and treatment. Resuscitation, early antibiotic administration, and source control are crucial. Antibiotic administration should initially be broad spectrum and target the most likely pathogens. When cultures are available, antibiotics should be narrowed and limited in duration. The method of source control depends on the anatomic site, site accessibility, and the patient's clinical condition. Patient-specific factors (advanced age and chronic medical conditions) as well as disease-specific factors (health care-associated infections and inability to obtain source control) combine to affect patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:25440126

  19. Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Suhail Yaqoob; Abdelrahman, Husham; Mudali, Insolvisagan Natesa; El-Menyar, Ayman; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Blunt trauma as a cause of pneumoperitoneum is less frequent and its occurrence without a ruptured viscus is rarely seen. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of blunt neck trauma in which a motorcycle rider hit a fixed object causing severe laryngotracheal injury. The patient developed pneumothorax bilaterally and had pneumoperitoneum despite no injury to the internal viscus. Bilateral chest tube drainage and abdominal exploratory laparotomy was performed. CONCLUSION Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases. PMID:25460486

  20. Mathematics and Medical Indexes: A Life-Saving Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Richard J.; Sloyer, Clifford W.

    1993-01-01

    In cases of trauma, medical indexes are used by paramedics to report the condition of the patient to the hospital. Presents a scenario in which students act as paramedics at the scene of an earthquake and use the index called capillary refill to report the severity of the trauma and predict probable survival. (MDH)

  1. Splenectomy after paediatric trauma: could more spleens be saved?

    PubMed Central

    Godbole, P.; Stringer, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Guidelines for the emergency management of paediatric splenic trauma became widely available in 1993. A regional survey was undertaken to assess the application of Advanced Paediatric Life Support guidelines to children who had undergone splenectomy after trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children who had undergone splenectomy for a ruptured spleen at 8 district hospitals and 2 teaching hospitals in our region between January 1994 and January 1999 were identified from histopathology departmental records. With appropriate permission their case notes were reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven children (9 males) were identified, all from district hospitals, with a median age at presentation of 11.8 years (range, 6.6-16.8 years). All presented within 6 h of blunt abdominal trauma. Median systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, haemoglobin concentration and injury severity score (ISS) on admission were 115 mmHg (range, 80-140 mmHg), 108 bpm (range, 84-150 bpm), 12.1 g/dl (range, 10.7-12.8 g/dl) and 17 (range, 17-29), respectively. Three children had additional relatively minor injuries. On admission, 3 children received an intravenous fluid bolus of 20 ml/kg and the remainder received only maintenance fluid requirements or less. Five children were investigated by ultrasound imaging, one by double contrast CT scan, and three by laparoscopy. Two children had no imaging studies prior to laparotomy. Laparotomy was performed by a consultant surgeon in 7 cases and by a specialist registrar in 4 cases. Ten children underwent total splenectomy and one child had a partial splenectomy. Median hospital stay was 7 days (range, 5-10 days). The child with an ISS of 29 developed a persistent pancreatic fistula and subsequently required a distal pancreatectomy. All children received Pneumovax and penicillin prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: All children made a full recovery without surgical morbidity. However, none of these cases fulfilled the recommended criteria for laparotomy in children with blunt abdominal trauma and splenectomy may have been avoidable. PMID:11995746

  2. Biomechanics of penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that injuries and deaths due to penetrating projectiles have become a national and an international epidemic in Western society. The application of biomedical engineering to solve day-to-day problems has produced considerable advances in safety and mitigation/prevention of trauma. The study of penetrating trauma has been largely in the military domain where war-time specific applications were advanced with the use of high-velocity weapons. With the velocity and weapon caliber in the civilian population at half or less compared with the military counterpart, wound ballistics is a largely different problem in today's trauma centers. The principal goal of the study of penetrating injuries in the civilian population is secondary prevention and optimized emergency care after occurrence. A thorough understanding of the dynamic biomechanics of penetrating injuries quantifies missile type, caliber, and velocity to hard and soft tissue damage. Such information leads to a comprehensive assessment of the acute and long-term treatment of patients with penetrating injuries. A review of the relevant military research applied to the civilian domain and presentation of new technology in the biomechanical study of these injuries offer foundation to this field. Relevant issues addressed in this review article include introduction of the military literature, the need for secondary prevention, environmental factors including projectile velocity and design, experimental studies with biological tissues and physical models, and mathematical simulations and analyses. Areas of advancement are identified that enables the pursuit of biomechanics research in order to arrive at better secondary prevention strategies. PMID:9719858

  3. Effect of maximum ventilation on abdominal muscle relaxation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process. PMID:8711679

  4. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth with Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…

  5. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612

  6. Rural Trauma: Is Trauma Designation Associated with Better Hospital Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…

  7. Carotid artery trauma: A review of contemporary trauma center experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuad Ramadan; Robert Rutledge; Dale Oller; Patrick Howell; Christopher Baker; Blair Keagy

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Many issues surrounding the management and outcome of carotid artery injuries remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to review a large contemporary experience with such injuries in the setting of designated trauma centers.Methods: A statewide computerized trauma registry was used to identify all patients with injuries to the common or internal carotid arteries from October 1987 to

  8. Splenic salvage in adults at a level II community hospital trauma center.

    PubMed

    Clancy, T V; Weintritt, D C; Ramshaw, D G; Churchill, M P; Covington, D L; Maxwell, J G

    1996-12-01

    Recognition of the important role of the spleen within the immune system has prompted surgeons to regularly consider splenic preservation. We studied our experience at a Level II trauma center to determine whether this trend is reflected in our management. We reviewed 81 adult blunt trauma patients with splenic injury admitted between January 1988 and December 1993. We examined age, race, and clinical data including mechanism of injury, trauma and injury severity scores, organ injury scale (OIS) grade, admitting blood pressure, operations, length of stay, hospital charges, and outcome. Thirty-nine patients underwent immediate splenectomy. Nonoperative treatment was successful in 31 of 37 patients (83.7%). Mean OIS grade (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) was significantly different between patients treated nonoperatively (1.6 +/- 0.9) and patients treated with immediate splenectomy (3.9 +/- 1.1), (P = <0.001). American Association for the Surgery of Trauma OIS grade correlated well between CT classification and classification at operation (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001) but did not predict success in nonoperative management. Hemodynamic stability, injury severity, and abdominal CT scan findings determine choice of therapy. Splenorrhaphy is frequently discussed but infrequently performed. Splenectomy remains the most commonly performed operation for splenic injury in adults with blunt splenic trauma. Nonoperative management is the most common method of splenic salvage at the Level II community hospital trauma center. PMID:8955246

  9. Radiology of skeletal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This 1000-page book contains over 1700 illustrations, is presented in two volumes and subdivided into 23 chapters. After brief chapters of Introduction and General Anatomy, a section on Skeletal Biomechanics is presented. The Epidemiology of Fractures chapter examines, among other things, the effects of age on the frequency and distribution of fractures. In the chapter on Classifications of Fractures, the author describes the character of traumatic forces such as angulating, torsional, avulsive, and compressive, and then relates these to the resultant fracture configurations. The Fracture Treatment chapter presents an overview of treatment principles. Other chapters deal with specific problems in pediatric trauma, fracture healing and nonhealing, and fracture complications.

  10. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad U Butt; Nikolaos Zacharias; George C Velmahos

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe

  11. A heuristic approach and heretic view on the technical issues and pitfalls in the management of penetrating abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the patient presents to theatre with physiological instability. A significant percentage of these patients will not be operated by a trauma surgeon but, by the "occasional trauma surgeon", who is usually trained as a general surgeon. Most general surgeons have a general knowledge of operating penetrating trauma, knowledge originating from their training years and possibly enhanced by reading operative surgery textbooks. Unfortunately, the details included in most of these books are not extensive enough to provide them with enough armamentaria to tackle the difficult case. In this scenario, their operative dexterity and knowledge cannot be compared to that of their trauma surgeon colleagues, something that is taken for granted in the trauma textbooks. Techniques that are considered basic and easy by the trauma surgeons can be unfamiliar and difficult to general surgeons. Knowing the danger points and pitfalls that will be encountered in penetrating trauma to the abdomen, will help the occasional trauma surgeons to avoid intraoperative errors and improve patient care. This manuscript provides a heuristic approach from surgeons working in a high volume penetrating trauma centers in South African. Some of the statements could be considered heretic by the "accepted" trauma literature. We believe that this heuristic ("rule of thumb" approach, that originating from "try and error" experience) can help surgical trainees or less experienced in penetrating trauma surgeons to improve their surgical decision making and technique, resulting in better patient outcome. PMID:20630100

  12. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  13. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  14. Hepatitis prevalence in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Levine, E A; Alverdy, J C; Agrawal, A

    1991-06-01

    The risks of viral transmission from trauma patients is a continuing concern to those involved in their care. However, the prevalence of hepatitis (HPT) in trauma patients is poorly described. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HPT in trauma patients admitted to an urban trauma center. Two hundred sixty-four consecutive admissions to an urban Level I trauma center underwent serologic screening for HPT. Risk factors were assessed by direct patient questioning. Serologic evidence of HPT B was found in 19.7 per cent of patients. Intravenous (IV) drug abusers represented eight per cent of the study population; this group had a 67 per cent rate of seropositivity. Hepatitis A was not found in any patient. Antigenemia was found in 1.9 per cent of patients. It is concluded that HPT B seropositivity is common in trauma patients. IV drug abusers have particularly high prevalence of HPT. This high prevalence rate of HPT B serology poses a significant risk to those involved with the care of trauma patients. The authors suggest that specific protocols to avoid the transmission of viral disease should be mandatory in urban trauma centers. PMID:2048852

  15. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services. PMID:25494913

  16. Open partial splenectomy for trauma using GIA-Stapler and FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Daniela; Rizzi, Sabrina; Zampogna, Annunziatino; Alonzo, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A ruptured spleen caused by blunt abdominal injury is often treated by splenectomy. In view of the gravity of the ‘postsplenectomy syndrome,’ a conservative approach has been increasingly used. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with a Grade III splenic lesion for a blunt abdominal trauma after a car accident. We performed a partial splenectomy of the upper pole using GIA-Stapler. A supplemental haemostasis of the stapled line was successfully achieved by the application of FloSeal matrix haemostatic agent. The splenic remnant was fixed into the left-upper quadrant using human fibrin glue. PMID:22767672

  17. Trauma, gender, and mental health symptoms in individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Alvanzo, Anika; Rieckmann, Traci; Thacker, Leroy; Sepulveda, Allison; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Islam, Leila Z; Leisey, Monica; Stitzer, Maxine; Svikis, Dace S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are often plagued by psychiatric comorbidities and histories of physical and/or sexual trauma. Males and females, although different in their rates of expressed trauma and psychiatric symptomatology, experience comparable adverse consequences, including poorer substance abuse treatment outcomes, diminished psychosocial functioning, and severe employment problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between trauma history, lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms, and gender in a sample of individuals participating in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Study participants (N = 625) from six psychosocial counseling and five methadone maintenance programs were recruited as part of a larger study conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). Study measures included lifetime trauma experience (yes/no), type of trauma experienced (sexual, physical, both), lifetime depression/anxiety, and lifetime suicidal thoughts/attempts (as measured by the Addiction Severity Index-Lite [ASI-Lite]). Lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms was compared between individuals with and without trauma history. The role of gender was also examined. Results indicated that the experience of trauma was associated with an increase in lifetime report of psychiatric symptoms. Experience of physical and combined physical and sexual trauma consistently predicted positive report of psychiatric symptoms in both males and females, even when controlling for demographic and treatment-related variables. Employment outcomes, however, were not predicted by self-reported history of lifetime trauma. PMID:24811286

  18. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  19. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-11-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  20. Laparoscopic repair of a rare acquired abdominal intercostal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Dilip; Ramraj, Parasram; Solomon, Verin; Ramnarine, Malini; Kawal, Trudy; Bascombe, Nigel; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AIH) is a very rare and sporadically reported entity. Most cases of AIH are secondary to major trauma and the treatment of choice is surgical repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a painless intercostal swelling, which started after previous penetrating trauma to the same area. Radiological assessment was done with CT scan and the hernia was repaired with a laparoscopic approach using mesh. DISCUSSION AIH is a rare entity and trauma has an integral role in the pathophysiology. Surgical repair is the treatment of choice, however, due to the paucity of cases, there is no established method of choice for such repair. We present the first reported case in the Caribbean, which was repaired with the laparoscopic approach. CONCLUSION Although AIH is a rare condition, the pathophysiology seems relatively straightforward and the use of CT scan is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. The laparoscopic approach, with all its established benefits, appears to be a safe and feasible option in its management. PMID:25460469

  1. Aversive Imagery in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Recurrence, Comorbidity, and Physiological Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; Shumen, Joshua R.; Bradley, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized as a disorder of exaggerated defensive physiological arousal. The novel aim of the present research was to investigate within PTSD a potential dose-response relationship between past trauma recurrence and current comorbidity and intensity of physiological reactions to imagery of trauma and other aversive scenarios. Methods A community sample of principal PTSD (n = 49; 22 single-trauma exposed, 27 multiple-trauma exposed) and control (n = 76; 46 never-trauma exposed, 30 trauma exposed) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and the eye-blink response (orbicularis occuli) was recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. Results Overall, PTSD patients exceeded control participants in startle reflex, autonomic responding, and facial expressivity during idiographic trauma imagery and, though less pronounced, showed heightened reactivity to standard anger, panic, and physical danger imagery. Concerning subgroups, control participants with and without trauma exposure showed isomorphic patterns. Within PTSD, only the single-trauma patients evinced robust startle and autonomic responses, exceeding both control participants and multiple-trauma PTSD. Despite greater reported arousal, the multiple-trauma relative to single-trauma PTSD group showed blunted defensive reactivity associated with more chronic and severe PTSD, greater mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity, and more pervasive dimensional dysphoria (e.g., depression, trait anxiety). Conclusions Whereas PTSD patients generally show marked physiological arousal during aversive imagery, concordant with self-reported distress, the most symptomatic patients with histories of severe, cumulative traumatization show discordant physiological hyporeactivity, perhaps attributable to sustained high stress and an egregious, persistent negative affectivity that ultimately compromises defensive responding. PMID:19875104

  2. Analysis of thoracoscopy in trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Villavicencio; J. A. Aucar

    1999-01-01

    Background: The role of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in trauma has yet to be established. Up to the time of this writing, reviews\\u000a of thoracoscopy in trauma have been primarily descriptive rather than analytic. This article analyzes the results of thoracoscopy\\u000a (nonvideo and VATS) in trauma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Analysis was done by reviewing 28 nonoverlapping studies since the introduction of thoracoscopy

  3. Nonaccidental head trauma in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Gerber; Kathryn Coffman

    2007-01-01

    Background  Nonaccidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Clinical features that suggest inflicted head trauma include the triad of the so-called shaken baby syndrome, consisting of\\u000a retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and\\/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Studies have\\u000a shown that, in general, the average short fall in

  4. Secondary Trauma in Children and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    A review of childhood secondary trauma is presented. Secondary trauma involves the transfer and acquisition of negative affective and dysfunctional cognitive states due to prolonged and extended contact with others, such as family members, who have been traumatized. As such, secondary trauma refers to a spread of trauma reactions from the victim…

  5. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Animesh A.; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  6. Severe liver trauma: the transplant surgeon's perspective. A case report.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Gabriele; De Simone, Paolo; Montin, Umberto; Coletti, Laura; Tincani, Giovanni; Urbani, Lucio; Biancofiore, Gianni; Filipponi, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Patients with severe liver trauma may be referred to liver transplantation (LT), even though no universal algorithm is currently agreed upon. LT is usually performed as a two-stage procedure after failure of primary surgery or in the event of surgery-related acute liver failure (ALF), but pre-transplant patient management, appropriate selection criteria and prompt referral to LT centers are paramount for a favorable graft outcome. This is a report on a patient who underwent LT as a two-stage procedure for sepsis-related ALF after extended right hepatectomy for a complex abdominal blunt trauma. Prompt referral to the Liver Transplant Unit of the Cisanello Hospital, Pisa, where the whole spectrum of surgical options and intensive care support are available was crucial to allow successful LT in a timely fashion. Therefore, the authors strongly advocate the whole algorithm for patients with severe liver traumas be put under control of an experienced LT team in order to improve surgical results. PMID:18795711

  7. Prophylactic open abdomen in patients with postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mentula, Panu; Leppäniemi, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a frequent occurrence in critically ill patients operated on for severe abdominal trauma, secondary peritonitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. IAH may progress to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with new-onset organ dysfunction. Early recognition of IAH and interventions that prevent the development of ACS may preserve vital organ functions and increase the probability of survival. The best method to prevent postoperative ACS is to leave the abdomen open during the operation. The decision to leave the abdomen open is usually based on the surgeon's judgment without intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements during the operation. Because significant morbidity and mortality are associated with the open abdomen, the measurement of IAP immediately after the fascial closure, when feasible, could offer an objective method for determining the optimal IAP threshold for leaving the abdomen open. The management of the open abdomen requires a temporary abdominal closure (TAC) system that would ideally prevent the development of ACS and facilitate later primary fascia closure. Among several TAC systems, the most promising are those that provide negative pressure to the wound or continuous fascial traction or both. PMID:20156323

  8. Trauma care today, what's new?

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Ramesh; Grabinsky, Andreas; Williamson, Kelvin; Bhanankar, Sanjay M

    2011-01-01

    Injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the US, and the leading cause of death in younger age. Trauma is primarily a disease of the young and accounts for more years of productive life lost than any other illness. Consequently, almost every health care provider encounters trauma patients from time to time. Many of these patients are critically ill and pose several challenges in the acute phase, including airway and ventilation, fluid management, intracranial pressure control, etc. In the last decade, several strategies and treatment options have been studied in trauma care along with improvement in technologies. In this review, we will discuss a few of the new developments and updates in trauma care. PMID:22096770

  9. CT imaging of blunt chest trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Oikonomou; Panos Prassopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background  Thoracic injury overall is the third most common cause of trauma following injury to the head and extremities. Thoracic trauma\\u000a has a high morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 25% of trauma-related deaths, second only to head trauma.\\u000a More than 70% of cases of blunt thoracic trauma are due to motor vehicle collisions, with the remainder caused by falls or

  10. Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    C?pîlna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility could not be preserved in 3 of them. Eleven women had stage IA2 disease (42.3%), 14 (53.8%) women had stage IB1 disease, and 1 (3.8%) woman had stage IB2 disease. Histologic subtypes were 15 (57.6%) squamous, 8 (30.7%) adenocarcinoma, and 3 (11.5%) adenosquamous. There were no major intraoperative complications in both hospitals. Early postoperative complications were mainly related to the type C parametrectomy—bladder dysfunction for more than 7 days (8 [30.7%] women) and prolonged constipation (6 [23.0%] women). Other complications consisted in symptomatic lymphocele in 2 (7.6%) patients, which were drained. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 4–43 months). Up to the present time, there has been 1 (3.8%) recurrence in our series. Most patients did not experience late postoperative complications. Three (11.5%) women are amenorrheic, and 1 (3.8%) woman developed a cervical stenosis. Of the 23 women who have normal menstruation and maintained their fertility, a total of 7 (30.4%) women have attempted pregnancy, and 3 (42.8%) of them achieved pregnancy spontaneously. These pregnancies ended in 2 first trimester miscarriages and 1 live birth at term by cesarean delivery. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ART preserves fertility and maintains excellent oncological outcomes with low complication rates. PMID:24445820

  11. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. Studies in subsequent years have validated this technique by demonstrating decreased mortality and immediate post-operative complications. The indications for damage control laparotomy have evolved to encompass abdominal compartment syndrome, abdominal sepsis, vascular and acute care surgery cases. The perioperative critical care provided to these patients, including sedation, paralysis, nutrition, and fluid management strategies may improve closure rates and recovery. In the rare cases of inability to primarily close the abdomen, there are a number of reconstructive strategies that may be used in the acute and chronic phases of abdominal closure. PMID:24341602

  12. Unilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction in blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Gastinne, H; Venot, J; Dupuy, J P; Gay, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate unilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction within ten days after blunt chest trauma. Thirty patients with unilateral chest injury, or predominantly one-sided injuries, were investigated in the supine position, under analgesia. Right and left hemidiaphragm displacement (DD) was measured, using digital subtraction radiography, during quiet and forced breathing. The diaphragmatic contribution to breathing was determined by rib cage and abdominal circumference measurement changes. In both breathing modes, DD of the injured side was lower than DD of the uninjured side (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.001). Six patients had complete diaphragmatic motionlessness. The inspired air volume due to diaphragmatic motion (Vab) was reduced when compared to normal subjects and Vab/VT ratio was always found to be less than 0.65. The degree of diaphragmatic dysfunction appeared related to injury location and is most severe in injuries of the lower chest which implies direct diaphragm muscle injury, although other mechanisms may be implicated. Diaphragmatic dysfunction can contribute to respiratory failure in these patients, and should be considered. PMID:3277805

  13. Quality care in pediatric trauma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Amelia J; Rivara, Frederick P; Pham, Tam N

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure, processes of care and outcome measurements are the cornerstone of quality care for pediatric trauma. This review aims to evaluate current evidence on system organization and concentration of pediatric expertise in the delivery of pediatric trauma care. It discusses key quality indicators for all phases of care, from pre-hospital to post-discharge recovery. In particular, it highlights the importance of measuring quality of life and psychosocial recovery for the injured child. PMID:23181209

  14. Conservative management of splenic trauma.

    PubMed

    Daoud, R A; Taghizadeh, A K; Pickford, R B; Jones, D R

    1999-06-01

    conservative approach to splenic trauma has been practised in many countries. Haemodynamically stable patients who have been carefully assessed clinically and radiographically may safely be treated non-operatively. In those patients who require surgery the spleen may be preserved by splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy. This approach has been practised at our hospital and we present our experience over seven years to show that expectant treatment of splenic injury following trauma is safe. PMID:10420341

  15. Systemic arterial air embolism: positive pressure ventilation can be fatal in a patient with blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Siddharth; Jain, Shalabh; Aggarwal, Puneet; Gupta, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Systemic air embolism is a potentially fatal condition. Although venous embolism is commonly reported after deep sea diving or neurosurgical procedures, arterial embolism is rare. It usually occurs because of lung trauma after biopsy or lung resection but can rarely affect patients of blunt or penetrating trauma to chest managed on positive pressure ventilation. We report a case of road traffic accident with head injury, with normal primary survey of chest and abdomen who developed fatal systemic arterial air embolism immediately after intubation. Postmortem CT scan revealed huge amounts of air in left side of the heart, ascending aorta, arch of aorta, bilateral internal carotids and all right-sided intracranial arteries. In emergency departments of non-specialised centres, such complications are universally fatal. Thus, extreme caution needs to be exercised while managing patients of blunt trauma on mechanical ventilation even if the chest and abdominal examinations are normal. PMID:23417941

  16. Diaphragmatic rupture with right colon and small intestine herniation after blunt trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are an unusual presentation of trauma, and are observed in about 10% of diaphragmatic injuries. The diagnosis is often missed because of non-specific clinical signs, and the absence of additional intra-abdominal and thoracic injuries. Case presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian man hospitalized for abdominal pain and vomiting. His medical history included a blunt trauma seven years previously. A chest X-ray showed right diaphragm elevation, and computed tomography revealed that the greater omentum, a portion of the colon and the small intestine had been transposed in the hemithorax through a diaphragm rupture. The patient underwent laparotomy, at which time the colon and small intestine were reduced back into the abdomen and the diaphragm was repaired. Conclusions This was a unusual case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic ruptures may be revealed many years after the initial trauma. The suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture in a patient with multiple traumas contributes to early diagnosis. Surgical repair remains the only curative treatment for diaphragmatic hernias. Prosthetic patches may be a good solution when the diaphragmatic defect is severe and too large for primary closure, whereas primary repair remains the gold standard for the closure of small to moderate sized diaphragmatic defects. PMID:20735836

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy for trauma: a technique of safe and systematic exploration.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, Piotr J; Cottam, Daniel; Angus, L D George; Shaftan, Gerald W

    2002-06-01

    Laparoscopy has a limited role in the evaluation of a stable trauma patient. The main concern addressed in the literature is a significant potential for missed visceral injury and a minimal role for therapeutic application. We present a simple technique for systematic abdominal exploration for a suspected intraabdominal injury in a series of three consecutive trauma patients (two penetrating injuries, one blunt) at a level-one trauma center. Three 5-mm ports and a 30-degree laparoscope were used for exploration. Additional ports for retraction were used as needed for therapeutic procedures. All patients underwent complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. Therapeutic procedures consisted of suturing an intraperitoneal bladder rupture, draining a lacerated tail of the pancreas, and cauterizing an actively bleeding penetrating wound to the left lobe and caudate lobe of the liver. All patients experienced prompt and uncomplicated recovery. There were no missed injuries. The presented technique enables a systematic laparoscopic exploration of the abdomen, which follows the same principles as open exploration. The role of laparoscopy in the treatment of a stable trauma patient is likely to increase as more surgeons acquire advanced laparoscopic skills, and as systematic exploration techniques are used. PMID:12080264

  18. [Surgical treatment of patients for abdominal sepsis].

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 201 patients, suffering abdominal sepsis (AS), which have occurred after operations on abdominal organs, were analyzed. Expediency of application of modern scales for the patients state severity estimation, prognostic sign-posts and dynamic of the pathological process course in every patient was substantiated. Existing systems of prognostication (APACHE II, SOFA, MODS) are applied restrictedly for diagnosis of infection in patients, what demands relaparotomy performance in presence of clinical signs of intraabdominal infection, which persists. For prognostication of the treatment result and determination of indications for relaparotomy conduction in patients, suffering severe AS and infectious-toxic shock (ITSH), the most informative is application of the Manheim's index of peritonitis together with analysis of clinico-laboratory indices for formation of groups of patients in risk, to whom reoperation is indicated. Advantages of relaparotomy "on demand" conduction were proved in comparison with "programmed" relaparotomy during the staged surgical treatment of patients, suffering severe AS and ITSH. Complex surgical treatment with substantiation of indications and choice of adequate method of intervention secures improvement of the treatment results in these severely ill patients. PMID:25507013

  19. [Surgical treatment of patients for abdominal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Usenko, O Iu; Andreieshchev, S A

    2014-08-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 201 patients, suffering abdominal sepsis (AS), which have occurred after operations on abdominal organs, were analyzed. Expediency of application of modern scales for the patients state severity estimation, prognostic sign-posts and dynamic of the pathological process course in every patient was substantiated. Existing systems of prognostication (APACHE II, SOFA, MODS) are applied restrictedly for diagnosis of infection in patients, what demands relaparotomy performance in presence of clinical signs of intraabdominal infection, which persists. For prognostication of the treatment result and determination of indications for relaparotomy conduction in patients, suffering severe AS and infectious-toxic shock (ITSH), the most informative is application of the Manheim's index of peritonitis together with analysis of clinico-laboratory indices for formation of groups of patients in risk, to whom reoperation is indicated. Advantages of relaparotomy "on demand" conduction were proved in comparison with "programmed" relaparotomy during the staged surgical treatment of patients, suffering severe AS and ITSH. Complex surgical treatment with substantiation of indications and choice of adequate method of intervention secures improvement of the treatment results in these severely ill patients. PMID:25417285

  20. Animal models of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Frith, Daniel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Brohi, Karim

    2012-05-01

    Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models of TIC with regard to their ability to accurately characterize known mechanisms of coagulopathy and/or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. A literature review was performed. Structured search of the indexed online database MEDLINE/PubMed in July 2010 identified 43 relevant articles containing 23 distinct animal models of TIC. The main aim of 26 studies was to test a therapeutic and the other 17 were conducted to investigate pathophysiology. A preponderance of porcine models was identified. Three new models demonstrating an endogenous acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) have offered new insights into the pathophysiology of TIC. Independent or combined effects of induced hypothermia and metabolic acidosis have been extensively evaluated. Recently, a pig model of TIC has been developed that features all major etiologies of TIC, although not in correct chronological order. This review identifies a general lack of experimental research to keep pace with clinical developments. Tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock are fundamental initiating events that prime the hemostatic system for subsequent iatrogenic insults. New animal models utilizing a variety of species that accurately simulate the natural clinical trajectory of trauma are urgently needed. PMID:22197179

  1. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  2. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and hip flexion during the performance of the sit-up is discussed. The sit-up performed with foot fixation, and the bilateral straight leg raise can compound hip muscle imbalance, and both hyperextend and hyperflex the lumbar spine and are therefore not recommended. The importance of muscular control of pelvic tilt is considered with reference to muscle imbalance around the pelvis. It is recommended that a musculoskeletal assessment should be performed before prescribing abdominal exercises. Exercise therapy to re-educate control of pelvic tilt is described. Intra-abdominal pressure, and the effects of abdominal exercise on this mechanism, and lumbar stabilization are examined. The importance of training specificity is stressed. PMID:8457806

  3. Liver trauma grading and biochemistry tests.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gozde; Gemici, Aysegul Akdogan; Yirgin, Inci Kizildag; Gulsen, Esma; Inci, Ercan

    2013-10-01

    Among solid organ blunt traumas, the liver and spleen are mostly subject to injury. In addition, the liver is also commonly injured in penetrating traumas because of its size, location, and the ease of injury to the "Glisson Capsule". Several enzymes are known to be elevated following trauma. In our study, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in 57 patients with blunt trauma to the liver and compared these values to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma trauma grading system. Additionally, we compared the enzyme level elevations in these patients to the enzyme levels of 29 healthy subjects. As expected, we found significant elevations in enzyme levels of trauma patients compared to the control group. The calculated point estimates were not significantly different between grades 1 and 2 trauma. However, grade 3 trauma group showed a significant increase in enzyme levels. PMID:23793528

  4. Trauma postvention response in Manitoba: coping with trauma and disasters.

    PubMed

    Favelle, Gordon K

    2011-01-01

    Manitoba utilises three different trauma "postvention" services and approaches to assist responders (including emergency services, government and non-governmental organisations) and communities affected by trauma and disaster. A coordinated response is required to assist those affected utilising: Community Trauma Postvention and Critical Incident Stress Management services and a multifaceted psychosocial support approach. It is important to recognise the role and place of each service and approach to ensure all those affected have an opportunity to have their needs met in a comprehensive and efficient manner. This paper briefly describes the concept of "postvention" and the situations in which these "postvention" services and approaches were developed and/or utilised in Manitoba and internationally. PMID:22708145

  5. Considerations in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the central abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, it is our goal to review pertinent anatomy, pre- and postoperative care regimens, and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the central abdomen. PMID:23372451

  6. Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges. PMID:23526186

  7. The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

  8. Clinical presentation of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV seronegative adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Remzi A; Akbayir, Nihat; Sokmen, Mehmet H; Ince, Ali T; Guran, Mithat; Ceylan, Erkan; Kilic, Guray; Ovunc, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Background The accurate diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis usually takes a long time and requires a high index of suspicion in clinic practice. Eighty-eight immune-competent patients with abdominal tuberculosis were grouped according to symptoms at presentation and followed prospectively in order to investigate the effect of symptomatic presentation on clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Methods Based upon the clinical presentation, the patients were divided into groups such as non-specific abdominal pain & less prominent in bowel habit, ascites, alteration in bowel habit, acute abdomen and others. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features, coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnostic procedures, definitive diagnostic tests, need for surgical therapy, and response to treatment were assessed in each group. Results According to clinical presentation, five groups were constituted as non-specific abdominal pain (n = 24), ascites (n = 24), bowel habit alteration (n = 22), acute abdomen (n = 9) and others (n = 9). Patients presenting with acute abdomen had significantly higher white blood cell counts (p = 0.002) and abnormalities in abdominal plain radiographs (p = 0.014). Patients presenting with alteration in bowel habit were younger (p = 0.048). The frequency of colonoscopic abnormalities (7.5%), and need for therapeutic surgery (12.5%) were lower in patients with ascites, (p = 0.04) and (p = 0.001), respectively. There was no difference in gender, disease duration, diagnostic modalities, response to treatment, period to initial response, and mortality between groups (p > 0.05). Gastrointestinal tract alone was the most frequently involved part (38.5%), and this was associated with acid-fast bacteria in the sputum (p = 0.003). Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract involvement is frequent in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Although different clinical presentations of patients with abdominal tuberculosis determine diagnostic work up and need for therapeutic surgery, evidence based diagnosis and consequences of the disease does not change. PMID:15969744

  9. Pericardiectomy causing abdominal hernia incarceration.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Taufiek Konrad; Maurice, Musoni; Munyana, Jackline; Robinson, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    A 26-year-old Rwandan male presented with constrictive pericarditis, massive ascites and a giant umbilical hernia that had been asymptomatic for over a decade. Successful pericardiectomy was complicated by prompt incarceration of the abdominal hernia. This unexpected complication was caused by rapid resolution of the ascites due to autodiuresis and subsequent collapse of the hernial orifice. Patients with constrictive pericarditis and massive ascites who are evaluated for pericardiectomy should be carefully examined for the presence of abdominal hernias. If any such hernias are found, perioperative hernia repair should be considered and postoperative diuresis should be undertaken under close observation. PMID:21930673

  10. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  12. Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a substantial donation from William Dart of Mason, Michigan, the Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma started its work at Michigan State University, and has grown significantly over the past decade and a half. Currently located at the University of Washington, the Center is a â??global network of journalists, journalism educators and health professionals dedicated to improving media coverage of trauma, conflict and tragedy.â?ť On their site, visitors can learn about fellowship opportunities, read fact sheets about trauma research, and peruse their in-house blog. Journalists will appreciate the â??Quick Tipsâ?ť section on the homepage, as it covers a broad range of subjects, such as how to cover disasters, murder, suicide, and domestic violence in a sensitive manner. The site also has a rather impressive series of case studies on reporting on such events as the Columbine massacre and the genocide in Rwanda.

  13. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  14. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  15. Transfusion medicine in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research. PMID:21083009

  16. Trauma-Informed or Trauma-Denied: Principles and Implementation of Trauma-Informed Services for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Denise E.; Bjelajac, Paula; Fallot, Roger D.; Markoff, Laurie S.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to bridge the gap between practice (service delivery) and philosophy (trauma theory, empowerment, and relational theory). Specifically, we identify 10 principles that define trauma-informed service, discuss the need for this type of service, and give some characteristics of trauma-informed services in eight different…

  17. Penetrating ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge injury. Intraocular foreign bodies undetectable by CT were identified by B-scan ultrasonography in our patient. This case highlights the importance of additional ultrasonography when evaluating severe ocular trauma. And ophthalmologists should consider the possibility of penetrating injury caused by blank ammunition. PMID:24589340

  18. Pediatric considerations in craniofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Bernadette L

    2014-08-01

    In many respects, craniofacial trauma in children is akin to that in adults. The appearance of fractures and associated injuries is frequently similar. However, the frequencies of different types of fractures and patterns of injury in younger children vary depending on the age of the child. In addition, there are unique aspects that must be considered when imaging the posttraumatic pediatric face. Some of these are based on normal growth and development of the skull base and craniofacial structures, and others on the varying etiologies and mechanisms of craniofacial injury in children, such as injuries related to toppled furniture, nonaccidental trauma, all-terrain vehicle accidents, and impalement injuries. PMID:25086809

  19. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.

  20. Patterns of Injury in Belted and Unbelted Individuals Presenting to a Trauma Center After Motor Vehicle Crash: Seat Belt Syndrome Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S Porter; Ning Zhao

    1998-01-01

    Study Objective: Investigators have described a “seat belt syndrome” consisting variously of injuries to the lumbar or cervical spine, abdominal contents, or all 3. In this study we sought to identify these and any other patterns of injury associated with seat belt use in patients who presented to a trauma center after a motor vehicle crash. Methods: The charts of

  1. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

  2. The "Trauma Coping Inventory" and The "Trauma Coping Resource Inventory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael Robert

    2005-01-01

    In many instances, actual or threatened traumatic events trigger strong reactions for those individuals experiencing them, witnessing them, or learning about a loved one or friend who experienced an unexpected trauma. In addition, those who help traumatized persons can sometimes develop secondary traumatization. This workshop presenter constructed…

  3. CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification

    PubMed Central

    Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases. PMID:23573333

  4. TraumaSCAN: assessing penetrating trauma with geometric and probabilistic reasoning.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, O.; Clarke, J. R.; Webber, B.; Badler, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents TraumaSCAN, a prototype computer system for assessing the effects of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. TraumaSCAN combines geometric reasoning about potentially injured anatomic structures with (probabilistic) diagnostic reasoning about the consequences of these injuries. We also present results obtained from testing TraumaSCAN retrospectively on 26 actual gunshot wound cases. PMID:11079958

  5. Abdominal Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dutta, Shyamoli

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common form of extra-pulmonary site of infection after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal TB with a rising incidence in recent years. TB can affect any part of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract including anus, peritoneum and hepato-biliary system. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis are non-specific and mimic various GI disorders and cause delay in diagnosis and management. Aim To evaluate the various clinical, radiological and microbiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis and to define the role of histopathological examination in establishing the diagnosis in resource poor settings and to analyze the compliance and response to anti-tubercular treatment. Materials and Methods A five year retrospective study (January 2010 to December 2014) was done in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern India and all the cases diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis during the study period, were included. The relevant clinical informations, laboratory results, microbiological and radiological investigations were recorded. Histopathological examination of all the resected / excised specimens was done and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining to detect the tubercular bacilli and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain to rule out fungal infection was done in all the cases. Results Out of 48 cases with abdominal tuberculosis, the average age of presentation was 27.4 years with a slight male predominance (Male:Female=1.4:1). Abdominal pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom followed by anorexia (98%), fever (88%) and intestinal obstruction (88%). The ileum was the most common site of involvement. All the 45 resected / excised tissue specimens (34 cases of intestinal resection and 11 cases of intesinal, omental and lymph nodes biopsies) showed epithelioid granulomas along with necrosis (in 38 cases) and Langhans giant cells (in 42 cases). Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) positivity was seen in 5 tissue specimens only. All patients were put on anti-tubercular treatment and majority showed good response to therapy. Conclusion Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with vague GI symptoms. Study of histopathological findings can aid in the diagnosis in the settings where advanced molecular methods of diagnosis are not available, leading to early diagnosis and management.

  6. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  7. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  8. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management

    PubMed Central

    TORBA, M.; GJATA, A.; BUCI, S.; BUSHI, G.; ZENELAJ, A.; KAJO, I.; KOCEKU, S.; KAGJINI, K.; SUBASHI, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. Patients and methods This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Results Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 –1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 – 21.3, p<0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries. PMID:26017103

  9. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  10. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  11. Applications of Trauma Treatment for Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela R. Fuller

    2010-01-01

    Because of the high rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in individuals with psychotic disorders, there has been increasing emphasis on incorporating trauma treatment into comprehensive care for schizophrenia. Yet, despite heightened awareness of the need, limited information has been provided specifying an effective approach tailored to this population. Significant advances in trauma treatment have been made in recent

  12. Rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan P. Block

    1990-01-01

    Behavioral science studies conducted on rape victims reveal a posttraumatic stress disorder which follows the attack known as rape trauma syndrome. Evidence of rape trauma syndrome can be very useful in explaining the behavior of rape victims. Rape trauma syndrome can help corroborate the victim's assertion of lack of consent and also help the jury understand the typical reactions of

  13. Trauma Center Staffing, Infrastructure, and Patient Characteristics that Influence Trauma Center Need

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Mark; Sasser, Scott M.; Lairet, Julio; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Sugerman, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most effective use of trauma center resources helps reduce morbidity and mortality, while saving costs. Identifying critical infrastructure characteristics, patient characteristics and staffing components of a trauma center associated with the proportion of patients needing major trauma care will help planners create better systems for patient care. Methods We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank-Research Dataset to determine the proportion of critically injured patients requiring the resources of a trauma center within each Level I–IV trauma center (n=443). The outcome variable was defined as the portion of treated patients who were critically injured. We defined the need for critical trauma resources and interventions (“trauma center need”) as death prior to hospital discharge, admission to the intensive care unit, or admission to the operating room from the emergency department as a result of acute traumatic injury. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) was used to determine how hospital infrastructure, staffing Levels, and patient characteristics contributed to trauma center need. Results Nonprofit Level I and II trauma centers were significantly associated with higher levels of trauma center need. Trauma centers that had a higher percentage of transferred patients or a lower percentage of insured patients were associated with a higher proportion of trauma center need. Hospital infrastructure characteristics, such as bed capacity and intensive care unit capacity, were not associated with trauma center need. A GLM for Level III and IV trauma centers showed that the number of trauma surgeons on staff was associated with trauma center need. Conclusion Because the proportion of trauma center need is predominantly influenced by hospital type, transfer frequency, and insurance status, it is important for administrators to consider patient population characteristics of the catchment area when planning the construction of new trauma centers or when coordinating care within state or regional trauma systems. PMID:25671017

  14. Angiographic Embolisation in Arterial Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Naidoo; P. D. Corr; J. V. Robbs; J. Maharaj; R. Nair

    2000-01-01

    Objectives to evaluate the use of endovascular occlusion in the treatment of arterial trauma.Methods records of patients with penetrating arterial injuries treated by endovascular occlusive techniques were culled from the computerised database of the vascular service. Results the study period spanned 7 years. Forty-two patients were studied with injuries to the cervicofacial vessels (24), lower limb (16) and upper limb

  15. Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gregory Lande; Vanita Tarpley; Jennifer L. Francis; Rebecca Boucher

    2010-01-01

    This study correlated an art therapy descriptive technique originally applied to adolescent burn victims with adult combat-related victims in an effort to identify art themes and graphic elements associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. The designed rating instrument, referred to as the Combat Trauma Art Therapy Scale (CTATS), consisted of 62 items aimed to detect common themes associated with war time

  16. Initial assessment and management of pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, J Grant; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2012-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Each year, almost one in six children in the United States require emergency department (ED) care for the treatment of injuries, and more than 10,000 children die from injuries. Severely injured children need to be transported to a facility that is staffed 24/7 by personnel experienced in the management of children, and that has all the appropriate equipment to diagnose and manage injuries in children. Anatomical, physiological, and emotional differences between adults and children mean that children are not just scaled-down adults. Facilities receiving injured children need to be child and family friendly, in order to minimize the psychological impact of injury on the child and their family/carers. Early recognition and treatment of life-threatening airway obstruction, inadequate breathing, and intra-abdominal and intra-cranial hemorrhage significantly increases survival rate after major trauma. The initial assessment and management of the injured child follows the same ATLS® sequence as adults: primary survey and resuscitation, followed by secondary survey. A well-organized trauma team has a leader who designates roles to team members and facilitates clear, unambiguous communication between team members. The team leader stands where he/she can observe the entire team and monitor the “bigger picture.” Working together as a cohesive team, the members perform the primary survey in just a few minutes. Life-threatening conditions are dealt with as soon as they are identified. Necessary imaging studies are obtained early. Constant reassessment ensures that any deterioration in the child's condition is picked up immediately. The secondary survey identifies other injuries, such as intra-abdominal injuries and long-bone fractures, which can result in significant hemorrhage. The relief of pain is an important part of the treatment of an injured child. PMID:23181205

  17. Orthopedic managements of skeletal trauma in multiple-injury patients: a retrospective review of 7 years of patients in a Japanese level 1 hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yokoyama; M. Itoman; N. Takahira; R. Wakita; S. Aoki; T. Noumi; M. Uchino

    2002-01-01

    . Multiple-injury patients absorb a large amount of trauma energy in their trunk, resulting in multiple organ injuries and often long-bone and axial skeletal fractures. Severity of these injuries can be quantified using the Trauma Index (TI) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). These systems allow not only a comparison of mortality and morbidity among institutions, but also serve as criteria

  18. Minor Trauma Causing Stroke in a Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old Caucasian male presented with sudden dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, and clumsiness lasting for a couple of hours. He had a subtle trauma during a wrestling match 2 days prior to the presentation. A CT Angiogram (CTA) and MRI showed left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with anticoagulation with heparin drip in the ICU. The patient was discharged home on the third day on Lovenox-warfarin bridging. This case underscores the importance of considering VAD as a differential diagnosis in patients with sports-related symptoms especially in activities entailing hyperextension or hyperrotation of neck. Due to a varied latent period, often minor underlying trauma, and subtle presentation, a low index of suspicion is warranted in timely diagnosis and treatment of VAD. Considering recent evidence in treatment modality, either antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation may be used for treatment of VAD. PMID:25883815

  19. Varicose Vein Trauma: A Risk for Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  20. Varicose vein trauma: a risk for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  2. The increasing incidence of snowboard-related trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John R.; Groner, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate injuries among children and adolescents who participate in downhill sports. Methods We collected trauma registry data (January 1999–May 2006) from a level 1 pediatric trauma center with an average snowfall of 28 in (71 cm)/y. Cases were analyzed for injury mechanism, injury type, organ injured, Injury Severity Score, age, sex, and whether or not an operation was required. Results There were 57 snowboarders and 22 skiers admitted during the study period. Forty-one (72%) of snowboarders and 16 (73%) of skiers required operations; 32 (56%) of snowboarders and 9 (41%) of skiers sustained fractures; and 14 (25%) of snowboarders and 6 (27%) of skiers sustained abdominal injuries. (P = NS for all comparisons). Serious splenic injuries were more common in snowboarders (14% vs 4%), but the difference was not statistically significant. All skiing injuries occurred at recreational facilities (commercial skiing areas), whereas 12% of snowboard injuries occurred at home, other residence, or public parks (P = .08). The most striking finding is the rising number of snowboarding injuries and the relatively stable rate of skiing injuries (see graph). Conclusions As the popularity of snowboarding rises, snowboarding injuries in children are increasing. Pediatric surgeons should be wary of the “snowboard spleen.” PMID:18485968

  3. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bartolozzi; R. Lencioni; F. Donati; D. Cioni

    1999-01-01

    .   Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents,\\u000a the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status\\u000a of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical\\u000a applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal

  4. Retained intra-abdominal artery forceps – An unusual cause of intestinal strangulation

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Anthony Ikemefuna; Edeh, Anthony Jude

    2011-01-01

    Context: Surgical instruments and materials continue to be retained in the peritoneal cavity despite precautionary measures. Even though uncommon it is also under-reported and carries serious medico-legal consequences. Gauzes and sponges (gossypiboma) are the most commonly retained materials and intra-abdominal retained artery forceps are much rarer but when they do occur lead to chronic abdominal pain and can be a rare cause of intestinal obstruction or strangulation with significant morbidity and mortality. Case Report: We present a case of intraabdominal retained artery forceps in a 70-years-old lady who underwent laparotomy with splenectomy for a large spleen in a peripheral hospital. Upon discharge she continued to complain of intermittent abdominal pain of increasing severity. 12 months later she presented to us with an acute (surgical) abdomen requiring another laparotomy. At laparotomy she had strangulated/gangrenous lower jejunual and upper ileal bowel loops, the small bowel mesentery of this area being tightly trapped between the jaws of the retained artery forceps. She had gut resection and enteroanastomosis. Unfortunately she died from continuing sepsis on the second post-operative day. Conclusion: Retained instruments in intra-abdominal surgery can cause serious complication and should be treated surgically. High index of suspicion and appropriate investigations like plain abdominal X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and CT and MRI scans should be instituted in patients who develop chronic abdominal symptoms following laparotomy. Preventive measures against retained instruments must follow strict laid down protocols for surgical instruments handling in theatre. PMID:22540110

  5. An evaluation of the patient population for aesthetic treatments targeting abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Daniel P; Avram, Mathew M; Cohen, Steven R; Duncan, Diane I; Goldman, Mitchel P; Weiss, Elliot T; Young, V Leroy

    2014-06-01

    A large and growing population of patients currently seeks minimally invasive therapeutic options for the aesthetic treatment of localized, central abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We sought to evaluate the ideal population for aesthetic treatment of central abdominal SAT, highlight the existing disparities between SAT in obese (body mass index [BMI] ? 30; BMI) and nonobese (BMI < 30) patients, and review the available FDA-cleared, minimally invasive treatment options for central abdominal adiposity. The cosmetic issue of localized, central (periumbilical) abdominal adiposity in nonobese individuals is quite distinct from abdominal bulging secondary to obesity. Given the recognized clinical and physiologic differences between obese and nonobese counterparts, the exclusion of obese patients from clinical study by currently available FDA-cleared devices targeting abdominal fat, and the status of obesity as a chronic, systemic disease requiring medical, surgical, and/or lifestyle-altering therapies, minimally invasive therapeutic options for aesthetic reductions in central abdominal SAT must be limited to the nonobese population. PMID:24910275

  6. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  7. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5%) who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%); one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation); one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications. PMID:23531162

  8. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training in the ATLS and the future guidelines for trauma care in the ICU based on epidemiological studies carried out in both the North Spanish Group and the Southern one to promote development and improvement in several areas. PMID:12951298

  9. Snowmobile trauma: 10 years' experience at Manitoba's tertiary trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rena L.; Black, G. Brian

    2004-01-01

    Introduction According to the literature, the increased recreational use of the snowmobile has resulted in an increasing number of musculoskeletal injuries. We wished to examine whether previously described risk factors continue to be associated with snowmobile trauma and to identify previously unrecognized risks and specific patterns of injury. Methods We carried out a chart review of all snowmobile-related injuries over a 10-year period at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, the only level 1 trauma centre serving the Province of Manitoba, with particular attention to the risk factors of suboptimal lighting, excessive speed and alcohol consumption. Results We identified 480 injuries in 294 patients, and 81 (27.6%) of these patients died. Collisions accounted for 72% of the injury mechanisms. Of the injuries sustained, 31% occurred on roads. Excessive speed was a risk factor in 54% of patients, suboptimal lighting in 86% and a blood alcohol level greater than 0.08 in 70%. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57% of those recorded. There were also brachial plexus injuries (3%) and knee dislocations (2%). To our knowledge, this is the largest study detailing injury associated with recreational use of snowmobiles in Canada. Conclusions Because snowmobile trauma is caused principally by human errors, it is potentially preventable. Efforts aimed at prevention must focus on the driver, who controls the common risk factors. The danger of snowmobiling while intoxicated must be emphasized. Trail-side monitoring is likely to be ineffective, as the majority of accidents do not occur on designated snowmobile trails. PMID:15132460

  10. Peritoneal Breach as an Indication for Exploratory Laparotomy in Penetrating Abdominal Stab Injury: Operative Findings in Haemodynamically Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Victor; Martin, Kate; Varma, Dinesh; Fitzgerald, Mark; Pilgrim, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injuries varies from nonoperative to operative management. The aim was to investigate whether peritoneal breach when used as an indication for exploratory laparotomy appropriately identified patients with intra-abdominal visceral injury. Methods. We conducted retrospective cohort study of all patients presenting with PAI at a major trauma centre from January 2007 to December 2011. We measured the incidence of peritoneal breach and correlated this with intra-abdominal visceral injury diagnosed at surgery. Results. 252 patients were identified with PAI. Of the included patients, 71 were managed nonoperatively and 118 operatively. The operative diagnoses included nonperitoneal-breaching injuries, intraperitoneal penetration without organ damage, or intraperitoneal injury with organ damage. The presenting trauma CT scan was reported as normal in 63%, 34%, and 2% of these groups, respectively. The total negative laparotomy/laparoscopy rate for all patients presented with PAI was 21%, almost half of whom had a normal CT scan. Conclusion. We found that peritoneal breach on its own does not necessarily always equate to intra-abdominal visceral injury. Observation with sequential examination for PAI patients with a normal CT scan may be more important than exclusion of peritoneal breach via laparoscopy.

  11. Cell Therapy for CNS Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy plays an important role in multidisciplinary management of the two major forms of central nervous system (CNS)\\u000a injury, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, which are caused by external physical trauma. Cell therapy for CNS\\u000a disorders involves the use of cells of neural or non-neural origin to replace, repair, or enhance the function of the damaged\\u000a nervous

  12. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: the RAPTOR (Resuscitation with Angiography Percutaneous Treatments and Operative Resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting existing ones, to address the need for single-site flexible haemorrhage control. This manuscript therefore describes the many considerations in the design and refinement of the physical build, equipment selection, human factors evaluation of new combined treatment paradigms, and the final introduction of a RAPTOR protocol in order that others may learn from our initial efforts. PMID:24560091

  13. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  14. What we know about management of traumatic abdominal wall hernia: review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Skweres, Justin; Sangster, Guillermo; Johnson, Lester; Samra, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is an uncommon form of hernia caused by blunt traumatic disruption of the abdominal wall musculature/fascia and abdominal organ herniation. Diagnosis of TAWH is challenging and requires a high level of suspicion. This form of hernia seems to be underrepresented in the English-language medical literature. There is currently no consensus on the optimal management for TAWH. In this article, we discuss the management of a 36-year-old motorcycle driver who was involved in a road traffic accident. On evaluation at our trauma center, he was found to have TAWH. Diagnostic criteria, imaging modalities and different management options for TAWH will be discussed. PMID:25692423

  15. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  16. Trauma care systems in France.

    PubMed

    Masmejean, Emmanuel H; Faye, Alain; Alnot, Jean Yves; Mignon, Alexandre F

    2003-09-01

    The French Republic includes approximatively 60 millions inhabitants for almost 550,000 km(2). Prehospital management is organised at department level (96). This management involves a regulatory system initiated from a unique phone number (15 national). The medical regulator sends either first-aid providers or a medical team. On-site care is highly developed and prehospital medically assisted care is really the first phase of the treatment of the injured. The team ensures that the victim is in the best condition for transport and participates in monitoring. Intra-hospital care begins either in an emergency room, with a physician qualified in Emergency Medicine, or in a recovery room, with a surgical intensive-care team. There is no specialisation in trauma in France. All specialist surgeons treat those aspects of trauma pathology that concern them. All surgeons operate on trauma patients and with regard to the organ concerned: digestive, orthopaedic, em leader. The challenge nevertheless remains that of maintaining facilities at a sufficient level to deal with everyday pathology, known for the seriousness of its consequences in both human and financial terms, within an increasingly sparse hospital infrastructure. Suggestions are emerging in response to these preoccupations. Organisation at the European level of hand emergency units (FESUM) is a targeted example. PMID:12951291

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Idoguchi, Koji, E-mail: idoguchi@ares.eonet.ne.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Nomura, Yoshikatsu [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Okita, Yutaka [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  18. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  19. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  20. [Use of enterosorption in correction of immune changes during the acute period of mild craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Biloshyts'ky?, V V

    1998-01-01

    The immune system indexes were studied in 30 injured persons with craniocerebral trauma. In 15 patients (1st group) the conventional methods of treatment were applied and in 15 (2nd group)--the enterosorption using polysorb MP was included in the complex of treatment. Rapid regression of neurological symptoms was promoted by the enterosorption application. PMID:9615076

  1. Is non-operative management safe and effective for all splenic blunt trauma? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The goal of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt splenic trauma (BST) is to preserve the spleen. The advantages of NOM for minor splenic trauma have been extensively reported, whereas its value for the more severe splenic injuries is still debated. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available published evidence on NOM in patients with splenic trauma and to compare it with the operative management (OM) in terms of mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay. Methods For this systematic review we followed the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses" statement. A systematic search was performed on PubMed for studies published from January 2000 to December 2011, without language restrictions, which compared NOM vs. OM for splenic trauma injuries and which at least 10 patients with BST. Results We identified 21 non randomized studies: 1 Clinical Controlled Trial and 20 retrospective cohort studies analyzing a total of 16,940 patients with BST. NOM represents the gold standard treatment for minor splenic trauma and is associated with decreased mortality in severe splenic trauma (4.78% vs. 13.5% in NOM and OM, respectively), according to the literature. Of note, in BST treated operatively, concurrent injuries accounted for the higher mortality. In addition, it was not possible to determine post-treatment morbidity in major splenic trauma. The definition of hemodynamic stability varied greatly in the literature depending on the surgeon and the trauma team, representing a further bias. Moreover, data on the remaining analyzed outcomes (hospital stay, number of blood transfusions, abdominal abscesses, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection) were not reported in all included studies or were not comparable, precluding the possibility to perform a meaningful cumulative analysis and comparison. Conclusions NOM of BST, preserving the spleen, is the treatment of choice for the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades I and II. Conclusions are more difficult to outline for higher grades of splenic injury, because of the substantial heterogeneity of expertise among different hospitals, and potentially inappropriate comparison groups. PMID:24004931

  2. Some observations relating to behind-body armour blunt trauma effects caused by ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lidén, E; Berlin, R; Janzon, B; Schantz, B; Seeman, T

    1988-01-01

    Live, anesthetised pigs were used to assess behind-armour blunt trauma effects. The thoraco-abdominal body region was covered with varying thicknesses of Kevlar fabric packets. This soft body armour was applied, either in direct contact with the thoracic wall of the animals, or with different plastic foam sheets, so-called trauma packs, between the armour and the skin. The live animals were surgically evaluated, and then sacrificed. Blocks of soft soap were subjected to equal tests and the behind-armour indentations were measured. The results indicate that serious injury to the body armour-protected chest may be caused by the impact of nonpenetrating bullets and shotgun pellets. Severe pulmonary contusions and lacerations were found when the energy transferred through the body armour was estimated to be high. PMID:3339677

  3. Introduction of a Simple Technique for Partial Splenectomy in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarlou, Mehdi; Derakhshanfar, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background: The spleen is the most commonly injured intraperitoneal organ in multiple trauma patients. Total splenectomy results in immunodeficiency and predisposes patients to certain infections. Objectives: Performing partial splenectomy with a safe, simple, and definite technique in trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and accompanying intra-abdominal injury could play an important role in the preservation of immune function and reducing morbidity. Patients and Methods: From 2006 to 2009, a total of 20 patients underwent partial splenectomy, at Mobasher and Be’sat hospitals. Patients with splenic injuries of up to stage IV and grade 3 shocks underwent partial splenectomy. The operations were performed without vascular isolation and by wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair with chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Three months later, patients were evaluated by a Tc99 liver-spleen scan, complete blood count, and blood smear. Results: There were 16 male and four female patients with an age range of 4 to 54 years old. Ten patients had additional intra and extra abdominal injuries. The salvaged spleen tissue was approximately 30% in nine patients, 40 to 50% in two, and more than 50% in another nine patients. The operation time was less than three hours and hospital stay was 3 to 15 days for 90% of the patients. No complications occurred after the surgery or during the follow up. For all patients, the complete blood count, peripheral smear, and liver-spleen scan were normal after six months. Conclusions: Partial splenectomy with preserving at least 30% of the splenic tissue can be performed for trauma patients using wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair by chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Using this technique, there is no need for vascular isolation or hemostatic materials. Splenic function is presented and associated intra and extra abdominal injuries are not contraindications for partial splenectomy. PMID:24693413

  4. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  5. Radio-frequency tissue ablation in liver trauma: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Felekouras, Evangelos; Kontos, Michael; Pissanou, Theodora; Drakos, Elias; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Papalois, Apostolos; Bramis, John; Diamantis, Theodoros; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Nikolaos, Nikiteas; Sigala, Frangiska; Papalambros, Efstathios; Pappas, Paris; Bastounis, Elias

    2004-11-01

    The liver is the most frequently injured intra-abdominal organ. Radio-frequency tissue ablation (RFA) with cooled tip electrodes is here experimentally used for the treatment of liver trauma. A grade III and a grade III to IV trauma each were produced in the livers of 10 domestic pigs. RFA was applied around the sites of injury until hemostasis was achieved. The animals were sacrificed at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days and examined. The livers were subjected to histologic and radiologic examination. Two similar traumas were created in the livers of two more animals and were left surgically untreated as a control group. The two untreated animals died immediately postoperatively, proving the severity of the injuries. Hemostasis was achieved in all treated animals. Mortality and morbidity were zero. No blood, pus, bile, or other fluid was found in the abdomen at sacrifice. A three-zone pattern of lesion was recognized around the electrode placement at histology. RFA is an efficient and safe hemostatic method for grade III and grade III to IV hepatic trauma. Further studies are required for its use in humans. PMID:15586512

  6. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Sartelli

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  8. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens. PMID:19028661

  9. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  10. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  11. Pericardioscopy for diagnosing penetrating cardiac trauma.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Alegre, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of hemopericardium in trauma is made mainly by ultrasonography. A pericardial window, either through thoracoscopy or by a subxiphoid approach, is also used. However, hemopericardium per se might be overly sensitive for diagnosing cardiac injuries after chest trauma. The use of diagnostic pericardioscopy in a hemodynamically stable patient with penetrating cardiac trauma is presented. This procedure excluded significant cardiac injury and spared the patient from a major nontherapeutic procedure. PMID:25952244

  12. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Symptoms in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Foynes, Melissa Ming

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred thirty-three members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se. PMID:24660048

  13. Global systems of health care and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis S; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-10-01

    Health care policy continues to occupy the center of national debate in the United States. Exploration of international health care and trauma systems allows for better comprehension of our own policies. Four basic models of health care exist across the globe: Bismarck, Beveridge, National Health Insurance, and Out-of-Pocket. Expectantly, disparities in trauma care necessarily follow inequities in overall health care and infrastructure. In this article, we aim to review several countries' health care models and their respective trauma systems. Critical analysis of international solutions to deficiencies in overall health and trauma care may serve as a guide for issues in the United States. PMID:25229684

  14. Upper urinary tract trauma--current concepts.

    PubMed

    Goldman, S M; Sandler, C M

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews current concepts and controversies in regard to the classification, clinical findings, imaging techniques, and management of upper urinary tract trauma. The impact of CT, and especially spiral CT, in differentiating significant from nonsignificant renal trauma is reviewed. The controversy in regard to the correct approach to the management of any significant renal trauma (i.e., conservative vs. aggressive therapy) as well as the differences in opinion as to the appropriate treatment between blunt and penetrating trauma are also reviewed. PMID:9542017

  15. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ biologic mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2013-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. We aimed to review the experience of a large healthcare organization with Permacol™. A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent abdominal hernia repair with Permacol™ in 14 Southern California hospitals. One hundred ninety-five patients were analyzed over a 4-year period. Operations included ventral/incisional hernia repairs, ostomy closures, parastomal hernia repairs, and inguinal hernia repairs. In 50 per cent of the patients, Permacol™ was used to reinforce a primary fascial repair and in 50 per cent as a fascial bridge. The overall complication rate was 39.5 per cent. The complication rate was higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds, body mass index (BMI) 40 kg/m(2) or greater versus BMI less than 40 kg/m(2), in patients with prior mesh repair, and when mesh was used as a fascial bridge. With a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, morbid obesity was associated with a higher recurrence. To date this is the largest study on the use of Permacol™ in abdominal wall hernia repair. In our patient population undergoing heterogeneous operations with a majority of wounds as Class II or higher, use of Permacol™ did not eliminate wound morbidity or prevent recurrence, especially in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24160785

  16. Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

  17. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  18. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma symptomatology. PMID:25210029

  19. Demography of penetrating cardiac trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, M J; Brissie, R M; Bessey, P Q; McEachern, M M; Donald, J M; Laws, H L

    1989-01-01

    All cases of penetrating cardiac trauma in 1985 and 1986 in Jefferson County, Alabama, where patients dying of penetrating trauma received autopsies, were retrospectively reviewed. All hospitals in the county plus the single coroner's office provided the records of the 72 patients comprising this study. Incidents occurred most often in the home or residence (70%) by a known assailant (83%) due to domestic/social disputes (73%). Frequency was greatest in the evening hours (73% between 6:00 PM and 3:00 AM), on weekends in spring and summer. Victims tended to be male (86%), black (72%), married (46%), blue collar workers (62%). There were 41 (57%) gunshot wounds, 3 (4%) shotgun wounds, and 28 (39%) stab wounds with an associated mortality rate of 97%, 100%, and 68%, respectively. Prehospital mortality rate (dead at the scene) was 54.2% (39/72), and death on arrival was 26.4% (19/72), for a combined pretreatment mortality rate of 80.6%. All patients who arrived with no vital signs died. Mortality appeared to be related to mechanism of injury, age, race, sex, vital signs on arrival, number and specific cardiac chambers injured, associated major vascular injury, hematocrit, and mode of transportation. Mortality was not related to caliber of weapon, ethanol level, transport time, time from arrival to operation, or transfusion requirements. There were only ten survivors (1 gunshot wound and 9 stab wounds), all of whom had ventricular injuries and no associated major vascular injuries. The ten survivors represented a 71.4% (10/14) salvage rate for those victims arriving with vital signs. Complications occurred in three patients. Hospitalization averaged 7.3 days in the survivors. Penetrating cardiac trauma remains a serious, socially linked disease with a high rate of mortality. Rapid transport, aggressive resuscitation and cardiorrhaphy remain the best treatment. PMID:2730180

  20. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  1. Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals. PMID:21331361

  2. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2006-01-01

    We describe the first reported use of laparoscopic splenectomy as initial treatment in high-grade blunt splenic trauma. A 21-year-old man sustained a blow to the left flank from a large construction pipe and was transferred to our hospital with a grade V splenic laceration and a grade II left peri-renal hematoma with hematuria. He was hemodynamically stable. He underwent a laparoscopic splenectomy shortly after arrival. The patient's renal injury was managed nonoperatively, and he was discharged home with no complications and has remained well. PMID:17575766

  3. Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure by measuring abdominal wall tension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-zhuo; Yan, Shu-ying; Chen, Yan-qing; Zhuang, Yu-gang; Wei, Zhao; Zhou, Shu-qin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) by measuring abdominal wall tension (AWT) was effective and feasible in previous postmortem and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the AWT method for noninvasively monitoring IAP in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this prospective study, we observed patients with detained urethral catheters in the ICU of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital between April 2011 and March 2013. The correlation between AWT and urinary bladder pressure (UBP) was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The effects of respiratory and body position on AWT were evaluated using the paired samples t test, whereas the effects of gender and body mass index (BMI) on baseline AWT (IAP<12 mmHg) were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were studied. A significant linear correlation was observed between AWT and UBP (R=0.986, P<0.01); the regression equation was Y=–1.369+9.57X (P<0.01). There were significant differences among the different respiratory phases and body positions (P<0.01). However, gender and BMI had no significant effects on baseline AWT (P=0.457 and 0.313, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant linear correlation between AWT and UBP and respiratory phase, whereas body position had significant effects on AWT but gender and BMI did not. Therefore, AWT could serve as a simple, rapid, accurate, and important method to monitor IAP in critically ill patients.

  4. Is estimated bullet trajectory a reliable predictor of severe injury? Case report of a thoraco-abdominal gunshot with a protracted trajectory managed nonoperatively

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Operative management of all gunshot’s traumas carries a high rate of unwarranted interventions that are known to cause serious complications. Selective nonoperative management is thus being increasingly practiced which has reduced these avoidable interventions. Physical examination and computed tomography scans are most sensitive in assessing need of laparotomy. Assessment of internal injuries on the basis of an estimated bullet trajectory is often practiced but has seldom been studied. We report a case of conservative management of a thoraco abdominal gun shot patient where an estimated bullet trajectory was indicative of serious injuries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a thoraco abdominal gunshot that, despite of a protracted trajectory, had no sequelae and was thus managed nonoperatively. Case presentation A 30 year old male patient having height of 180 cm and weight of 70 kg (Body Mass Index 21.6) presented with complaint of a penetrating injury at left side of upper torso. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination a 1 cm?×?1 cm entry wound at the left 3rd intercostal space in the mid clavicular line was identified. The chest and abdomen were otherwise unremarkable on examination. The chest radiograph displayed clear lung fields. The abdominal radiographs displayed a bullet in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the spine. The bullets estimated trajectory from 3rd intercostal space and its lodgment in the abdomen lateral to the spine indicated severe visceral injury. The computed tomography scan showed that the bullet was lodged postero-medially to the left kidney. All thoracic, intra peritoneal and retroperitoneal visceral structures were identified to be normal. The patient remained clinically and vitally stable, hence was managed nonoperatively being discharged after 48 h of observation. Conclusion From this case we conclude that decision for managing gun shot patients should be based on objective clinical and diagnostic findings. We recommend further investigation of the predictability of estimated trajectory for visceral injuries and consequent operative intervention as we found it to be misleading in this case. PMID:23414905

  5. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monill; J. Pernas; E. Montserrat; C. Pérez; J. Clavero; A. Martinez-Noguera; R. Guerrero; S. Torrubia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus

  6. Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clinical research to improve understanding of the biological processes that occur after traumatic injury, bring basic scientific ... basic research to increase our understanding of biological processes and lay the foundation for advances in disease ...

  7. Transport of the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Davies, G; Chesters, A

    2015-07-01

    The transport of the seriously injured patient is associated with risk and requires particular expertise and attention. The aim of this review is to provide a historical overview of transport services available to trauma patients in the UK, describe the various transport platforms that are used, identify risks from a system and disease perspective and how they may be mitigated, and make international comparisons. The transfer of patients requiring medical attention has developed over the years and now includes complex undertakings that undoubtedly confer a degree of risk on the patient. A number of different transport platforms are in regular use in the UK, and a number of different health-care professions of varying training, experience, and seniority undertake these transfers. The general principles are to provide no worse care en route than has been provided at the departure destination and to transport patients to a destination capable of delivering whichever intervention the patient is deemed to require. When deciding to transport an injured patient, there are risks, and appropriate mitigation must be in place, particularly if primary transfer to a major trauma centre involves bypassing a nearer facility. It is clear that those clinicians who undertake medical transfers must be appropriately trained and must have access to local or national guidelines. Medical transfers must be the subject of ongoing research, both to ensure that best practice is in place and to continue to understand the safest way of achieving essential transfers effectively. PMID:26089445

  8. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

  9. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children. PMID:25458796

  10. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mm?Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  11. Comparison of Robotic, Laparoscopic, and Abdominal Myomectomy in a Community Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rosemeyer, C. J.; Barter, James F.; Steren, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate the operative outcomes between robotic, laparoscopic, and abdominal myomectomies performed by a private gynecologic oncology practice in a suburban community hospital. Methods: The medical records of 322 consecutive robotic, laparoscopic, and abdominal myomectomies performed from January 2007 through December 2009 were reviewed. The outcomes were collected from a retrospective review of patient medical records. Results: Records for 14/322 (4.3%) patients were incomplete. Complete data were available for 308 patients, including 169 (54.9%) abdominal, 73 (23.7%) laparoscopic, and 66 (21.4%) robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomies. Patients were similar in age, body mass index, parity, and previous abdominopelvic surgery. Median operative time for robotic surgery (140 min) was significantly longer (P<.005) compared to laparoscopic (70 min) and abdominal (72 min) myomectomies. Robotic and laparoscopic myomectomies had significantly less estimated blood loss and hospital stay compared to abdominal myomectomies. There was no significant difference in complications or in the median size of the largest myoma removed between the different modalities. However, the median aggregate weight of myomas removed abdominally (200g; range, 1.4 to 2682) was significantly larger than that seen laparoscopically (115g; range, 1 to 602) and robotically (129g; range 9.4 to 935). Postoperative transfusion was significantly less frequent in robotic myomectomies compared to laparoscopic and abdominal myomectomies. Conclusion: While robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomies had longer operative times, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomies demonstrated shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, and fewer transfusions than abdominal myomectomies. Robotic myomectomy offers a minimally invasive alternative for management of symptomatic myoma in a community hospital setting. PMID:23743382

  12. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences. PMID:22375805

  13. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  14. The Biology of Trauma: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…

  15. Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

  16. Nutritional support of the multiple trauma patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-E. Schmitz; F. W. Ahnefeld; C. Burri

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a brief review of currently relevant aspects of the parenteral nutritional support of the multiple trauma patient in intensive care. The decisive factors governing selection and application of an individually devised program of parenteral nutrition are the multiple trauma patient's energy turnover and nitrogen losses on the one hand, and the tolerance limits and viability of the

  17. ATLS® and damage control in spine trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver I Schmidt; Ralf H Gahr; Andreas Gosse; Christoph E Heyde

    2009-01-01

    Substantial inflammatory disturbances following major trauma have been found throughout the posttraumatic course of polytraumatized patients, which was confirmed in experimental models of trauma and in vitro settings. As a consequence, the principle of damage control surgery (DCS) has developed over the last two decades and has been successfully introduced in the treatment of severely injured patients. The aim of

  18. Tips for Teachers during Times of Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Myrna Ann; Harper, Eric

    This guide for teachers in times of trauma was updated after the events of September 11, 2001--the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These traumatic events could cause refugees to experience trauma or become re-traumatized. For many refugees, their English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are the places where they…

  19. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  20. Prophylactic cholecystectomy during abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabarrou, P; Portier, G; Chalret Du Rieu, M

    2013-09-01

    The presence of asymptomatic gallstones is no longer an indication for elective prophylactic cholecystectomy (PC) according to the recommendations of the 1991 French Consensus Conference on cholelithiasis. However, there may be potential benefits of performing prophylactic cholecystectomy during certain abdominal procedures for non-biliary disease; this remains a subject of debate. This debate has become livelier with the recent increase in bariatric surgery. Gastrectomy for cancer, small bowel resection, colonic resection, and splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis as well as all bariatric surgical interventions can all alter the physiology of gallstone disease raising the question of the value of PC, but the specific morbidity of cholecystectomy must be kept in mind. The purpose of this study was to report epidemiological and pathophysiological data and the results from literature reports in order to assess the value of concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy during various common surgical situations. PMID:23916848

  1. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  2. Quality of early care and childhood trauma: a prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lissa; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Holmes, Bjarne; Lyubchik, Amy; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-06-01

    Kihlstrom (2005) has recently called attention to the need for prospective longitudinal studies of dissociation. The present study assesses quality of early care and childhood trauma as predictors of dissociation in a sample of 56 low-income young adults followed from infancy to age 19. Dissociation was assessed with the Dissociative Experiences Scale; quality of early care was assessed by observer ratings of mother-infant interaction at home and in the laboratory; and childhood trauma was indexed by state-documented maltreatment, self-report, and interviewer ratings of participants' narratives. Regression analysis indicated that dissociation in young adulthood was significantly predicted by observed lack of parental responsiveness in infancy, while childhood verbal abuse was the only type of trauma that added to the prediction of dissociation. Implications are discussed in the context of previous prospective work also pointing to the important contribution of parental emotional unresponsiveness in the development of dissociation. PMID:19525736

  3. Black-white disparities in blunt trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Goins, W. A.; Rodriguez, A.; Dunham, C. M.; Shankar, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    To uncover causes of increased mortality rates in black accident victims, patterns of injury and access to trauma care were compared between black and white patients. Over a 41-month period (February 1985 to June 1988), 2120 white and 468 black patients, each with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 14 as a result of blunt trauma, were admitted to a Level I regional trauma center, part of a statewide trauma system. Blacks were significantly older and more of them had premorbid illnesses. Although vehicular crashes accounted for the majority of injuries in both groups, blacks had significantly more injuries resulting from falls, pedestrian accidents, and assaults. Whereas 70.6% of whites were transported from the scene and 73% were transported by helicopter, 52.7% of blacks were transported from the scene and 44% by helicopter. Blacks made up 18% of the study group and accounted for 20% of deaths (mortality rate 17.3% for blacks and 14.9% for whites). Mortality was significantly increased for black patients admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score > or = 13. Private medical insurance, available for 46.3% of black patients, accounted for 78% of payments for all trauma admissions. Increased mortality of black trauma patients may be related to risk factors (age, premorbid illness), increased rates of pedestrian accidents and falls, and disparities in access to Level I trauma centers. PMID:8371282

  4. Trauma in early childhood: a neglected population.

    PubMed

    De Young, Alexandra C; Kenardy, Justin A; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2011-09-01

    Infants, toddlers and preschoolers are a high risk group for exposure to trauma. Young children are also vulnerable to experiencing adverse outcomes as they are undergoing a rapid developmental period, have limited coping skills and are strongly dependent on their primary caregiver to protect them physically and emotionally. However, although millions of young children experience trauma each year, this population has been largely neglected. Fortunately, over the last 2 decades there has been a growing appreciation of the magnitude of the problem with a small but expanding number of dedicated researchers and clinicians working with this population. This review examines the empirical literature on trauma in young children with regards to the following factors: (1) how trauma reactions typically manifest in young children; (2) history and diagnostic validity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in preschoolers; (3) prevalence, comorbidity and course of trauma reactions; (4) developmental considerations; (5) risk and protective factors; and (6) treatment. The review highlights that there are unique developmental differences in the rate and manifestation of trauma symptomatology, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV-TR) PTSD criteria is not developmentally sensitive and the impact of trauma must be considered within the context of the parent-child relationship. Recommendations for future research with this population are also discussed. PMID:21455675

  5. A comprehensive model for trauma research design.

    PubMed

    Honarpisheh, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant research and education are invaluable for patient care and medical practice in trauma. Elucidation of a foundation for the integration of training and service that can be combined with research in trauma is crucial, and every trauma case should be studied for this purpose. In this study, we investigated the unique features of trauma research to formulate a generic comprehensive model that can be used at any point at which one may desire to develop a research plan. The framework of this model is designed to enable proper trauma research plain in combination with the best routine trauma care. Selection of the appropriate method of study, the corresponding basic questions raised, aims, and the relevant epidemiologic context are factors that are included in this review. Furthermore, suitable sources, proper time for data collection, reliable and valid measures, and criteria for the scaling and quantification of the findings are indicated. In addition, the levels, orders, operational stages, and steps to be taken in planning research projects are logically set based on the principles of cognitive task analysis, and correspond to the entire spectrum of trauma care situations. Lastly, a measure of utility value is assigned in terms of the expected extent of efficiency and presumed level of effectiveness. PMID:24719834

  6. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma: A review

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert T.; Lisco, Steven J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children from the age 1 year to 21 years old. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system following severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of TIC that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  7. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  8. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Deng, Xiaohui; Wei, Xiawei; Shi, Huashan; Wang, Fengtian; Ye, Tinghong; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Li, Yuli; Luo, Min; Gong, Changyang; Huang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCEC) had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10) did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001). The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fuid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days, respectively. This study confirms that PCEC hydrogel has potential application in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. PMID:23885172

  9. Factors Associated With Trauma Center Use for Elderly Patients With Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y.; Wang, Ewen; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Auerbach, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the likelihood of trauma center admission for injured elderly patients with trauma, determine trends in trauma center admissions, and identify factors associated with trauma center use for elderly patients with trauma. Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Acute care hospitals in California. Patients All patients hospitalized for acute traumatic injuries during the period from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2008 (n=430 081). Patients who had scheduled admissions for nonacute or minor trauma were excluded. Main Outcome Measure Likelihood of admission to level I or II trauma center was calculated according to age categories after adjusting for patient and system factors. Results Of 430 081 patients admitted to California acute care hospitals for trauma-related diagnoses, 27% were older than 65 years. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and system factors, compared with trauma patients aged 18–25 years, the odds of admission to a trauma center decreased with increasing age; patients aged 26–45 years had lower odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.80) of being admitted to a trauma center for their injuries than did patients 46–65 years of age (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.54–0.60), patients 66–85 years of age (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30–0.41), and patients older than 85 years (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.25–0.36). Similar patterns were found when stratifying the analysis by trauma type and severity. Living more than 50 miles away from a trauma center (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01–0.06) and lack of county trauma center (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.35) were also predictors of not receiving trauma care. Conclusion Age and likelihood of admission to a trauma center for injured patients were observed to be inversely proportional after controlling for other factors. System-level factors play a major role in determining which injured patients receive trauma care. PMID:21242421

  10. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Clara

    2014-03-01

    The author analyzes recent developments in trauma theory, made necessary especially after the massive psychic traumas following World War II and the Shoah. The theories of Freud and Ferenczi are analyzed, especially, their different views of reality and their clinical attitude. When working with survivors of any trauma (from incest to genocide) it is necessary to reconstruct the historical details as carefully as possible, with the appropriate timing. Psychoanalysis is therefore viewed as an ethical and political practice similar to testimony, allowing the reconstruction of truth within the community and interrupting the cycle of the death instinct from one generation to the next. PMID:24603171

  11. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  12. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  13. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  14. ABDOMINAL INCISIONS IN GENERAL SURGERY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    There is this wrong notion that the only standard abdominal incision is the midline incision. Cases have been seen in which an abdominal incision extends from the xyphoid process to the symphysis pubis just to remove a perforated appendix! It is also not unusual to see a groin incision together with a lower abdominal incision for an obstructed inguinal hernia repair that “slipped” back into the abdominal cavity during preparation for surgery. Even though the trend nowadays in surgery is to opt for laparoscopic and mini-incision surgery, the basic rule in surgery is to have an incision that will be comfortable for the surgeon and provide adequate access to the area of pathology. PMID:25161434

  15. Abdominal Hernias Complicating Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. O’Connor; Russell J. Rigby; Ian R. Hardie; Darryl R. Wall; Russell W. Strong; Peter W. H. Woodruff; James J. B. Petrie

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of all CAPD patients reviewed in this study developed abdominal hernias. Eleven hernias (32.4%) occurred at the catheter insertion site, 17.6% were inguinal, 26.5% were epigastric and umbilical and 23.5 % occurred at the site of previous abdominal incisions. The risk of developing a hernia was significantly greater in patients over 40 years of age, women of parity

  16. Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

    2012-01-20

    INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

  17. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  18. Aortic Valve Injury Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Hedieh; Maleki, Majid; Hosseini, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Heart valve injury following blunt chest trauma of car accidents is increasing. Although aortic valve involvement is rare, however, in survivors of blunt cardiac trauma it is the most commonly involved valve and the most frequent valve lesion is isolated injury of the noncoronary cusp of aortic valve. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old man with a history of car accident (five months before) was referred to our clinic because of shortness of breath. A holo-diastolic blowing murmur was heard on physical examination. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated severe aortic insufficiency secondary to rupture of the left coronary cusp associated with avulsion of aortic valve commissure. Conclusions: Since the aortic valve is rarely affected in blunt cardiac injury, it will be generally undiagnosed during the primary evaluation of a patient with blunt chest trauma. However, any patient presenting dyspnea after chest trauma should be examined for suspected aortic valve injury. PMID:25478541

  19. Late-Presenting Complications After Splenic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Freiwald, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the management of blunt splenic trauma has evolved from almost exclusive surgical management to selective use of nonsurgical management in hemodynamically stable patients. Understanding of the spleen's immunologic importance in protection against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection led to development first of surgical techniques for splenic salvage and later to protocols for nonsurgical management of adults with blunt splenic injury. The evolution of nonsurgical management has resulted in new patterns of postsplenic trauma complications. This article describes a pancreatic pseudocyst, one of several described delayed complications of nonsurgical management of blunt splenic trauma. Along with missed splenic injury and delayed rupture, the development of a splenic pseudocyst represents challenges for any multidisciplinary team involved in trauma care. Detection and management of these complications is discussed, as is postsplenectomy vaccination and return to activity. PMID:20740116

  20. Psychotherapeutic approaches with survivors of childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2002-04-01

    The development and evaluation of psychotherapeutic approaches for survivors of childhood trauma has been complicated by numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. Randomized controlled clinical trials are rare, and most of these test cognitive behavioral therapy with sexually abused children. This article reviews psychosocial (nonpharmacological) treatment approaches with child and adult survivors of childhood trauma, highlighting methodologically sound studies of treatment efficacy. Implications of efficacy data for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:11953936

  1. Trauma imaging in the thorax and abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, A.; Adler, O.

    1987-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers the radiologic diagnosis of traumatic injuries of the thorax and abdomen with special consideration given to the physical principles governing blunt, blast, and penetrating trauma and to the pathophysiology which they cause. The clinical experience forming the major data base for this book is drawn from the Ramban Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, the major trauma center for the Middle East wars.

  2. Ultrasound measurement of abdominal muscles activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing in women with and without stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Massoud Arab; Mahshid Chehrehrazi

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been reported in the literature. Considering that PFM dysfunction is present in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), altered abdominal muscle activation may also occur in incontinent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in women with

  3. Hypoadrenalism Following Trauma: Is Sepsis Always Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Ian M.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Trauma patients can exhibit the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without evidence of infection. SIRS from infection has been associated with hypoadrenalism. We hypothesized that hypoadrenalism can accompany SIRS from trauma without infection. To investigate this further, we performed a retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the ICU at our rural academic level 1 trauma center from October 2003- June 2005, with measurement of blood cortisol in the first 7 days after injury (N=33). We determined the incidence of hypoadrenalism based on serum cortisol levels and performed a univariate analysis to delineate factors associated with hypoadrenalism. Significant Findings: Twelve of 33 (36.6 %) were diagnosed with hypoadrenalism on mean ICU day 2.8. SIRS was documented in 92% of hypoadrenal patients vs. 52% of patients without hypoadrenalism (p=0.021). No patient had evidence of invasive infection. Younger age and higher ISS were also associated with hypoadrenalism. There were no gender differences identified, although most patients in the study were male. There was a trend toward higher etomidate use in the hypoadrenal group, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Trauma patients who demonstrate SIRS early in their ICU course may exhibit hypoadrenalism without infection. Younger age and higher ISS also appear to be associated with this alteration. Further study is needed to determine the true incidence of this condition, and to better delineate which trauma patients are most susceptible. PMID:19079677

  4. ATLS® and damage control in spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Oliver I; Gahr, Ralf H; Gosse, Andreas; Heyde, Christoph E

    2009-01-01

    Substantial inflammatory disturbances following major trauma have been found throughout the posttraumatic course of polytraumatized patients, which was confirmed in experimental models of trauma and in vitro settings. As a consequence, the principle of damage control surgery (DCS) has developed over the last two decades and has been successfully introduced in the treatment of severely injured patients. The aim of damage control surgery and orthopaedics (DCO) is to limit additional iatrogenic trauma in the vulnerable phase following major injury. Considering traumatic brain and acute lung injury, implants for quick stabilization like external fixators as well as decided surgical approaches with minimized potential for additional surgery-related impairment of the patient's immunologic state have been developed and used widely. It is obvious, that a similar approach should be undertaken in the case of spinal trauma in the polytraumatized patient. Yet, few data on damage control spine surgery are published to so far, controlled trials are missing and spinal injury is addressed only secondarily in the broadly used ATLS® polytrauma algorithm. This article reviews the literature on spine trauma assessment and treatment in the polytrauma setting, gives hints on how to assess the spine trauma patient regarding to the ATLS® protocol and recommendations on therapeutic strategies in spinal injury in the polytraumatized patient. PMID:19257904

  5. Regional Anesthesia in Trauma Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Janice J.; Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Regional anesthesia is an established method to provide analgesia for patients in the operating room and during the postoperative phase. While regional anesthesia offers unique advantages, as shown by the recent military experience, it is not commonly utilized in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Most often, regional anesthesia techniques for traumatized patients are first utilized in the operating room for procedural anesthesia or for postoperative pain control. While infiltration or single nerve block procedures are often used by surgeons or emergency medicine physicians in the preoperative phase, more advanced techniques such as plexus block procedures or regional catheter placements are more commonly performed by anesthesiologists for surgery or postoperative pain control. These regional techniques offer advantages over intravenous anesthesia, not just in the perioperative phase but also in the acute phase of traumatized patients and during the initial transport of injured patients. Anesthesiologists have extensive experience with regional techniques and are able to introduce regional anesthesia into settings outside the operating room and in the early treatment phases of trauma patients. PMID:22162684

  6. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  7. Evaluating initial spine trauma response: injury time to trauma center in PA, USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, James S; Ghobrial, George M; Chitale, Rohan; Krespan, Kelly; Odorizzi, Laura; Fried, Tristan; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Cohen, Murray; Vaccaro, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Historical perceptions regarding the severity of traumatic spinal cord injury has led to considerable disparity in triage to tertiary care centers. This article retrospectively reviews a large regional trauma database to analyze whether the diagnosis of spinal trauma affected patient transfer timing and patterns. The Pennsylvania Trauma database was retrospectively reviewed. All acute trauma patient entries for level I and II centers were categorized for diagnosis, mechanism, and location of injury, analyzing transportation modality and its influence on time of arrival. A total of 1162 trauma patients were identified (1014 blunt injuries, 135 penetrating injuries and 12 other) with a mean transport time of 3.9 hours and a majority of patients arriving within 7 hours (>75%). Spine trauma patients had the longest mean arrival time (5.2 hours) compared to blunt trauma (4.2 hours), cranial neurologic injuries (4.35 hours), and penetrating injuries (2.13 hours, p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant correlation between earlier arrivals and both cranial trauma (p=0.0085) and penetrating trauma (p<0.0001). The fastest modality was a fire rescue (0.93 hours) or police (0.63 hours) vehicle with Philadelphia County (1.1 hour) having the quickest arrival times. Most trauma patients arrived to a specialty center within 7 hours of injury. However subsets analysis revealed that spine trauma patients had the greatest transit times. Present research trials for spinal cord injuries suggest earlier intervention may lead to improved recovery. Therefore, it is important to focus on improvement of the transportation triage system for traumatic spinal patients. PMID:24932590

  8. Evaluation of a Porcine Dermal Collagen (Permacol) Implant for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction in a Pediatric Multitrauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mnouskin, Youri; Verdiger Kurzbart, Edna; Yoffe, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a contaminated surgical field in abdominal wall defects caused by trauma presents a challenge for surgeons. Both primary suture and synthetic meshes are strongly discouraged as surgical treatments in such cases. We describe the use of a porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) implant in an eight-year-old patient with multiple injuries. Three months after discharge, the child remains well with good cosmetic results. He is free of pain and has returned to full activity levels with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual hernia. In conclusion, our experience indicates that the use of Permacol can be considered an efficient technique for reconstructing an infected abdominal wall defect of a pediatric multitrauma patient. PMID:24839568

  9. Evaluation of a porcine dermal collagen (permacol) implant for abdominal wall reconstruction in a pediatric multitrauma patient.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Idit; Mnouskin, Youri; Verdiger Kurzbart, Edna; Yoffe, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a contaminated surgical field in abdominal wall defects caused by trauma presents a challenge for surgeons. Both primary suture and synthetic meshes are strongly discouraged as surgical treatments in such cases. We describe the use of a porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) implant in an eight-year-old patient with multiple injuries. Three months after discharge, the child remains well with good cosmetic results. He is free of pain and has returned to full activity levels with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual hernia. In conclusion, our experience indicates that the use of Permacol can be considered an efficient technique for reconstructing an infected abdominal wall defect of a pediatric multitrauma patient. PMID:24839568

  10. Case report highlighting how wound path identification on CT can help identify organ damage in abdominal blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tatjana V; Folio, Les R; Backus, Christopher E; Bunger, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Penetrating trauma is frequently encountered in forward deployed military combat hospitals. Abdominal blast injuries represent nearly 11% of combat injuries, and multiplanar computed tomography imaging is optimal for injury assessment and surgical planning. We describe a multiplanar approach to assessment of blast and ballistic injuries, which allows for more expeditious detection of missile tracts and damage caused along the path. Precise delineation of the trajectory path and localization of retained fragments enables time-saving and detailed evaluation of associated tissue and vascular injury. For consistent and reproducible documentation of fragment locations in the body, we propose a localization scheme based on Cartesian coordinates to report 3-dimensional locations of fragments and demonstrating the application in three cases of abdominal blast injury. PMID:22338990

  11. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  12. Delayed presentation of a lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm resulting from isolated penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Counihan, M.; Pontell, M.E.; Selvan, B.; Trebelev, A.; Nunez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysms are infrequent complications of penetrating trauma. When present, they are often accompanied by other injuries; however, we report the case of an isolated traumatic lumbar artery aneurysm resulting from a single knife stab. The lesion was successfully treated with endovascular microcoil embolization. While these injuries are uncommon, the surgeon must maintain a high index of suspicion, even with seemingly uncomplicated injuries, as a missed traumatic pseudoaneurysm may be life threatening. PMID:26178424

  13. A multicenter randomized comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy in abdominal hysterectomy candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Summitt; Thomas G Stovall; John F Steege; Gary H Lipscomb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy among patients who are not eligible for vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Study subjects were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or standard abdominal hysterectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative management was similar for each group. Surgical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay, charges, and convalescence were analyzed.Results:

  14. Exploration of the role of attachment in the relationship between trauma and distress in psychosis 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Lucy Victoria

    2013-07-02

    Background: Attachment literature indicates attachment status is related to trauma with associations between early trauma and insecure attachment. Links between psychosis and trauma have been established within the ...

  15. Potentially perilous pedagogies: teaching trauma is not the same as trauma-informed teaching.

    PubMed

    Carello, Janice; Butler, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why and how trauma theory and research are currently used in higher education in nonclinical courses such as literature, women's studies, film, education, anthropology, cultural studies, composition, and creative writing. In these contexts, traumatic material is presented not only indirectly in the form of texts and films that depict traumatic events but also directly in the form of what is most commonly referred to in nonclinical disciplines as trauma studies, cultural trauma studies, and critical trauma studies. Within these areas of study, some instructors promote potentially risky pedagogical practices involving trauma exposure or disclosure despite indications that these may be having deleterious effects. After examining the published rationales for such methods, we argue that given the high rates of trauma histories (66%-85%), posttraumatic stress disorder (9%-12%), and other past event-related distress among college students, student risk of retraumatization and secondary traumatization should be decreased rather than increased. To this end, we propose that a trauma-informed approach to pedagogy-one that recognizes these risks and prioritizes student emotional safety in learning-is essential, particularly in classes in which trauma theories or traumatic experiences are taught or disclosed. PMID:24313321

  16. Trauma Deserts: Distance From a Trauma Center, Transport Times, and Mortality From Gunshot Wounds in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Douglas; Unger, Erin; Straus, David; Brasel, Karen; Hsia, Renee; Esposito, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether urban patients who suffered gunshot wounds (GSWs) farther from a trauma center would have longer transport times and higher mortality. Methods. We used the Illinois State Trauma Registry (1999–2009). Scene address data for Chicago-area GSWs was geocoded to calculate distance to the nearest trauma center and compare prehospital transport times. We used multivariate regression to calculate the effect on mortality of being shot more than 5 miles from a trauma center. Results. Of 11?744 GSW patients during the study period, 4782 were shot more than 5 miles from a trauma center. Mean transport time and unadjusted mortality were higher for these patients (P?trauma center was associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio?=?1.23; 95% confidence interval?=?1.02, 1.47; P?=?.03). Conclusions. Relative “trauma deserts” with decreased access to immediate care were found in certain areas of Chicago and adversely affected mortality from GSWs. These results may inform decisions about trauma systems planning and funding. PMID:23597339

  17. Emotional Reactions During and After Trauma: A Comparison of Trauma Types

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Vernon, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Peri- and posttraumatic emotional responses have been understudied, and furthermore, have rarely been compared among trauma types. The current study compared college students’ retrospective self-reports of peri- and posttraumatic responses of fear, shame, guilt, anger, and sadness among four types of traumatic events: sexual assault, physical assault, transportation accident, and illness/injury. Overall emotional responding was generally high for all trauma types, and for those in the sexual assault group, emotion increased sharply from the peri- to posttraumatic time-point. Generally, fear was higher during the trauma compared to after the trauma, whereas the other emotions tended to remain stable or increase posttrauma. The sexual assault group tended to report higher levels of posttrauma emotion than the other trauma type groups. PMID:20046534

  18. Is it possible to derive a reliable estimate of human visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from simple anthropometric measurements?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo Bonora; Rocco Micciolo; Abraham A. Ghiatas; Jack L. Lancaster; Abdalmajed Alyassin; Michele Muggeo; Ralph A. Defronzo

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to generate equations predicting visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue (AT) from simple anthropometric measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure VAT and SAT cross-sectional areas at the level of L4 in 49 subjects (19 men and 30 women) with a large range of age and body mass index (BMI).

  19. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  20. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  1. Indexes of severity: underlying concepts--a reply.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, B; Zador, P; Baker, S P

    1979-01-01

    A recent paper on the concepts underlying six indexes of severity that have been proposed for health services research claimed to identify deficiencies in each. A close examination reveals that the criticisms are generally without substance, and that the claim that the indexes "violate some of the principles implied by their formulation" is in error. Most of the objections apparently stem from fundamental confusion concerning the use of such indexes. Two of the indexes in question, the Abbreviated Injury Scale AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS), have been validated and are being used widely both in the United States and elsewhere as the principal descriptors of trauma in motor vehicle crashes. The use of these indexes has contributed significantly to motor vehicle crash research and to the improvements in vehicles and highways that are reducing the trauma resulting from such crashes. PMID:468554

  2. The role of abdominal compliance, the neglected parameter in critically ill patients - a consensus review of 16. Part 1: definitions and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Roberts, Derek J; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Sugrue, Michael; Schachtrupp, Alexander; Duchesne, Juan; Van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; De Keulenaer, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Mulier, Jan; Ivatury, Rao; Pracca, Francisco; Wise, Robert; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, increasing attention has been paid to understanding the pathophysiology, aetiology, prognosis, and treatment of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in trauma, surgical, and medical patients. However, there is presently a relatively poor understanding of intra-abdominal volume (IAV) and the relationship between IAV and IAP (i.e. abdominal compliance). Consensus definitions on Cab were discussed during the 5th World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and a writing committee was formed to develop this article. During the writing process, a systematic and structured Medline and PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant studies relating to the topic. According to the recently updated consensus definitions of the World Society on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS), abdominal compliance (Cab) is defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, which is determined by the elasticity of the abdominal wall and diaphragm. It should be expressed as the change in IAV per change in IAP (mL [mm Hg]?ą). Importantly, Cab is measured differently than IAP and the abdominal wall (and its compliance) is only a part of the total abdominal pressure-volume (PV) relationship. During an increase in IAV, different phases are encountered: the reshaping, stretching, and pressurisation phases. The first part of this review article starts with a comprehensive list of the different definitions related to IAP (at baseline, during respiratory variations, at maximal IAV), IAV (at baseline, additional volume, abdominal workspace, maximal and unadapted volume), and abdominal compliance and elastance (i.e. the relationship between IAV and IAP). An historical background on the pathophysiology related to IAP, IAV and Cab follows this. Measurement of Cab is difficult at the bedside and can only be done in a case of change (removal or addition) in IAV. The Cab is one of the most neglected parameters in critically ill patients, although it plays a key role in understanding the deleterious effects of unadapted IAV on IAP and end-organ perfusion. The definitions presented herein will help to understand the key mechanisms in relation to Cab and clinical conditions and should be used for future clinical and basic science research. Specific measurement methods, guidelines and recommendations for clinical management of patients with low Cab are published in a separate review. PMID:25432558

  3. [In-hospitaltraumamanagement - trauma suite diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Wolfschmidt, Franziska; Dierks, Alexander; Wurmb, Thomas; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Whole-body CT is considered gold standard for diagnosis of the multiple injured patient in the trauma suite. So far, no guidelines exist concerning its indication. The trauma team (Trauma Surgery/Visceral Surgery, Anaesthesiology, Radiology) should use standardized triage-criteria for the indication of whole-body CT. The radiologist is responsible for its individual planning, taking clinical and morphological imaging results into consideration, embedding its implementation between assessment and treatment stage. Fast image analysis by an experienced radiologist (specialist or at least 3 years professional experience) as well as interdisciplinary discussion of all findings is essential. The increased importance of endovascular minimally invasive therapy strategies in the treatment of active bleeding or laceration of solid organs may require the consultation of an interventional radiologist as part of the extended trauma team. In addition to CT, a modern trauma suite should be equipped with conventional x-rays and ultrasound in order to comply with a conventional algorithm consisting of sonography, plain film radiography and region specific CT for diagnosis of less severely injured patients. In children, specific attention must be paid to radiation protection. In these cases, modalities without radiation exposure (ultrasound, MRI) play a major role. Detecting all relevant injuries and evolving a therapy strategy in compliance with aspects of radiation protection (ALARA-principle) and legal guidelines (justifiying indication) during the 'golden hour of shock' should be the aim. PMID:25238013

  4. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  5. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  6. Combined myocardial revascularization and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Hinkamp, T J; Pifarre, R; Bakhos, M; Blakeman, B

    1991-03-01

    Myocardial infarction remains the leading cause of early and late deaths after abdominal aortic reconstruction in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our approach for the past 4 years has been combined myocardial revascularization with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with good left ventricle performance. From July 1984 through June 1989, 128 patients underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Seventeen patients underwent combined abdominal aortic reconstruction with coronary artery bypass grafting. One patient died (5.9%). The remaining patients are all well at current follow-up. Our experience shows that patients with coronary artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm may have both lesions safely repaired as a single operative procedure. PMID:1998428

  7. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Thomas, Kristen B; Harned, Roger K; Wu, Sarah R; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. PMID:16151789

  8. Recurrent abdominal pain: a psychogenic disorder?

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, P J; Goodman, J T; Firestone, P; Shipman, R; Peters, S

    1983-01-01

    A controlled study of 30 children with recurrent abdominal pain and 30 pain free children failed to show any statistically significant differences between the groups on a variety of psychological variables thought to be associated with psychogenicity. A psychogenic basis has often been assumed as the cause in diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain when clinical examination and laboratory tests show no organic or medical reason. We emphasise that establishing a psychogenic cause is only indicated where there is positive evidence for psychological factors such as family or school stress, extreme personality characteristics, or modelling of family pain behaviour. PMID:6651325

  9. Successful repair of pediatric popliteal artery trauma.

    PubMed

    Reed, M K; Lowry, P A; Myers, S I

    1990-09-01

    Limb salvage after popliteal artery trauma in children demands the best in judgement and technique from the vascular or trauma surgeon. From September 1, 1985, through August 30, 1988, seven patients under age 18 were referred to our Center with popliteal arterial trauma. Four had blunt injuries and three had penetrating injuries. Associated injuries included three fractures, four severe soft tissue wounds, and one nerve injury. All patients underwent angiography, four preoperative and three intraoperative. Treatment included two primary repairs, four vein graft bypasses, and one fasciotomy and intraoperative angiography. Anastomoses were spatulated and sutured in an interrupted fashion. There were no deaths, amputations, or reoperations. At 10 to 42 months after repair, all patients have normal Doppler pressures and/or distal pulses. This study is the largest reported series of these challenging injuries. Contrasting with previous reports, it suggests that with prompt, aggressive treatment, a successful outcome may be anticipated. PMID:2393057

  10. Outcomes after severe trauma at a northern Canadian regional trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David M.; Hicks, Glenda; Bota, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate outcomes of trauma patients at a northern community trauma referral centre that does not meet several of the guidelines for a trauma centre. Design A retrospective study. Setting Sudbury General Hospital in northern Ontario. Participants All trauma patients admitted between 1991 and 1994 who had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12. Outcome measures Actual survival to discharge was compared to survival predicted by TRISS analysis. Z, W and M scores were calculated by standard TRISS techniques. Results Of 526 patients with an ISS greater than 12, 416 (79%) were suitable for TRISS analysis. Of these 416 patients, 310 (74%) were men. The mean age was 39 years. Two hundred and sixty-one (63%) patients were admitted directly to the Sudbury General Hospital, whereas 155 (37%) were transferred from other hospitals. The leading causes of injury were motor vehicle–traffic accidents in 48%, motor vehicle–nontraffic in 21% and falls in 8%. Overall, there were more unexpected survivors than patients who died. The Z score for survivors was 4.95, and the W score was 5.66. Conclusions In the setting of a geographically isolated, medium-volume trauma centre where blunt injuries predominate, excellent trauma survival can be achieved without meeting all trauma centre guidelines for staffing and facilities. Relaxing stringent requirements for the availability of physicians may facilitate surgical recruitment and retention. PMID:9492748

  11. Abdominal implantation of testicles in the management of intractable testicular pain in Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cyrus C; Shahrour, Khaled; Collier, Ronald D; Welch, Marlene; Chang, Shiliang; Williams, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection involving the superficial and fascial planes of the perineum. In many cases of FG, debridement of the scrotum is necessary, leaving definitive management of the exposed testicles a significant surgical challenge. Frequent incidental trauma to the testicles can cause severe pain, especially in laborers. Practical surgical solutions are few and not well detailed. Various options exist, including creating a neoscrotum with adjacent thigh tissue, split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs), or even creating a subcutaneous thigh pocket. We describe a case of abdominal implantation of bilateral testicles for persistent testicular pain in a case where STSGs did not provide adequate protection, adjacent thigh skin was not available for creation of a neoscrotum, and significant cord contracture occurred. We detail the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly described techniques, including this approach, and how in select individuals this may be a suitable alternative. PMID:24229025

  12. Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Junginger; Kaven Baessler; Ruth Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  Although the bladder neck is elevated during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction, it descends during straining. This study\\u000a aimed to investigate the relationship between bladder neck displacement, electromyography (EMG) activity of the pelvic floor\\u000a and abdominal muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during different pelvic floor and abdominal contractions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine women without PFM dysfunction performed maximal, gentle and

  13. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    The modern era for splenic surgery for injury began in 1892 when Riegner reported a splenectomy in a 14-year-old construction worker who fell from a height and presented with abdominal pain, distension, tachycardia, and oliguria. This report set the stage for routine splenectomy, which was performed for all splenic injury in the next two generations. Despite early reports by Pearce and by Morris and Bullock that splenectomy in animals caused impaired defenses against infection, little challenge to routine splenectomy was made until King and Schumacker in 1952 reported a syndrome of "overwhelming postsplenectomy infection" (OPSI). Many studies have since demonstrated the importance of the spleen in preventing infections, particularly from the encapsulated organisms. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection occurs in about 0.6% of children and 0.3% of adults. Intraoperative splenic salvage has become more popular and can be achieved safely in most patients by delivering the spleen with the pancreas to the incision, carefully repairing the spleen under direct vision, and using the many adjuncts to suture repair, including hemostatic agents and splenic wrapping. Intraoperative splenic salvage is not indicated in patients actively bleeding from other organs or in the presence of alcoholic cirrhosis. The role of splenic replantation in those patients requiring operative splenectomy needs further study but may provide significant long-term splenic function. Although nonoperative splenic salvage was first suggested more than 100 years ago by Billroth, this modality did not become popular in children until the 1960s or in adults until the latter 1980s. Patients with intrasplenic hematomas or with splenic fractures that do not extend to the hilum as judged by computed tomography usually can be observed successfully without operative intervention and without blood transfusion. Nonoperative splenic salvage is less likely with fractures that involve the splenic hilum and with the severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  14. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  15. Contemporary management of blunt aortic trauma.

    PubMed

    Dubose, J J; Azizzadeh, A; Estrera, A L; Safi, H J

    2015-10-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a common cause of death following blunt mechanisms of trauma. Among patients who survive to reach hospital care, significant advances in diagnosis and treatment afford previously unattainable survival. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) guidelines provide current best-evidence suggestions for treatment of BTAI. However, several key areas of controversy regarding optimal BTAI care remain. These include the refinement of selection criteria, timing for treatment and the need for long-term follow-up data. In addition, the advent of the Aortic Trauma Foundation (ATF) represents an important development in collaborative research in this field. PMID:25868973

  16. Myocardial Ischemia with Penetrating Thoracic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Elms, Andrew R.; Wong, Garret; Wisner, David; Bair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating trauma is a rare cause of myocardial infarction. Our report describes a 47-year-old female who presented with a gunshot wound from a shotgun and had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The patient received emergent coronary angiography, which demonstrated no evidence of coronary atherosclerotic disease but did show occlusion of a marginal vessel secondary to a pellet. The patient was managed medically for the myocardial infarction without cardiac sequelae. Patients with penetrating trauma to the chest should be evaluated for myocardial ischemia. Electrocardiography, echocardiography and cardiac angiography play vital roles in evaluating these patients and helping to guide management. PMID:21691532

  17. Trauma and addiction: implications for helping professionals.

    PubMed

    Cross, Chad L; Ashley, Larry

    2007-01-01

    (1) Helping professionals and first responders often experience stressful and traumatic incidents on a daily basis, and sometimes several times per day. (2) Research in addictions suggests an important link between traumatic experiences and the potential for addiction. (3) The idea of self-medicating to cope with stress and trauma is common not only in patients but also in helping professionals and first responders. (4) Treatment of substance-related disorders, trauma disorders, and stress responses share an important common consideration--immediacy. PMID:17304983

  18. Anorectal avulsion: an exceptional rectal trauma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anorectal avulsion is an exceptional rectal trauma in which the anus and sphincter no longer join the perineum and are pulled upward. As a result, they ventrally follow levator ani muscles. We present a rare case of a 29-years old patient who was admitted in a pelvic trauma context; presenting a complete complex anorectal avulsion. The treatment included a primary repair of the rectum and a diverting colostomy so as to prevent sepsis. Closure of the protective sigmoidostomy was performed seven months after the accident and the evolution was marked by an anal stenosis requiring iterative dilatations. PMID:24094142

  19. Assessment of maxillofacial trauma in emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence and epidemiological causes of maxillofacial (MF) trauma varies widely. The objective of this study is to point out maxillofacial trauma patients’ epidemiological properties and trauma patterns with simultaneous injuries in different areas of the body that may help emergency physicians to deliver more accurate diagnosis and decisions. Methods In this study we analyze etiology and pattern of MF trauma and coexisting injuries if any, in patients whose maxillofacial CT scans was obtained in a three year period, retrospectively. Results 754 patients included in the study consisting of 73.7% male and 26.3% female, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Mean age was 40.3?±?17.2 years with a range of 18 to 97. 57.4% of the patients were between the ages of 18–39 years and predominantly male. Above 60 years of age, referrals were mostly woman. The most common cause of injuries were violence, accounting for 39.7% of the sample, followed by falls 27.9% and road traffic accidents 27.2%. The primary cause of injuries were violence between ages 20 and 49 and falls after 50. Bone fractures found in 56,0% of individuals. Of the total of 701 fractured bones in 422 patients the most frequent was maxillary bone 28,0% followed by nasal bone 25,3%, zygoma 20,2%, mandible 8,4%, frontal bone 8,1% and nasoethmoidoorbital bone 3,1%. Fractures to maxillary bone were uppermost in each age group. 8, 9% of the patients had brain injury and only frontal fractures is significantly associated to TBI (p?trauma patients was violence (47, 8%). 158 of the 754 patients had consumed alcohol before trauma. No statistically significant data were revealed between alcohol consumption gender and presence of fracture. Violence is statistically significant (p?traumas yield various etiologic factors, demographic properties and fracture patterns probably due to social, cultural and governmental differences. Young males subjected to maxillofacial trauma more commonly as a result of interpersonal violence. PMID:24484727

  20. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  1. Systematic review on the association of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Najafi, Hananeh; Keikha, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse health effects of abdominal obesity are well documented in adults, but such association remains to be determined in the pediatric age group. This study aims to perform a systematic review on the association between abdominal obesity and cardio-metabolic factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia among children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to May 2014. Two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps. After studying the titles and texts of documents, repeated and irrelevant ones were excluded. The search was refined to the English language. We did not consider any time limitation. Studies with different measuring methods of abdominal obesity were included. Studies with abdominal obese patients secondary to other disease were excluded from the study. In final, the data of association of cardio-metabolic risk factors and abdominal obesity extracted from studies. Results: Overall, 3966 articles were reviewed, and 61 of them were studied according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio were the most common indexes used for defining abdominal obesity. The association of high blood pressure with increasing WC was seen in several studies. The association of other cardio-metabolic risk factors was seen in some studies. Conclusion: Whatever the definition used for abdominal obesity and whatever the methods used for anthropometric measurements, central body fat deposition in children and adolescents increases the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Therefore, more attention should be paid to abdominal obesity of children and adolescents both in clinical practice and in epidemiological studies.

  2. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  8. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges; Kristen B. Thomas; Roger K. Harned; Sarah R. Wu; Rebecca Stein-Wexler; John D. Strain

    2005-01-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian

  9. Intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antón-Pacheco; J. Cuadros; I. Cano; A. Gomez; F. Echavarri

    1995-01-01

    A left-upper-quadrant abdominal mass was identified in a routine ultrasound (US) examination in the 16th week of gestation. The sonographic features were those of a homogeneous, hyperechogenic lesion situated between the diaphragm and the left kidney. Other radiologic examinations (CT, MRI) confirmed the mass, but a presumptive diagnosis could not be made. The lesion was excised and histologic examination demonstrated

  10. Abdominoplasty repair for abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J Douglas; de la Torre, Jorge I; Gardner, Paul M; Grant, John H; Fix, R Jobe; Vásconez, Luis O

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of abdominal hernial repair are to reconstruct the structural integrity of the abdominal wall while minimizing morbidity. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair, and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. By incorporating these aspects into hernial repairs, the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. The medical records were reviewed of 123 consecutive patients who underwent hernial repair. Seventy-six of these patients underwent a total of 82 herniorrhaphies using an abdominoplasty approach. This included using a transverse lower abdominal incision with or without extending it into an inverted-T incision. The hernial defect was then identified and isolated. Repair was obtained with primary fascial closure and plication, primary fascial approximation and reinforcement with absorbable Vicryl mesh, or placement of permanent mesh with or without fascial approximation. Overall, 8 of 82 hernias recurred. Most complications were minor and could be managed with local wound care only. Major complications included one enterocutaneous fistula, one occurrence of skin flap necrosis requiring operative debridement and skin grafting, and one delayed permanent mesh extrusion 2 years after repair. The abdominoplasty approach isolates the incision from the hernial defect and repair. This technique is safe with a low risk of complications and a low rate of recurrence. It is particularly helpful in obese patients, in patients with multiple hernias, and in those patients with recurrent hernias. PMID:12838119

  11. Segmentation of male abdominal fat using MRI

    E-print Network

    for the automatic and robust segmentation of adipose tissue in the abdominal region of human men. The segmentation is done into 3 classes: subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue and other tissue. The MRI of adipose tissue into the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue classes is done using

  12. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tungshevinsirikul, R; Charutragulchai, P; Khunpradit, S; Herabutya, Y

    1990-02-01

    A 37-year-old, gravida 5 with 41 weeks of gestation was admitted because of slight vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and absence of fetal movements for a few days. Previously she had been admitted to a provincial hospital with sudden severe abdominal pain and fainting at the second month of her pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy was suspected. She was discharged the following morning, after all signs and symptoms had completely disappeared without any special investigation. On her last admission all clinical examinations were normal but fetal heart sound was absent. The cervix was closed and uneffaced. Abdominal X-ray showed signs of fetal death. Sonography confirmed a dead fetus in utero but with placenta previa totalis. A laparotomy was performed. A macerated female fetus, weighting 3,800 g was found in the amniotic sac lying in the abdominal cavity. The placenta was attached to the dorsal surface of her abdomen close to the large intestine and the omentum; the entire placenta was untouched and left in the peritoneal cavity. There were no postoperative complications. She recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. PMID:2351905

  13. [Ultrasonic aspects of abdominal abscesses and hematomas].

    PubMed

    Weill, F; Eisenscher, A; Bourgoin, A; Aucant, D; Camelot, G

    1976-12-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography often enables to display the fluid collection of an abcess or haematoma. This type of diagnostic procedure is most useful in a post-operative period. The intestinal gases which stop the ultrasonic beam may be responsible for diagnostic failures. Positive results, which are the most frequent, are never the less precious to assess and decide a treatment policy. PMID:1026726

  14. Duplex surveillance of abdominal aortic stent grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie L. Johnson; Ronald L. Dalman

    2001-01-01

    Aortic stent grafting is gaining acceptance rapidly as a durable and effective alternative to open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Unlike follow-up after open surgical procedures, postplacement surveillance protocols are necessary to ensure long-term freedom from device failure or aneurysm rupture. Surveillance protocols incorporating duplex scanning are effective and may reduce overall postplacement expenses. Specific device or patient anatomic

  15. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Timothy Baxter; Michael C. Terrin; Ronald L. Dalman

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of

  16. Abdominal symptoms: do they disappear after cholecystectomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Berger; T. C. olde Hartman; A. M. Bohnen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones on preoperative abdominal symptoms. Methods: A systematic search was made of the Medline database in combination with reference checking. Articles were excluded if patients aged Results: The pooled relief rate for “biliary pain” was high 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 96%). Symptom relief rates were consistently higher in

  17. Early Feeding After a Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Flesher; Brenda Wagner; Lyn Jones

    Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). This descriptive study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 164 patients who had been on a clinical pathway following TAH. Comparisons in initiation of fluids and foods, and gastrointestinal effects were made

  18. The Increase of Intra-Abdominal Pressure Can Affect Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ece, Ilhan; Vatansev, Celalettin; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Okka, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to explore the usage of intraocular pressure measurements as the early indicator of the increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Methods. In this prospective study, 40 patients undergoing elective surgery were included. Patients were divided into four groups of 10 patients. The control group (Group C) was not subjected to laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopic surgery was, respectively, performed with an intra-abdominal pressure of 9, 12, and 15?mmHg in Groups L (low), M (medium), and H (high pressure). Intraocular pressure was measured binocularly in each patient at three different times (before, during, and end of surgery) using a contact tonometer. Results. Patients' gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and operative times were not different among the groups. No complications occurred with either the surgery or measurement of intraocular pressure. Intubation was associated with a severe rise in IOP (P < 0.05). An increase in intraocular pressure was seen in groups M and H (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Intraocular pressure was increased in the groups with an intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mmHg or more. Measuring the intraocular pressure might be a useful method to estimate the intra-abdominal pressure. This trial is registered with NCT02319213. PMID:25648230

  19. Human thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues: Damage experiments, statistical analysis and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Maier, Franz; Weisbecker, Hannah; Viertler, Christian; Verbrugghe, Peter; Famaey, Nele; Fourneau, Inge; Herijgers, Paul; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-01-01

    Development of aortic aneurysms includes significant morphological changes within the tissue: collagen content increases, elastin content reduces and smooth muscle cells degenerate. We seek to quantify the impact of these changes on the passive mechanical response of aneurysms in the supra-physiological loading range via mechanical testing and constitutive modeling. We perform uniaxial extension tests on circumferentially and axially oriented strips from five thoracic (65.6 years ± 13.4, mean ± SD) and eight abdominal (63.9 years ± 11.4) aortic fusiform aneurysms to investigate both continuous and discontinuous softening during supra-physiological loading. We determine the significance of the differences between the fitted model parameters: diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, and healthy (Weisbecker et al., J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 12, 93-106, 2012) versus diseased tissues. We also test correlations among these parameters and age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and preoperative aneurysm diameter, and investigate histological cuts. Tissue response is anisotropic for all tests and the anisotropic pseudo-elastic damage model fits the data well for both primary loading and discontinuous softening which we interpret as damage. We found statistically relevant differences between model parameters fitted to diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, as well as between those fitted to healthy versus diseased tissues. Only BMI correlated with fitted model parameters in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues. PMID:25460406

  20. Eleven Years of Liver Trauma: The Scottish Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Scollay; Diana Beard; Rik Smith; Dermot McKeown; O. James Garden; Rowan W. Parks

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this population based study was to assess the incidence, mechanisms, management, and outcome of patients who sustained hepatic trauma in Scotland (population 5 million) over the period 1992–2002. The Scottish Trauma Audit Group database was searched for details of any patient with liver trauma. Data on identified patients were analyzed for demographic information, mechanisms of injury, associated

  1. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  2. Addressing the unique and trauma-related needs of

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    in brain development can result from infant and toddler trauma exposure? 10 4 How does poverty exacerbate, and Goal 2 is to build capacity through developing a System of Care for early childhood in Florida and Background 3 Section 1 Psychological Trauma for the Infant or Toddler 1 What is trauma for infants

  3. Trauma, Binge Eating, and the "Strong Black Woman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ellen F.; Crowther, Janis H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to test a culturally specific model of binge eating in African American female trauma survivors, investigating potential mechanisms through which trauma exposure and distress were related to binge eating symptomatology. Method: Participants were 179 African American female trauma survivors who…

  4. Understanding Attrition in Sexuai Assauit: Do Trauma Memory and

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Paper (a joint project with the Maddox (2008) study, "The Role of Shame, Self-Blame and PTSD in Trauma Memory 35 Summary: Trauma Memory Formation and Retrieval 36 PTSD 37 Re-experiencing Symptoms 38 Prevalence of PTSD 39 Risk Factors 40 Theories of PTSD 41 Summary: PTSD 44 How may Trauma Memory and Post

  5. Prehospital Intubations and Mortality: A Level 1 Trauma Center Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Cobas; Maria Alejandra De la Peńa; Ronald Manning; Keith Candiotti; Albert J. Varon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ryder Trauma Center is a Level 1 trauma center with approximately 3800 emergency admissions per year. In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of failed prehospital intubations (PHI), its correlation with hospital mortality, and possible risk factors associated with PHI. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted evaluating trauma patients who had emergency prehospital airway management and

  6. Use of prehospital fluids in hypotensive blunt trauma patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Dula; G. Craig Wood; Abbey R. Rejmer; Michael Starr; Michael Leicht

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To compare the outcomes of blunt trauma victims with systolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg who received prehospital fluids with the outcomes of those who did not receive prehospital fluids. Methods. This matched-pairs case-control study used records of blunt trauma patients with scene systolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg obtained from the Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation. Patients who received

  7. Posterior cruciate ligament injuries in trauma patients: Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Fanelli; Craig J. Edson

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the incidence of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries in trauma patients with acute hemarthrosis of the knee. There were 222 acute knee injuries with hemarthrosis presented to our regional trauma center over a 38-month period. PCL injuries occurred in 38% (85 of 222) acute knee injuries; 56.5% (48 of 85) were trauma

  8. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  9. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

  10. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of unusual congenital abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Schnur, Jessica; Dolgin, Stephen; Vohra, Nidhi; Soffer, Samuel; Glick, Richard

    2008-02-01

    We report three cases of unusual skin covered abdominal wall defects not accurately diagnosed by prenatal sonography. An associated omphalocele was recognized in two but misinterpreted as a giant omphalocele in one. Suspicious sonographic features--an enlarged abdominal circumference, irregular laxity of the abdominal--may be clarified by MRI. PMID:18240083

  11. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  12. Abdominal Ultrasonography as Related to Problems of the Chest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Beckh; K. Kirchpfening

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal sonography represents one of the basic imaging procedures in diagnosing internal diseases. Thanks to bedside equipment examinations can be done in critically ill patients easily and quickly. Abdominal organs such as liver or spleen serve as acoustic windows for imaging of chest diseases. The diaphragm, the pleura and the lower parts of the lung are visible from the abdominal

  13. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  14. Rib fracture patterns predict thoracic chest wall and abdominal solid organ injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassani, Ammar; Abdulrahman, Husham; Afifi, Ibrahim; Almadani, Ammar; Al-Den, Ahmed; Al-Kuwari, Abdulaziz; Recicar, John; Nabir, Syed; Maull, Kimball I

    2010-08-01

    Blunt trauma patients with rib fractures were studied to determine whether the number of rib fractures or their patterns were more predictive of abdominal solid organ injury and/or other thoracic trauma. Rib fractures were characterized as upper zone (ribs 1 to 4), midzone (ribs 5 to 8), and lower zone (ribs 9 to 12). Findings of sternal and scapular fractures, pulmonary contusions, and solid organ injures (liver, spleen, kidney) were characterized by the total number and predominant zone of ribs fractured. There were 296 men and 14 women. There were 38 patients with scapular fracture and 19 patients with sternal fractures. There were 90 patients with 116 solid organ injuries: liver (n = 42), kidney (n = 27), and spleen (n = 47). Lower rib fractures, whether zone-limited or overlapping, were highly predictive of solid organ injury when compared with upper and midzones. Scapular and sternal fractures were more common with upper zone fractures and pulmonary contusions increased with the number of fractured ribs. Multiple rib fractures involving the lower ribs have a high association with solid organ injury, 51 per cent in this series. The increasing number of rib fractures enhanced the likelihood of other chest wall and pulmonary injuries but did not affect the incidence of solid organ injury. PMID:20726423

  15. Genital trauma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Diane F

    2008-06-01

    Traumatic wounds of the female genitalia include accidental straddle injuries or impalement, chemical or thermal burns, insufflation injuries, blunt trauma, or crush injuries. Children and adolescents may be victims of rape, sexual abuse, and female genital mutilation. Information is provided on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Treatment guidelines are offered using the best evidence available, and recommendations are provided when data are limited. PMID:18463455

  16. Advanced Trauma Life Support aboard RFA Argus.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, G L; Taylor, R H

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system was adopted for casualty reception and resuscitation. ATLS permitted well-informed triage decisions to be made, coupled with appropriate initial, possibly life-saving, treatment. The training given on board has continued to benefit patients treated by ex-Argus staff in their peacetime roles. PMID:1453364

  17. Year in review 2008: Critical Care - trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery C Metzger; Alexander L Eastman; Paul E Pepe

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Eleven papers on trauma published in Critical Care during 2008 addressed traumatic brain injury (TBI), burns, diagnostic concerns and immunosuppression. In regard to TBI, preliminary results indicate the utility of either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound in measuring optic nerve sheath diameter to identify elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) as well as the potential benefit of thiopental for refractory

  18. American Indian Youth: Current and Historical Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolores Subia BigFoot

    2007-01-01

    The impact of current and historical trauma on American Indian and Alaska Native(AI\\/AN) youth can not be fully understood without a careful retrospective study of the multiple layers that undermined the social and emotional fabric that once supported intact American Indian and Alaskan Native families. A brief review on federal policy is necessary to build an understanding of the complexity

  19. Young Children and Trauma: Intervention and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in knowledge about the effects of exposure to psychological trauma on young children from birth to age 5. This volume brings together leading experts to address practical considerations in working with traumatized young children and their caregivers. State-of-the-art assessment and treatment approaches…

  20. Blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma practice

    PubMed Central

    Tayara, Bader Kamal; Al-Faraidy, Moaad Hatim; Al-Sayel, Faisal Abdullah; Al-Omran, Abdallah S; Sadat-Ali, Mir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Very little is known about blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma surgery and there is no definite policy in this regard. Our objective is to perform an audit on our practice of blood utilization in the orthopedic department. Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who were admitted between January 2011 and December 2012 to the orthopedic male, female and pediatric wards for which blood products were requested. Results: Three hundred and eight patients were admitted for surgery during the study period. The average age was 35.12 ± 20.4 years and postsurgery they stayed in the hospital for 25.60 ± 10.5 days. Blood products were requested for 223 trauma surgeries. In elective orthopedic procedures, only 42.78% of the blood requested was utilized while in trauma patients it was 55.25%. Conclusions: A substantial amount of blood and its product was used in trauma and elective orthopedic surgeries. There was a major discrepancy between the blood requested and utilized and secondly in the majority single unit transfusion was utilized, which is not within the fundamentals of blood transfusion.

  1. The concept and treatment of psychological trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kudler, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large and rapidly expanding literature on psychological trauma, many fundamental questions remain about its basic nature: Is it a psychological problem or a biological one?; Is it a past event somehow stuck in the present or is it something new which has been triggered and shaped by that event?; Does it reside only within the patient or does it live between the patient and other people (including within the therapeutic relationship)? This presentation will review the history of the concept of psychological trauma and explore the theoretical bases for current evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD, each of which will be shown to describe psychological trauma as a problem in bringing the past and the present together in memory and cognition. These theories primarily differ on the question of whether a traumatic memory becomes pathogenic, because it cannot be biologically processed or because it must be psychologically avoided. Psychoanalytic concepts of transference and countertransference will be shown to be of practical importance regardless of the type of treatment chosen. If researchers and clinicians can build on what they hold in common rather than become divided by their differences, we can improve our ability to understand and alleviate the effects of psychological trauma. PMID:25511719

  2. Nutrition support of the trauma patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter L Biffl; Ernest E Moore; James B Haenel

    2002-01-01

    Hypercatabolism after trauma may lead to acute protein malnutrition, ultimately resulting in multiple organ failure. Nutrition support may prevent this sequence. This review addresses the need for early nutrition support, the preferred route of substrate delivery, and the potential advantages of “immune-enhancing” diets.

  3. Dexmedetomidine in Trauma Anesthesiology and Critical Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Tobias

    Learning Objectives: The participant will be familiar with the cellular mechanism of action of dexmedetomidine, its physiologic effects, and its potential applications in the field of trauma anesthesiology and critical care medicine. Abstract Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) is an ?2-adrenergic agonist that is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the short-term (<24 hours) sedation of adult patients in the

  4. Military Sexual Trauma Research: A Proposed Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn B. Allard; Sarah Nunnink; Amber M. Gregory; Bridget Klest; Melissa Platt

    2011-01-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is a widespread problem associated with negative psychological and physical health problems. This article presents the current state of MST research and highlights specific areas in need of more focused study. Areas that have produced the greatest body of knowledge include MST prevalence and psychological and physical health correlates. We propose a research agenda based on

  5. [Trauma to the colon in civilian surgery].

    PubMed

    Chanson, C; Nassiopoulos, K; Kiesler, P; Petropoulos, P

    1998-01-01

    There is nowadays no current randomised study able to answer if a diverting colostomy is necessary or not in the surgical management of civilian colon trauma. We report our experience on 13 cases treated during the period from 1977 to 1997. There were 3 stab wounds, 4 gunshot traumas and 6 perforations of the colon caused by blunt mechanisms. Four patients underwent a primary colonic closure and 9 others a primary resection with anastomosis. In none of all our cases a diverting colostomy was performed. We experienced a fatal complication once and this was due to an underestimated segmental ischemia of the colon after blunt injury. Reviewing the late publications together with our modest experience we are allowed to conclude that primary repair without a stoma is the treatment of choice when the tissues show a good vascularisation. This often is the case with stab wounds and low velocity gunshot traumas. We would prefer a diverting colostomy in cases of blunt trauma of high energy and while haemodynamic instability makes the estimation of adequate tissue vascularisation difficult. Colonic lesions due to high velocity bullets should be managed as if they where wounds of war. PMID:9816935

  6. Examination of Trauma in a Neandertal Ulna

    E-print Network

    Eddie, Diane Marie

    2013-12-31

    This thesis focuses on the paleopathology of a Neandertal ulna from the site of Krapina (ulna #180). There has been debate as to whether it should be classified as a nonunion fracture or an amputation. To clarify the trauma of ulna #180, its...

  7. September 11: Children's Responses to Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Berson, Ilene R.

    2002-01-01

    Teachers can help children deal with confusing emotions during times of crisis by listening to them and creating a comfortable environment. This paper explains what teachers can do in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11th, 2001, focusing on the impact of trauma, how children of different ages react and cope, safety and the future, and…

  8. Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanscom, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors…

  9. Renal Trauma: Case Reports and Overview

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Campbell D.; Somani, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Renal trauma patients are largely managed conservatively but on occasion have to be embolised or taken to theatre for definitive surgical management, usually in the form of emergency nephrectomy. Review. We present an overview of renal trauma as illustrated by three interesting cases of blunt renal trauma who presented in quick succession of each other to the Emergency Department. The first case—a 48-year-old-female passenger in a road traffic accident—was treated with life-saving emergency nephrectomy. The second patient—a 47-year-old man who sustained a high impact injury whilst sledging—was managed conservatively on HDU and subsequently on the urology ward. The third patient—an 18-year-old man involved in a road traffic accident—underwent selective embolisation of a pseudoaneurysm after conservative therapy. Discussion. This case series illustrates the surgical, radiological, and conservative approaches to the management of significant renal trauma, which is potentially life threatening. PMID:23198263

  10. Venous thromboembolic events in hospitalized trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Azu, Michelle C; McCormack, Jane E; Huang, Emily C; Lee, Thomas K; Shapiro, Marc J

    2007-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in injured patients. Absolute risk factors for VTE development are poorly defined. This study aimed to elucidate and evaluate risk factors in a large, population-based trauma registry. The trauma registry for a 10-year period of a single county was examined. VTE risk factors in 10,150 adult patients treated in the county's five trauma centers and seven nontrauma centers were identified. Chi2 and Student's t tests were used for statistical analysis. The incidence of VTE was low at 0.493 per cent. The rate was 0.096 per cent at nontrauma centers. Injury severity score (ISS), operative intervention, spinal cord injury, lower extremity fracture, and certain thoracic injuries were significant in VTE development. There were no differences in VTE rate by age, gender, injury mechanism, or admitting service. Hospital length of stay was doubled by VTE. The VTE rate at trauma centers was higher, which was expected, given the complexity of patients treated and higher ISS. Patients with ISS greater than 15, need for operation, spinal cord injuries, lower extremity fractures, and certain thoracic injuries are at risk for VTE. PMID:18186377

  11. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  12. Teamwork improvement in emergency trauma departments

    PubMed Central

    Khademian, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Tabei, Seyed Ziaadin; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Abbasi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interprofessional teamwork is considered as the key to improve the quality of patient management in critical settings such as trauma emergency departments, but it is not fully conceptualized in these areas to guide practice. The aim of this article is to explore interprofessional teamwork and its improvement strategies in trauma emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Participants of this qualitative study consisted of 11 nurses and 6 supervisors recruited from the emergency departments of a newly established trauma center using purposive sampling. Data were generated using two focus group and six in-depth individual interviews, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Interprofessional teamwork attributes and improvement strategies were emerged in three main themes related to team, context, and goal. These were categorized as the effective presence of team members, role definition in team framework, managerial and physical context, effective patient management, and overcoming competing goals Conclusions: Interprofessional teamwork in trauma emergency departments is explained as interdependence of team, context, and goal; so, it may be improved by strengthening these themes. The findings also provide a basis to evaluate, teach, and do research on teamwork. PMID:24403932

  13. Dental Trauma Guide: a source of evidence-based treatment guidelines for dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Ahrensburg, Sřren Steno

    2012-10-01

    Diagnosis and treatment for traumatic dental injuries are very complex owing to the multiple trauma entities represented by six luxation types and nine fracture types affecting both the primary and the permanent dentition. When it is further considered that fracture and luxation injuries are often combined, the result is that more than 100 trauma scenarios exist, when the two dentitions are combined. Each of these trauma scenarios has a specific treatment demand and prospect for healing. With such a complexity in diagnosis and treatment, it is obvious that even experienced practitioners may have problems in selecting proper treatment for some of these trauma types. To remedy this situation, an Internet-based knowledge base consisting of 4000 dental trauma cases with long-term follow up is now available to the public and the professions on the Internet using the address http://www.DentalTraumaGuide.org. It is the aspiration that the use of this Guide may lead the practitioner to offer an evidence-based diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22994505

  14. Measuring trauma: considerations for assessing complex and non-PTSD Criterion A childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Molly K; Borntrager, Cameo F; Rostad, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    The current definition of a traumatic event in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) may be too narrow to describe the myriad of difficult childhood experiences. Furthermore, youth may develop a distinct pattern of symptoms in relation to complex or multiple childhood trauma experiences, the proposed developmental trauma disorder (DTD; B. A. van der Kolk, 2005 ) We developed and utilized a new measure, the Potentially Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (PTEQ), to assess patterns in childhood trauma exposure. We used 2 item formats (open ended vs. closed ended) in order to explore potential differences in reporting. Furthermore, we assessed for symptoms associated with DTD following exposure to complex childhood trauma in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 186 adolescents ages 18 and 19 years old who were asked to report retrospectively on their difficult childhood experiences. The results showed that participants reported multiple events that would not be considered traumatic according to DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criterion A, and those who completed the PTEQ with closed-ended items reported more differentiated trauma types than participants who completed the open-ended questionnaire. Also, participants who reported multiple or chronic events were more likely to endorse symptoms associated with DTD. This study has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of complex trauma experiences in youth. PMID:24410287

  15. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. PMID:22317753

  16. Penetrating Neck Trauma: Review of 192 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodie, Mohsen; Sanei, Behnam; Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad; Namgar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The neck region contains a high density of vital organ structures within a relatively small and unprotected anatomic region, making it one of the most vulnerable areas of the body for all types of injuries. Objectives In this article, we studied penetrating neck trauma cases in Alzahra Hospital over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods In this retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, penetrating neck trauma cases admitted to Alzahra Hospital between April 2000 and April 2010 were analyzed for epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, zone of trauma, therapeutic method, injuries to other organs, complications, and mortality. Results Among 192 penetrating neck injuries, the mean age at the time of injury was 25.08 ± 15.02 years. Of these cases, 96.4% occurred in men. The most common mechanisms of trauma was stab wounds (85.93%). In 56.3% of penetrating neck injuries, zone 2 was involved. Neck exploration was positive in 84.4% of cases, and 52.1% of patients underwent surgery. Vascular exploration was the most common cause of surgery (67.2% of patients). The most common surgical intervention was vein ligation (50.8% of cases). In 11.98% of cases, another organ injury occurred simultaneously, and chest injury was the most common coexisting problem (65.2%). Complications were reported in 9.3% of patients, and the need for intubation was the most common complication (5.2% of patients). Mortality rate was 1.5%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the most common cause of penetrating neck injuries was stab wounds, and the majority of patients were young men, therefore, preventive measures should be implemented. Because of fatal complications associated with neck injuries, we recommend early neck exploration in unstable cases or when injuries are deeper than the platysma. PMID:24719835

  17. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  18. Free fluid on abdominal computed tomography without solid organ injury after blunt abdominal injury does not mandate celiotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H Livingston; Robert F Lavery; Marian R Passannante; Joan H Skurnick; Stephen Baker; Timothy C Fabian; Donald E Fry; Mark A Malangoni

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mandatory celiotomy has been proposed for all patients with unexplained free fluid on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning after blunt abdominal injury. This recommendation has been based upon retrospective data and concerns over the potential morbidity from the late diagnosis of blunt intestinal injury. This study examined the rate of intestinal injury in patients with free fluid on abdominal

  19. [Difficulties in the assessment of trauma-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Gronau, W; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Dreßing, H

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of trauma disorders is becoming increasingly important. A major problem here is that trauma disorders are extremely heterogeneous. Moreover, they are often associated with comorbid disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. The valid diagnostic systems ICD-10 and DSM-5 poorly represent trauma disorders. The so-called complex post-traumatic stress disorder or DESNOS (disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified) are listed .in either of the ICD-10 or DSM-5. The distinctiveness is not generally scientifically accepted. In addition, the assessment of trauma disorders is complicated because there are often multiple traumas of varying degrees of severity. PMID:25971145

  20. Emergency Central Venous Catheterization during Trauma Resuscitation: A Safety Analysis by Site.

    PubMed

    Choron, Rachel L; Wang, Andrew; Van Orden, Kathryn; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Seamon, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is often necessary during initial trauma resuscitations, but may cause complications including catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary emboli (PE), arterial injury, or pneumothoraces. Our primary objective compared subclavian versus femoral CVC complications during initial trauma resuscitations. A retrospective review (2010-2011) at an urban, Level-I Trauma Center reviewed CVCs during initial trauma resuscitations. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and complications including: CRBSIs, DVTs, arterial injuries, pneumothoraces, and PEs were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used; P ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 504 CVCs were placed (subclavian, n = 259; femoral, n = 245). No difference in age (47 ± 22 vs 45 ± 23 years) or body mass index (28 ± 6 vs 29 ± 16 kg/m(2)) was detected (P > 0.05) in subclavian vs femoral CVC, but subclavian CVCs had more blunt injuries (81% vs 69%), greater systolic blood pressure (95 ± 55 vs 83 ± 43 mmHg), greater Glasgow Coma Scale (10 ± 5 vs 9 ± 5), and less introducers (49% vs 73%) than femoral CVCs (all P < 0.05). Catheter related arterial injuries, PEs, and CRBSIs were similar in subclavian and femoral groups (3% vs 2%, 0% vs 1%, and 3% vs 3%; all P > 0.05). Catheter-related DVTs occurred in 2 per cent of subclavian and 9 per cent of femoral CVCs (P < 0.001). There was a 3 per cent occurrence of pneumothorax in the subclavian CVC population. In conclusion, both subclavian and femoral CVCs caused significant complications. Subclavian catheter-related pneumothoraces occurred more commonly and femoral CRBSIs less commonly than expected compared with prior literature in nonemergent scenarios. This suggests that femoral CVC may be safer than subclavian CVC during initial trauma resuscitations. PMID:25975341

  1. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K.; Slavich, George M.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  2. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    PubMed

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25961869

  3. Selective nonoperative management of pediatric blunt splenic trauma: risk for missed associated injuries.

    PubMed

    Morse, M A; Garcia, V F

    1994-01-01

    The spleen is the most commonly injured organ in children sustaining blunt abdominal trauma. Although accepted in pediatric patients, nonoperative management of blunt splenic trauma in adults remains controversial. A principal concern of advocates of early operation is the possibility of overlooking a second injury. To evaluate this question in a pediatric population, we reviewed the charts of 120 children who had traumatic splenic injuries and were admitted to Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati between 1982 and 1990. Splenic injuries were documented by computed tomography scans, liver/spleen scintigraphy, or during laparotomy. One hundred twelve patients (93.3%) were initially managed nonoperatively; this regimen failed in 2 patients (1.8%), in whom a late splenectomy was required for bleeding. Of 8 patients (6.7%) for whom emergency surgery was required, 4 underwent splenectomy (2 had major associated injuries), 2 underwent splenorrhaphy, and 2 required no splenic repair. Fifty-nine patients (49.2%) had associated injuries, 22 of which (18.3%) were intraabdominal. In this study, there were no missed injuries and no morbidity or mortality associated with delayed treatment. These data confirm that the majority of children with blunt splenic injury can be successfully treated without surgery, and demonstrate that selective nonoperative management of splenic injuries in children does not increase the risk of missed associated injuries. PMID:8120755

  4. Anterior Abdominal Wall Haemangioma with Inguinal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Dubhashi, Siddharth P; Choudhary, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Haemangioma are common benign vascular tumour but Intramuscular haemangiomas are rare tumours comprising less than 1% of all. The most frequent sites are extremities, head and neck whereas abdominal wall is a quiet rare location. Ultrasonography is an appropriate initial diagnostic modality and MRI is the investigation of choice. A rare case presented to us as Intramuscular haemangioma of anterior abdominal wall with inguinal extension. Ultrasonography with Doppler study and MRI was suggestive of same finding. Intraoperatively patient had huge haemangioma involving external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominus muscle. Wide local excision with meshplasty was done as part of muscle had to be removed. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Intramuscular Haemangioma. PMID:25584266

  5. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. PMID:24746380

  6. [Septic shock following abdominal operations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krieg, H; Grönniger, J; Loth, R

    1977-02-25

    Septic or toxic shock is a life threatening complication after abdominal operations. The etiologic analysis of our 102 patients showed the following conditions: 1. diseases, which have already preoperatively a high incidence of septic complications, 2. sepsis developing after primary aseptic diseases, 3. septis without any etiologic connection to the primary disease or operation. An initial standarised intensive therapy must start before any irreversible organ damage may occur. First aim of all surgical measures is the eradication of the source of infection. Early relaparotomy is the only possibility for correction of intraoperativ technical defects. Only by longstanding combination of intensive personal and technical support prognosis of septic shock after abdominal operations can be improved. PMID:836527

  7. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = ?0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  8. [Fever, nosebleeding and myalgic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Leopold, M; Siepmann, T

    2008-02-20

    A 38 year old patient presented with fever, myalgic abdominal pain, nose bleeding and acute renal failure since five days. A combination of thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated CrP and creatinin is common in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) due to Hantavirus infection. The benigne form is called Nephropathia epidemica. Dialysis is infrequently required by patients with the Puumala virus. Other infection (e.g. malaria, leptospirosis, yellow fever) and systemic diseases (e.g. collagenosis or vasculitis) are considered. PMID:18548800

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Situs Inversus Totalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayoshi Kato; Hisato Takagi; Seishiro Sekino; Hideaki Manabe; Yukihiro Matsuno; Takuya Umemoto

    2006-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis refers to a mirror-image reversal of the normal position of the internal organs. The recognition of\\u000a concomitant anomalies, such as in the cardiac, venous, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems, is extremely important because\\u000a these anomalies may disturb the surgical procedure for the concurrent disease in situs inversus totalis. The authors describe\\u000a a case of successfully repaired abdominal aortic

  10. Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

  11. Data and image processing for abdominal imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bidaut

    2000-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow information from within the human body to be obtained by using noninvasive or minimally invasive\\u000a means. This article is intended as a summary of the tools used for processing and displaying such datasets, with a focus on\\u000a abdominal imaging. Although these tools and their applications are permanently evolving, their use for clinic and research\\u000a is already

  12. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.

    1988-05-15

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as meralgia paraesthetica.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, A; Hodgetts, T

    1997-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported in a patient with long standing low back pain, presenting as meralgia paraesthetica and an increase in the severity of back pain. The case highlights the need for objective assessment of new symptoms arising in a chronic condition, and for a systematic approach to the assessment of radiographs performed in the accident and emergency department. Images p50-a PMID:9147718

  14. Performance and consistency of care in admitted trauma patients: our next great opportunity in trauma care?

    PubMed

    Chua, Wei Chong; D'Amours, Scott K; Sugrue, Michael; Caldwell, Erica; Brown, Katherine

    2009-06-01

    Few studies have prospectively analysed the delivery of care in trauma patients. This study undertook a prospective analysis of performance and consistency of care at a Level 1 trauma centre. A 3-month prospective study was undertaken of all admitted trauma patients at Liverpool Hospital. Data were collected on patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay, patient outcome and cause of death. Delivery of care was evaluated using 30 performance indicators and assessment of errors. Two hundred and thirty-six consecutive major trauma patients were studied. 73.3% were male, mean age 39 years. The main mechanism of injury was road trauma in 46.2%. Mean ISS was 12 and 64 patients had an ISS > or = 16. Error-free care was delivered in 145/236 (61.4%). There were 145 errors in 91 patients (38.6%). Errors in judgement and delays in diagnosis accounted for 56/145 (38.6%) and 48/145 (33.1%), respectively. Errors occurred most commonly in the Emergency Department (ED) (48.3%), and trainees from all specialties were responsible for 67.5% of errors. There were 25 near misses detected. Three patients developed major sequelae or complications from errors. One of 13 deaths was deemed potentially preventable. This study has shown that while 61.4% of admitted trauma patients receive optimal care, errors are frequent, resulting in a spectrum of outcomes from near misses to death. The majority of errors result from the activity of unsupervised trainees and relate to errors in judgement and delays in diagnosis. Clearly, there is room for improvement of the delivery of trauma care. PMID:19566867

  15. Elective abdominal hysterectomy in Nigerian Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, O T

    2004-09-01

    In a retrospective study at a university hospital, the perioperative morbidity associated with elective total abdominal hysterectomy in 23 Jehovah's Witnesses was compared with that of 46 non-Witness controls. The mean operative blood loss was significantly less, the procedure was lengthier and the average postoperative hospital stay was longer in the study than in the control group. Febrile morbidity was insignificantly more frequent among the study group (OR: 2.05, CI: 0.61-6.88) and there was no significant difference between the overall morbidity experienced by patients in both groups (study: 43.5% versus control: 39.1%; P = 0.73). The perioperative morbidity associated with elective abdominal hysterectomy in patients unwilling to accept blood transfusion does not justify the denial of this important gynaecological surgery when indicated. Gynaecologists in poor resource settings should consciously aim at providing 'bloodless' care for all their patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy as this may translate to reduced blood loss and decreased need for blood transfusion. PMID:16147614

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.

    PubMed Central

    Addison, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

  17. Immigration Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.

  18. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Marleen; Langeland, Willemien; Smit, Jan H.; Draijer, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex) trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1) quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2) compare the two study groups. Method A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program) in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design. PMID:24711888

  19. Clinicopathological profile and surgical treatment of abdominal tuberculosis: a single centre experience in northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide and poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to general surgeons practicing in resource-limited countries. This study was conducted to describe the clinicopathological profile and outcome of surgical treatment of abdominal tuberculosis in our setting and compare with what is described in literature. Methods A prospective descriptive study of patients who presented with abdominal tuberculosis was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in northwestern Tanzania from January 2006 to February 2012. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from relevant authorities. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Results Out of 256 patients enrolled in the study, males outnumbered females. The median age was 28 years (range = 16–68 years). The majority of patients (77.3%) had primary abdominal tuberculosis. A total of 127 (49.6%) patients presented with intestinal obstruction, 106 (41.4%) with peritonitis, 17 (6.6%) with abdominal masses and 6 (2.3%) patients with multiple fistulae in ano. Forty-eight (18.8%) patients were HIV positive. A total of 212 (82.8%) patients underwent surgical treatment for abdominal tuberculosis. Bands /adhesions (58.5%) were the most common operative findings. Ileo-caecal region was the most common bowel involved in 122 (57.5%) patients. Release of adhesions and bands was the most frequent surgical procedure performed in 58.5% of cases. Complication and mortality rates were 29.7% and 18.8% respectively. The overall median length of hospital stay was 32 days and was significantly longer in patients with complications (p < 0.001). Advanced age (age ? 65 years), co-morbid illness, late presentation, HIV positivity and CD4+ count < 200 cells/?l were statistically significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.0001). The follow up of patients were generally poor as only 37.5% of patients were available for follow up at twelve months after discharge. Conclusion Abdominal tuberculosis constitutes a major public health problem in our environment and presents a diagnostic challenge requiring a high index of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis, early anti-tuberculous therapy and surgical treatment of the associated complications are essential for survival. PMID:23758837

  20. Impact of nightshift work on overweight and abdominal obesity among workers of a poultry processing plant in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macagnan, Jamile; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Olinto, Maria Teresa A

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined the associations of shiftwork with overweight and abdominal obesity through a cross-sectional study of 1206 employees 18 to 50 yrs of age who were working on a production line in a poultry processing plant. Night-shift workers (n = 800) were considered exposed, whereas day shiftworkers (n = 406) were considered nonexposed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference ? 88 cm in women and ? 102 cm in men. The mean age of the workers was 30.5 yrs (standard deviation = 8.7 yrs), and 65.2% were women. Nightshift workers compared to dayshift workers showed higher prevalences of overweight (42.2% vs. 34.3%; p=?.020) and abdominal obesity (24.9% vs. 19.5%; p =?.037). After adjusting for sociodemographics, parental overweight status, behavioral characteristics, and sleep characteristics, including hours of sleep, the prevalence ratios for overweight and abdominal obesity were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [ CI]: 1.00-1.61) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.10-1.92), respectively, for the nightshift workers compared to the dayshift workers. A consistent finding in our study was the independent contribution of night shiftwork to overweight and abdominal obesity among Brazilian workers. Further studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms involved and the complex behavioral and social adaptations experienced by night-shift workers. PMID:22390246

  1. Purposeful Variable Selection and Stratification to Impute Missing FAST Data in Trauma Research

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Paul A.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Wade, Charles A.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Myers, John G.; Muskat, Peter; Phelan, Herb A.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam is an important variable in many retrospective trauma studies. The purpose of this study was to devise an imputation method to overcome missing data for the FAST exam. Due to variability in patients’ injuries and trauma care, these data are unlikely to be missing completely at random (MCAR), raising concern for validity when analyses exclude patients with missing values. Methods Imputation was conducted under a less restrictive, more plausible missing at random (MAR) assumption. Patients with missing FAST exams had available data on alternate, clinically relevant elements that were strongly associated with FAST results in complete cases, especially when considered jointly. Subjects with missing data (32.7%) were divided into eight mutually exclusive groups based on selected variables that both described the injury and were associated with missing FAST values. Additional variables were selected within each group to classify missing FAST values as positive or negative, and correct FAST exam classification based on these variables was determined for patients with non-missing FAST values. Results Severe head/neck injury (odds ratio, OR=2.04), severe extremity injury (OR=4.03), severe abdominal injury (OR=1.94), no injury (OR=1.94), other abdominal injury (OR=0.47), other head/neck injury (OR=0.57) and other extremity injury (OR=0.45) groups had significant ORs for missing data; the other group odds ratio was not significant (OR=0.84). All 407 missing FAST values were imputed, with 109 classified as positive. Correct classification of non-missing FAST results using the alternate variables was 87.2%. Conclusions Purposeful imputation for missing FAST exams based on interactions among selected variables assessed by simple stratification may be a useful adjunct to sensitivity analysis in the evaluation of imputation strategies under different missing data mechanisms. This approach has the potential for widespread application in clinical and translational research and validation is warranted. Level of Evidence Level II Prognostic or Epidemiological PMID:23778515

  2. Ventricular septal defect following blunt chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa; Skinner, David L; Rodseth, Reitze N

    2012-01-01

    We present a 32-year-old male with ventricular septal defect (VSD) following blunt chest trauma. Traumatic VSD is a rare but potentially life-threatening injury, the severity, course and presentation of which are variable. While the diagnosis of myocardial injury may be challenging, cardiac troponins are useful as a screening and diagnostic test. The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms in the development of traumatic VSD are early mechanical rupture and delayed inflammatory rupture. We conducted a literature review to investigate the pathogenesis, distribution of patterns of presentation, and the associated prognoses in patients with VSD following blunt chest trauma. We found that traumatic VSDs diagnosed within 48 hours were more likely to be severe, require emergency surgery and were associated with a higher mortality. Children with traumatic VSDs had an increased mortality risk. Smaller lesions may be managed conservatively but should be followed up to detect late complications. In both groups elective repair was associated with a good outcome. PMID:22787351

  3. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence. PMID:12560012

  4. Pain and emotional processing in psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Walter, Steffen; Leissner, Nicole; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Hrabal, Vladimir; Traue, Harald C

    2010-09-01

    Extreme psychological and physical traumas cause dramatic symptom patterns which are insufficiently described by the psychiatric diagnostic criteria of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Additionally, due to the neurobiological proximity and similarity of processing mechanisms of physical and psychological pain stimulation and extremely negative emotions, the patients often suffer from persistent pains even after the somatic healing process is completed. Epidemiological studies confirm the joint occurrence of pain and PTSD. The close relationship and the etiological and behavioral similarities of both disorders have led to the development of joined vulnerability and mutual maintenance models. The particular suffering of patients with PTSD due to chronic pain necessitates pain-therapeutic interventions. On the other hand, in chronic pain patients, the etiological role of severe traumas should be considered. PMID:20856194

  5. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-04-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma.

  6. Epidemiological Trends of Spine Trauma: An Australian Level 1 Trauma Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with comparison cohorts of nonsurvivors versus survivors and elderly versus nonelderly. Linear regression analysis was utilized to demonstrate trends with statistical significance. There were 965 patients with traumatic spine injuries with 2,333 spine trauma levels. The general cohort showed a trimodal age distribution, male-to-female ratio of 2:2, motor vehicle accidents as the primary spine trauma mechanism, 47.7% patients with severe polytrauma as graded using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), 17.3% with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the majority of patients with one spine injury level, 7% neurological deficit rate, 12.8% spine trauma operative rate, and 5.2% mortality rate. Variables with statistical significance trending toward mortality were the elderly, motor vehicle occupants, severe ISS, TBI, C1–2 dissociations, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A, B, and C neurological grades. Variables with statistical significance trending toward the elderly were females; low falls; one spine injury level; type 2 odontoid fractures; subaxial cervical spine distraction injuries; ASIA A, B, and C neurological grades; and patients without neurological deficits. Of the general cohort, 50.3% of spine trauma survivors were discharged home, and 48.1% were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. This study provides baseline spine trauma epidemiological data. The trimodal age distribution of patients with traumatic spine injuries calls for further studies and intervention targeted toward the 46- to 55-year age group as this group represents the main providers of financial and social security. The study's unique feature of delineating variables with statistical significance trending toward both mortality and the elderly also provides useful data to guide future research studies, benchmarking, public health policy, and efficient resource allocation for the management of spine trauma. PMID:24436855

  7. UK Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The UK Index provides a searchable index of resources in or about the United Kingdom. The Quick Reference section offers links to News Resources in the UK such as the BBC, weather information, UK record charts, and UK related USENET newsgroups. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office provides good advice for travelers. The search engine allows the selection of categories such as arts or business to restrict the search to pages included in one category or a combination of categories.

  8. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

  9. Neuroradiological Diagnosis of Craniocerebral Trauma: Current Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Parizel; C. Douglas Phillips

    When computed tomography (CT) scanning is available, plain skull films contribute little or no additional information in the\\u000a clinical management of the acute trauma patient. Traditionally, X-ray films of the skull have been used to detect skull fractures,\\u000a intracranial mass effect (“pineal shift”), air-fluid levels, foreign objects (metal, glass, projectile fragments, etc.). However,\\u000a the diagnostic yield of plain X-ray films

  10. BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL SHOCK TRAUMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig

    2000-01-01

    ? Abstract Electrical shock trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, mainly because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical shocks. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides

  11. Nutrition in Trauma and Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bellal Joseph; Julie L. Wynne; Rifat Latifi

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Despite significant improvements in the practice of metabolic support of critically ill patients in recent years, malnutrition\\u000a continues to be common among surgical patients, adding significantly to complications, infections, length of stay, costs,\\u000a and increased mortality. Furthermore, hypercatabolism is the major metabolic response after major trauma and emergency surgery,\\u000a making this patient population a unique subgroup of critically ill

  12. Improved trauma care in a rural hospital after establishing a level II trauma center.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, W W; Murray, D H; Ledwich, T

    1990-12-01

    A study of motor vehicle accident deaths occurring in Napa County, California, from 1979 through 1983 showed that there was a preventable death rate of 42% for deaths that were not related to central nervous system injuries. After developing a Level II trauma center at our hospital, the preventable death rate decreased to 14%. This was statistically significant (total chi-square, 0.01 less than p less than 0.025). There was a significant increase in the average Injury Severity Score (34 versus 45, p less than 0.005) as well as significant improvements in the surgeon's response time (32 minutes versus 11 minutes, p less than 0.005) and in the time from hospital arrival to the start of surgery (3.6 hours versus 1.9 hours, 0.01 less than p less than 0.025). We conclude that these changes are indicative of improved trauma care and reflect favorably upon the effectiveness of a rural trauma center that meets Level II trauma center guidelines established by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. PMID:2252131

  13. [Research and promotion of severe trauma rescue standard].

    PubMed

    Kou, Y H; Yin, X F; Wang, T B; Jiang, B G

    2015-04-18

    Trauma is a global social problem, with the number of deaths up to 5.8 million all over the world annually. Currently, severe trauma has become the first cause of death in young adults in China. Nowadays, there are many problems in the trauma rescue system, including long pre-hospital transfer period, several secondary transfers, no information exchange between pre-hospital and in-hospital care, and the poor integrated treatment, which results in the situation that the overall treatment level of severe trauma in China is relatively low. In order to solve these problems, we carried out the research and promotion of severe trauma rescue standard, involving completing severe trauma information database, providing local rescue medical workers with standard training, and building up the information system for the linkage and warning of severe trauma. In addition, we developed and promoted the new standard system for severe trauma in 15 cities with 124 medical centers. Due to our research, the treatment ability of severe trauma in the pilot areas was enhanced, and the mortality and morbidity of severe trauma were reduced significantly. To sum up, we had got the expected results after implementing the project. PMID:25882931

  14. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma. PMID:25137601

  15. Social support among releasing men prisoners with lifetime trauma experiences.

    PubMed

    Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners. PMID:24666733

  16. [Mild head trauma: complications and acousticovestibular sequelae].

    PubMed

    Granier, M; Renaud-Picard, L; Chobaut, J-C; Tavernier, L

    2006-09-01

    Head injury with fracture of the petrous bone is frequent and directly related to the development of human activity. Head trauma is associated with nearly 75% of traffic accidents; 5% of them with petrous bone fracture. Based on a clinical case, the acute injuries and secondary acoustic or vestibular sequelae after low-energy cranio-cerebral trauma are discussed here. The subject was a victim of a low-energy head trauma with brief loss of consciousness and translabyrinthine fracture of the petrous bone. This fracture caused invalidating equilibrium disorders related to a perilymphatic fistula. These disorders persisted for 3.5 years and required several hospitalizations and three surgical procedures. The acoustic problems progressed towards cophosis and persistent and invalidating tintinus. We discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of these different sequelae of the middle ear as well as the external lesions. Among labyrinthine involvement, especially unilateral destruction, fistulization, concussion, and post concussion syndrome are especially descripted. Bony dislocations dominate middle ear sequelae. We also discuss the medicolegal problems associated with this type of pathology. PMID:17003760

  17. Patterns and risks in spinal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B; Dykes, E; Lecky, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: Spinal injury in children is rare, and poses many difficulties in management. Aims: To ascertain the prevalence of spinal injury within the paediatric trauma population, and to assess relative risks of spinal injury according to age, conscious level, injury severity score (ISS), and associated injuries. Methods: Spine injured children were identified from the UK Trauma Audit & Research Network Database from 1989 to 2000. Relative risks of injury were calculated against the denominator paediatric trauma population. Results: Of 19 538 on the database, 527 (2.7%) suffered spinal column fracture/dislocation without cord injury and 109 had cord injury (0.56% of all children; 16.5% of spine injured children). Thirty children (0.15% of all children; 4.5% of spine injured children) sustained spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality (SCIWORA). Cord injury and SCIWORA occurred more commonly in children aged ?8. The risk of spine fracture/dislocation without cord injury was increased with an ISS >25 and with chest injuries. The risk of cord injury was increased with reduced GCS, head injury, and chest injury. Conclusions: Spinal cord injury and SCIWORA occur more frequently in young children. Multiple injuries and chest injuries increase the risk of fracture/dislocation and of cord injury. Reduced GCS and head injuries increase the risk of cord injury. PMID:15321867

  18. Youthful prostitution and child sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, A; Van Brunschot, E G

    1997-01-01

    This paper has examined research that attempts to explain entry to prostitution in terms of the family experiences of young prostitutes. Though there is some evidence of rape, incest, and other kinds of sexual trauma in these backgrounds, this evidence is inconsistent and contradictory. A more plausible approach to the question is based on general control theories. Any traumas or conflicts that unattach children and youth from their families make youngsters highly vulnerable to delinquency. In the case of adolescent females, breach of family attachments appears to heighten the risk of early sexual involvements that, in the context of gender differences in sexual development, expose them to partners significantly older than themselves, and in significantly larger numbers than would otherwise be the case. These factors help explain the role of dysfunctional backgrounds in entry to prostitution without presupposing a role for unobservable traumas and psychiatric disturbances. They likewise recognize a role for the interaction between social control factors and the normal process of sexual development. PMID:9347396

  19. Better trauma care. How Maryland does it.

    PubMed

    Wish, John R; Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F

    2005-01-01

    In March, 1970, the Maryland State Police, in cooperation with the University of Maryland, started the first statewide airborne transportation system. It was modeled after the army's success in Korea and Vietnam, where battlefield injuries were flown to front-line MASH units. The world's premier statewide medical aviation division was made possible through a cooperative effort between the Maryland State Police Aviation Division and Dr. R Adams Cowley at the University of Maryland Hospital as a public service to the citizens of the state. The Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems (MIEMSS) has five components: (1) aircraft, (2) state troopers, (3) system communications (SYSCOM) center, (4) ambulance and fire emergency rescue, and (5) Level I adult and pediatric trauma centers and a regional burn center. The Maryland State Police Aviation Division now has 12 Aerospace Dauphin AS365N helicopters that operate out of eight fixed points throughout the state. Each helicopter has a two-person crew that consists of a pilot and a paramedic. Since 1993, the overall coordination of emergency medical services (EMS) has been under the purview of MIEMSS, an independent executive-level state agency that is governed by an appointed board and advisory council. To ensure stable funding for Maryland's world renowned emergency medical services (EMS) system, including med-evac helicopters, ambulances, fire equipment, rescue squads, and trauma units, a "surcharge" of $13.50 per year is collected with the automobile registration fee where applicable. The SYSCOM center in Baltimore coordinates the helicopter transport to the scene of the accident as well as referral to the specialty care facility: Adult Level I Trauma Center, Pediatric Level I Trauma Center, and Regional Burn Center. An on-the-scene evaluation of this exemplary emergency medical system in Maryland provides further convincing evidence of the performance of the Maryland State Police Aviation Division as they transported an injured child to the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Level I Trauma Center. It is our belief that the model emergency medical system in Maryland, if replicated throughout our nation, would save the lives of the critically injured. PMID:15715519

  20. Orofacial trauma in Brazilian basketball players and level of information concerning trauma and mouthguards.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Renata Reis; Zanin, Luciane; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Flório, Flávia Martăo

    2011-06-01

    Orofacial injuries are increasingly considered a public health problem in high impact sports. The purposes of this study were: to assess orofacial trauma (OT) history in basketball players, in relation to wearing mouthguards (MG), facial types, presence of mouth breathing and player's position in the game, also to check athletes' level of knowledge about trauma and MGs. Questionnaires were given to category A-1 adult athletes registered in 2006/07 in the State of Săo Paulo and Brazilian Basketball Confederation Championships, and National Team members. Of the total sample (n=388), 50% of athletes sustained orofacial injuries; dental trauma accounted for 69.7%, with emphasis on maxillary central incisors, followed by soft tissue (60.8%), in which lip injuries were the most prevalent. No relationship was found between trauma history and player's position (P=0.19), facial type (P=0.97), presence of mouth breathing (P=0.98), but there was statistically significant association between the prevalence of OT and lack of MG use (P?0.0001). Of all the athletes affected, only 1% wore a MG at the time of the trauma, 26.5% did not know about the MGs and 10.6% did not know their functions. When trauma occurred, 79.6% replied one must look for the tooth at the accident site, 50% knew it must be stored in liquid, as replantation was possible (62.3%) and 75.8% believed elapsed time could influence prognosis. Basketball is a high impact sport with high prevalence of OT, particularly maxillary central incisor and lip injuries, but athletes did not use MGs. There should be more educational campaigns to inform players about orofacial injuries and their prevention in Brazilian basketball. PMID:21496201

  1. Trauma disclosure to health care professionals by veterans: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Matthew D; Leibowitz, Ruth Q; Finley, Erin; Arar, Nedal

    2010-10-01

    Trauma disclosure is the initial step toward healing trauma-related distress. This study used qualitative methods to better understand factors facilitating and inhibiting change in the disclosure process. Fifty-six veterans were interviewed about their disclosure experiences between August 2004 and 2005. Emerging themes and barriers to disclosure from 23 of these interviews are reported in this article. Barriers to trauma disclosure included lack of trust in the provider, fears about the potential negative consequences of disclosure, and trauma avoidance. Providers perceived as caring and communicating at the same level as the participants facilitated disclosure, whereas providers perceived as uncaring or disinterested inhibited disclosure. Veterans reported both positive and negative reactions to initial disclosure, but nearly all agreed that disclosure was worthwhile over the long-term. Improving patient-provider communications and creating settings that facilitate trauma disclosure may improve healing after trauma. PMID:20968260

  2. Effect of QiShenYiQi Pill on Myocardial Collagen Metabolism in Rats with Partial Abdominal Aortic Coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on myocardial collagen metabolism in rats with partial abdominal aortic coarctation and explored its mechanism of action. A series of assays were used to detect the effect and mechanism of QSYQ on systolic blood pressure, heart mass index, left ventricle mass index, HYP, expression of PICP, PIIINT, and CTX-I in serum, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 expression in myocardium. We observed that QSYQ can reduce the rate of myocardial collagen synthesis and increase the rate of myocardial collagen degradation. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis in partial abdominal aortic rats and it had a tendency to have a greater effect with longer treatment duration, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in the myocardial rat. PMID:25861361

  3. The infantile psychic trauma from us to Freud: pure trauma, retroactivity and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baranger, M; Baranger, W; Mom, J M

    1988-01-01

    In the works of Freud, the concept of childhood psychic trauma evolves in the direction of increasing complexity. The authors maintain that this expansion corresponds to a new conception of retroactive temporality (Nachträglich), which is precisely the one we use in the analytic process of reconstruction and historicization from the present toward the past. We are thus led to differentiate the extreme form of the unassimilable 'pure' Trauma, nearly pure death drive, from the retroactively historicized forms which are reintegrated into the continuity of a vital flow of time that we 'invent' in analytic work. PMID:3403149

  4. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  5. Craniocerebral trauma in the child abuse syndrome: radiological observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Merten; D. R. S. Osborne; M. A. Radkowski; J. C. Leonidas

    1984-01-01

    Experience with craniocerebral trauma in 712 physically abused children is reviewed. Ninety-three (13%) had evidence of head trauma (cranial and\\/or intracranial). Seventy-seven of these patients had computed tomography (CT) of the head, and 47 had CT evidence of intracranial injury. Extracerebral fluid collections, predominantly convexity subdural hemorrhage, were the most common acute intracranial lesions. Concurrent intracranial and skeletal trauma (cranial

  6. Trauma surgery associations and societies: which organizations match your goals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This focused summary is a multi-institutional, multi-national, and multi-generational project designed to briefly summarize current academic trauma societies for both trainees and faculty alike. The co-authorship is composed of former and/or current presidents from most major trauma organizations. It has particular relevance to trainees and/or recent graduates attempting to navigate the multitude of available trauma organizations. PMID:24955111

  7. Prehospital trauma care in Tehran: Potential areas for improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad-Hadi Saeed Modaghegh; Bahman Sayyar Roudsari; Aref Sajadehchi

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the existing prehospital trauma care system in Tehran, Iran. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in which all trauma-related dispatches of Tehran's emergency medical services (EMS) system were evaluated-during 18 randomly selected days from September 22, 1997, to March 17, 1998. Emergency medical technicians completed a checklist for all trauma cases, and the criteria for this performance

  8. Evaluation of a university hospital trauma team activation protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trond Dehli; Knut Fredriksen; Svein A Osbakk; Kristian Bartnes

    2011-01-01

    Background  Admission with a multidisciplinary trauma team may be vital for the severely injured patient, as this facilitates rapid diagnosis\\u000a and treatment. On the other hand, patients with minor injuries do not need the trauma team for adequate care. Correct triage\\u000a is important for optimal resource utilization. The aim of the study was to evaluate our criteria for activating the trauma

  9. Trauma to the nail unit including occupational sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P S; Dawber, R P

    1985-07-01

    Trauma to the nail unit is one of the most common causes of onychodystrophy and may be acute (a single overwhelming injury) or chronic (repeated minor injury). Immediate effects of acute trauma include splinter hemorrhages, subungual hematomas, and nail shedding. Delayed deformities include splits and ridges, pterygium, hook nails, pigment bands, and ectopic nail. Also discussed are the results of chronic trauma, including self-inflicted injury and repeated indirect injury. PMID:3830505

  10. Thriving after Trauma: The Experience of Parents of Murdered Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Parappully; Robert Rosenbaum; Leland van den Daele; Esther Nzewi

    2002-01-01

    Psychological literature on trauma usually focuses on pathology that results from trauma and pays little attention to positive out-comes. This article presents a phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of a profoundly traumatized group of people—parents whose son or daughter has been murdered—to assess if they were able to experience a positive outcome resulting from their trauma and to identify associated

  11. Non-operative management in blunt splenic trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yaghoubi Notash; H Ahmadi Amoli; A Nikandish; A Yazdankhah Kenari; F Jahangiri; P Khashayar

    2008-01-01

    Background:Splenic preservation following trauma has been decisively established as the preferred, safe and feasible therapeutic modality.Objective:To evaluate the outcomes of non-operative management in adults with blunt splenic injuries and determine the predictive factors of failure.Methods:Patients admitted to a tertiary trauma centre with blunt splenic trauma during a 10 year period were studied retrospectively. They were divided into three groups according

  12. Early reconstruction of the abdominal wall in giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Zama, Mario; Gallo, Simona; Santecchia, Luigino; Bertozzi, Ettore; Zaccara, Antonio; Trucchi, Alessandro; Nahom, Antonella; Bagolan, Pietro; De Stefano, Cosmoferruccio

    2004-12-01

    Omphalocele is the most common congenital defect of the abdominal wall. Mortality rate is between 20 and 70% and early closure of the abdominal wall, within 10 days of life, is vital to the successful outcome of the surgical treatment. The authors describe the use of two bipedicled flaps of abdominal skin to correct the defect of the midline as soon as the reduction of all viscera has been accomplished. PMID:15544772

  13. Abdominal Wall Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Hamadto, M.; Azzabi, M.; Elfagieh, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be “ancient” schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  14. Abdominal wall schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Hamadto, M; Azzabi, M; Elfagieh, M

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be "ancient" schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  15. Pediatric Computed Tomography. Radiation Dose in Abdominal Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, X.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Buenfil, A. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Dies, P

    2008-08-11

    Computed tomography is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities used in the last years. However, because is one of the techniques that delivered a considerable radiation dose, precautions should be taken into account. Pediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adults, and the probability that no desirable biological effects can occur is greater. To this, also it adds the probability that they will need more radiological studies in the future. The work consisted in determining the received dose by the pediatric patients undergoing abdominal studies in a multislice computed tomograph, according to the dosimetric quantities established by a Code of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency; using a ionization chamber and a phantom that simulates the abdomen of a pediatric patient. The weighted air kerma index (C{sub w}) was 14.3{+-}0.4 mGy, this value is lower than the published by the American College of Radiology, 25 mGy. The multiple scan average dose (MSAD), which is a quantity established by the NOM-229-SSA1-2002 was determined, finding a value of 14.2{+-}0.1 mGy, it is also below the value established, 25 mGy for an adult study.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Postoperative Abdominal Discomfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22 year old male is experiencing postoperative abdominal discomfort. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and related medicine.

  17. An easily overlooked cause of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kyle; Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Supplee, Suzanne; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 63 year old female presented to the emergency department with a several month history of intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain, early satiety with loss of appetite, and an unintentional weight loss of 8. She underwent a battery of tests that returned negative and subsequently sent for Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the abdomen revealing luminal stenosis of the proximal 1 cm of the celiac axis estimating 90% occlusion and a patent SMA and IMA with, typical for median arcuate ligament syndrome. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25432644

  18. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Powers, Abigail; Moore, Carla; Villarreal, Stephanie; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to childhood adversity is implicated in the etiology of adverse health outcomes, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. The relationship between childhood trauma and obesity may be related to the association of childhood trauma and risk for emotional eating. One pathway between trauma exposure, psychopathology, and emotional eating may be through emotion dysregulation and depression. The current study was undertaken to characterize demographic, environmental, and psychological risk factors for emotional eating in a primarily African American, low socioeconomic status (SES), inner-city population (N?=?1110). Emotional eating was measured using the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire and the Emotional Dysregulation Scale was used to assess emotion regulation. The Beck Depression Inventory and the modified PTSD Symptom Scale were used to assess depression and PTSD, respectively. Higher levels of emotional eating were associated with body mass index, income, childhood and adulthood trauma exposure, depressive and PTSD symptoms, negative affect and emotion dysregulation. Childhood emotional abuse was the most associated with emotional eating in adulthood. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the association between childhood trauma exposure (and emotional abuse specifically) and emotional eating was fully mediated by depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation, with emotional dysregulation contributing more to the mediation effect. Together these findings support a model in which obesity and related adverse health outcomes in stress- and trauma-exposed populations may be directly related to self-regulatory coping strategies accompanying emotion dysregulation. Our data suggest that emotion dysregulation is a viable therapeutic target for emotional eating in at-risk populations. PMID:25865667

  19. Jung Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Compiled by Matthew Clapp of the University of Georgia, the Jung Index is a collection of more than 300 online resources about and related to the life and work of Carl Jung, the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology. Resources are indexed into ten major topic areas and include sections such as Research Resources, Jungian Psychology, and Psychoanalysis, among others. A What's New? section, a What's Cool? section, and the JungNet Newsletter keep frequent visitors up to date on the latest and greatest resources in analytic psychology. In addition, the site provides a glossary of Jungian terms, a gallery of Jungian images, and a moderated forum for Jungian discussion.

  20. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-30

    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment. PMID:21684014

  1. Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Following Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Bixi; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Jianguo; Choudhry, Mashkoor; Bland, Kirby; Chaudry, Irshad; Raju, Raghavan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hemorrhagic trauma leads to organ dysfunction, sepsis and death. There is abnormal production of proinflammatory cytokines by Kupffer cells, tissue hypoxia and liver injury following trauma-hemorrhage. The physiological conditions consequent to trauma-hemorrhage are consistent with factors necessary to initiate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response. However, the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis and liver injury after trauma-hemorrhage is not known. In the present study ER stress was investigated in mice that underwent trauma-hemorrhage or sham operation. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins Bip, ATF6, PERK, IRE1?, and PDI were significantly elevated in the liver after trauma-hemorrhage compared to the controls. The ER stress associated proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP protein expression was also significantly elevated in trauma-hemorrhage group. Consistent with this, enhanced DNA fragmentation was observed, confirming apoptosis, in the liver following trauma-hemorrhage. These results demonstrate the initiation of ER stress and its role in apoptosis and liver injury, subsequent to hemorrhagic trauma. PMID:18801427

  2. Sports-related genitourinary trauma in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Raptis, Costa; Siegel, Cary

    2015-04-01

    Genitourinary trauma is infrequent with regard to sports-related injuries and is frequently overlooked in the acute setting because other life-threatening or serious injuries take precedence. Once the patient has been stabilized, the radiologist plays a key role in the diagnosis of genitourinary trauma. The most commonly injured genitourinary organ is the kidney followed by the bladder and the urethra. Therefore, one should be familiar with imaging signs of genitourinary trauma in the athletic patient in order for these patients to be triaged appropriately. This article is a review of the spectrum of genitourinary trauma caused by sports-related injuries. PMID:25323027

  3. New Orleans Charity Hospital--your trauma center at work.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Zsolt T; Holloway, Vicki L; McSwain, Norman E; Thomas, Dwayne; Fontenot, Cathi; Hunt, John P; Mederos, Eileen; Hewitt, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans-Charity Hospital stands with pride as one of only two level I trauma centers in the state and one of the largest trauma centers in the United States, seeing over 4,000 trauma patients per year. Despite perennial funding issues, Charity Hospital's Emergency Department treated almost 200,000 patients in 2003. This brief report gives an overview of the emergency- and trauma-related services provided by Charity Hospital and underscores its value as a critical asset to healthcare in the Louisiana. PMID:15233385

  4. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay, E-mail: jaygoldbergmd@yahoo.com; Bussard, Anne [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); McNeil, Jean [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Finance (United States); Diamond, James [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Family Medicine (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  5. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings*

    PubMed Central

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tânia Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanęs, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mário Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results Abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion Computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:25987748

  6. Time course of soluble P-selectin and von Willebrand factor levels in trauma patients: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coagulopathy often develops in patients with serious trauma and is correlated with the clinical outcome. The contribution of platelet activity and endothelial dysfunction to trauma-induced coagulopathy remain to be defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time courses of soluble P-selectin (sPsel, an index of platelet activation) and von Willebrand factor (VWF, an index of endothelial dysfunction) in trauma patients and elucidate their relationship to coagulation parameter levels, the presence of coagulopathy, and patient outcome. Methods This prospective observational study, which took place in a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU), included 82 severely injured trauma patients. The sPsel, VWF antigen, protein C, and factor VII levels were measured and routine coagulation tests were performed upon admission to ICU and daily within the first week. The 30-day mortality rate was also determined. Results Thirty-seven (45.1%) patients developed coagulopathy upon admission to the ICU, and the 30-day mortality rate was 20.7% (n?=?17). Both the admission sPsel and VWF levels were lower in patients with coagulopathy than in those without (p?trauma patients in the ICU, lower levels of sPsel and VWF on admission were associated with the presence of coagulopathy and might not predict a better outcome. An increase in the VWF level at the end of the first week after admission to ICU was associated with increased 30-day mortality. PMID:24034700

  7. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with biologic mesh: Permacol™ versus Strattice™.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2014-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. Numerous biologic products are available with virtually no clinical comparison studies. A retrospective study was conducted to compare patients who underwent abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ (crosslinked porcine dermis) and Strattice™ (noncrosslinked porcine dermis). Of 270 reviewed patients, 195 were implanted with Permacol™ and 75 with Strattice™. Ventral hernia repairs comprised the majority (85% for Permacol, 97% for Strattice™). Postoperative infection rate was lower in the Strattice™ group (5 vs 21%, P < 0.01). In the Permacol™ group only, the overall complication rates were significantly higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds (55 vs 35%, P < 0.05) and in obese patients (body mass index 40 kg/m(2) or greater [57 vs 34%], P < 0.01). Short-term complication and recurrence rates were higher when mesh was used as a fascial bridge: 51 versus 28 per cent for Permacol™, 58 versus 20 per cent for Strattice™. The hernia recurrence was similar in both groups. In this review of patients undergoing abdominal hernia repair with biologic mesh, Strattice™ mesh was associated with a lower short-term complication rate compared with Permacol™, but the hernia recurrence rate was similar. PMID:25264647

  8. The relationship between job enrichment and abdominal obesity: a longitudinal field study of apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fried, Yitzhak; Laurence, Gregory A; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in modern society. However, there is a paucity of research about how job context affects obesity. To enhance our knowledge we used a large, heterogeneous sample of apparently healthy employees (n = 1,949) across two time periods with an average of close to 3.5 years between measures. We tested a hypothesized curvilinear effect of job enrichment on changes in two stress related indicators of abdominal obesity over time: waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Job enrichment consisted of the job dimensions of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback, and in our analysis we controlled for demographics and health related behaviors, including weekly sports activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and weekly alcohol consumption. The results supported the hypothesized U-shaped relationship between job enrichment and changes in both indicators of abdominal obesity over time, such that the level of abdominal obesity was reduced when job enrichment was moderate and was increased when job enrichment was either high or low. As expected, no such association was observed for the general obesity measure of body mass index (BMI). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. PMID:24001329

  9. Automated estimation of abdominal effective diameter for body size normalization of CT dose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M

    2013-06-01

    Most CT dose data aggregation methods do not currently adjust dose values for patient size. This work proposes a simple heuristic for reliably computing an effective diameter of a patient from an abdominal CT image. Evaluation of this method on 106 patients scanned on Philips Brilliance 64 and Brilliance Big Bore scanners demonstrates close correspondence between computed and manually measured patient effective diameters, with a mean absolute error of 1.0 cm (error range +2.2 to -0.4 cm). This level of correspondence was also demonstrated for 60 patients on Siemens, General Electric, and Toshiba scanners. A calculated effective diameter in the middle slice of an abdominal CT study was found to be a close approximation of the mean calculated effective diameter for the study, with a mean absolute error of approximately 1.0 cm (error range +3.5 to -2.2 cm). Furthermore, the mean absolute error for an adjusted mean volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) using a mid-study calculated effective diameter, versus a mean per-slice adjusted CTDIvol based on the calculated effective diameter of each slice, was 0.59 mGy (error range 1.64 to -3.12 mGy). These results are used to calculate approximate normalized dose length product values in an abdominal CT dose database of 12,506 studies. PMID:22955797

  10. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  11. Extensive Abdominal Surgery After Caustic Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Cattan, Pierre; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Berney, Thierry; Halimi, Bruno; Sarfati, Emile; Celerier, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Objective To report the authors’ experience in extensive abdominal surgery after caustic ingestion, and to clarify its indications. Summary Background Data After caustic ingestion, extension of corrosive injuries beyond the esophagus and stomach to the duodenum, jejunum, or adjacent abdominal organs is an uncommon but severe complication. The limit to which resection of the damaged organs can be reasonably performed is not clearly defined. Methods From 1988 to 1997, nine patients underwent esophagogastrectomy extended to the colon (n = 2), the small bowel (n = 2), the duodenopancreas (n = 4), the tail of the pancreas (n = 1), or the spleen (n = 1). Outcome was evaluated in terms of complications, death, and function after esophageal reconstruction. Results Five patients required reintervention in the postoperative period for extension of the caustic lesions. There were two postoperative deaths. Seven patients had secondary esophageal reconstruction 4 to 8 months (median 6 months) after initial resection. Three additional patients died 8, 24, and 32 months after the initial resection. Three survivors eat normally, and one has unexplained dysphagia. Conclusions An aggressive surgical approach allows successful initial treatment of extended caustic injuries. Early surgical treatment is essential to improve the prognosis in these patients. PMID:10749612

  12. Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

  13. Atlas based automatic identification of abdominal organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongxin; Bai, Jing

    2005-04-01

    Due to intensity inhomogeneities, partial volume effects, as well as organ shape variations, automatic segmentation of abdominal organs has always been a high challenging task. To conquer these difficulties, we employ a pre-labeled atlas (VIP-Man) to supplement anatomical knowledge to the segmentation process. First, an atlas-subject registration is carried out to establish the proper correspondence between the atlas and the subject. The registration consists of two steps. In the global registration step, a similarity transformation is found to eliminate the stature differences. In the organ registration step, organs of interest are registered respectively to achieve better alignments. Second, we utilize the fuzzy connectedness framework to segment abdominal organs of interest from the subject image. Under the guidance of the registered atlas, the seeds and intensity parameters of organs are specified in an auto-adaptive way. Further more, the anatomical knowledge contained in the atlas is blended into the frame work, to make the segmentation result more reliable. To remove possible jags on boundary, a level set smooth method which implements fuzzy connectedness as external speed forces, is utilized on the segmentation result. Our purpose is to accomplish the segmentation task like how anatomy experts do. So far, this approach has been applied to segment organs, including liver, spleen and kidneys, in the female MRI T1 data set from the VHP. All organs of interest are identified correctly, and delineated with considerable precision.

  14. Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Ad; Holmshaw, Manda; Carswell, Wilson; van Wijk, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and potential impact on functioning, there are surprisingly little data regarding the treatment responsiveness of travel phobia. The purpose of this non-randomized study was to evaluate the usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia, or milder travel anxiety arising as a result of a road traffic accident. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT), and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing were used to treat a sample of 184 patients, who were referred to a psychological rehabilitation provider. Patients in both treatment groups were encouraged to encounter their feared objects and situations between sessions. Specific (i.e., travel) phobia was diagnosed in 57% of cases. Patients in both treatment conditions showed equally large, and clinically significant, decreases in symptoms as indexed by three validated measures (Impact of Event Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and General Health Questionnaire), therapist ratings of treatment outcome, and a return to driving or travelling by car or motorbike. These improvements were obtained within an average course of 7.3 sessions of 1 hour each. Patients with travel phobia responded with a greater reduction of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than those with milder travel anxiety. Passengers reported higher levels of trauma symptoms than drivers, but no difference in effectiveness of treatment was found between these groups. The results suggest that trauma-focused psychological interventions can be a treatment alternative for patients with travel anxiety. Given the seriousness of the clinical problems related to road traffic accidents more rigorous outcome research is warranted and needed. PMID:20146201

  15. A Design for Evaluation of the Trauma Apportionment in Cerebral Infarction after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Hae-Ran; Shim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Doh, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (CI) is a well-known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the causation and apportionment of trauma in patients with CI after TBI is not easy. There is a scoring method, so-called trauma apportionment score (TAS) for CI, consisted with the age, the interval, and the severity of the TBI. We evaluated the reliability of this score. Methods We selected two typical cases of traumatic CI. We also selected consecutive 50 patients due to spontaneous CI. We calculated TAS in both patients with traumatic and spontaneous CI. To enhance the reliability, we revised TAS (rTAS) adding three more items, such as systemic illness, bad health habits, and doctor's opinion. We also calculated rTAS in the same patients. Results Even in 50 patients with spontaneous CI, the TAS was 4 in 44 patients, and 5 in 6 patients. TAS could not assess the apportionment of trauma efficiently. We recalculated the rTAS in the same patients. The rTAS was not more than 11 in more than 70% of the spontaneous CI. Compared to TAS, rTAS definitely enhanced the discriminating ability. However, there were still significant overlapping areas. Conclusion TAS alone is insufficient to differentiate the cause or apportionment of trauma in some obscure cases of CI. Although the rTAS may enhance the reliability, it also should be used with cautions. PMID:25674339

  16. Cultural Differences in the Relationship between Intrusions and Trauma Narratives Using the Trauma Film Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Jobson, Laura; Dalgleish, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of culture on the relationship between British and East Asian adults’ autobiographical remembering of trauma film material and associated intrusions. Participants were shown aversive film clips to elicit intrusive images. Then participants provided a post-film narrative of the film content (only Study 1). In both studies, participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during the week after viewing. On returning the diary, participants provided a narrative of the film (delayed). The trauma film narratives were scored for memory-content variables. It was found that for British participants, higher levels of autonomous orientation (i.e. expressions of autonomy and self-determination) and self-focus in the delayed narratives were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. For the East Asian group, lower levels of autonomous orientation and greater focus on others were correlated significantly with fewer intrusions. Additionally, Study 2 found that by removing the post-film narrative task there was a significant increase in the number of intrusions relative to Study 1, suggesting that the opportunity to develop a narrative resulted in fewer intrusions. These findings suggest that the greater the integration and contextualization of the trauma memory, and the more the trauma memory reflects culturally appropriate remembering, the fewer the intrusions. PMID:25203300

  17. Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Breslau; Ronald C. Kessler; Howard D. Chilcoat; Lonni R. Schultz; Glenn C. Davis; Patricia Andreski

    1998-01-01

    most often reported as the precipitating event among per- sons with PTSD (31% of all PTSD cases) was sudden un- expected death of a loved one, an event experienced by 60% of the sample, and with a moderate risk of PTSD (14.3%). Women were at higher risk of PTSD than men, controlling for type of trauma. Conclusions: The risk of

  18. Population Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

  19. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    PubMed

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury. PMID:20302409

  20. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. PMID:24656579