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1

Semiautomatic vessel wall detection and quantification of wall thickness in computed tomography images of human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Quantitative measurements of wall thickness in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) may lead to more accurate methods for the evaluation of their biomechanical environment. Methods: The authors describe an algorithm for estimating wall thickness in AAAs based on intensity histograms and neural networks involving segmentation of contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography images. The algorithm was applied to ten ruptured and ten unruptured AAA image data sets. Two vascular surgeons manually segmented the lumen, inner wall, and outer wall of each data set and a reference standard was defined as the average of their segmentations. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the reference standard to lumen contours generated automatically by the algorithm and a commercially available software package. Repeatability was assessed by comparing the lumen, outer wall, and inner wall contours, as well as wall thickness, made by the two surgeons using the algorithm. Results: There was high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the lumen area (r=0.978 and r=0.996 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, respectively) and between vascular surgeons (r=0.987 and r=0.992 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, respectively). The authors' automatic algorithm showed better results when compared to the reference with an average lumen error of 3.69%, which is less than half the error between the commercially available application Simpleware and the reference (7.53%). Wall thickness measurements also showed good agreement between vascular surgeons with average coefficients of variation of 10.59% (ruptured aneurysms) and 13.02% (unruptured aneurysms). Ruptured aneurysms exhibit significantly thicker walls (1.78{+-}0.39 mm) than unruptured ones (1.48{+-}0.22 mm), p=0.044. Conclusions: While further refinement is needed to fully automate the outer wall segmentation algorithm, these preliminary results demonstrate the method's adequate reproducibility and low interobserver variability.

Shum, Judy; DiMartino, Elena S.; Goldhammer, Adam; Goldman, Daniel H.; Acker, Leah C.; Patel, Gopal; Ng, Julie H.; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2010-02-15

2

Importance of initial aortic properties on the evolving regional anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness of human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Complementary advances in medical imaging, vascular biology and biomechanics promise to enable computational modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysms to play increasingly important roles in clinical decision processes. Using a finite-element-based growth and remodelling model of evolving aneurysm geometry and material properties, we show that regional variations in material anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness should be expected to arise naturally and thus should be included in analyses of aneurysmal enlargement or wall stress. In addition, by initiating the model from best-fit material parameters estimated for non-aneurysmal aortas from different subjects, we show that the initial state of the aorta may influence strongly the subsequent rate of enlargement, wall thickness, mechanical behaviour and thus stress in the lesion. We submit, therefore, that clinically reliable modelling of the enlargement and overall rupture-potential of aneurysms may require both a better understanding of the mechanobiological processes that govern the evolution of these lesions and new methods of determining the patient-specific state of the pre-aneurysmal aorta (or correlation to currently unaffected portions thereof) through knowledge of demographics, comorbidities, lifestyle, genetics and future non-invasive or minimally invasive tests. PMID:22491975

Wilson, J. S.; Baek, S.; Humphrey, J. D.

2012-01-01

3

Fetal abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556

Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

2014-04-01

4

The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.  

PubMed

Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

2014-05-01

5

Pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting for the reconstruction of anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn.  

PubMed

Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery. Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient. Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 3·5 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required. PMID:23490336

Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai

2015-02-01

6

Investigating muscle regeneration with a dermis/small intestinal submucosa scaffold in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.  

PubMed

Repair of large complex ventral wall hernias is challenging and outcomes are often poor due to hernia recurrence and compromised abdominal wall function. Currently, biological grafts are used to assist in repairing these complex hernias. Dermis grafts are often chosen because of their mechanical characteristics; however, dermis does not have the ability to promote the muscle regeneration needed to regain abdominal wall function. In contrast, small intestinal submucosa (SIS) grafts have been shown to promote muscle generation in volumetric muscle loss (VML) models. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which SIS grafts can be used together with dermis grafts to repair and promote muscle regeneration in a full-thickness abdominal wall defect in a rat model. The dermis layer is intended to mechanically bridge the defect and support constructive tissue remodeling while the SIS is intended to degrade and promote neo-muscle formation. After 16 weeks of implantation, we found only a small amount of vascularized muscle (<10% of the defect area) in the repaired defects. No significant difference in defect muscle area was found between the groups receiving the dermis?+?SIS scaffolds and the control (dermis alone) group. Our findings indicate that the SIS constructions investigated could not promote appreciable muscle regeneration in this rigorous animal model of VML and incomplete abdominal closure. Future investigation into combination scaffold, cell and molecular therapies would be warranted to address the need for functional muscle regeneration in challenging clinical conditions such as complex abdominal wall repair. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 355-364, 2015. PMID:24889422

Ma, Jinjin; Sahoo, Sambit; Baker, Andrew R; Derwin, Kathleen A

2015-02-01

7

A thick-walled fluid-solid-growth model of abdominal aortic aneurysm evolution: application to a patient-specific geometry.  

PubMed

We propose a novel thick-walled fluid-solid-growth (FSG) computational framework for modeling vascular disease evolution. The arterial wall is modeled as a thick-walled nonlinearly elastic cylindrical tube consisting of two layers corresponding to the media-intima and adventitia, where each layer is treated as a fiber-reinforced material with the fibers corresponding to the collagenous component. Blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with constant density and viscosity; no slip and no-flux conditions are applied at the arterial wall. Disease progression is simulated by growth and remodeling (G&R) of the load bearing constituents of the wall. Adaptions of the natural reference configurations and mass densities of constituents are driven by deviations of mechanical stimuli from homeostatic levels. We apply the novel framework to model abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution. Elastin degradation is initially prescribed to create a perturbation to the geometry which results in a local decrease in wall shear stress (WSS). Subsequent degradation of elastin is driven by low WSS and an aneurysm evolves as the elastin degrades and the collagen adapts. The influence of transmural G&R of constituents on the aneurysm development is analyzed. We observe that elastin and collagen strains evolve to be transmurally heterogeneous and this may facilitate the development of tortuosity. This multiphysics framework provides the basis for exploring the influence of transmural metabolic activity on the progression of vascular disease. PMID:25473877

Grytsan, Andrii; Watton, Paul N; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

2015-03-01

8

[Hypogastric abdominal wall reconstruction with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap].  

PubMed

Looking at a full-thickness abdominal wall defect, it is necessary to use reconstructive surgery techniques. The authors present an original case of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) harvested with vascularised fascia lata. We describe the advantages of this technique, which has rarely been used for this indication. An 80-year-old woman presenting a full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 15×18cm was reconstructed by a pedicled ALT flap. Skin wound healing was obtained within 15 days, with no complication. There was no donor site sequela. The pedicled ALT flap appears to be a good solution for hypogastric abdominal wall defect in a one step procedure. Vacularised fascia lata bring with the cutaneous flap is useful to reconstruct the abdominal fascia. PMID:23182334

Moullot, P; Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Casanova, D

2014-10-01

9

Staged Management of Giant Abdominal Wall Defects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Shock resuscitation leads to visceral edema often precluding abdominal wall closure. We have developed a staged approach encompassing acute management through definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to analyze our experience with this technique applied to the treatment of patients with open abdomen and giant abdominal wall defects. Methods: Our management scheme for giant abdominal wall defects consists of 3 stages: stage I, absorbable mesh insertion for temporary closure (if edema quickly resolves within 3-5 days, the mesh is gradually pleated, allowing delayed fascial closure); stage II, absorbable mesh removal in patients without edema resolution (2-3 weeks after insertion to allow for granulation and fixation of viscera) and formation of the planned ventral hernia with either split thickness skin graft or full thickness skin closure over the viscera; and stage III, definitive reconstruction after 6-12 months (allowing for inflammation and dense adhesion resolution) by using the modified components separation technique. Consecutive patients from 1993 to 2001 at a single institution were evaluated. Outcomes were analyzed by management stage, with emphasis on wound related morbidity and mortality, and fistula and recurrent hernia rates. Results: Two hundred seventy four patients (35 with sepsis, 239 with hemorrhagic shock) were managed. There were 212 males (77%), and mean age was 37 (range, 12-88). The average size of the defects was 20 × 30 cm. In the stage I group, 108 died (92% of all deaths) because of shock. The remaining 166 had temporary closure with polyglactin 910 woven absorbable mesh. As visceral edema resolved, bedside pleating of the absorbable mesh allowed delayed fascial closure in 37 patients (22%). In the stage II group, 9 died (8% of all deaths) from multiple organ failure associated with their underlying disease process, and 96% of the remaining 120 had split-thickness skin graft placed over the viscera. No wound related mortality occurred. There were a total of 14 fistulae (5% of total, 8% of survivors). In the stage III group, to date, 73 of the 120 have had definitive abdominal wall reconstruction using the modified components separation technique. There were no deaths. Mean follow-up was 24 months, (range 2-60). Recurrent hernias developed in 4 of these patients (5%). Conclusions: The staged management of patients with giant abdominal wall defects without the use of permanent mesh results in a safe and consistent approach for both initial and definitive management with low morbidity and no technique-related mortality. Absorbable mesh provides effective temporary abdominal wall defect coverage with a low fistula rate. Because of the low recurrent hernia rate and avoidance of permanent mesh, the components separation technique is the procedure of choice for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. PMID:14501501

Jernigan, T Wright; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Moore, Natalie; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Minard, Gayle; Bee, Tiffany K.

2003-01-01

10

Abdominal wall endometriosis: case report.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall endometriosis, also known as scar endometrioma, is a rare condition, in most cases occurring after previous cesarean section or pelvic surgery. The incidence of scar endometrioma is estimated to 0.03%-1.5% of all women with previous cesarean delivery. The predominant clinical picture is cyclic pain. Due to a wide range of mimicking conditions and a relative rarity, a significant delay is often observed from the onset of symptoms to proper treatment. We report on a case of a 36-year-old patient with scar endometrioma after two previous cesarean deliveries. The possible diagnostic pitfalls and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23115952

Eljuga, Damir; Klari?, Petar; Bolanca, Ivan; Grbavac, Ivan; Kuna, Krunoslav

2012-06-01

11

Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children. PMID:25458796

Panitch, Howard B

2015-01-01

12

Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding abdominal wall defect? acids ; atresia ; ... sporadic ; stomach ; syndrome ; tissue ; trisomy You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the ...

13

Giant Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of all superficial soft tissue malignancies. Although they may arise anywhere in the body, they most frequently occur in the lower extremities. The incidence of subcutaneous LMS affecting the anterior abdominal wall is very rare. We herein report the case of a patient with a giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in the anterior abdominal wall. It was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and treated accordingly. PMID:25506027

2014-01-01

14

Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

2011-01-01

15

Synovial Sarcoma of the Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall. This is the seventh such case to be reported. A brief review of the clinical and pathological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification on X-ray. ImagesFig. 1Figs. 2-3Figs. 4-5 PMID:4319939

Hale, J. E.; Calder, I. M.

1970-01-01

16

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

17

Abdominal wall repair using human acellular dermis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe surgical repair of abdominal wall defects that cannot be closed primarily in contaminated fields is a difficult problem. The use of nonabsorbable synthetic materials usually is contraindicated in this setting because of the risk for colonization and chronic infection of the mesh. In this study we sought to determine the safety and efficacy of implanted human acellular dermal graft

Charles F. Bellows; Daniel Albo; David H. Berger; Samir S. Awad

2007-01-01

18

Extraosseous Ewing's tumor of lateral abdominal wall  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewings tumor (EES) is a rare entity. Few cases have been reported in literature. There are no specific guidelines for management of this disease. We are reporting a case of EES arising from left lateral abdominal wall. We did wide excision of tumor followed by chemoradiation. Patient is asymptomatic after 8 months of follow up. PMID:24765376

Gupta, Nikhil; Chand, Tirlok; Yadav, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Devender S.; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder P.

2011-01-01

19

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

20

Computed tomography-guided preoperative localization of abdominal wall endometrioma.  

PubMed

A multiparous obese patient with prior abdominal surgeries complained of cyclic abdominal pain located near the surgical scar. A 1 cm lesion was identified on imaging. Computed tomography-guided needle localization was performed immediately before surgery. This allowed for complete excision of the abdominal wall endometrioma and resolution of the cyclic, focal abdominal pain. PMID:25218124

Moulder, Janelle K; Hobbs, Kumari A; Stavas, Joseph; Siedhoff, Matthew T

2015-02-01

21

A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits.

Kim, Dong-Ju

2015-01-01

22

Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

2008-01-01

23

Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

2013-08-06

24

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

25

Effective wall thickness of a single-walled carbon nanotube  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effective wall thickness of a single-walled carbon nanotube, a critical quantity for any research in mechanics and property characterization of carbon nanotubes. To this end, the response of a bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes to external hydrostatic pressure was modeled using the ring theory of continuum mechanics. The model predicted that the equivalent thickness should be

T. Vodenitcharova; L. C. Zhang

2003-01-01

26

Correlation between Peak Expiratory Flow and Abdominal Muscle Thickness  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration. PMID:25435702

Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ito, Tomotaka; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

2014-01-01

27

Primary abdominal wall hydatid cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is endemic in our country. A case of a 13-year-old girl with primary intermuscular hydatid cyst in the abdominal wall without other organ involvement is presented and discussed. At laparotomy, the entire endocyst, seen to push the peritoneum inwards, was totally extracted from the abdominal muscle planes without destroying the cyst wall. The postoperative course was uneventful. She is currently disease-free with a follow-up of two years. Hydatid cyst should be considered in endemic areas in patients presenting with a soft tissue mass in the abdominal wall. PMID:24911854

Erikci, Volkan; Ho?gör, Münevver; Aksoy, Nail

2014-01-01

28

Ultrasound of the abdominal wall: what lies beneath?  

PubMed

Clinically equivocal abdominal wall lesions often pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. It can be equally challenging to appreciate the nature of abdominal wall lesions found incidentally on abdominal ultrasound examinations. Ultrasound is a non-ionizing, cheap, and easily accessible investigation for such lesions. It is widely used and has the added advantage of being a dynamic investigation. However, imaging with ultrasound is operator-dependent and relies on technical skills. It is important to understand the imaging of normal anatomy and to be familiar with the imaging appearance of lesions. We present a review of various lesions seen during ultrasound examinations of the abdominal wall or as incidental findings on abdominal ultrasound. PMID:22854266

Jain, N; Goyal, N; Mukherjee, K; Kamath, S

2013-01-01

29

Plastic surgery repair of abdominal wall and pelvic floor defects.  

PubMed

Urologists often encounter large perineal and abdominal wall defects, the treatment of which may require close collaboration with the plastic surgeon. These complex defects can be successfully treated using a variety of techniques. Ventral hernias or freshly created abdominal wall defects can be treated with the basic principles of tension-free closure using abdominal wall components separation, synthetic mesh reconstruction, and, more recently, biosynthetic acellular dermis reconstruction. Pelvic floor defects often require flap reconstruction using gracilis flaps, vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, or local fasciocutaneous flap. In this article, we seek to familiarize the urologists with the most common techniques used by plastic and reconstructive surgeons in the treatment of these complicated pelvic floor and abdominal wall defects. PMID:17349533

Buck, Donald W; Khalifeh, Marwan; Redett, Richard J

2007-01-01

30

Pedicled omental and split skin graft in the reconstruction of the anterior abdominal wall?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The POSSG is a pedicled graft based on either the right or left gastro-epiploic arteries. It is used with a dual mesh in reconstruction of full thickness defects of anterior abdominal wall and covered by skin grafts. PRESENTATION OF CASE A recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the anterior abdominal wall was excised leaving a large defect. The POSSG was used for reconstruction. A large dual mesh was placed to close the defect in the abdominal wall by suturing it to the remnant rim of abdominal muscles. The omental pedicle was brought through a keyhole in the mesh, spread out over the mesh, sutured and covered by split skin grafts. The final graft take was 90 percent. DISCUSSION The POSSG can be used to reconstruct any size of anterior abdominal wall defects due to the malleable nature of omentum. Its prerequisite however is a dual mesh like PROCEED. The POSSG helps keep the more complex musculofasciocutaneous flaps as lifeboats. It can be used singly where multiple musculofasciocutaneous flaps would otherwise have been required. It can be used in patients with poor prognosis of underlying malignancy. It may be used by general surgeons due to familiarity with anatomy of the relevant structures and lack of need for microsurgical skill. CONCLUSION The POSSG can be used in reconstruction of abdominal wall defects of any size by general surgeons. PMID:24566428

Manay, Priyadarshini; Khajanchi, Monty; Prajapati, Ram; Satoskar, Rajeev

2014-01-01

31

Giant Abdominal Wall Hernia in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common problems found in patients with cirrhosis because of persistently high intra-abdominal pressure. When abdominal hernias are neglected in such patients, they may become larger and could result in cosmetic problems and pressure effects that are also difficult to treat. We found a voluminous mass in the anterior abdominal wall of a 40-year-old patient with cirrhosis. The patient was operated on for acute cholecystitis 12 years earlier. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an epigastric hernia presenting as a grossly distended hernia sac filled with serous fluid and intestinal loops. The patient was not operated on and was discharged with sodium-restricted diet and diuretics PMID:25093066

Sadeghi, Anahita; Ali Asgari, Ali

2014-01-01

32

A Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair: A Laparoscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias from blunt trauma usually occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions where the force is tangential, sudden, and severe. Although rare, these hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Open repairs can be challenging and unsuccessful due to avulsion of muscle directly from the iliac crest, with or without bone loss. A laparoscopic approach to traumatic abdominal wall hernia can aid in the delineation of the hernia and allow for a safe and effective repair. Case Description: A 36-year-old female was admitted to our Level 1 trauma center with a traumatic abdominal wall hernia located in the right flank near the iliac crest after being involved in a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the presence of an abdominal wall defect that was unapparent on physical examination. The traumatic abdominal wall hernia in the right flank was successfully repaired laparoscopically. One-year follow-up has shown no sign of recurrence. Discussion: A traumatic abdominal wall hernia rarely presents following blunt trauma, but should be suspected following a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Frequently, repair is complicated by the need to have fixation of mesh to bony landmarks (eg, iliac crest). In spite of this challenge, the laparoscopic approach with tension-free mesh repair of a traumatic abdominal wall hernia can be accomplished successfully using an approach similar to that taken for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:23477181

Wilson, Kenneth L.; Rosser, James C.

2012-01-01

33

Delayed dynamic abdominal wall closure following multi-visceral transplantation  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Primary closure of the abdominal wall following intestinal transplantation or multivisceral transplantation could become a challenging problem in a significant number of patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) underwent a multi-visceral transplantation for short gut syndrome. She subsequently developed acute graft rejection that proved resistant to conventional treatment. She was relisted and underwent re-transplantation along with kidney transplantation. Abdominal wall closure could not be achieved because of the large size of the graft and bowel oedema. The wound was initially managed with laparostomy followed by insertion of the delayed dynamic abdominal closure (DDAC) device (Abdominal Retraction Anchor – ABRA® system). Continuous dynamic traction to the wound edges resulted in gradual approximation and complete closure of the abdominal wound was achieved within 3 weeks. DISCUSSION Successful abdominal closure after multivisceral transplantation or isolated intestinal transplantation often requires biological mesh, vascularised flaps or abdominal wall transplantation. DDAC eliminated the need for a prosthetic mesh or skin graft and provided an excellent cosmetic result. Adjustment of the dynamic traction at the bedside minimised the need for multiple returns to the operating theatre. It resulted in a well-healed linear scar without a hernia. CONCLUSION Dynamic traction allows delayed closure of laparotomy resulting in strong and cosmetically sound wound healing with native tissue. PMID:25460454

Iype, Satheesh; Butler, Andrew; Jamieson, Neville; Middleton, Stephen; Jah, Asif

2014-01-01

34

Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

1987-10-06

35

Personalized identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes on computed tomography.  

PubMed

An abdominal wall hernia is a protrusion of the intestine through an opening or area of weakness in the abdominal wall. Correct pre-operative identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes could help surgeons adjust the surgical plan to meet the expected difficulty and morbidity of operating through or removing the previous mesh. First, we present herein for the first time the application of image analysis for automated identification of hernia meshes. Second, we discuss the novel development of a new entropy-based image texture feature using geostatistics and indicator kriging. Third, we seek to enhance the hernia mesh identification by combining the new texture feature with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix feature of the image. The two features can characterize complementary information of anatomic details of the abdominal hernia wall and its mesh on computed tomography. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed study. The new computational tool has potential for personalized mesh identification which can assist surgeons in the diagnosis and repair of complex abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24184112

Pham, Tuan D; Le, Dinh T P; Xu, Jinwei; Nguyen, Duc T; Martindale, Robert G; Deveney, Clifford W

2014-01-01

36

Arterial wall thickness measurements by B mode ultrasonography in patients with Takayasu's arteritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and potential diagnostic usefulness of arterial ultrasonography in Takayasu's arteritis. METHODS: The total wall, intimal + medial, and adventitial thickness of the common carotid, subclavian and common femoral arteries, and of the abdominal aorta, were examined by B mode ultrasonography in 16 patients with Takayasu's arteritis and 16 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: The mean total wall and intimal + medial thickness of all arteries other than the common femoral were significantly increased in Takayasu's arteritis. Long segments of homogeneous circumferential wall thickening in multiple vessels were characteristic. When the common carotid and subclavian arteries and the abdominal aorta were examined, each individual with Takayasu's arteritis had at least one artery with total wall thickness exceeding the reference range in controls. CONCLUSIONS: B mode ultrasonography is able to expose the widespread arterial wall thickening characteristic of Takayasu's arteritis and may provide a useful tool for the detection and follow up of this disease. Images PMID:8774165

Raninen, R O; Kupari, M M; Pamilo, M S; Pajari, R I; Poutanen, V P; Hekali, P E

1996-01-01

37

WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias  

PubMed Central

Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

2013-01-01

38

Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

2014-01-01

39

Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

2010-03-01

40

Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction.  

PubMed

This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

2011-01-01

41

Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

2011-01-01

42

On thick domain walls in general relativity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

1989-01-01

43

High accuracy wall thickness loss monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic inspection of wall thickness in pipes is a standard technique applied widely in the petrochemical industry. The potential precision of repeat measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors however significantly surpasses that of handheld sensors as uncertainties associated with coupling fluids and positional offsets are eliminated. With permanently installed sensors the precise evaluation of very small wall loss rates becomes feasible in a matter of hours. The improved accuracy and speed of wall loss rate measurements can be used to evaluate and develop more effective mitigation strategies. This paper presents an overview of factors causing variability in the ultrasonic measurements which are then systematically addressed and an experimental setup with the best achievable stability based on these considerations is presented. In the experimental setup galvanic corrosion is used to induce predictable and very small wall thickness loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental measurements can be used to assess the effect of reduced wall loss that is produced by the injection of corrosion inhibitor. The measurements show an estimated standard deviation of about 20nm, which in turn allows us to evaluate the effect and behaviour of corrosion inhibitors within less than an hour.

Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

2014-02-01

44

Malignant Schwannoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

Malignant schwannoma of the anterior abdominal wall nerves is extremely rare. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and it is found in 4% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1. We present a case of malignant schwannoma in a 28-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis 1. She presented with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. The tumor location was in the abdominal wall in explorative laparatomy and malignant schwannoma was diagnosed in pathologic assessment. The tumor recurred in 3 months and computed tomography showed two masses in the right side of abdominopelvic cavity. Thereafter, second complete surgical resection was performed and pathologic finding was the same. In spite of administering chemotherapy after second surgery,the tumor recurred and magnetic resonance imaging finding showed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass with adhesion to the inner side of the abdominal wall. The patient died because of acute respiratory failure due to multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases. Tumor location and rapid recurrence was unique in our patient. Keywords Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Malignant schwannoma; Abdominal wall PMID:22461875

Khorgami, Zhamak; Nasiri, Shirzad; Rezakhanlu, Freshteh; Sodagari, Nassim

2009-01-01

45

Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall has been simulated using a model for two-dimensional propagation through anatomically realistic tissue cross sections. The time-domain equations for wave propagation in a medium of variable sound speed and density were discretized to obtain a set of coupled finite-difference equations. These difference equations were solved numerically using a two-step MacCormack scheme that is fourth-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time. The inhomogeneous tissue of the abdominal wall was represented by two-dimensional matrices of sound speed and density values. These values were determined by processing scanned images of abdominal wall cross sections stained to identify connective tissue, muscle, and fat, each of which was assumed to have a constant sound speed and density. The computational configuration was chosen to simulate that of wavefront distortion measurements performed on the same specimens. Qualitative agreement was found between those measurements and the results of the present computations, indicating that the computational model correctly depicts the salient characteristics of ultrasonic wavefront distortion in vivo. However, quantitative agreement was limited by the two-dimensionality of the computation and the absence of detailed tissue microstructure. Calculations performed using an asymptotic straight-ray approximation showed good agreement with time-shift aberrations predicted by the full-wave method, but did not explain the amplitude fluctuations and waveform distortion found in the experiments and the full-wave calculations. Visualization of computed wave propagation within tissue cross sections suggests that amplitude fluctuations and waveform distortion observed in ultrasonic propagation through the abdominal wall are associated with scattering from internal inhomogeneities such as septa within the subcutaneous fat. These observations, as well as statistical analysis of computed and observed amplitude fluctuations, suggest that weak fluctuation models do not fully describe ultrasonic wavefront distortion caused by the abdominal wall. PMID:9265762

Mast, T D; Hinkelman, L M; Orr, M J; Sparrow, V W; Waag, R C

1997-08-01

46

[Clostridial myonecrosis of the abdominal wall - case report].  

PubMed

The authors present a case report of a forty-five-year-old patient operated on for acute appendicitis who developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall within 48 hours after an appendectomy and subsequently also clostridial sepsis. Due to early diagnosis and intensive care, the patient survived. Clostridial myonecrosis is a rare complication after abdominal surgery and may be fatal in many cases. In our literature, there are only a few publications describing cases of patients who survived this rare postoperative complication. PMID:25047974

Látrová, S; Cáp, R; Subrt, Z

2014-06-01

47

“Acute postoperative open abdominal wall”: Nosological concept and treatment implications  

PubMed Central

The so-called “burst abdomen” has been described for many years and is a well-known clinical condition, whereas the concept of the “open abdomen” is relatively new. In clinical practice, both nosological entities are characterized by a complex spectrum of symptoms apparently disconnected, which in many cases poses a great challenge for surgical repair. In order to assess the management of these disorders in a more comprehensive and integral fashion, the concept of “acute postoperative open abdominal wall” (acute POAW) is presented, which in turn can be divided into “intentional” or planned acute POAW and “unintentional” or unplanned POAW. The understanding of the acute POAW as a single clinical process not only allows a better optimization of the therapeutic approach in the surgical repair of abdominal wall-related disorders, but also the stratification and collection of data in different patient subsets, favoring a better knowledge of the wide spectrum of conditions involved in the surgical reconstruction of the abdominal wall. PMID:24392182

López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José A; Armengol-Carrasco, Manuel

2013-01-01

48

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

E-print Network

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms Z7342,13384 Marseille Keywords: wall shear stress, abdominal aortic aneurysm, endothelial cells, mechanotransduction 1. Introduction The formation of aneurysm of abdominal aorta (AAA), is a multi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Clear cell carcinoma arising in the abdominal wall: two case reports and literature review.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinoma originating in the abdominal wall is rare and usually develops within endometriotic implants in the scar. We describe 2 patients: a 42 year old with a 15 cm mass on the abdominal wall treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and excision and a 51 year old with a 6 cm abdominal mass treated with excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:22840730

Mert, Ismail; Semaan, Assaad; Kim, Steve; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Morris, Robert T

2012-08-01

50

New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

Pascente, Joseph E.

1998-03-01

51

Acute acalculous cholecystitis after abdominal wall repair (Rives-Stoppa).  

PubMed

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare condition normally occurring in critically ill patients. Compared to acute calculous cholecystitis, AAC is associated with complications and has a worse outcome. Hence, knowledge of this condition is very important. We describe a case of a 31-year-old man who developed AAC after abdominal wall repair with mesh (Rives-Stoppa procedure) 1 day after discharge from the hospital. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to report AAC after abdominal incisional hernia repair. Although it is known to be more common in critically ill patients, AAC can also occur postoperatively in outpatients. Early recognition and treatment of AAC may improve outcome. PMID:24739656

Reurings, Jurrian C; Diaz, Ruben P D; Penninga, Luit; Nellensteijn, David R

2014-01-01

52

Abdominal Wall Endometrioma: Ultrasonographic Features and Correlation with Clinical Findings  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis of abdominal wall endometrioma (AWE) is often confused with other surgical conditions. Certain factors relating to knowledge of the clinical history of the disease make correct diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To present the clinical findings and ultrasonographic (US) features of AWE with special emphasis on size-related features. Study Design: This study reviewed abdominal wall endometriomas during a 2-year period in the Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, Izmir. Methods: Eleven women (mean age 32.6 years) with 12 scar endometriomas (mean diameter 29.2 mm) were consecutively evaluated by US and Colour Doppler examination (CDUS) prior to surgery. Lesions were grouped into large (?3 cm) and small nodules. Vascularisation was classified as location (central, peripheral and mixed) and severity (absent, moderately vascular and hypervascular). In each patient, the nature of pain (absent, cyclic: associated with menstruation and continuous), historical and clinical data were documented. Four patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their findings were presented. Fisher’s exact test, ?2 test for categorical data and the unpaired T-test for continuous variables were used for statistical analysis. Results: In all the women, US of the AWE showed the presence of a solid hypoechoic mass (less echogenic than the surrounding hyperechoic fat) within the abdominal wall. There was a significant correlation between AWE sizes with repeated caesareans and the mean time between the last operation and admission to hospital (p<0.05). Large endometriomas showed increased central vascularity (p<0.05). Cyclic pain was more frequent in small lesions, whereas continuous pain was more commonly found in patients with larger lesions (p<0.05). Conclusion: AWE is often misdiagnosed clinically because endometriosis may occur years after the caesarean section, the pain is often non-cyclic in nature, and there is not always a palpable tender mass. The sonographic and Doppler findings, along with proper correlation with clinical data, may substantially contribute to the correct diagnosis of endometrioma. PMID:25207093

Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Yalaz, Seyhan; ?ahin, Neslin; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Solak, ?lhami

2013-01-01

53

Traumatic anterior abdominal wall hernia: A report of three rare cases  

PubMed Central

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare condition that can follow any blunt trauma. Associated intra-abdominal injuries are infrequent. In this study, we are reporting three cases, diagnosed as abdominal wall hernia associated with herniation of bowel loops due to blunt trauma. In one case, injury of the herniated bowel was seen. In western medical literature, only few cases have been reported especially with intra-abdominal injuries. PMID:21633587

Singal, Rikki; Dalal, Usha; Dalal, Ashwani Kumar; Attri, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Raman; Gupta, Anupama; Naredi, Bikash; Kenwar, Deepesh Benjamin; Gupta, Samita

2011-01-01

54

Abdominal Wall Hydatid Cyst: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old woman presented with a swelling in right paraumbilical region of one-year duration. Examination revealed a painless cystic swelling 15 × 10?cm with cough impulse. Ultrasound and CECT abdomen showed a subcutaneous cystic swelling with intramuscular extension. No other intraabdominal cystic lesions were found. Surgical exploration showed a cystic lesion adherent to peritoneum without any intraperitoneal extension. Cyst was carefully excised without any spillage. Gross specimen on opening showed multiple daughter cysts consistent with hydatid cyst, confirming the diagnosis of solitary abdominal wall hydatid cyst. PMID:22953153

Abhishek, V.; Patil, Vijayraj S.; Mohan, Ullikashi; Shivswamy, B. S.

2012-01-01

55

Tissue Expander Capsule for Abdominal Wall in Autologous Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Summary: Adjuvant treatment planning can change after breast cancer resection and definitive pathological examination. Radiation therapy is often chosen as a supplementary treatment. Rectus abdominis–based muscle flaps are one of the main choices when breast reconstruction plans must be changed from implant-based to autologous methods. We herein report a case in which the patient’s own tissue expander capsule was used to repair an abdominal wall defect after muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction. PMID:25506530

Webster, Ronaldo Scholze; Netto, Rafael; de Araujo, Thiago Bozzi; Ely, Pedro Bins

2014-01-01

56

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress  

E-print Network

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress E wall stress (PWS) and abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters in the presence rights reserved. Introduction It has been postulated that aneurysm peak wall stress (PWS) may be superior

Papaharilaou, Yannis

57

The ratio between anterior abdominal wall surface/wall defect surface: a new parameter to classify abdominal incisional hernias.  

PubMed

Current classifications of incisional hernias are often not suitable. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that it is important to consider not only the wall defect surface (WDS) but also the total surface of the anterior abdominal wall (SAW) and the ratio between SAW/WDS). Twenty-three patients affected by > 10 cm size incisional hernias were examined for anthropometric analyses. The SAW, the WDS and the ratio SAW/WDS were calculated. All of the 23 patients were operated on 13 patients were treated with the Rives technique using a polypropylene mesh while the remaning ten patients had an intraperitoneal Parietex Composite mesh (PC). The two groups were compared for post-operative pain (with VAS) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) 48 h after the operation: bladder pressure, length of the procedure, average hospital stay and return to work were calculated. In the Rives group, WDS being equal, the higher IAP values were, the lower was the ratio SAW/WDS; furthermore, SAW/WDS ratio being equal, IAP values were low in cases where intraperitoneal mesh was used. Post-operative pain, measured with VAS, was critical when there was a low SAW/WDS ratio and a high IAP. In our experience, it is possible to predict a strong abdominal wall tension if the SAW/WDA ratio is below 15 mmHg. In these cases it is advisable to use a technique requiring the use of an intraperitoneal mesh. Our experience with PC was so positive that it is used in our department for all cases where an intraperitoneal mesh is required. At present, our proposal is that the SAW/WDS ratio is to be considered as a new parameter in current classifications of incisional hernias. PMID:16172802

Ammaturo, C; Bassi, G

2005-12-01

58

Strain Analysis of Wall Motion in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this exploratory study, we used ultrasound speckle-tracking methods, originally used for analyzing cardiac wall motion, to evaluate aortic wall motion. Materials and Methods: We compared 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients with 10 healthy volunteers (diameter, 48 mm vs. 15 mm). Motion pictures of the axial view of the aneurysm using ultrasonography were analyzed. Circumferential strain and strain rate at 6 equally divided segments of the aorta were semiautomatically calculated. We termed ‘peak’ strain and strain rate as the maximum of strain and strain rate in a cardiac cycle for each segment. We also evaluated the coefficient of variation of peak strain rate for the six segments. Results: In the aneurysm and control groups, the mean values of peak strain along the 6 segments were 1.5% ± 0.6% vs. 4.7% ± 1.6% (p <0.0001), respectively. The coefficient of variation of the peak strain rate was higher in the AAA group (0.74 ± 0.20) than in the control group (0.56 ± 0.12; p <0.05). Conclusions: Aortic wall compliance decreased in the more atherosclerotic AAA group. The higher relative dispersion of strain rates in the AAA group is indicative of the inhomogeneous movement of the aortic wall.

Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

59

Novel Technique for Innervated Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: A Separation of Components Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective: Applications for Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation may expand if a functional graft with decreased immunosuppressive requirements can be designed. We hypothesize that it is anatomically feasible to prepare a functional, innervated, and vascularized abdominal composite graft using a multilayered component separation technique. Including vascularized bone in the graft design may decrease the immunosuppressive requirements by inducing immunologic chimerism. Methods: Two cadaver torsos were used. Adipocutaneous flaps were elevated from the midaxillary lines, preserving deep inferior epigastric artery perforators. A 2-layered component separation through the external and internal oblique fasciae was carried out, exposing segmental intercostal thoracolumbar nerves. Superiorly directed muscle release over the subcostal margin provided for a 3-rib segment with attached rectus abdominis muscle. The remainder of the full-thickness allograft was harvested with its vasculature. Flap inset into the recipient cadaver abdomen, with osteosynthesis fixation between donor and recipient ribs, was achieved. Results: The harvested grafts had an average size of 845 ± 205 cm2 with a total procurement time of 110 minutes. On one cadaver, 4 thoracolumbar nerves were isolated bilaterally, while the other cadaver yielded 3 nerves. The nerves were transected with an average length of 5.7 ± 1.2 cm. The graft vasculature was transected with a length of 4.40 ± 0.10 cm. Conclusion: Using the principles of component separation technique, we demonstrated a novel approach to harvest and transfer a neurotized osteomyofasciocutaneous abdominal wall allotransplant as a multipedicled, single functional unit. PMID:25328567

Mavrophilipos, Vasilios D.; Zapora, Jeffrey A.; Berli, Jens; Broyles, Justin; Chopra, Karan; Sabino, Jennifer; Matthews, Jamil; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Maddox, John S.; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Silverman, Ronald P.

2014-01-01

60

An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

2011-06-01

61

Spontaneous intraamniotic hemorrhage in the second trimester mimicking an abdominal wall defect  

PubMed Central

We report here a case of spontaneous intraamniotic haemorrhage in the second trimester which mimicked an abdominal wall defect. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed and a review of the literature regarding differential diagnosis of bleeding and abdominal wall defects is made. PMID:24592085

Üstüner, I??k; Güven, Emine Seda Güvenda?; Bal?k, Gül?ah; ?entürk, ?enol; Üstüner, Evren; Atman, Ebru Dü?ünceli; Av?ar, Ay?e Filiz

2013-01-01

62

Malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis with lymph node metastasis: Case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

•A simple endometriosis can result in malignancy pathology, as a neoplasia.•Wall-abdominal tumors and soft tissue as a possible differential diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis•Preperitoneal node-metastasis as malignancy of endometriosis in previous cesarean scar. PMID:24567887

Fargas Fàbregas, Francesc; Cusidó Guimferrer, Maite; Tresserra Casas, Francesc; Baulies Caballero, Sonia; Fábregas Xauradó, Rafael

2014-04-01

63

Abdominal Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Predicts the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal visceral fat plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Ultrasonography (US) distinctively quantifies visceral fat and subcutaneous fat. We measured the maximum preperitoneal visceral fat thickness (Vmax) and the minimum subcutaneous fat thickness (Smin) by US in 185 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Although the 144

Kosuke Hamagawa; Yoshihisa Matsumura; Toru Kubo; Kayo Hayato; Makoto Okawa; Katsutoshi Tanioka; Naohito Yamasaki; Hiroaki Kitaoka; Toshikazu Yabe; Masanori Nishinaga; Yoshinori L. Doi

2010-01-01

64

The effect of abdominal wall morphology on ultrasonic pulse distortion. Part I. Measurements.  

PubMed

The relative importance of the fat and muscle layers of the human abdominal wall in producing ultrasonic wavefront distortion was assessed by means of direct measurements. Specimens employed included six whole abdominal wall specimens and twelve partial specimens obtained by dividing each whole specimen into a fat and a muscle layer. In the measurement technique employed, a hemispheric transducer transmitted a 3.75-MHz ultrasonic pulse through a tissue section. The received wavefront was measured by a linear array translated in the elevation direction to synthesize a two-dimensional aperture. Insertion loss was also measured at various locations on each specimen. Differences in arrival time and energy level between the measured waveforms and computed references that account for geometric delay and spreading were calculated. After correction for the effects of geometry, the received waveforms were synthetically focused. The characteristics of the distortion produced by each specimen and the quality of the resulting focus were analyzed and compared. The measurements show that muscle produces greater arrival time distortion than fat while fat produces greater energy level distortion than muscle, but that the distortion produced by the entire abdominal wall is not equivalent to a simple combination of distortion effects produced by the layers. The results also indicate that both fat and muscle layers contribute significantly to the distortion of ultrasonic beams by the abdominal wall. However, the spatial characteristics of the distortion produced by fat and muscle layers differ substantially. Distortion produced by muscle layers, as well as focal images aberrated by muscle layers, show considerable anisotropy associated with muscle fiber orientation. Distortion produced by fat layers shows smaller-scale, granular structure associated with scattering from the septa surrounding individual fat lobules. Thick layers of fat may be expected to cause poor image quality due to both scattering and bulk absorption effects, while thick muscle layers may be expected to cause focus aberration due to large arrival time fluctuations. Correction of aberrated focuses using time-shift compensation shows more complete correction for muscle sections than for fat sections, so that correction methods based on phase screen models may be more appropriate for muscle layers than for fat layers. PMID:9857521

Hinkelman, L M; Mast, T D; Metlay, L A; Waag, R C

1998-12-01

65

Improved zipper closure of the abdominal wall in patients requiring multiple intra-abdominal operations.  

PubMed

Optimal management of pancreatic abscess and septic complications of acute pancreatitis remains controversial. With the "open packing" approach, repeated closure of the midline fascia is complicated by loss of tissue integrity and suture strength. An improved zipper closure of the abdominal wall in six patients with pancreatic abscess is presented. Improvements included: (1) using a separating jacket-type zipper to allow maximal intraoperative exposure; (2) employing a removable tuck for expansion of the patch covering the wound; (3) substituting a nonmeshed polytetrafluoroethylene material for the polypropylene mesh to prevent adherence to the underlying viscera; and (4) creating a flap underneath the zipper teeth to protect the underlying tissue from injury. Satisfactory results were achieved with the improved zipper technique. PMID:8328632

Mizrahi, S; Deutsch, M; Hayes, D; Meshkind, S; Sorant, B; Hussey, J; Boudreaux, J P

1993-07-01

66

Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

2014-09-22

67

Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Musculofascial Defects with Small Intestinal Submucosa Scaffolds Seeded with Tenocytes in Rats  

PubMed Central

The repair of abdominal wall defects following surgery remains a difficult challenge. Although multiple methods have been described to restore the integrity of the abdominal wall, there is no clear consensus on the ideal material for reconstruction. This study explored the feasibility of in vivo reconstruction of a rat model of an abdominal wall defect with a composite scaffold of tenocytes and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). In the current study, we created a 2×1.5?cm abdominal wall defect in the anterolateral abdominal wall of Sprague-Dawley rats, which were assigned into three groups: the cell-SIS construct group, the cell-free SIS scaffold group, and the abdominal wall defect group. Tenocytes were obtained from the tendons of rat limbs. After isolation and expansion, cells (2×107/mL) were seeded onto the three-layer SIS scaffolds and cultured in vitro for 5 days. Cell-SIS constructs or cell-free constructs were implanted to repair the abdominal wall defects. The results showed that the tenocytes could grow on the SIS scaffold and secreted corresponding matrices. In addition, both scaffolds could repair the abdominal wall defects with no hernia recurrence. In comparison to the cell-free SIS scaffold, the composite scaffold exhibited increased vascular regeneration and mechanical strength. Furthermore, following increased time in vivo, the mechanical strength of the composite scaffold became stronger. The results indicate that the composite scaffold can provide increased mechanical strength that may be suitable for repairing abdominal wall defects. PMID:23402600

Song, Zhicheng; Peng, Zhiyou; Liu, Zhengni; Yang, Jianjun; Tang, Rui

2013-01-01

68

Abdominal Wall Closure of Renal Transplant Recipients: An Undermined Challenge  

PubMed Central

Tension-free muscle closure is essential in kidney transplantation, both in adult and pediatric patients. Tight muscle closure may lead to renal transplant compartment syndrome either due to compression of the renal parenchyma or due to kinking of the renal vessels. It may also cause kinking of the transplant kidney ureter, wound dehiscence and incisional hernia. Many techniques have been proposed in an attempt to achieve tension-free closure. There is a wrong belief among some surgeons that using prosthetic mesh may increase the incidence of infection complications in these immunosuppressed patients. Also, there is fear that one is not able to monitor the renal graft by ultrasound and perform biopsy in the presence of a mesh. Other alternative techniques to mesh closure include subcutaneous placement and intraperitonealization of the kidney transplant. These techniques however, are valuable when mesh closure is unfavorable or contraindicated as in case of the presence of a potential source of infection like a stoma. Abdominal wall fasciotomy can be adjunctive to various techniques of muscle closure. PMID:25013568

Halawa, A.

2010-01-01

69

Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. PMID:23835844

Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

2013-01-01

70

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model.  

PubMed

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-09-01

71

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model  

PubMed Central

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-01-01

72

Abdominal wall reconstruction by a regionally distinct biocomposite of extracellular matrix digest and a biodegradable elastomer.  

PubMed

Current extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds offer promising regenerative responses in many settings, however in some applications there may be a desire for more robust and long lasting mechanical properties. A biohybrid composite material that offers both strength and bioactivity for optimal healing towards native tissue behavior may offer a solution to this problem. A regionally distinct biocomposite scaffold composed of a biodegradable elastomer (poly(ester urethane)urea) and porcine dermal ECM gel was generated to meet this need by a concurrent polymer electrospinning/ECM gel electrospraying technique where the electrosprayed component was varied temporally during the processing. A sandwich structure was achieved with polymer fiber rich upper and lower layers for structural support and an ECM-rich inner layer to encourage cell ingrowth. Increasing the upper and lower layer fiber content predictably increased tensile strength. In a rat full thickness abdominal wall defect model, the sandwich scaffold design maintained its thickness whereas control biohybrid scaffolds lacking the upper and lower fiber-rich regions failed at 8 weeks. Sandwich scaffold implants also showed higher collagen content 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, exhibited an increased M2 macrophage phenotype response at later times and developed biaxial mechanical properties better approximating native tissue. By employing a processing approach that creates a sheet-form scaffold with regionally distinct zones, it was possible to improve biological outcomes in body wall repair and provide the means for further tuning scaffold mechanical parameters when targeting other applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24376045

Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Huber, Alexander; Amoroso, Nicholas J; D'Amore, Antonio; Badylak, Stephen F; Wagner, William R

2013-12-27

73

[Necrotizing dermohypodermitis of the abdominal wall in obesity. Two cases indicative of abdominopelvic deep infection].  

PubMed

Necrotizing dermohypodermitis of abdominal wall in obese is a rare disease with high mortality. We report two cases of 50 and 62years old patients whose intra-abdominal infectious pathology (appendicular abscess for one and pyosalpinx for the other) was revealed by a necrotizing dermohypodermitis of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis has been established on the basis of converging clinical arguments (abdominal pain, crackles and necrotic appearance of abdominal wall in a septic shock context), linked with a CT-scan. The treatment consisted of a large excision of the abdominal wall necrosis and surgical eradication of deep infection source, with an intensive care and a broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Both these patients present morbid obesity (BMI>40) whose implication must be taken into consideration in the way the disease appears. Indeed, the necrotizing dermohypodermitis of abdominal wall in these patients must lead first in looking for a deep infection with few symptoms. It must be identified quickly to propose an early and multidisciplinary surgical treatment. PMID:23410721

Pegot, A; Aktouf, A; Delpierre, V; Milliez, P-Y; Auquit-Auckbur, I

2013-06-01

74

Abdominal wall reconstruction using biological tissue grafts: present status and future opportunities.  

PubMed

Surgeons often encounter the challenge of treating acquired abdominal wall defects following abdominal surgery. The current standard of practice is to repair most defects using permanent synthetic mesh material. Mesh augments the strength of the weakened abdominal wall fascia and enables the hernia repair to be performed in a tension-free manner. However, there is a risk of acute and/or chronic infection, fistula formation and chronic abdominal wall pain with the use of permanent mesh materials, which can lead to more complex operations. As a means to avoid such problems, surgeons are turning increasingly to the use of xenogenic and allogenic materials for the repair of abdominal wall defects. Their rapid evolution and introduction into the clinical operating room is leading to a new era in abdominal wall reconstruction. There are promising, albeit limited, clinical data with short-term follow-up for only a few of the many biological tissue grafts that are being promoted currently for the repair of abdominal hernias. Additional clinical studies are required to better understand the long-term efficacy and limitations of these materials. PMID:17064250

Bellows, Charles F; Alder, Adam; Helton, W Scott

2006-09-01

75

Outcome of prenatally diagnosed anterior abdominal wall defects  

PubMed Central

One hundred consecutive cases of confirmed anterior abdominal wall defect, identified prenatally in the Oxford Prenatal Diagnosis Unit over 11 years, were studied. Fifty nine per cent of cases were suspected omphaloceles and 41% suspected gastroschisis. Fifty four per cent of omphaloceles were accompanied by other defects compared with 5% of those with gastroschisis. Overall, 29% of fetuses with omphalocele had an abnormal karyotype, and of those with another abnormality identified on scan (excluding four cases with no karyotype performed), 54% had an abnormal karyotype. Of the 27 cases with suspected isolated omphalocele, 14 were live born, all of whom have survived. If the 11 whose parents opted for termination of pregnancy are excluded, survival to birth was 88%. Six of the suspected isolated omphaloceles have Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Eight (57%) of the live born babies with omphaloceles had major problems up to the age of 2, but only one (7%) has long term major problems. This child has BWS and is deaf.? Of the 39 cases of suspected isolated gastroschisis, 33 (85%) pregnancies resulted in live birth and one in neonatal death after surgery. Survival rate (excluding terminated pregnancies) was 97%. Gastroschisis was associated with a younger maternal age than omphalocele (p<0.001) and lower birthweight centile (p<0.01).? Fifteen per cent of the gastroschisis babies had major problems up to the age of 2 years and 12% long term developmental problems. Ninety three per cent of the omphalocele babies and 88% of those who had gastroschisis have no long term problems. Over the study period there have been major changes in scanning equipment and expertise. Since 1991 no woman with a suspected isolated lesion has opted for termination of pregnancy.?? PMID:9713034

Boyd, P; Bhattacharjee, A; Gould, S; Manning, N; Chamberlain, P

1998-01-01

76

Functional abdominal wall reconstruction using an innervated abdominal wall vascularized composite tissue allograft: a cadaveric study and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Background?Large, composite abdominal wall defects represent complex problems requiring a multidisciplinary approach for reconstruction. Abdominal wall vascularized composite allotransplantation (AW-VCA) has been successfully performed in 21 patients, already receiving solid organ transplants, to provide immediate abdominal closure. The current study aims to establish a novel anatomic model for AW-VCA that retains motor and sensory function in an effort to preserve form and function while preventing complications. Methods?Three fresh cadaver torsos were obtained. Dissection was started in the midaxillary line bilaterally through the skin and subcutaneous fascia until the external oblique was encountered. The thoracolumbar nerves were identified and measurements were obtained. A peritoneal dissection from the costal margin to pubic symphysis was performed and the vascular pedicle was identified for subsequent microsurgical anastomosis. Results?The mean size of the abdominal wall graft harvested was 615?±?120 cm(2). The mean time of abdominal wall procurement was ?150?±?12 minutes. The mean number of thoracolumbar nerves identified was 5?±?1.4 on each side. The mean length of the skeletonized thoracolumbar nerves was 7.8?±?1.7 cm. The cross-sectional diameter of all nerves as they entered the rectus abdominis was greater than 2 mm. Conclusions?Motor function and sensory recovery is expected in other forms of vascularized composite allotransplantation, such as the hand or face; however, this has never been tested in AW-VCA. This study demonstrates feasibility for the transplantation of large, composite abdominal wall constructs that potentially retains movement, strength, and sensation through neurotization of both sensory and motor nerves. PMID:25184615

Broyles, Justin M; Berli, Jens; Tuffaha, Sami H; Sarhane, Karim A; Cooney, Damon S; Eckhauser, Frederic E; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Singh, Devinder P; Sacks, Justin M

2015-01-01

77

The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization  

PubMed Central

Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

2014-01-01

78

Evaluation of scoring accuracy for airway wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bronchial wall thickening is commonly observed in airway diseases. One method often used to quantitatively evaluate wall thickening in CT images is to estimate the ratio of the bronchial wall to the accompanying artery, or BWA ratio, and then assign a severity score based on the ratio. Assessment by visual inspection is unfortunately limited to airways perpendicular or parallel to the scanning plane. With high-resolution images from multi-detector CT scanners, it becomes possible to assess airways in any orientation. We selected CT scans from 20 patients with mild to severe COPD. A computer system automatically segmented each bronchial tree and measured the bronchial wall thicknesses. Next, neighboring arteries were detected and measured to determine BWA ratios. A score characterizing the extent and severity of wall thickening within each lobe was computed according to recommendations by Sheehan et al [1]. Two experienced radiologists independently scored wall thickening using visual assessment. Spearman's rank correlation showed a non-significant negative correlation (r=-0.1) between the computer and the reader average (p=0.4), while the correlation between readers was significant at r=0.65 (p=0.001). We subsequently identified 24 lobes with high discrepancies between visual and automated scoring. The readers re-examined those lobes and measured wall thickness using electronic calipers on perpendicular cross sections, rather than visual assessment. Using this more objective standard of wall thickness, the reader estimates of wall thickening increased to reach a significant positive correlation with automated scoring of r=0.65 (p=0.001). These results indicate that subjectivity is an important problem with visual evaluation, and that visual inspection may frequently underestimate disease extent and severity. Given that a manual evaluation of all airways is infeasible in routine clinical practice, we argue that automated methods should be developed and utilized.

Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Ko, Jane P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.

2009-02-01

79

Chest wall thickness measurements for enriched uranium: An alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Monitoring Laboratory has developed a technique to determine the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using phoswich detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with lung sets containing homogeneously distributed 93% enriched uranium, 20% enriched uranium,

Gary H. Kramer; Mirela Puscalau

1994-01-01

80

Use of an absorbable mesh to repair contaminated abdominal-wall defects.  

PubMed

When polypropylene mesh (Marlex) is used to repair contaminated abdominal-wall hernias, a high incidence of mesh-related chronic infection, drainage, erosion, and bleeding is noted. As an alternative to placing polypropylene mesh in a contaminated field, in the past 18 months we have used an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh (Dexon) to repair contaminated abdominal-wall defects in eight patients--three with necrotizing abdominal-wall infections, one with an extensive electrical burn of the abdominal wall, three with infected polypropylene mesh from a previous repair, and one whose hernia was covered by a chronically infected scar. In seven of the eight cases, a single sheet of polyglycolic acid mesh was sewn to the fascial margins. In four cases, skin was closed over the mesh; wound packing and subsequent skin grafting were required in the other four. In follow-up studies that ranged from three to 18 months, six of the eight patients developed abdominal-wall hernias at the site of absorbable mesh placement. None of the patients required an abdominal binder. Postoperative hernia development is probable in patients whose defects are repaired with absorbable mesh. However, this complication is balanced against the more serious complications of fistula, bleeding, skin erosion, drainage, and chronic infection, which require removal of the more rigid nonabsorbable meshes in 50% to 90% of cases when the latter are placed under contaminated conditions. Placement of absorbable mesh for temporary abdominal-wall support until wound contamination resolves enhances the likelihood of subsequent successful placement of a permanent mesh. PMID:3015071

Dayton, M T; Buchele, B A; Shirazi, S S; Hunt, L B

1986-08-01

81

The Limb-Abdominal Wall Complex Defects, a form of Amniotic Band Sydrome: A Rare Case Report.  

PubMed

The limb-body wall complex defects a form of amniotic band syndrome which consists of a polymal formation with a thoracic and /or an abdominal-schisis, eventration of the internal organ and anomalies of the extremities. We are presenting a case of a limb-body wall complex defect with the phenotype of a placenta-abdominal attachment, anomalies of the abdominal wall defect, absence of the right lower limb and genitourinary defects. PMID:23634417

Das, Sudhanshu Ku; Maharana, Sidharth Sankar; Subudhi, Monalisa; Rao, P V Subha

2013-03-01

82

Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.

Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, Bartycka 18 (Poland); Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2006-08-15

83

Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture analysis can improve the level set segmentation around the abdominal region.

Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

2013-12-15

84

Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Thickness with Vaginal Pressure Changes in Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of a pelvic floor muscle exercise program by comparing subjects’ muscle thickness with changes in vaginal pressure. [Subjects] Two groups of female participants without a medical history of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction were evaluated. The mean age of Group I was 33.5?years and that of Group II was 49.69?years. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform a pelvic floor muscle contraction. While measuring the vaginal pressure of the pelvic floor muscle, biofeedback was given on five levels, and the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles were measured with ultrasound. [Results] The thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle was significantly increased at 30 cmH2O in Group I, and at 20 cmH2O in Group II. The thickness of the internal oblique abdominal muscle significantly increased at maximum contraction in Group II. [Conclusion] Different abdominal muscles contracted depending on vaginal pressure. The result may be used to create and implement an exercise program that effectively strengthens the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:24707099

Kim, Bo-In; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Kim, Ha-Roo

2014-01-01

85

Factors Affecting Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Emergency Operation for Incarcerated Abdominal Wall Hernia  

PubMed Central

Patients with incarcerated abdominal wall hernias (AWHs) are often encountered in emergency care units. Despite advances in anesthesia, antisepsis, antibiotic therapy, and fluid therapy, the morbidity and mortality rates for these patients remain high. Between 2006 and 2011, we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 131 patients who underwent emergency surgery for incarcerated abdominal wall hernias. Of these, there were 70 women (53.4%) and 61 men (46.6%) with an average age of 63.3 ± 17.4 years (range, 17–91 years). Morbidity was observed in 28 patients (21.4%), and the mortality rate was 2.3%. Intestinal resection, presence of concomitant disease, and general anesthesia were the independent variants that affected morbidity of patients with incarcerated abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23294070

Gul, Mesut; Aliosmanoglu, Ibrahim; Kapan, Murat; Onder, Akin; Taskesen, Fatih; Arikanoglu, Zulfu; Tacyildiz, Ibrahim

2012-01-01

86

Chest wall thickness measurements for enriched uranium: an alternative approach.  

PubMed

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has developed a technique to determine the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using phoswich detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with lung sets containing homogeneously distributed 93% enriched uranium, 20% enriched uranium, natural uranium, and 241Am. It was found that a 3-cm chest wall thickness can be estimated to within 9% when measuring 93% enriched uranium. The technique does not work for the latter two radionuclides because of an insufficient separation in the photon energies and poor resolution of the phoswich detectors. The technique is only of value for activity levels well above the detection limit. PMID:8175366

Kramer, G H; Puscalau, M

1994-05-01

87

The abdominal wall lumps and bumps: cross-sectional imaging spectrum.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the cross-sectional imaging spectrum of abnormalities that affect the abdominal wall, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sectional imaging is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of abdominal-wall masses. With the increasing use of MRI, it is often possible to reach a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby guiding effective management. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies will be illustrated, and the distinctive imaging characteristics of these entities will be highlighted. PMID:22884230

Virmani, Vivek; Sethi, Vineeta; Fasih, Najla; Ryan, John; Kielar, Ania

2014-02-01

88

Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis due to dislodged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube.  

PubMed

Accessing the stomach via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is the preferred (and sometimes the only) method for providing enteral nutritional support in disabled patients. However, it is associated with serious and potentially lethal complications which must be completely recognised by physicians, by nurses and especially by radiologists. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis of a dislodged or leaking PEG tube could be a lethal complication. We present a case of a 74-year-old bed bound woman who was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. On presentation, the patient's temperature was 36°C and laboratory tests showed leucocytosis. Physical examination revealed extensive redness of the abdominal wall, diffuse tenderness of the abdomen and yellowish discharge around the gastrostomy. PMID:24591380

Artul, Suheil; Nseir, William; Assaf, Victor; Abboud, Nabil

2014-01-01

89

A Novel Nonoperative Approach to Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Wall Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in both medical and surgical patients. The gold standard remains surgical intervention; however, nonoperative approaches have been investigated less. Here, we describe the successful treatment of a severe acute case by intubation, nasogastric decompression, and paralysis—a novel approach not previously described in the literature. Case Description: After the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral component separation and repair of a large recurrent ventral hernia with a 20 × 30-cm Strattice mesh (LifeCell Corp, Branchburg, NJ), acute renal failure developed within 12 hours postoperatively, and was associated with oliguria, hyperkalemia, and elevated peak airway and bladder pressures. The patient was treated nonoperatively with intubation, nasogastric tube decompression, and paralysis with a vecuronium drip. Rapid reversal was seen, avoiding further surgery. Within 2 hours after intubation and paralysis, our patient's urine output improved dramatically with an initial diuresis of approximately 1 L, his bladder pressures decreased, and within 12 hours his creatinine level had normalized. Discussion: Although surgical intervention has traditionally been thought of as the most effective—and thus the gold standard—for abdominal compartment syndrome, this preliminary experience demonstrates nonoperative management as highly efficacious, with the added benefit of decreased morbidity. Therefore, nonoperative management could be considered first-line therapy, with laparotomy reserved for refractory cases only. This suggests a more complex pathology than the traditional teaching of congestion and edema alone. PMID:24018095

Sorensen, G. Brent

2013-01-01

90

Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall as a Post-Surgical Complication: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing fasciitis is an acute surgical condition that demands a prompt and combined treatment. Early recognition, aggressive surgical debridement, and targeted antibiotic therapy significantly affect the overall course of treatment and, ultimately, survival. The authors present a case of a woman with necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and the course and methods of treatment with particular attention to the

Dubravko Huljev; Nastja Kucisec-Tepes

91

Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk,

Yoshifumi Nakayama; Shinichi Kusuda; Naoki Nagata; Koji Yamaguchi; Yamaguchi K. Excision

2009-01-01

92

Malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

In recent years we have seen an increase in the frequency of cesarean sections. We present a case report of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis in a patient with a history of cesarean sections and describe its diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:23748829

Vinchant, Marie; Poncelet, Christophe; Ziol, Marianne; Vons, Corinne; Bricou, Alexandre

2013-01-01

93

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of abdominal wall endometriosis: a study of 10 cases.  

PubMed

While about 15% of menstruating women develop endometriosis, abdominal wall endometriosis is relatively rare. We present 10 cases of abdominal wall endometriosis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and confirmed by subsequent surgical excision. A palpable abdominal wall mass was the most common symptom, followed by pain. Nine cases were associated with previous surgery. The smear showed glandular epithelial cells and spindle or ovoid stromal cells accompanied by macrophages in eight cases. The nucleus was round-to-oval and the nucleolus was inconspicuous. Mitosis was not observed in any case. In two cases, which were suspicious of malignancy on FNA, the epithelial cells showed anisonucleosis, hyperchromasia, and small conspicuous nucleoli. The stromal cells were spindle or ovoid in shape, without metaplastic changes. Histiocytes were noted in nine cases and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were noted in two cases. The proportion of inflammatory cells varied. FNA diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis is possible when the cytological features are interpreted cautiously, together with the patient's clinical history. An accurate diagnosis on FNA will prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:21987456

Kim, Jung Yeon; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee

2013-02-01

94

Effects of bridge exercises with a sling and vibrations on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to examine the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (Io) muscles using ultrasonography in adults who performed bridge exercises with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and a sling and received micro vibrations. In total, 32 subjects were divided into a therapy (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. The therapy group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and received vibrations. The control group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and did not receive vibrations. The thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles were measured in both groups using ultrasonography before and after therapy. According to the pressure applied to the biofeedback unit, both groups showed significant changes in the thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles after therapy (P< 0.05). The change in the thickness of the TrA muscle after therapy was significantly different between the 2 groups when the pressures applied at 38, 42, and 46 mmHg (P< 0.05). Moreover, the change in the thickness of the Io muscle did not significantly different between the 2 groups at any of the pressures applied (P> 0.05). These findings indicate that approximately 15 minutes of vibrations during bridge exercises on unstable surfaces with a sling facilitates the activation of the deep trunk muscles and further enhances the activation of the TrA. PMID:25391324

Gong, Won-Tae

2014-11-11

95

Abdominal fat thickness measurement using Focused Impedance Method (FIM) - phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abdominal fat thickness is a risk indicator of heart diseases, diabetes, etc., and its measurement is therefore important from the point of view of preventive care. Tetrapolar electrical impedance measurements (TPIM) could offer a simple and low cost alternative for such measurement compared to conventional techniques using CT scan and MRI, and has been tried by different groups. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) appears attractive as it can give localised information. An intuitive physical model was developed and experimental work was performed on a phantom designed to simulate abdominal subcutaneous fat layer in a body. TPIM measurements were performed with varying electrode separations. For small separations of current and potential electrodes, the measured impedance changed little, but started to decrease sharply beyond a certain separation, eventually diminishing gradually to negligible values. The finding could be explained using the intuitive physical model and gives an important practical information. TPIM and FIM may be useful for measurement of SFL thickness only if the electrode separations are within a certain specific range, and will fail to give reliable results if beyond this range. Further work, both analytical and experimental, are needed to establish this technique on a sound footing.

Haowlader, Salahuddin; Baig, Tanveer Noor; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

2010-04-01

96

Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion  

SciTech Connect

Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2014-05-15

97

Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

2014-05-01

98

Pipeline monitoring by Brillouin-scattering-based fibre optic distributed strain sensors: pipeline wall thickness detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Brillouin scattering sensor system was employed to measure the hoop strain in an internally pressurized steel pipe with wall thinning due to erosion. The difference of Brillouin frequency shift from regions that have different degree of wall thickness lost can be observed on strain distribution. The strain from thin wall region is higher than that from the thick wall

Gordon P. Gu; Winston Revie; Lufan Zou; Omur Sezerman

2009-01-01

99

Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.  

PubMed

Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

2012-01-01

100

Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking urachal tumor.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old woman presented with severe lower abdominal pain. She had a history of 2 cesarean deliveries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 4.3 × 4.6 × 4.8-cm mass on the urinary bladder dome. Preoperative diagnosis was invasive urachal tumor. Wide resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was clear cell adenocarcinoma with endometriosis. MRI revealed normal-sized ovaries and uterus. The definite diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis was made. Adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin (total 6 courses) was planned. The patient has thus far received 4 courses of this treatment. PMID:22656428

Sawazaki, Harutake; Goto, Hirofumi; Takao, Noriyasu; Taki, Yoji; Takeuchi, Hideo

2012-06-01

101

Traumatic disruption of the abdominal wall: lap-belt injuries in children.  

PubMed

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) from high speed mechanism is a unique finding in adult trauma, and exceedingly rare in pediatrics. The majority of reports are of low-speed "handlebar" hernias associated with direct injury by bicycle handlebars. We report a series of three pediatric patients in motor vehicle collisions (MVC) who experienced TAWH by lap-belt and associated intra-abdominal injuries necessitating immediate operative intervention. Different operative approaches were used in each case to manage the varying types of disruptions. This adds to the pediatric literature the largest series of its kind. PMID:23583160

Moremen, Jacob R; Nakayama, Don K; Ashley, Dennis W; Astin, Matthew; Nolan, Tracy L

2013-04-01

102

The effects of bridge exercise with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable surface on the abdominal muscle thickness of healthy adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a bridge exercise with an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed with different surface conditions on abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an unstable bridge exercise group (UBE group, n=15) and a stable bridge exercise group (SBE group, n=15). [Methods] After 6 weeks of performing bridge exercises accompanied by ADIM, the change in the muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique abdominis (IOA) muscles was assessed using ultrasonography. [Results] After 6 weeks of exercise, the TrA was significantly altered in the SBEG, and the TrA and IOA were both significantly changed in the UBEG. [Conclusion] When performing bridge exercises to increase the Tra and the IO muscle thicknesses, exercising on an unstable surface is recommended. PMID:25642086

Cho, Misuk

2015-01-01

103

Early results on the use of biomaterials as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure following cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperthermic chemotherapy applies thermal energy to both abdominal wall as well as the intra-abdominal viscera. The combination of the hyperthemia, chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is associated with a defined risk of abdominal wall and intestinal morbidity reported to be as high as 15%, respectively to date, no studies have evaluated the use of biomaterial mesh as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure in this group of patients. In the present report, we hypothesized that post HIPEC closure with a biomaterial can reduce abdominal wall morbidity after CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Materials and methods All patients treated with HIPEC in a tertiary care center over 12 months (2008-2009) period were included. Eight patients received cytoreductive surgery followed by HIPEC for 90 minutes using Mitomycin C (15 mg q 45 minutes × 2). Abdominal wall closure was performed using Surgisis (Cook Biotech.) mesh in an underlay position with 3 cm fascial overlap-closure. Operative time, hospital length of stay (LOS) as well as postoperative outcome with special attention to abdominal wall and bowel morbidity were assessed. Results Eight patients, mean age 59.7 ys (36-80) were treated according to the above protocol. The primary pathology was appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 3) colorectal cancer (n = 3), and ovarian cancer (n = 2). Four patients (50%) presented initially with abdominal wall morbidity including incisional ventral hernia (n = 3) and excessive abdominal wall metastatic implants (n = 1). The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 8.75. Twenty eight CRS were performed (3.5 CRS/patient). The mean operating time was 6 hours. Seven patients had no abdominal wall or bowel morbidity, the mean LOS for these patients was 8 days. During the follow up period (mean 6.3 months), one patient required exploratory laparotomy 2 weeks after surgery and subsequently developed an incisional hernia and enterocutaneous fistula. Conclusion The use of biomaterial mesh in concert with HIPEC enables the repair of concomitant abdominal wall hernia and facilitates abdominal wall closure following the liberal resection of abdominal wall tumors. Biomaterial mesh prevents evisceration on repeat laparotomy and resists infection in immunocompromised patients even when associated with bowel resection. PMID:20727181

2010-01-01

104

Surgical approach to abdominal wall defects: history and new trends.  

PubMed

We briefly outline the history of hernia surgery development from the Ebers Papyrus to modern prosthetic repairs. The rapid evolution of anatomical, physiological and pathogenetic concepts has involved the rapid evolution of surgical treatments. From hernia sack cauterization to sack ligation, posterior wall repair (Bassini), and prosthetic reinforcement there has been an evident improvement in surgical treatment results that has stimulated surgeons to find new technical solutions over time. The introduction of prosthetic repair, the laparoscopic revolution, the impact of local anesthesia and the diffusion of day surgery have been the main advances of the last 50 years. Searching for new gold standards, the introduction of new devices has also led to new complications and problems. Research of the last 10 years has been directed to overcome prosthetic repair complications, introducing every year new meshes and materials. Lightweight meshes, composite meshes and biologic meshes are novelties of the last few years. We also take a look at future trends. PMID:24380545

Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Donati, Marcello

2013-01-01

105

5-Year data analysis of patients following abdominal wall endometrioma surgery.  

PubMed

BackgroundEndometriosis is a disorder in which an ectopic endometrial tissue grows outside the uterine cavity. The ectopic endometrium embedded in the subcutaneous fatty layer and the muscles of abdominal wall is called as abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE). AWE is a rare condition; however, it is usually known to develop along with previous surgical scars. Caesarean section and hysterectomy are considered to be commonly associated with the development of AWE.MethodsWe evaluated the data of the patients who underwent AWE surgery between March 2009 and March 2014.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 32.5 years. We found a previous history of caesarean section in all of the patients. The most frequent symptoms of the patients were abdominal mass sensation and abdominal pain. Invasion of endometriosis to fat layer, fascia, muscular layer, and peritoneum was recorded. Three masses were located within the scar regions.ConclusionsWe can conclude that there is a high prevalence of caesarean sections among the women with AWE. PMID:25476548

Khamechian, Tahere; Alizargar, Javad; Mazoochi, Tahere

2014-12-01

106

Stress intensity factors in a reinforced thick-walled cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elastic thick-walled cylinder containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced by an elastic membrane on its inner surface. The model is intended to simulate pressure vessels with cladding. The formulation of the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. Various special cases including that of a crack terminating at the cylinder-reinforcement interface are investigated and numerical examples are given. Results indicate that in the case of the crack touching the interface the crack surface displacement derivative is finite and consequently the stress state around the corresponding crack tip is bounded; and generally, for realistic values of the stiffness parameter, the effect of the reinforcement is not very significant.

Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

1984-01-01

107

Necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall with lethal outcome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing fasciitis is an acute surgical condition that demands prompt and multi-faceted treatment. Early recognition, aggressive\\u000a surgical debridement, and targeted antibiotic therapy significantly affect the overall course of treatment and survival. The\\u000a author reports here the case of a woman with necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and the course and methods of treatment.\\u000a Two comorbidity factors (extreme obesity, diabetes)

Dubravko Huljev

2007-01-01

108

Relation between abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue thickness and inflammatory markers during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness (SCFT) is important for predisposition to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to evaluate maternal SCFT and metabolic changes (such as insulin resistance and high inflammatory markers) during pregnancy. Material and methods A total of 92 pregnant women between 24–28 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. The SCFT was measured by ultrasonography and patients were divided into 2 groups according to thickness of maternal SCFT and body mass index (BMI). Groups were compared with each other for oral glucose loading test (OGL) results, and for haematological, biochemical and fetal biometric parameters. Results After analysis of frequency for SCFT, the most appropriate cut-off value for grouping patients was found to be 15 mm for SCFT. In 48 cases SCFT was over 15 mm. High C reactive protein (CRP) was found in 47.9% (23) of cases with SCFT over 15 mm. Serum haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was significantly correlated with SCFT thickness. The most important factors for determination of OGL level were found to be serum HbA1c level, BMI and SCFT. In obese subjects (BMI ? 25 kg/m2), levels of inflammatory markers and SCFT thickness were higher. The CRP and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were significantly correlated with BMI and SCFT. Conclusions High SCFT during pregnancy is associated with elevated inflammatory marker levels and HbA1c. Pregnant women with thicker SCFT may be susceptible to the development of metabolic complications of pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertension, as well as risk of future metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25276159

Kö?ü?, Ayd?n; Turhan, Nilgün

2014-01-01

109

Use of prosthetic mesh in difficult abdominal wall closure after small bowel transplantation in adults.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall closure after intestinal transplantation in adult patients can be a difficult procedure. The main possibility offered by international experience is the use of myocutaneous flaps and abdominal wall transplantation. We report our experience in intestinal/multivisceral transplantation, including four difficult cases among 27 adult transplant recipients. Three patients underwent prosthetic mesh alone and one, a myocutaneous flap for abdominal closure after primary mesh positioning. We selected a mesh with a structure that allowed us to close the abdomen without creating adhesions and, at the same time, stimulating tissue repair. Two patients experienced local mesh infection, which has been kept under clinical control by antibiotics and daily medications till neoabdominal wall formation. The mesh was then removed. Another patient underwent mesh substitution for a suspicious fever. The last patient had mesh as a bridge for a subsequent myocutaneous flap from the thigh. All patients are in good health with well-functioning grafts and no need for parenteral nutrition. No enterocutaneous fistulae were detected. PMID:15964397

Di Benedetto, F; Lauro, A; Masetti, M; Cautero, N; De Ruvo, N; Quintini, C; Diago Uso', T; Romano, A; Dazzi, A; Ramacciato, G; Cipriani, R; Ercolani, G; Grazi, G L; Gerunda, G E; Pinna, A D

2005-06-01

110

Chromosomal aberrations detected by chromogenic in situ hybridization in abdominal wall endometriosis after cesarean section.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to evaluate the chromosomal loss in abdominal wall endometriosis by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Twenty-four cases of abdominal wall endometriosis that developed after cesarean section at the Korea University Medical Center between January 1997 and December 2006 were selected. CISH was performed in the sections of tissue microarray block using the Zymed CISH centromeric probes for chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17, and 18. Monosomy was defined when the percentage of the nuclei with a single dot was more than mean+3 SD of the respective probe in normal control endometrium. CISH study was possible in more than half of the endometriosis samples, except for chromosome 9, and was most successful for chromosome 17. The frequency of monosomy was high for chromosomes 9 (75.0%) and 17 (73.9%), moderate for chromosomes 10 (57.1%) and 18 (56.3%), and low for chromosomes 3 (12.5%), 7 (22.2%), 8 (10.5%), and 11 (10.5%). Monosomy for >2 and 3 chromosomes occurred in 66.7% and 42.9% of the cases, respectively. It is concluded that CISH method may be considered a useful laboratory technique in detecting chromosomal loss, and multiple chromosomal loss is involved in the formation of ectopic endometrium in abdominal wall endometriosis. PMID:22653345

Jeong, Kyungah; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Insun; Kang, Jae Seong

2012-07-01

111

The quasi-static failure properties of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall estimated by a mixed experimental-numerical approach.  

PubMed

Assessing the risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is critical in the management of aneurysm patients and an individual assessment is possible with the biomechanical rupture risk assessment. Such an assessment could potentially be improved by a constitutive AAA wall model that accounts for irreversible damage-related deformations. Because of that the present study estimated the elastic and inelastic properties of the AAA wall through a mixed experimental-numerical approach. Specifically, finite element (FE) models of bone-shaped tensile specimens were used to merge data from failure testing of the AAA wall with their measured collagen orientation distribution. A histo-mechanical constitutive model for collagen fibers was employed, where plastic fibril sliding determined not only remaining deformations but also weakening of the fiber. The developed FE models were able to replicate the experimentally recorded load-displacement property of all 16 AAA wall specimens that were investigated in the study. Tensile testing in longitudinal direction of the AAA defined a Cauchy strength of 569(SD 411) kPa that was reached at a stretch of 1.436(SD 0.118). The stiffness and strength of specimens decreased with the wall thickness and were elevated (p = 0.018; p = 0.030) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking affected the tissue parameters that were related to the irreversible deformation response, and no correlation with gender and age was found. The observed effects on the biomechanical properties of the AAA wall could have long-term consequences for the management of aneurysm patients, i.e., specifically they might influence future AAA rupture risk assessments. However, in order to design appropriate clinical validation studies our findings should firstly be verified in a larger patient cohort. PMID:23263935

Forsell, Caroline; Swedenborg, Jesper; Roy, Joy; Gasser, T Christian

2013-07-01

112

Impact of poroelasticity of intraluminal thrombus on wall stress of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background The predictions of stress fields in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) depend on constitutive descriptions of the aneurysm wall and the Intra-luminal Thrombus (ILT). ILT is a porous diluted structure (biphasic solid–fluid material) and its impact on AAA biomechanics is controversially discussed in the literature. Specifically, pressure measurements showed that the ILT cannot protect the wall from the arterial pressure, while other (numerical and experimental) studies showed that at the same time it reduces the stress in the wall. Method To explore this phenomenon further a poroelastic description of the ILT was integrated in Finite Element (FE) Models of the AAA. The AAA model was loaded by a pressure step and a cyclic pressure wave and their transition into wall tension was investigated. To this end ILT’s permeability was varied within a microstructurally motivated range. Results The two-phase model verified that the ILT transmits the entire mean arterial pressure to the wall while, at the same time, it significantly reduces the stress in the wall. The predicted mean stress in the AAA wall was insensitive to the permeability of the ILT and coincided with the results of AAA models using a single-phase ILT description. Conclusion At steady state, the biphasic ILT behaves like a single-phase material in an AAA model. Consequently, computational efficient FE single-phase models, as they have been exclusively used in the past, accurately predict the wall stress in AAA models. PMID:22931215

2012-01-01

113

Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with biologic mesh: Permacol™ versus Strattice™.  

PubMed

The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. Numerous biologic products are available with virtually no clinical comparison studies. A retrospective study was conducted to compare patients who underwent abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ (crosslinked porcine dermis) and Strattice™ (noncrosslinked porcine dermis). Of 270 reviewed patients, 195 were implanted with Permacol™ and 75 with Strattice™. Ventral hernia repairs comprised the majority (85% for Permacol, 97% for Strattice™). Postoperative infection rate was lower in the Strattice™ group (5 vs 21%, P < 0.01). In the Permacol™ group only, the overall complication rates were significantly higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds (55 vs 35%, P < 0.05) and in obese patients (body mass index 40 kg/m(2) or greater [57 vs 34%], P < 0.01). Short-term complication and recurrence rates were higher when mesh was used as a fascial bridge: 51 versus 28 per cent for Permacol™, 58 versus 20 per cent for Strattice™. The hernia recurrence was similar in both groups. In this review of patients undergoing abdominal hernia repair with biologic mesh, Strattice™ mesh was associated with a lower short-term complication rate compared with Permacol™, but the hernia recurrence rate was similar. PMID:25264647

Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

2014-10-01

114

Abdominal Wall Abscess due to Acute Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Case Report with MDCT and US Findings  

PubMed Central

Perforation of the inflamed diverticula is a common diverticulitis complication. It usually leads to the formation of a local abscess. In some rare cases, the inflammatory process may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the anterior or posterior abdominal wall or the thigh and form an abscess in these sites. We present the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of pain at the lower left quadrant of the abdomen for 20 days and a visible mass in this site. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed this mass to be an abscess of the abdominal wall which had been formed by the spread of ruptured sigmoid diverticulitis by continuity of tissue through the lower left abdominal wall. Local drainage of the abscess was performed and the patient was discharged after alleviation of symptoms and an uneventful course. We also discuss causes of abdominal wall abscesses along with the possible pathways by which an intra-abdominal abscess could spread outside the abdominal cavity. PMID:24386584

Vasileios, Rafailidis; Anna, Gavriilidou; Christos, Liouliakis; Asimina, Tsimitri; Sofia, Paschaloudi; Vasiliki, Karadimou

2013-01-01

115

Correlation between the bronchial subepithelial layer and whole airway wall thickness in patients with asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: The epithelial reticular basement membrane (Rbm) of the airway wall thickens in patients with asthma. However, whether the thickening parallels whole airway wall thickening, which limits airflow, is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the bronchial Rbm thickening and whole airway wall thickening in asthma. In addition, the association of Rbm and whole wall thickening with airflow obstruction was examined. Methods: Forty nine patients with asthma and 18 healthy control subjects took part in the study. The Rbm thickness was measured in bronchial biopsy specimens and whole airway wall thickness was assessed with high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning after pretreatment with oral steroids for 2 weeks and inhaled ß2 agonist to minimise reversible changes of the airway walls. The percentage airway wall area (WA%; defined as (wall area/total airway area) x 100) and percentage airway wall thickness (WT%; defined as [(ideal outer diameter – ideal luminal diameter)/ideal outer diameter] x 100) were determined from HRCT scans to assess whole airway wall thickness. Spirometric tests were also performed. Results: WA% and WT% were higher in patients with asthma than in healthy subjects. Both WA% and WT% were strongly correlated with Rbm thickness. Moreover, these three indices of airway wall thickness were inversely correlated with the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients with asthma. Conclusions: These findings indicate that Rbm thickening parallels whole airway wall thickening which can cause irreversible airflow obstruction in patients with asthma. PMID:11867829

Kasahara, K; Shiba, K; Ozawa, T; Okuda, K; Adachi, M

2002-01-01

116

Structural evolution of materials in thick-walled cylinder test  

SciTech Connect

The {open_quotes}Thick-Walled Cylinder{close_quotes} method, based on cylindrical pore collapse, with the help of low detonation velocity explosive, was used to investigate structural evolution of solid materials (copper, tantalum, titanium, stainless steel) during the process of high-strain-rate plastic deformation with overall shear strain > 10 and strain rates 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} sec{sup -1}. Critical conditions for shear localization are discussed in dependence on initial structural parameters and their evolution during the deformation with emphasis on the dynamic recrystallization process. Tantalum was investigated more extensively. In order to simulate the thermomechanical environment experienced by shaped charges and EFP`s, the tantalum was tested in both as-received and shocked (P = 40 GPa; tp {congruent} 1.5 {mu}s) conditions. The microstructure evolved in the following sequence as the plastic strain was increased; dislocation cells {yields} subgrains {yields} dynamic recrystallization (micrograms) {yields} static (postdeformation) recrystallization. The material exhibited grain-scale localization beyond a critical plastic strain which resulted in considerable heterogeneity of plastic deformation and affected the failure, by the creation of periodic soft regions.

Nesterenko, V.F. [Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Meyers, M.A.; Chen, Y.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

117

Use of human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses in complex abdominal wall reconstructions: a literature review and case report.  

PubMed

The goal of abdominal wall reconstruction is to restore and maintain abdominal domain. A PubMed(R) review of the literature (including "old" MEDLINE through February 2007) suggests that bioprosthetic materials are increasingly used to facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Reported results (eight case reports/series involving 137 patients) are encouraging. The most commonly reported complications are wound seroma (18 patients, 13%), skin dehiscence with graft exposure without herniation (six, 4.4%), superficial and deep wound infections (five, 3.6%), hernia recurrence (four, 2.9%), graft failure with dehiscence (two), hematoma (two), enterocutaneous fistula (one), and flap necrosis (one). Two recent cases are reported herein. In one, a 46-year-old woman required open abdominal management after gastric remnant perforation following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. Porcine dermal collagen combined with cutaneous flaps was used for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient's condition improved postoperatively and she was well 5 months after discharge from the hospital. In the second, a 54-year-old woman underwent repair of an abdominal wall defect following resection of a large leiomyosarcoma. Human acellular dermis combined with myocutaneous flaps was used to reconstruct the abdominal wall defect. The patient's recovery was uncomplicated and 20 weeks following surgery she was doing well with no evidence of recurrence or hernia. The results reported to date and the outcomes presented here suggest that bioprosthetic materials are safe and effective for repair of large abdominal wall defects. Prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to compare the safety and efficacy of other reconstructive techniques as well as human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses. PMID:17551173

Baillie, Daniel R; Stawicki, S Peter; Eustance, Nicole; Warsaw, David; Desai, Darius

2007-05-01

118

Repair of Giant Midline Abdominal Wall Hernias: “Components Separation Technique” versus Prosthetic Repair  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstruction of giant midline abdominal wall hernias is difficult, and no data are available to decide which technique should be used. It was the aim of this study to compare the “components separation technique” (CST) versus prosthetic repair with e-PTFE patch (PR). Method Patients with giant midline abdominal wall hernias were randomized for CST or PR. Patients underwent operation following standard procedures. Postoperative morbidity was scored on a standard form, and patients were followed for 36 months after operation for recurrent hernia. Results Between November 1999 and June 2001, 39 patients were randomized for the study, 19 for CST and 18 for PR. Two patients were excluded perioperatively because of gross contamination of the operative field. No differences were found between the groups at baseline with respect to demographic details, co-morbidity, and size of the defect. There was no in-hospital mortality. Wound complications were found in 10 of 19 patients after CST and 13 of 18 patients after PR. Seroma was found more frequently after PR. In 7 of 18 patients after PR, the prosthesis had to be removed as a consequence of early or late infection. Reherniation occurred in 10 patients after CST and in 4 patients after PR. Conclusions Repair of abdominal wall hernias with the component separation technique compares favorably with prosthetic repair. Although the reherniation rate after CST is relatively high, the consequences of wound healing disturbances in the presence of e-PTFE patch are far-reaching, often resulting in loss of the prosthesis. PMID:17372669

van Goor, H.; Charbon, J. A.; Rosman, C.; Hesselink, E. J.; van der Wilt, G. J.; Bleichrodt, R. P.

2007-01-01

119

Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.

Bossi, Alberto [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: alberto.bossi@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; De Wever, Ivo [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Van Limbergen, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Vanstraelen, Bianca [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2007-01-01

120

Spatial orientation of collagen fibers in the abdominal aortic aneurysm's wall and its relation to wall mechanics.  

PubMed

Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and provides the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall with mechanical strength, stiffness and toughness. Specifically, the spatial orientation of collagen fibers in the wall has a major impact on its mechanical properties. Apart from valuable microhistological information, this data can be integrated by histomechanical constitutive models thought to improve biomechanical simulations, i.e. to improve the biomechanical rupture risk assessment of AAAs. Tissue samples (n = 24) from the AAA wall were harvested during elective AAA repair, fixated, embedded, sectioned and investigated by polarized light microscopy. The birefringent properties of collagen were reinforced by picrosirius red staining and the three-dimensional collagen fiber orientations were identified with a universal rotary stage. Two constitutive models for collagen fibers were used to integrate the identified structural information in a macroscopic AAA wall model. The collagen fiber orientation in the AAA wall was widely dispersed and could be captured by a Bingham distribution function (?(1) = 11.6, ?(2) = 9.7). The dispersion was much larger in the tangential plane than in the cross-sectional plane, and no significant difference between the medial and adventitial layers could be identified. The layered directional organization of collagen in normal aortas was not evident in the AAA. The collagen organization identified, combined with constitutive descriptions of collagen fibers that depend on its orientation, explain the anisotropic (orthotropic) mechanical properties of the AAA wall. The mechanical properties of collagen fibers depend largely on their undulation, which is an important structural parameter that requires further experimental investigation. PMID:22579983

Gasser, T Christian; Gallinetti, Sara; Xing, Xiao; Forsell, Caroline; Swedenborg, Jesper; Roy, Joy

2012-08-01

121

The Analysis of Infection after Polypropylene Mesh Repair of Abdominal Wall Hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of superficial and prosthetic mesh infection following polypropylene mesh\\u000a repair of different abdominal wall hernia in individual patients and to analyze the manifestation, clinical process and outcomes\\u000a in patients with prosthetic mesh infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a retrospective analysis of 375 patients with 423 implanted meshes for groin, femoral, umbilical, incisional

Arnolds Jezupors; M?ris Mihelsons

2006-01-01

122

Necrotizing fasciitis involving the chest and abdominal wall caused by Raoultella planticola  

PubMed Central

Background Raoultella planticola was originally considered to be a member of environmental Klebsiella. The clinical significance of R. planticola is still not well known. Case presentation We describe the first case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the chest and abdominal wall caused by R. planticola. The identity of the organism was confirmed using 16S rRNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with the appropriate antibiotics combined with operative drainage and debridement. Conclusions R. planticola had been described as environmental species, but should be suspected in extensive necrotizing fasciitis after minor trauma in mild to moderate immunocompromised patients. PMID:22423899

2012-01-01

123

Repair of the inguinal hernia using the hernia sac to correct the abdominal wall defect  

PubMed Central

Summary Surgery of the inguinal hernia is a challenge for the great incidence of recurrences. The aim of this study is demonstrate the usefulness of hernia sac in the repair of inguinal hernia. In 200 patients the hernia sac was used to reinforce the abdominal wall. The patients have been observed two years along and still now few recurrences (20%) have been observed. The hernia sac can be used to repair the inguinal hernia because it’s a patient’s tissue with no inflammation and rejection. PMID:24091173

LAIZO, A.; da FONSECA DELGADO, F.E.; TERZELLA, M.R.; da SILVA, A. LÁZARO

2013-01-01

124

Using Magnetic Flux Density To Identify Anomalies In Pipe Wall Thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In making seamless pipe, there are certain inherent wall thickness anomalies and defects associated with the manufacturing processes. Similarly, both seamless and welded pipe that has been in use for a period of time develop areas of reduced wall thickness during their in-service life. By taking advantage of continued improvement in technology and relying on the basic principles of magnetism,

William Walters; David Steely

125

Reducing Effective Liquid Wall Thickness in a HYLIFE-II Fusion Breeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major inertial fusion energy reactor designs is HYLIFE-II which uses protective flowing liquid wall between fusion plasma and solid first wall. The most attractive aspect of this reactor is that protective liquid wall eliminates the frequent replacement of the first wall structure during reactor lifetime. Liquid wall thickness must be at least the thickness required for supplying sufficient tritium for the deuterium-tritium (DT) driver and satisfying radiation damage on the first wall below the limits. Reducing this thickness results less pumping power requirements and cost of electricity. In this study, investigation on potential of utilizing refractory alloys (W-5Re, TZM and Nb-1Zr) as first wall to reduce effective liquid wall thickness in HYLIFE-II reactor using liquid wall of Flibe + 10 mol % UF4 mixture. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S8-P3 approximation. Numerical results showed that using W-5Re or TZM as first wall was effective in decreasing liquid wall thickness in contrast to Nb-1Zr.

Übeyli, Mustafa

2004-09-01

126

[Reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect with a superior epigastric perforator propeller flap: case report].  

PubMed

Perforators flaps take a special place in reconstructive surgery. These flaps can be dissected and turned as a propeller blade on its pedicule axis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting a recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma in the right hypochondrium. Tumor resection caused a large abdominal wall defect taking the anterior aponeurosis of the rectus abdominis. An angioscanner was realized in preoperative to locate the perforators of the deep superior epigastric artery. We realized a propeller flap based on a perforator of the left superior epigastric artery who allowed to cover the wall defect. We set up a patch of Vicryl® to reconstruct the aponeurosis plan at the same operative time. We didn't note any necrosis and complete healing occurred in 2 weeks. The margins were healthy. The cosmetic result and the low morbidity make this flap a good therapeutic option. This flap seems reliable, arteries perforators are constant with good diameter. PMID:24908629

Lepivert, J-C; Alet, J-M; Michot, A; Pélissier, P; Pinsolle, V

2014-10-01

127

Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

2010-01-01

128

Symptomatic schwannoma of the abdominal wall: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Schwannoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the nerve sheath. This tumor usually involves the extremities, but can also be found in the head and neck, trunk, pelvis, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and gastrointestinal tract. In numerous cases, the tumors are asymptomatic and are identified incidentally on physical examination or imaging. Occasionally, schwannoma is symptomatic due to compression of surrounding large nerves. In the present study, a 57-year-old female presented to the surgical outpatient’s department due to a well-localized parietal pain in the left lower quadrant. The onset of the pain occurred three years prior to presentation, without apparent cause and in the absence of other symptoms. Ultrasound and a computed tomography scan revealed a small solid tumor in the anterior abdominal wall, which was dimensionally stable over time, but was not noted in a preliminary analysis by a radiologist. The lesion was surgically removed using an anterior surgical approach. Histopathology revealed the tumor to be benign schwannoma. The painful symptoms completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of an abdominal wall benign schwannoma in the medical literature, and the first symptomatic case.

BALZAROTTI, RUBEN; RONDELLI, FABIO; BARIZZI, JESSICA; CARTOLARI, ROBERTO

2015-01-01

129

Intramuscular Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Treated by Ultrasound-Guided Ethanol Injection  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE. PMID:24667221

Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A. Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

2014-01-01

130

Intramuscular abdominal wall endometriosis treated by ultrasound-guided ethanol injection.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE. PMID:24667221

Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

2014-12-01

131

Frequency of abdominal wall hernias: is classical teaching out of date?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Abdominal wall hernias are common. Various authors all quote the following order (in decreasing frequency): inguinal, femoral, umbilical followed by rarer forms. But are these figures outdated? We investigated the epidemiology of hernia repair (retrospective review) over 30 years to determine whether the relative frequencies of hernias are evolving. Design All hernia repairs undertaken in consecutive adult patients were assessed. Data included: patient demographics; hernia type; and operation details. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS. Setting A single United Kingdom hospital trust during three periods: 1985–1988; 1995–1998; and 2005–2008. Main outcome measures Frequency data of different hernia types during three time periods, patient demographic data. Results Over the three time periods, 2389 patients underwent 2510 hernia repairs (i.e. including bilateral and multiple hernias in a single patient). Inguinal hernia repair was universally the commonest hernia repair, followed by umbilical, epigastric, para-umbilical, incisional and femoral, respectively. Whereas femoral hernia repair was the second commonest in the 1980s, it had become the fifth most common by 2005–2008. While the proportion of groin hernia repairs has decreased over time, the proportion of midline abdominal wall hernias has increased. Conclusion The current relative frequency of different hernia repair type is: inguinal; umbilical; epigastric; incisional; para-umbilical; femoral; and finally other types e.g. spigelian. This contrasts with hernia incidence figures quoted in common reference books. PMID:21286228

Dabbas, Natalie; Adams, K; Pearson, K; Royle, GT

2011-01-01

132

Use of a silastic silo for closure of the abdominal wall in a pediatric patient receiving a cadaveric split liver.  

PubMed

Presented is the successful management of a difficult abdominal wall closure after pediatric liver transplantation. A 5-week-old boy with biliary atresia underwent urgent cadaveric split liver transplantation. The left lateral segment of an adult donor was utilized. Postoperatively, abdominal skin and fascia could not be closed. A SILASTIC (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) silo was applied, and complete closure was possible 6 days later. PMID:14577099

Jones, W Tracey; Ratner, Irving; Abrahamian, Gregory; Washburn, W Kenneth; Esterl, Robert; Neigut, Deborah; Halff, Glenn

2003-10-01

133

Patient-specific left atrial wall-thickness measurement and visualization for radiofrequency ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: For radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of the left atrium, safe and effective dosing of RF energy requires transmural left atrium ablation without injury to extra-cardiac structures. The thickness of the left atrial wall may be a key parameter in determining the appropriate amount of energy to deliver. While left atrial wall-thickness is known to exhibit inter- and intra-patient variation, this is not taken into account in the current clinical workflow. Our goal is to develop a tool for presenting patient-specific left atrial thickness information to the clinician in order to assist in the determination of the proper RF energy dose. METHODS: We use an interactive segmentation method with manual correction to segment the left atrial blood pool and heart wall from contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. We then create a mesh from the segmented blood pool and determine the wall thickness, on a per-vertex basis, orthogonal to the mesh surface. The thickness measurement is visualized by assigning colors to the vertices of the blood pool mesh. We applied our method to 5 contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. RESULTS: Left atrial wall-thickness measurements were generally consistent with published thickness ranges. Variations were found to exist between patients, and between regions within each patient. CONCLUSION: It is possible to visually determine areas of thick vs. thin heart wall with high resolution in a patient-specific manner.

Inoue, Jiro; Skanes, Allan C.; White, James A.; Rajchl, Martin; Drangova, Maria

2014-03-01

134

Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results The diabetic (third group) and nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group) and the nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group) had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group) and without (fourth group) OAB was not significant. Conclusions This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar. PMID:23869270

Ogullar, Sabri; ?ahin, Serap Baydur; Zorba, Orhan Ünal; Akça, Görkem; Sümer, Fatih; Güney, Ülkü Mete; Bal?k, Gül?ah

2013-01-01

135

Torsion of an Abdominal-Wall Pedunculated Lipoma: A Rare Differential Diagnosis for Right Iliac Fossa Pain  

PubMed Central

Pedunculated lipomas arising from the peritoneal wall are a rare finding during abdominal surgery. These benign tumours of mesenchymal origin can arise anywhere in the body and are usually asymptomatic. We present a case of a torted, pedunculated parietal wall lipoma in the right iliac fossa that gave rise to a clinical diagnosis of appendicitis. To our knowledge, such a case has never been reported in the literature previously. We suggest that torsion of a pedunculated parietal lipoma is a rare differential of acute abdominal pain. PMID:23781377

Bunker, Daniel Lee John; Ilie, Victor George; Halder, Tushar K.

2013-01-01

136

Abdominal wall endometriosis associated with ventriculoperitoneal and lumboperitoneal shunts: a report of 2 cases of an extremely rare phenomenon.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age and has a known propensity to involve abdominal wall scars. The authors report 2 cases of endometriosis presenting as mass lesions involving the abdominal wall at the site of insertion of ventriculoperitoneal and lumboperitoneal shunts. In both cases, there was clinical evidence of shunt compromise. Endometriosis involving the site of shunt insertion is an extremely rare phenomenon with, as far as the authors are aware, only a single previously reported case. However, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a mass develops at a shunt site in a woman of reproductive age. PMID:21997593

Healy, Estelle G; McCluggage, W Glenn

2012-06-01

137

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, D.A.

1980-05-30

138

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, David A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1982-01-01

139

Tissue regenerating capacity of carbodiimide-crosslinked dermal sheep collagen during repair of the abdominal wall.  

PubMed

In future, the function of collagen-based biomaterials as temporary scaffolds for the generation of new tissue may be emphasized. In this study the function of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with carbodiimide (ENDSC) as repair material for abdominal wall defects in rats was compared with that of commercial hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked HDSC. The results indicate that early after implantation both ENDSC and HDSC functioned well as a matrix for cellular ingrowth. However during further implantation HDSC soon degraded resulting in herniations, while ENDSC showed a delay in the degradation time of at least 20 weeks. ENDSC thereby enabled collagen new-formation and functioned as a guidance for muscle overgrowth. These results are very promising concerning the problem of the ongoing foreign body reaction with continuing risk of implant rejection observed in clinical practice with non-degradable materials. PMID:8070946

van Wachem, P B; van Luyn, M J; Olde Damink, L H; Dijkstra, P J; Feijen, J; Nieuwenhuis, P

1994-04-01

140

Echinococcus multilocularis infection of the liver presenting as abdominal wall fistula.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis causes infection where the most commonly affected organ is the liver, followed by the lung, kidney, bone and the brain. Other sites such as the heart, spleen, pancreas and soft tissues are very rarely affected. Surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy using various technical approaches remains the main therapeutic modality for echinococcal liver disease. To the best of our knowledge there are less than five clinical cases of cutaneous presentation of liver alveolar echinococcosis described. We present a unique case of liver echinococcosis presenting as recurrent abdominal wall fistula and abscess in a 29-year-old man. Diagnosis was based on CT imaging, serological analysis and histological findings from the fistula. Medical treatment with albendazole was initiated and liver resection was performed. The patient has no symptoms and signs of recurrence 1 year after operation, while still on albendazole therapy. This case description highlights the importance of early suspicion and treatment of unusual echinococcosis clinical presentations. PMID:24810453

Juodeikis, Zygimantas; Poskus, Tomas; Seinin, Dmitrij; Strupas, Kestutis

2014-01-01

141

Subcostal transversus abdominis plane phenol injection for abdominal wall cancer pain.  

PubMed

A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful. PMID:23560547

Restrepo-Garces, Carlos Eduardo; Asenjo, Juan Francisco; Gomez, Carlos Mario; Jaramillo, Santiago; Acosta, Nathalia; Ramirez, Lizeth Jazmin; Lopera, Luz Maria; Vargas, Juan Felipe

2014-03-01

142

Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an intraabdominal mass in a postpartum woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms that most often arise from muscle aponeurosis and have been associated with both trauma and pregnancy. The etiology of desmoids has not been determined. We report the case of anterior abdominal wall desmoid tumor in a female patient with previous history of cesarean section. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a large mass mimicking a large hematoma or an intraabdominal mass. The tumor was removed by wide excision with safe margins. The abdominal wall defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Subsequent histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Desmoid tumors in females are often associated with pregnancy or occur post-partum. The reasons behind this association are unclear. The most common sites are in the abdominal muscles. PMID:23593530

Trigui, Khaled; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Sassi, Selim; Chebbi, Fathi; Touinsi, Hassen; Sassi, Sadok

2013-01-01

143

Aneurysm-Express: Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Expression in Relation to Heterogeneity and Vascular Events – Rationale and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elective repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Large amounts of AAA tissue are necessary to assess heterogeneity among AAA and to correct for potential confounders such as known risk factors. The Aneurysm-express study aims to identify different types of AAA using inflammatory markers in the aneurysm wall that predict postoperative cardiovascular adverse

R. Hurks; I. E. Hoefer; A. Vink; J.-P. P. M. de Vries; R. H. Heijmen; A. H. Schoneveld; M. Kerver; G. Pasterkamp; F. L. Moll

2010-01-01

144

Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall  

DOEpatents

A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

2002-01-01

145

WallThickness” Effects on Raman Spectrum Shift, Thermal Conductivity, and Young's Modulus of Single-Walled Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We theoretically demonstrate that at a finite temperature, an effective wall\\u000athickness of a single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) should be $W=W_s+W_d$,\\u000awhere $W_s$ is the static thickness defined as the extension of the outmost\\u000aelectronic orbit and $W_d$ the dynamic thickness due to thermal vibration of\\u000aatoms. Both molecular simulations and a theoretical analysis show that $W_d$ is\\u000aproportional

Gang Zhang; Baowen Li

2005-01-01

146

Electromagnetic-acoustic equipment UVT-01N for inspecting the wall thickness of drilling pipes  

SciTech Connect

UVT-01N equipment for the contactless ultrasonic measurement of the residual thickness of the walls of drilling pipes is described. Equipment is of the four-channel type, with digital reading of the minimum of the four thickness measured simultaneously around the circumference of the pipe.

Zhukov, V.K.; Ol'shanskii, V.P.

1986-10-01

147

Impact of T2 Decay on Carotid Artery Wall Thickness Measurements  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the impact of T2 relaxation of the carotid wall on measurements of its thickness. Materials and Methods The common carotid artery wall was imaged using a spin echo sequence acquired at four echo times (17 ms to 68 ms) in 65 participants as part of VALIDATE study. Images were acquired transverse to the artery 1.5 cm proximal to the flow divider. Mean wall thickness, mean wall signal intensity, lumen area, and outer wall area were measured for each echo. Contours were also traced on the image from the fourth echo and then propagated to the images from the preceding echoes. This was repeated using the image from the first echo. Mean wall signal intensity measurements at the four echo times were fit to a mono-exponential decay curve to derive the mean T2 relaxation time for each set of contours. Results Mean wall thickness decreased with increasing echo time, with an average thickness reduction of 8.6% between images acquired at the first and last echo times (TE) (0.93 mm at TE 17 ms versus 0.85 mm at TE 68 ms, P < 0.001). Average T2 relaxation time of the carotid wall decreased by 3% when the smaller contours from the last echo were used, which excluded the outer-most layer (54.3 ± 7.6 ms versus 52.7 ± 6.6 ms, P = 0.03). Conclusion Carotid wall thickness measurements decrease with echo time as expected by the fast T2 relaxation time of the outer-most layer, namely the adventitia. A short echo time is needed for thickness measurements to include adventitia, which plays an important role in plaque development. PMID:23172683

Qiao, Ye; Steinman, David A.; Etesami, Maryam; Martinez-Marquese, Alex; Lakatta, Edward G.; Wasserman, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

148

Determination of instantaneous interventricular septum wall thickness by processing sequential 2D echocardiographic images.  

PubMed

Non-invasive quantitative analysis of the heart walls thickness is a fundamental step in diagnosis and discrimination of heart disease. Thickness measurements in 2D echocardiographic images have many applications in research and clinic for assessing of wall stress, wall thickening and viability parameters. Regarding to interventricular septum wall thickness measurement by conventional manual method is more dependent on sonographer experiment; this encouraged these researchers to develop a semi-automatic computer algorithm in accessing to interventricular septum segments thickness. We proposed and carried out a computerized algorithm for wall thickness measurements in 2D echocardiographic image frames. In this program, wall thickness measurement is based of intensity profile function and adaptive bilateral thresholding operation. For validation, thicknesses of septum base and mid segments were estimated in constituent image frames with use of proposed method and then were compared with conventional manual results at same images of the cardiac cycle by statistical methods. In our sample image frames (240 corresponding segments; with different rang of image quality), a bias of 0.10 and 0.12 mm with SD differences of +/-0.81 and +/-0.72 mm and correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found in base and mid segments, respectively. Interobserver variability using the Computer-Assisted Method (CAM) and Conventional Manual Method (CMM) were 4.0 and 4.7% for the basal and 2.8 and 3.9% for the middle segments. The method introduced in the present study permits precise thickness assessment of base and mid segments of the interventricular septum wall and has high concordance with CMM. PMID:19069517

Moladoust, Hassan; Mokhtari-dizaji, Manijhe; Ojaghi-haghighi, Zahra

2007-02-01

149

Comparison of the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques during plank exercises on different support surfaces  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study applied variable plank exercises on a stable surface consisting of a mat, on an unstable surface consisting of a dynamic cushion placed under the upper extremities and lower extremities. [Subjects] Forty-three healthy male and female subjects in their 20s voluntarily consented to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed the plank exercises on the three support surfaces. Ultrasound imaging was conducted while they carried out plank exercises. [Results] The changes in the thicknesses of both the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for MatP. In addition, the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for UEDCP. [Conclusion] Therefore, applying an unstable condition to the lower limbs using a dynamic cushion is considered more effective during plank exercises.

Do, Yong-chan; Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

150

Clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis: a unique case with bladder and lymph node metastasis  

PubMed Central

The malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare event and poorly understood. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of the reported cases have a solitary tumor in the abdominal scar. A few cases have metastasis. Here we report a case of clear cell carcinoma in abdominal wall endometriosis with bladder and lymph system metastasis. The patient had a history of abdominal wall endometriosis and recently developed symptoms of urgent urination and inguinal mass. Physical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan detected lymph node metastasis. CT and cystoscopy confirmed bladder involvement. The patient underwent extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Pathological analysis made a diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma with bladder and lymph node metastasis. The patient was followed up and died of the disease. Symptoms of bladder invasion and lymph node spread could be a sign of malignant transformation. Local invasion and lymph node spread are two important forms of tumor metastasis. Extensive lymph nodes metastasis might be related with poor prognosis. PMID:24597651

2014-01-01

151

Clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis: a unique case with bladder and lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

The malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare event and poorly understood. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of the reported cases have a solitary tumor in the abdominal scar. A few cases have metastasis. Here we report a case of clear cell carcinoma in abdominal wall endometriosis with bladder and lymph system metastasis. The patient had a history of abdominal wall endometriosis and recently developed symptoms of urgent urination and inguinal mass. Physical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan detected lymph node metastasis. CT and cystoscopy confirmed bladder involvement. The patient underwent extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Pathological analysis made a diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma with bladder and lymph node metastasis. The patient was followed up and died of the disease. Symptoms of bladder invasion and lymph node spread could be a sign of malignant transformation. Local invasion and lymph node spread are two important forms of tumor metastasis. Extensive lymph nodes metastasis might be related with poor prognosis. PMID:24597651

Liu, Haiyuan; Leng, Jinghua; Lang, Jinghe; Cui, Quancai

2014-01-01

152

A Comparison of Vaginal Pressures and Abdominal Muscle Thickness According to Childbirth Delivery Method during the Valsalva Maneuver  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of childbirth delivery method on vaginal pressure and abdominal thickness during the Valsalva maneuver (VAL). [Subjects] Thirty healthy female volunteers (26–39?years of age) were selected for this research. Their delivery histories were: nulliparous 10, vaginal delivery 10, and Cesarean delivery 10. None of the participants had a history of incontinence. [Methods] In the crook-lying position, a perineometer probe was inserted into the vagina and the transducer was placed transversely on the right side of the body during the Valsalva maneuver. [Results] There were significant differences in the thickness of the transverses abdominis (TrA) between in all the groups rest and the Valsalva maneuver, and there were significant differences in the internus oblique (IO) in the nulliparous group. During the Valsalva maneuver, there were significant differences in the TrA between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and there were significant differences in the IO between the nulliparous delivery group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean section group. Delivery history changed vaginal pressure, and there were significant differences between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean delivery group. [Conclusion] Pregnancy and delivery method may affect pelvic floor and abdominal muscles during the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:24707104

Kim, Haroo; Kak, Hwang-Bo; Kim, Boin

2014-01-01

153

Development of Eddy Current Probe for Thick-Walled Plates and Quantitative Evaluation of Cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which used to be difficult because of the skin effect generally. For the purpose, this paper proposes a novel eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and evaluates the capability of the present probe. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of the present probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and small decay of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect on INCONEL718 specimen with thickness of 7.0mm and 304 Stainless steel specimen with thickness of 8.0mm.

Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.; Sato, K.; Huang, H.

2003-03-01

154

Eddy current technique applied to the nondestructive evaluation of turbine blade wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high pressure turbine blades of jet engines show internal channels designed for air cooling. These recesses define the internal walls (partitions) and external walls of the blade. The external wall thickness is a critical parameter which has to be systematically checked in order to ensure the blade strength. The thickness evaluation is usually lead by ultrasonic technique or by X-ray tomography. Nevertheless, both techniques present some drawbacks related to measurement speed and automation capability. These drawbacks are bypassed by the eddy current (EC) technique, well known for its robustness and reliability. However, the wall thickness evaluation is made difficult because of the complexity of the blade geometry. In particular, some disturbances appear in the thickness evaluation because of the partitions, which exclude the use of classical EC probes such as cup-core probe. In this paper, we show the main advantages of probes creating an uniformly oriented magnetic field in order to reduce the partition disturbances. Furthermore, we propose a measurement process allowing to separate the wall thickness parameter from the EC signals. Finally, we present some experimental results validating the proposed technique.

Le Bihan, Yann; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Placko, Dominique

2000-05-01

155

Surface plasmon and photonic mode propagation in gold nanotubes with varying wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanotube arrays are synthesized with a range of wall thicknesses (15 to >140 nm) and inner diameters of ˜200 nm using a hard-template method. A red spectral shift (>0.39 eV) with decreasing wall thickness is observed in dark-field spectra of nanotube arrays and single nanowire/nanotube heterostructures. Finite-difference-time-domain simulations show that nanotubes in this size regime support propagating surface plasmon modes as well as surface plasmon ring resonances at visible wavelengths (the latter is observed only for excitation directions normal to the nanotube long axis with transverse polarization). The energy of the surface plasmon modes decreases with decreasing wall thickness and is attributed to an increase in mode coupling between propagating modes in the nanotube core and outer surface and the circumference dependence of ring resonances. Surface plasmon mode propagation lengths for thicker-walled tubes increase by a factor of ˜2 at longer wavelengths (>700 nm), where ohmic losses in the metal are low, but thinner-walled tubes (30 nm) exhibit a more significant increase in surface plasmon propagation length (by a factor of more than four) at longer wavelengths. Additionally, nanotubes in this size regime support a photonic mode in their core, which does not change in energy with changing wall thickness. However, photonic mode propagation length is found to decrease for optically thin walls. Finally, correlations are made between the experimentally observed changes in dark-field spectra and the changes in surface plasmon mode properties observed in simulations for the various gold nanotube wall thicknesses and excitation conditions.

Kohl, Jesse; Fireman, Micha; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

2011-12-01

156

Surface plasmon and photonic mode propagation in gold nanotubes with varying wall thickness  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanotube arrays are synthesized with a range of wall thicknesses (15 to >140 nm) and inner diameters of {approx}200 nm using a hard-template method. A red spectral shift (>0.39 eV) with decreasing wall thickness is observed in dark-field spectra of nanotube arrays and single nanowire/nanotube heterostructures. Finite-difference-time-domain simulations show that nanotubes in this size regime support propagating surface plasmon modes as well as surface plasmon ring resonances at visible wavelengths (the latter is observed only for excitation directions normal to the nanotube long axis with transverse polarization). The energy of the surface plasmon modes decreases with decreasing wall thickness and is attributed to an increase in mode coupling between propagating modes in the nanotube core and outer surface and the circumference dependence of ring resonances. Surface plasmon mode propagation lengths for thicker-walled tubes increase by a factor of {approx}2 at longer wavelengths (>700 nm), where ohmic losses in the metal are low, but thinner-walled tubes (30 nm) exhibit a more significant increase in surface plasmon propagation length (by a factor of more than four) at longer wavelengths. Additionally, nanotubes in this size regime support a photonic mode in their core, which does not change in energy with changing wall thickness. However, photonic mode propagation length is found to decrease for optically thin walls. Finally, correlations are made between the experimentally observed changes in dark-field spectra and the changes in surface plasmon mode properties observed in simulations for the various gold nanotube wall thicknesses and excitation conditions.

Kohl, Jesse [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Fireman, Micha [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); O'Carroll, Deirdre M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials Devices and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2011-12-15

157

Airway wall thickness assessment: a new functionality in virtual bronchoscopy investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While classic virtual bronchoscopy offers visualization facilities for investigating the shape of the inner airway wall surface, it provides no information regarding the local thickness of the wall. Such information may be crucial for evaluating the severity of remodeling of the bronchial wall in asthma and to guide bronchial biopsies for staging of lung cancers. This paper develops a new functionality with the virtual bronchoscopy, allowing to estimate and map the information of the bronchus wall thickness on the lumen wall surface, and to display it as coded colors during endoluminal navigation. The local bronchus wall thickness estimation relies on a new automated 3D segmentation approach using strong 3D morphological filtering and model-fitting. Such an approach reconstructs the inner/outer airway wall surfaces from multi-detector CT data as follows. First, the airway lumen is segmented and its surface geometry reconstructed using either a restricted Delaunay or a Marching Cubes based triangulation approach. The lumen mesh is then locally deformed in the surface normal direction under specific force constraints which stabilize the model evolution at the level of the outer bronchus wall surface. The developed segmentation approach was validated with respect to both 3D mathematicallysimulated image phantoms of bronchus-vessel subdivisions and to state-of-the-art cross-section area estimation techniques when applied to clinical data. The investigation in virtual bronchoscopy mode is further enhanced by encoding the local wall thickness at each vertex of the lumen surface mesh and displaying it during navigation, according to a specific color map.

Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Brillet, P. Y.; Prêteux, F.; Grenier, P. A.

2007-03-01

158

Super giant basal cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall: still possible in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is very common and usually encountered when it is small in size. Giant BCC (i.e. greater than 5 cm in diameter) is quite rare and comprises 0.5 percent of all BCC. Extremely rarely, tumors larger than 20 cm have been reported. Herein, a case with an enormous, vegetating BCC of the abdominal wall, 30 x 20 cm in size, is described. This report demonstrates that such a case can still be observed in the civilized world of the 21st century, which remains profoundly astonishing. A literature survey was performed and revealed only 7 cases with such super giant BCC (i.e. larger than 20 cm in diameter). Generally, this tumor attains these enormous proportions due to neglect on the patient's part, and is usually located at sites covered by clothes. Treatment is mainly surgical and generally curative, resulting also in an improved quality of life. Tumor size of more than 10 cm in diameter is associated with increased risk for metastatic disease, severe morbidity and consequently impaired prognosis. PMID:20618503

de Bree, Eelco; Laliotis, Aggelos; Manios, Andreas; Tsiftsis, Dimitris D; Melissas, John

2010-07-01

159

Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs  

PubMed Central

Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

2015-01-01

160

Metastatic breast carcinoma of the abdominal wall muscle: a case report.  

PubMed

Metastasis from breast carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence in skeletal muscle, compared to local invasion into muscle from direct tumor spread. A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with an 8.5-cm mass in the right breast. Core needle biopsy revealed metaplastic carcinoma with squamous metaplasia. The mass was rapidly growing and metaplastic, so mastectomy with dissection of axillary lymph nodes was performed. Pathological examination showed metaplastic carcinoma, histological grade 3, triple negative, and a MIB-1 labeling index of 80%. Six months postoperatively, during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, she reported numbness and pain in the right lateral thigh and a mass in the right lower abdomen. Computed tomography revealed multiple lined masses in the abdominal wall and iliac muscle. Core needle biopsy showed metastatic breast carcinoma. Radio- and chemotherapy were administered, but the mass in the muscle became enlarged. To control her pain, a combined treatment with morphine, fentanyl, ketamine, antiepilepsy drug, and NSAIDs was administered. Liver metastasis appeared 9 months (15 months postoperatively) after recognition of muscle metastasis, and the patient died 16 months postoperatively. Skeletal muscle metastasis is uncommon, and therapeutic intervention is mainly palliative. The most common symptom of skeletal muscle metastasis is pain; thus, pain control is a pivotal goal of treatment. PMID:22382812

Ogiya, Akiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sato, Mutsumi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kikutani, Mariko; Tadokoro, Yukiko; Tanaka, Kumiko; Uematsu, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Kasami, Masako; Yamasaki, Seiji

2015-03-01

161

Theoretical quantification of the effects of plastic wall thickness on phantom measurements in electromagnetic hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

Phantom experiments are a staple of research and development in electromagnetic hyperthermia. Phantom containers and compartments are typically constructed from plastics which are readily available in a wide variety of thicknesses and material compositions. The perturbation effects of these plastics on the electric fields to be measured may be important, especially if one is trying to obtain quantitative results such as when comparing with a numerical model. This communication presents a theoretical investigation into the effects of plastic wall thickness on the computed electric field. Design curves are reported which aid in the selecting of an acceptable wall thickness given a maximum degree of wall perturbation that can be tolerated. Many other materials such as rubbers and polystyrenes also have electrical properties within the ranges considered herein; hence, the results should apply to a variety of commonly used phantom construction materials.

Ross, M.P.; Paulsen, K.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

1989-08-01

162

An Elastomeric Patch Electrospun from a Blended Solution of Dermal Extracellular Matrix and Biodegradable Polyurethane for Rat Abdominal Wall Repair  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable elastomeric scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixed solution of poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and porcine dermal extracellular matrix (dECM) digest, with PEUU included to provide elasticity, flexibility, and mechanical support and dECM used to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility. Micrographs and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated partial miscibility between PEUU and dECM. With greater dECM content, scaffolds were found to possess lower breaking strains and suture retention strength, although initial modulus was greater with higher dECM concentrations. The hybrid scaffolds containing 0% to 50% dECM had tensile strengths of 5 to 7?MPa, breaking strains of 138% to 611%, initial moduli of 3 to 11 Mpa, and suture retention strengths of 35 to 59?MPa. When hydrated, scaffolds were found to contract markedly with 50% dECM content. When used in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall replacement model, no herniation, infection, or tissue adhesion was observed after 4 and 8 weeks with a scaffold containing 25% dECM or a control 100% PEUU scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating dECM were significantly thicker at the time of explant, with greater numbers of associated smooth muscle actin–positive staining cells than in the control, but minimal cellular infiltration and remodeling of the scaffold were detected regardless of dECM addition. The processing of dECM and PEUU from a mixed solution thus provided a scaffold with evidence of better bioactivity and with mechanical properties not achievable with digested dECM alone. PMID:21933017

Hong, Yi; Takanari, Keisuke; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P.; Freund, John M.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

163

Use of a pre-expanded "propeller" deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for a large abdominal wall defect.  

PubMed

Large abdominal wall soft tissue defects are traditionally reconstructed using loco-regional flaps and/or tissue expanders. Pedicled perforator flaps offer similar tissue coverage with minimal donor site morbidity and do not require microsurgical skills. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has become increasingly popular for breast reconstruction and offers abundant soft tissue while permitting primary donor site closure. To minimize operative sessions, recovery time, donor site morbidity, and avoid microsurgery, we combined tissue expansion with a "propeller" flap design and report this first case of a pre-expanded pedicled perforator flap based on the DIEP to address a large abdominal wall defect due to a burn injury. PMID:23031631

Cheng, Angela; Saint-Cyr, Michel

2013-06-01

164

Wall-thickness and midwall-radius variations in ventricular mechanics.  

PubMed

A fluid-fiber-collagen stress tensor is used to describe the rheology of the left ventricle of the heart. Linear theory is used to find the equilibrium solutions for the end-diastolic and end-systolic states of general axisymmetric shapes that are small perturbations of a thick-walled finite cylinder. The general problem can be studied by superposing the effects of variable midwall radius but constant wall thickness with those of variable wall thickness but constant midwall radius. A Fourier series representation is used to describe the midwall radius and thickness functions. Numerical calculations are performed to determine the deformed geometry and spatial distributions of tissue pressure, stresses, and fiber strains. The calculations proved to be highly accurate when compared to an analytical solution obtained for the special case of no fibers. The results show significant longitudinal differences when compared to results for the cylindrical geometry, with more sensitivity to variation in wall thickness than to variation in midwall radius. PMID:2717607

Chadwick, R S; Ohayon, J; Lewkowicz, M

1989-05-01

165

Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein  

SciTech Connect

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Okajima, Hideaki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Transplantation and Pediatric Surgery (Japan)

2010-06-15

166

Perforated carcinoma of the caecum presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the abdominal wall, the key to early diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Background Necrotising Fasciitis is a life threatening soft tissue infection which requires aggressive, early surgical management. Case presentation We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal perforation of a carcinoma of the caecum presenting as a necrotising fasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of early aggressive debridement to healthy tissue limits, the consideration of a rare underlying cause, and the scope for plastic surgical reconstruction in order that aggressive initial surgery can be adequately performed. PMID:17010190

Marron, Conor D; McArdle, Gerarde T; Rao, Milind; Sinclair, Stephen; Moorehead, John

2006-01-01

167

High Reproducibility of Adhesion Formation in Rat with Meso-Stitch Approximation of Injured Cecum and Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Objective: Peritoneal adhesions following surgery are a common, serious pathology with severe complications. Appropriate animal adhesion models are essential for the assessment of adhesion preventing medical devices. This study introduces a variation of an established rat model in which highest degree adhesions are induced with excellent reproducibility (OPAM = optimized peritoneal adhesion model). Thus, this model seems to be eligible to study effects of adhesion preventing devices. Methods: 24 Lewis male rats were divided into four groups (OPAM, WSFX, sham-OPAM, sham-WSFX). The OPAM technique comprised cecal abrasion, creation of an abdominal wall defect plus approximation of injured areas by a suture, which was compared to a setting of lesions without suture fixation (WSFX). All rats were sacrificed at day 7. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Dunnett's test. Results: In OPAM rats macroscopic analyses revealed a 90% incidence adhesion of cecum to the abdominal wall, all adhesions imposing as complete agglutination. In WSFX animals incidence of adhesions formation was 75%, while in both sham groups there were no adhesions at all. Histology showed the structure of adhesions with merged smooth muscle of colon and skeletal muscle of abdominal wall in all cases. Conclusion: OPAM technique provides adhesions of injured areas with a better probability than with conventional methods. All OPAM adhesions impressed as highest degree adhesions, i.e. agglutination. Due to high reproducibility in incidence and extend of adhesion formation, the OPAM is recommended for testing of adhesion prevention medical devices. PMID:25552912

Poehnert, Daniel; Abbas, Mahmoud; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Klempnauer, Juergen; Winny, Markus

2015-01-01

168

An exact solution for a thick domain wall in general relativity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exact solution of the Einstein equations for a static, planar domain wall with finite thickness is presented. At infinity, density and pressure vanish and the space-time tends to the Minkowski vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Taub vacuum on the other side. A surprising feature of this solution is that the density and pressure distribution are symmetric about the central plane of the wall whereas the space-time metric and therefore also the gravitational field experienced by a test particle is asymmetric.

Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

1989-01-01

169

A successful early gore-tex reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect in a neonate with Cantrell pentalogy: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A surgical technique, materials used for abdominal wall reconstruction, and postoperative care are important for patient outcomes. We report the first case of neonate with Cantrell's pentalogy surviving early reconstruction of abdominal, diaphragmal and pericardial defects. Several recent investigations suggest that intraabdominal pressure monitoring may improve outcomes in this patient category.

Divkovic, Dalibor; Kvolik, Slavica; Sipl, Mirna; Sego, Krunoslav; Puseljic, Silvija; Rakipovic-Stojanovic, Andreja; Kovacic, Borna

2015-01-01

170

Effect of Pore Size and Pore Wall Thickness of Mesoporous Phase in Tin Phosphate Composite  

E-print Network

Effect of Pore Size and Pore Wall Thickness of Mesoporous Phase in Tin Phosphate Composite/crystalline composite with a mass ratio of 1:2 mesoporous: crystalline , and the resulting mesoporous tin phosphate has battery was reported by several groups.12-14 In particular, Kim et al. reported the superior capacity

Cho, Jaephil

171

Asymmetric bifurcations of thick-walled circular cylindrical elastic tubes under axial loading and external pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider bifurcation from a circular cylindrical deformed configuration of a thick-walled circular cylindrical tube of incompressible isotropic elastic material subject to combined axial loading and external pressure. In particular, we examine both axisymmetric and asymmetric modes of bifurcation. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional incremental equilibrium equations, which are derived and then solved numerically for

Y. Zhu; X. Y. Luo; R. W. Ogden

2008-01-01

172

Use of intraoperative indocyanin-green angiography to minimize wound healing complications in abdominal wall reconstruction.  

PubMed

Complication rates following abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) remain high. Early complications are related to skin necrosis and delayed healing, whereas late complications are related to recurrence. When concomitant body contouring procedures are performed, complication rates can be further increased. It is hypothesised that fluorescent angiography using indocyanin green (ICG) can identify poorly perfused tissues and thus reduce the incidence of delayed healing. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent AWR with concomitant panniculectomy from 2007-2012. Intraoperative ICG angiography with the SPY system (LifeCell Corp.) was used to determine the amount of resection for body contouring in patients who underwent reconstruction in a cohort of patients. SPY-Q was used to assess relative perfusion of analysed areas. Preoperative, postoperative, and operative details were analyzed. Seventeen patients met inclusion criteria, 12 patients were included in the non-ICG cohort, while five patients were included in the ICG cohorts. Wound-healing complications occurred in 5/12 (42%) patients in the non-ICG cohort vs 1/5 (20%) of the ICG cohorts. A description of the sole patient with complications in the ICG cohort is illustrated. Operative debridement and wound infection development occurred more frequently in the non-ICG cohort compared with the ICG cohort (17%, 17% vs 0%, 0%, respectively). Average time to wound healing was 41.1 days. Intraoperative ICG angiography can accurately detect perfusion abnormalities and can decrease wound healing related complications in complex hernia repair with concomitant panniculectomy. Assessing and ensuring skin viability can decrease the need for operative debridement. PMID:23596988

Patel, Ketan M; Bhanot, Parag; Franklin, Brenton; Albino, Frank; Nahabedian, Maurice Y

2013-12-01

173

Gasless laparoscopy for benign gynecological diseases using an abdominal wall-lifting system  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The use of gasless laparoscopy with an abdominal wall-lifting device for benign gynecological diseases was compared to conventional laparoscopy with CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Methods: From February 2007 to July 2007, 76 women with uterine and/or adnexal benign diseases and candidates for laparoscopic surgery were recruited in this study. Thirty-two women underwent gasless laparoscopic surgery and 44 women underwent pneumoperitoneum laparoscopic surgery. Results: Diverse pathologies, including adnexal cyst, uterine myoma and ectopic pregnancy, were treated successfully with gasless laparoscopic surgery. Compared with the patients in the pneumoperitoneum group, the similar hospital stay (P=0.353) and intraoperative blood loss (P=0.157) were observed. However, the mean operative time in the gasless group was significantly longer than that in the pneumoperitoneum group (P=0.003). No severe intraoperative or postoperative complications were found in either group, except for one case of laparotomic conversion in the pneumoperitoneum group due to dense pelvic adhesions. The total hospital charges were significantly less in the gasless group than in the pneumoperitoneum group (P=0.001). In 38 cases of ovarian cyst resection, the mean operative time in the gasless group remained longer than that in the pneumoperitoneum group (P=0.017). The total hospital charges were also significantly less in the gasless group than in the pneumoperitoneum group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our preliminary results demonstrated that the laparoscopic procedure using the gasless technique was a safe, effective method to treat benign gynecological diseases. Moreover, it was easy to master. As a minimally invasive treatment, gasless laparoscopic surgery provides a good choice to patients in the undeveloped regions in China without increasing the patients’ and the government’s burden significantly. PMID:19882754

Wang, Yue; Cui, Heng; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zhi-qi

2009-01-01

174

Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects In Vitro and In Vivo Using VEGF Sustained-Release Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Objective Porcine acellular dermal matrices (ADM) have been widely used in experimental and clinical research for abdominal wall repair. Compared to porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), the effect of these matrices on the regenerative capacity of blood vessels is still not ideal. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can more effectively transport VEGF to cells or tissues because of their large specific surface area and interior cavity. In this study, we explored the safety and efficacy of implanted VEGF-loaded MWNT composite scaffolds in vitro and vivo to repair abdominal wall defects. Materials and Methods VEGF-loaded MWNTs were prepared by a modified plasma polymerization treatment. Four composite scaffolds were evaluated for cytotoxicity, proliferation, and release dynamics. We created 3 cm×4 cm abdominal wall defects in 43 Sprague-Dawley rats. After implantation times of 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the scaffolds and the surrounding tissues were collected and examined by gross inspection, biomechanical testing, and histological examination. Results A 5–10 nm poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was evenly distributed on MWNTs. The 3% MWNT composite group showed lower cytotoxicity and appropriate release performance, and it was thus tested in vivo. In rats with the 3% composite implanted, host cells were prevented from migrating to the ADM at 2 weeks, vascularization was established more rapidly at 12 weeks, and the values for both the maximum load and the elastic modulus were significantly lower than in the ADM-alone group (p<0.01). Histological staining revealed that the MWNT was still not completely eliminated 12 weeks after implantation. Conclusion MWNTs were able to carry VEGF to cells or tissues, and the 3% MWNT composite material showed lower cytotoxicity and had an appropriate release performance, which prompted faster vascularization of the ADM than other scaffolds. Nevertheless, the MWNTs induced harmful effects that should be carefully considered in biomedical studies. PMID:23717603

Yang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhengni; Peng, Zhiyou; Tang, Rui; Gu, Yan

2013-01-01

175

Sex-Related Differences of Cortical Thickness in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Regional reductions in gray matter (GM) have been reported in several chronic somatic and visceral pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic pancreatitis. Reported GM reductions include insular and anterior cingulate cortices, even though subregions are generally not specified. The majority of published studies suffer from limited sample size, heterogeneity of populations, and lack of analyses for sex differences. We aimed to characterize regional changes in cortical thickness (CT) in a large number of well phenotyped IBS patients, taking into account the role of sex related differences. Methods Cortical GM thickness was determined in 266 subjects (90 IBS [70 predominantly premenopausal female] and 176 healthy controls (HC) [155 predominantly premenopausal female]) using the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) Pipeline. A combined region of interest (ROI) and whole brain approach was used to detect any sub-regional and vertex-level differences after removing effects of age and total GM volume. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data. Results While IBS as a group did not show significant differences in CT compared to HCs, sex related differences were observed both within the IBS and the HC groups. When female IBS patients were compared to female HCs, whole brain analysis showed significant CT increase in somatosensory and primary motor cortex, as well as CT decrease in bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). The ROI analysis showed significant regional CT decrease in bilateral subregions of insular cortex, while CT decrease in cingulate was limited to left sgACC, accounting for the effect of age and GM volume. Several measures of IBS symptom severity showed significant correlation with CT changes in female IBS patients. Conclusions Significant, sex related differences in CT are present in both HCs and in IBS patients. The biphasic neuroplastic changes in female IBS patients are related to symptom severity. PMID:24040118

Jiang, Zhiguo; Dinov, Ivo D.; Labus, Jennifer; Shi, Yonggang; Zamanyan, Alen; Gupta, Arpana; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Hong, Jui-Yang; Tillisch, Kirsten; Toga, Arthur W.; Mayer, Emeran A.

2013-01-01

176

The effect of fig wall thickness in Ficus erecta var. beecheyana on parasitism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fig wasp communities constitute a model system to analyse determinants of community complexity and to investigate how biological interaction networks are maintained. It has been suggested for monoecious figs, that fig pollinating wasps avoid ovipositing in flowers located close to the fig wall because of strong parasitic pressure by wasps ovipositing through the fig wall. This behaviour could help explain why mainly seeds are produced in flowers located close to the fig wall, thus stabilizing the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. In this contribution we explore, for dioecious figs, whether ovipositor length of parasitic species may really be limiting. In dioecious figs, functionally male figs produce pollinating wasps and pollen while female figs produce only seeds, facilitating selection of traits favouring pollinator reproduction in male figs. We show in Ficus erecta that fig walls are thicker in male figs than in female figs. Male figs presenting thick walls, thicker than the length of the parasites' ovipositors, went unparasitized while male figs presenting thinner walls were systematically parasitized. Hence, in F. erecta, ovipositor length of the parasites is limiting access to some figs. However, we also show that in another dioecious species, Ficus formosana, presenting thin walled male figs, no fig is protected against oviposition by its two parasites. Hence in dioecious as well as in monoecious figs, in some Ficus species, ovipositors of the parasites are limiting access to ovules, while in other Ficus species all ovules are exposed to parasitism.

Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ou, Chern-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Yuan; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

2014-05-01

177

Tuning of microcapsule adhesion by varying the capsule-wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesion area and topology of spherical hollow polyelectrolyte shells adhering to flat glass or polyelectrolyte-covered glass surfaces are studied. Strong adhesion is found for anionic poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-terminated shells on cationic poly(ethylene imine)-covered glass, while no adhesion of those shells on uncoated glass is found. The adhering shells are deformed and obtain a truncated sphere topology with a circular adhesion disk. The radius of the adhesion disks can reach up to 50% of the shell radius for shells of several tens of microns. The dependency of the size of adhesion areas on the capsule radius and capsule wall thickness is also investigated. Remarkably, the size of the adhesion areas is found to depend strongly on the wall thickness, which offers interesting perspectives for controlling capsule adhesion properties. A model based on the energy balance of deformation and wetting energies is presented that explains the observed trends.

Elsner, Nils; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Fery, Andreas

2004-03-01

178

Separation occurring during the drop weight tear test of thick-walled X80 pipeline steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A separation phenomenon occurring during the drop weight tear test of commercial thick-walled API (American Petroleum Institute) X80 strip steel was investigated in this work. Microstructural analysis showed that the band structure of bainite elongated along the rolling direction works as the initiation sites of separation. The propagation of separation can be promoted not only by the occurrence of the band structure of martensite/austenite constituent, prior austenite grain boundaries, and elongated bainite, but also by fine acicular ferrite and bainite. Wide separation formed in the former case, while the narrow one appeared in the latter case. Some methods were proposed to obtain fine and homogeneous acicular ferrite in thick-walled X80 pipeline steel in order to minimize the occurrence of separation.

Sha, Qing-yun; Li, Da-hang; Huang, Guo-jian; Guan, Ju

2013-08-01

179

Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

180

A thermoelastic transversely isotropic thick walled cylinder/disk application: An analytical solution and study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuum theory is utilized to represent the thermoelastic behavior of a thick walled composite cylinder that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. A multiaxial statement of the constitutive theory employed is presented, as well as the out of the plane of isotropy, plane stress, and plane strain reductions. The derived analytical solution presented is valid for a cylindrical tube or thin disk with a concentric hole, subjected to internal and/or external pressure and a general radial temperature distribution. A specific problem examined is that of a thick walled cylinder subjected to an internal and external pressure loading and a linear radial temperature distribution. The results are expressed in nondimensional form and the effects on the response behavior are examined for various material properties, fiber orientation and types of loadings.

Arnold, S. M.

1989-01-01

181

A Surgeon's Perspective of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis at a Caesarean Section Incision: Nine Cases in a Single Institution  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall endometriosis in a Caesarean section scar (AEC) is an infrequent type of extrapelvic endometriosis which rarely transforms into a malignant lesion. A painful mass located in the scar of a Caesarean section is a typical sign of AEC. This condition is diagnosed preoperatively using imaging modalities such as computed tomography and ultrasonography, as well as fine-needle aspiration. Although AEC has typical signs, general surgeons often misdiagnose it due to its rarity. Herein, we report our experience of AEC in a single institution. PMID:25379559

Lee, Won-Suk; Kang, Jin Mo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Keon Kuk; Lee, Woon Kee

2014-01-01

182

Metastasis of femoral osteosarcoma to the abdominal wall detected on 99m Tc-MDP skeletal scintigraphy.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignancy of bone, and usually metastasizes to the lung and bones, while other sites are rare. In most reported cases, soft tissue metastasis of osteosarcoma is unusual, and only develops in the advanced stages of the disease, especially following multiple recurrences. We present a patient with recently diagnosed osteosarcoma of the right femur, showing abdominal wall metastasis diagnosed by technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99m Tc-MDP) whole body bone scintigraphy and confirmed histologically. The present case highlights the importance of whole body imaging of patients with osteosarcoma for detecting unusual sites of metastasis, especially in soft tissue organs. PMID:23456178

Pirayesh, Elahe; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Amoui, Mahasti; Rakhsha, Afshin; Poor, Ali Shafie; Assadi, Majid

2013-06-01

183

18F-FDG PET/CT Findings of a Recurrent Adenocarcinoma Arising From Malignant Transformation of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is defined as endometrial tissue located superficial to the peritoneum, which usually develops in a surgical scar of cesarean delivery. Malignant transformation of AWE is a very rare disease. The most frequent histotype of malignancy developing from AWE is endometrioid adenocarcinoma. We present F-FDG PET/CT findings in a 37-year-old woman with a recurrent adenocarcinoma arising from malignant transformation of AWE, who underwent a repeat PET/CT scan because of a recurrent mass at the upper right side of the surgical incision after a previous cesarean delivery. PMID:25546222

Jiang, Maoqing; Chen, Ping; Sun, Long; Huang, Qiuli; Wu, Hua

2015-02-01

184

A Surgeon's Perspective of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis at a Caesarean Section Incision: Nine Cases in a Single Institution.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall endometriosis in a Caesarean section scar (AEC) is an infrequent type of extrapelvic endometriosis which rarely transforms into a malignant lesion. A painful mass located in the scar of a Caesarean section is a typical sign of AEC. This condition is diagnosed preoperatively using imaging modalities such as computed tomography and ultrasonography, as well as fine-needle aspiration. Although AEC has typical signs, general surgeons often misdiagnose it due to its rarity. Herein, we report our experience of AEC in a single institution. PMID:25379559

Oh, Eun Mee; Lee, Won-Suk; Kang, Jin Mo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Keon Kuk; Lee, Woon Kee

2014-01-01

185

[The umbilical cord of newborn babies should be clamped at least five centimetres from the abdominal wall].  

PubMed

A three day-old boy was brought to a department of paediatric surgery with mechanical ileus under suspicion of morbus Hirschsprung. Early into surgery it was found that the cause of ileus was an iatrogenic clamping of a small unrecognized omphalocele. In view of recent literature there is not found any evidence of advantage of near skin clamping of the umbilical cord. It is therefore recommended that the clamping of the umbilical cord is done at least five centimetres from the abdominal wall. If the umbilical cord is broad-based it is also recommended to clamp at a safe distance from the basis. PMID:21917228

Kirkegaard, Anders; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Rasmussen, Lars

2011-09-12

186

Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived by the cross-sectional integration of axisymmetric two-dimensional basic equations. The resulting FSI four-equation model has small correction terms and factors accounting

A. S. Tijsseling

2007-01-01

187

Improvement in steel weldability for large diameter thick-walled gas pipelines by optimizing chemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem is considered of improving impact strength and brittle failure resistance of heat-affected zone (HAZ) metal during\\u000a welding of thick-walled (30–40 mm) gas pipelines. It is shown that the best HAZ properties are obtained in the case of forming\\u000a low-carbon bainite in this zone with slow post-welding cooling rates. The carbon content is reduced in pipe steel for this

P. P. Stepanov; V. N. Zikeev; L. I. Efron; I. I. Frantov; Yu. D. Morozov

2011-01-01

188

Ultrasound Thickness of Bladder Wall in Continent and Incontinent Women and Its Correlation with Cystometry  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare bladder wall thickness in two kinds of urinary incontinent women—stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) with urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO), and to compare them with continent patients by ultrasound, also, correlate with cystometric results in incontinent women. Methods. 91 women were divided into the following groups: continent (n = 31), SUI (n = 30), and DO (n = 30) groups after clinical evaluation and urodynamic test (only in incontinent women). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed to the bladder wall thickness (BWT) measurement. The mean of BWT was calculated and data were analyzed with ANOVA and Turkey's multiple comparison tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to compare two variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to study BWT as a diagnostic parameter. Results. BWT in DO group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.005). A moderate positive correlation was found between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction. There was no difference in BWT between SUI and continent groups. DO group had lower first desire to void and cystometric capacity. Maximum bladder pressure at detrusor contraction had a moderate positive correlation with BWT. The ROC revealed an area under the curve of 0.962 (95%?CI, 0.90–1.01). Conclusions. DO patients have increased bladder wall thickness, lower first desire to void, and lower cystometric capacity. There was a moderate correlation between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction.

Otsuki, Edney Norio; Oliveira, Emerson; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castelo; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin

2014-01-01

189

Automatic identification and validation of planar collagen organization in the aorta wall with application to abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Arterial physiology relies on a delicate three-dimensional (3D) organization of cells and extracellular matrix, which is remarkably altered by vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The ability to explore the micro-histology of the aorta wall is important in the study of vascular pathologies and in the development of vascular constitutive models, i.e., mathematical descriptions of biomechanical properties of the wall. The present study reports and validates a fast image processing sequence capable of quantifying collagen fiber organization from histological stains. Powering and re-normalizing the histogram of the classical fast Fourier transformation (FFT) is a key step in the proposed analysis sequence. This modification introduces a powering parameter w, which was calibrated to best fit the reference data obtained using classical FFT and polarized light microscopy (PLM) of stained histological slices of AAA wall samples. The values of w = 3 and 7 give the best correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient larger than 0.7, R 2 about 0.7) with the classical FFT approach and PLM measurements. A fast and operator independent method to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall was developed and validated. This overcomes severe limitations of currently applied methods like PLM to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall. PMID:24016340

Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian; Forsell, Caroline; Druckmüllerova, Hana; Tichy, Michal; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert; Bursa, Jiri

2013-12-01

190

Association Between the Lateral Wall Thickness of the Maxillary Sinus and the Dental Status: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of the lateral wall thickness of the maxillary sinus is very important in decision making for many surgical interventions. The association between the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and the dental status is not well identified. Objectives: To compare the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus in individuals with and without teeth to determine if extraction of the teeth can lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the maxillary sinus lateral wall or not. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study on fifty patients with an edentulous space, the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus,one centimeter above the sinus floor in the second premolar (P2), first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) areas was determined by cone beam computed tomography scans(CBCTs) and a digital ruler in Romexis F software (Planmeca Romexis 2.4.2.R) and it was compared with values measured in fifty dentated individuals. Three way analysis of variance was applied for comparison after confirmation of the normal distribution of data. Results: The mean of the wall thickness in each of these points was lower in patients with edentulous spaces; however it was not significant. There was no association between gender and the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, but location was associated with different thicknesses. Conclusions: The differences in the thickness based on the location and dental status necessitates assessment of the wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in addition to the current evaluation of bone thickness between the sinus floor and the edentulous crest before maxillary sinus surgery. PMID:24693302

Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Rahpeyma, Amin; Hoseini Zarch, Seyed Hosein

2014-01-01

191

Abdominal wall hernia and aortic injury secondary to blunt trauma: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) and traumatic abdominal aortic injury (TAAI) are two uncommon complications secondary to blunt trauma. In both TAWH and TAAI, reported cases are often associated with poly-trauma. TAWH may be initially missed if more pressing issues are identified during the patient's primary survey. TAAI may be an incidental finding on imaging or, if severe, a cause of an acute abdomen and hemodynamic abnormality. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 54-year-old white male suffered a TAWH and TAAI (pseudoaneurysm) due to severe blunt trauma. TAWH was apparent on physical exam and the TAAI was suspected on computed tomography (CT). The patient's TAWH was managed with a series of abdominal explorations and the TAAI was repaired with endovascular stenting. DISCUSSION TAWH and TAAI are commonly due to severe blunt trauma from motor vehicle collisions. Diagnosis is made through physical exam, imaging studies, or surgical exploration. A variety of surgical techniques achieve technical success. CONCLUSION The patient with blunt trauma to the abdomen is at risk for TAWH and TAAI, which are often associated with other injuries. Investigations should include thorough clinical exam through secondary survey and radiologic imaging in the hemodynamically normal patient. PMID:25437685

Ballard, David H.; Kaskas, Nadine M.; Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Skweres, Justin; Youssef, Asser M.

2014-01-01

192

The intricate role of mast cell proteases and the annexin A1-FPR1 system in abdominal wall endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a continuous and progressive disease with a poorly understood aetiology, pathophysiology and natural history. This study evaluated the histological differences between eutopic and ectopic endometria (abdominal wall endometriosis) and the expression of mast cell proteases (tryptase and chymase), annexin A1 (ANXA1) and formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). Ectopic endometrium from 18 women with abdominal wall endometriosis and eutopic endometrium from 10 women without endometriosis were obtained. The endometrial samples were analysed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural immunogold labeling to determine mast cell heterogeneity (tryptase and chymase positive cells) and the expression levels of ANXA1 and FPR1. Histopathological analysis of the endometriotic lesions showed a glandular pattern of mixed differentiation and an undifferentiated morphology with a significant influx of inflammatory cells and a change in mast cell heterogeneity, as evidenced by a significant increase in the number of chymase-positive cells and endogenous chymase expression. The undifferentiated glandular pattern of endometriotic lesions was positively associated with a marked increase and co-localization of ANXA1 and FPR1 in the epithelial cells. In conclusion, the co-upregulated expression of mast cell chymase and ANXA1-FPR1 system in ectopic endometrium suggests their involvement in the development of endometriotic lesions. PMID:25201101

Paula, Rubens; Oliani, Antonio H; Vaz-Oliani, Denise C M; D'Ávila, Solange C G P; Oliani, Sonia M; Gil, Cristiane D

2015-02-01

193

[Function of the abdominal wall and development and therapy of hernias (among others: the para-colostomy hernia)].  

PubMed

The peritoneal cavity has a fascial skeleton with musculature that is nearly always active, i.e. it has resting tone activity. During pneumoperitoneum this resting activity increases very markedly. The pelvic floor and its integrated sphincters also have a similar type of spontaneous activity depending on Onuf's nucleus in the spinal cord together with the somatic and autonomic nerves. Hernias such as umbilical hernias develop with disruption of a scar. While in a child the common inguinal hernia develops in an open vaginal processus, in an adult it develops as the result of a congenital muscular defect in the abdominal wall. A femoral hernia develops in a gap through the pressure of the resting activity of the abdominal wall. A paracolostomy hernia develops after an incision in the fascial skeleton and after pull-through of a very adipose sigma-mesosigma. It can often be treated it by pulling a slim colon segment through the innervated rectus muscle incision and closing the gap in the fascial skeleton with a running suture. Incisional or umbilical hernias can be successfully treated by suturing with a continuous nonabsorbable thread. The best therapy for inguinal hernias is suturing of the hyperplastic fascia transversalis and the reconstruction of the muscle sphincter mechanism. Bassini operated on very large hernias with hyperplastic fascia, thereby achieving excellent results. Fascial hyperplasia has been shown to follow the use of tissue expanders. PMID:8196426

Stelzner, F

1994-01-01

194

Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair  

PubMed Central

Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

2014-01-01

195

Inverse Transient Analysis for Classification of Wall Thickness Variations in Pipelines  

PubMed Central

Analysis of transient fluid pressure signals has been investigated as an alternative method of fault detection in pipeline systems and has shown promise in both laboratory and field trials. The advantage of the method is that it can potentially provide a fast and cost effective means of locating faults such as leaks, blockages and pipeline wall degradation within a pipeline while the system remains fully operational. The only requirement is that high speed pressure sensors are placed in contact with the fluid. Further development of the method requires detailed numerical models and enhanced understanding of transient flow within a pipeline where variations in pipeline condition and geometry occur. One such variation commonly encountered is the degradation or thinning of pipe walls, which can increase the susceptible of a pipeline to leak development. This paper aims to improve transient-based fault detection methods by investigating how changes in pipe wall thickness will affect the transient behaviour of a system; this is done through the analysis of laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments are carried out on a stainless steel pipeline of constant outside diameter, into which a pipe section of variable wall thickness is inserted. In order to detect the location and severity of these changes in wall conditions within the laboratory system an inverse transient analysis procedure is employed which considers independent variations in wavespeed and diameter. Inverse transient analyses are carried out using a genetic algorithm optimisation routine to match the response from a one-dimensional method of characteristics transient model to the experimental time domain pressure responses. The accuracy of the detection technique is evaluated and benefits associated with various simplifying assumptions and simulation run times are investigated. It is found that for the case investigated, changes in the wavespeed and nominal diameter of the pipeline are both important to the accuracy of the inverse analysis procedure and can be used to differentiate the observed transient behaviour caused by changes in wall thickness from that caused by other known faults such as leaks. Further application of the method to real pipelines is discussed.

Tuck, Jeffrey; Lee, Pedro

2013-01-01

196

High resolution measurement of translucent plastic wall thicknesses by computerized tomography and neural networks.  

PubMed

Today there is a great deal of interest in the field of plastics design. Several methods can be employed to create plastic products such as injection molding, compression and transfer molding, and blow molding. This paper is concerned with blow molding which is a procedure employed to create hollow plastic containers such as those used to contain liquids and solids in the wholesale and retail markets. An important aspect of blow molding is the measurement of the wall thickness of semi-liquid plastic before the molding procedure has been initiated. Minimization of waste is rapidly becoming a critical consideration within the plastics community due to the cost of raw polymers. Unfortunately, it is also an extremely difficult task to measure the thickness considering the high temperatures and elasticity of the polymers in question. This paper presents initial research on a non-invasive approach for wall thickness measurements of semi-liquid plastics through the utilization of computerized tomography and neural networks. The work described here is based on simulations and on modeling data obtained through experimental means. This technique can be extended to other fields of research as well, such as those related to the development of glass and ceramic products. PMID:9427105

Hemminger, T L; Farrell, R E

1997-06-01

197

Controlled protein release from monodisperse biodegradable double-wall microspheres of controllable shell thickness  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable polymer microparticles are promising delivery depots for protein therapeutics due to their relatively simple fabrication and facile administration. Double-wall microspheres (DWMS) comprising a core and shell made of two distinct polymers may provide enhanced control of the drug release profiles. Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse DWMS were fabricated with model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) core and drug-free poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLL) shell of uniform thickness. Monolithic single-wall microspheres were also fabricated to mimic the BSA-loaded PLG core. Using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as shell- and core-phase solvents, respectively, BSA was encapsulated selectively in the core region within DWMS with higher loading and encapsulation efficiency compared to using dichloromethane as core and shell solvents. BSA in vitro release rates were retarded by the presence of the drug-free PDLL shell. Moreover, increasing PDLL shell thickness resulted in decreasing BSA release rate. With a 14-µm thick PDLL shell, an extended period of constant-rate release was achieved. PMID:23954731

Xia, Yujie; Ribeiro, Pedro F.; Pack, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

198

Growth and Remodeling in a Thick-Walled Artery Model: Effects of Spatial Variations in Wall Constituents  

PubMed Central

A mathematical model is presented for growth and remodeling of arteries. The model is a thick-walled tube composed of a constrained mixture of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen. Material properties and radial and axial distributions of each constituent are prescribed according to previously published data. The analysis includes stress-dependent growth and contractility of the muscle and turnover of collagen fibers. Simulations were conducted for homeostatic conditions and for the temporal response following sudden hypertension. Numerical pressure-radius relations and opening angles (residual stress) show reasonable agreement with published experimental results. In particular, for realistic material and structural properties, the model predicts measured variations in opening angles along the length of the aorta with reasonable accuracy. These results provide a better understanding of the determinants of residual stress in arteries and could lend insight into the importance of constituent distributions in both natural and tissue-engineered blood vessels. PMID:17786493

Alford, Patrick W.; Humphrey, Jay D.; Taber, Larry A.

2008-01-01

199

Effects of the loss of symmetry on the wall shear stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

E-print Network

Aneurysms A. Introduction Owing to their effect on the endothelial cells, wall shear stresses appear shear stresses. Medium to large size aneurysms (diameter > 4 cm) tend to be non-symmetric due involved non-symmetric models of aneurysm. None of the studies considered the changes in the wall shear

200

IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities  

SciTech Connect

For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.

2005-01-24

201

Thick-walled centrifugally cast 08X18H10T steel blank for seamless-pipe production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick-walled pipe blanks made by centrifugal casting of corrosion-resistant 08X18H10T steel are investigated. These blanks\\u000a are intended for subsequent hot pressing of pipe (diameter 89 mm, wall thickness 12 mm). The macrostructure of the castings\\u000a is studied, as well as the mechanical properties of cast and heat-treated tangential, transverse, and longitudinal samples.\\u000a The defects observed in the centrifugally cast pipe

V. N. Zaika; A. P. Shlyamnev; G. A. Filippov; K. V. Zakharchenko; A. F. Shevakin

2011-01-01

202

Congenital anterior abdominal wall defects in England and Wales 1987-93: retrospective analysis of OPCS data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Analysis of incidence and characteristics of congenital abdominal wall defects, with special reference to the differences between the incidence of gastroschisis and exomphalos (omphalocele). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (recoded to differentiate exomphalos and gastroschisis) and the National Congenital Malformation Notification Scheme. SETTING: England and Wales, 1987 to 1993. RESULTS: 1043 congenital anterior abdominal wall defects were notified within the seven year study period. Of these, 539 were classified as gastroschisis, 448 as exomphalos, 19 as "prune belly syndrome," and 37 as "unclassified." Gastroschisis doubled in incidence from 0.65 in 1987 to 1.35 per 10,000 total births in 1991, with little further change; the incidence of exomphalos decreased from 1.13 to 0.77 per 10000 births. The overall incidence of notified congenital abdominal wall defects was 2.15 per 10000 total births. Gastroschisis was associated with a lower overall maternal age than exomphalos and with a significantly lower proportion of additional reported congenital malformations (5.0%) than in the cohort with exomphalos (27.4%) (odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.22; P < 0.001). The sex ratio of the two cohorts was the same. The incidence of gastroschisis and exomphalos was higher in the northern regions of England than in the south east of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The national congenital malformation notification system showed an increasing trend in the incidence of fetuses born with gastroschisis and a progressive decreasing incidence of exomphalos in England and Wales between 1987 and 1993. Although the reasons for this are likely to be multifactorial, a true differential change seems likely. The observed increase in incidence of gastroschisis relative to exomphalos and the differentiation in maternal age have implications for resource management within the NHS and warrant further epidemiological monitoring. Regional differences may be due to a dietary or environmental factor, which requires further study. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8876090

Tan, K. H.; Kilby, M. D.; Whittle, M. J.; Beattie, B. R.; Booth, I. W.; Botting, B. J.

1996-01-01

203

Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmental weakening of the artery. Although it is generally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Here we show that vessel-wall failure in growing aneurysms of patients who have aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA) or Marfan syndrome is not related to a collagen defect at the molecular level. On the contrary our findings indicate similar (Marfan) or even higher collagen concentrations (AAA) and increased collagen cross-linking in the aneurysms. Using 3D confocal imaging we show that the two conditions are associated with profound defects in collagen microarchitecture. Reconstructions of normal vessel wall show that adventitial collagen fibers are organized in a loose braiding of collagen ribbons. These ribbons encage the vessel, allowing the vessel to dilate easily but preventing overstretching. AAA and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome show dramatically altered collagen architectures with loss of the collagen knitting. Evaluations of the functional characteristics by atomic force microscopy showed that the wall has lost its ability to stretch easily and revealed a second defect: although vascular collagen in normal aortic wall behaves as a coherent network, in AAA and Marfan tissues it does not. As result, mechanical forces loaded on individual fibers are not distributed over the tissue. These studies demonstrate that the mechanical properties of tissue are strongly influenced by collagen microarchitecture and that perturbations in the collagen networks may lead to mechanical failure. PMID:20080766

Lindeman, Jan H N; Ashcroft, Brian A; Beenakker, Jan-Willem M; van Es, Maarten; Koekkoek, Nico B R; Prins, Frans A; Tielemans, Jarl F; Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Bank, Ruud A; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H

2010-01-12

204

A single-institutional, multidisciplinary approach to primary sarcomas involving the chest wall requiring full-thickness resections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Primary sarcomas involving the chest wall requiring full-thickness excision are rare. We reviewed our experience with these lesions in a tertiary referral cancer center by using multidisciplinary approaches. Methods: A 10-year retrospective study identified 51 patients referred with primary sarcomas of the chest wall: 40 for initial treatment and 11 after previous unsuccessful surgical excisions elsewhere (secondary referral). Presenting

Garrett L. Walsh; Bryan M. Davis; Stephen G. Swisher; Ara A. Vaporciyan; W. Roy Smythe; Kelly Willis-Merriman; Jack A. Roth; Joe B. Putnam

2001-01-01

205

Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G.H. Farrahi a  

E-print Network

is subjected to high internal pressure till its wall becomes partially plastic. The resulting compressive hoopResidual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G stress Extended variable material properties method Optimum autofrettage pressure a b s t r a c

Vaziri, Ashkan

206

Changes in the frequencies of abdominal wall hernias and the preferences for their repair: a multicenter national study from Turkey.  

PubMed

Abstract Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem in the general population. A Western estimate reveals that the lifetime risk of developing a hernia is about 2%. (1 - 3) As a result, hernia repairs likely comprise the most frequent general surgery operations. More than 20 million hernias are estimated to be repaired every year around the world. (4) Numerous repair techniques have been described to date however tension-free mesh repairs are widely used today because of their low hernia recurrence rates. Nevertheless, there are some ongoing debates regarding the ideal approach (open or laparoscopic), (5 , 6) the ideal anesthesia (general, local, or regional), (7 , 8) and the ideal mesh (standard polypropylene or newer meshes). (9 , 10.) PMID:25216417

Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan; Oztuna, Derya; Topgül, Koray; Akyol, Cihangir; Cakmak, At?l; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdo?an, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Gürer, Ahmet; Zerbaliyev, Elbrus; Seker, Duray; Yorganc?, Kaya; Pergel, Ahmet; Ayd?n, Ibrahim; Ensari, Cemal; Bilecik, Tuna; Kahraman, Izzettin; Reis, Erhan; Kalayc?, Murat; Canda, Aras Emre; Demira?, Alp; Kesicio?lu, Tu?rul; Malazgirt, Zafer; Gündo?du, Haldun; Terzi, Cem

2014-01-01

207

Radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion and abdominal wall reconstruction: an interesting case of multidisciplinary management  

PubMed Central

The ileal conduit for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is a well-described procedure. Furthermore, parastomal hernias, prolapse, stenosis, and retraction of the stoma have been reported as some of the more common complications of this procedure. The subsequent repair of parastomal hernias with a biological mesh and the potential of the conduit to “tunnel” through it has also been described. In this case report, we present a combined repair of a large incisional hernia with a cystectomy and a pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer, with the use of a biological mesh for posterior component abdominal wall primary repair as well as for support to the ileal conduit used for urinary diversion. PMID:25653561

Sofos, Stratos S; Walsh, Ciaran J; Parr, Nigel J; Hancock, Kevin

2015-01-01

208

Penis auto-amputation and chasm of the lower abdominal wall due to advanced penile carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Penile cancer is uncommon. When penile cancer is left untreated, at an advanced stage it can have tragic consequences for the patient. Case presentation Our case report does not concern a new manifestation of penile cancer, but an interesting presentation with clinical significance that emphasizes the need to diagnose and treat penile cancer early. It is an unusual case of a neglected penile cancer in a 57-year-old Greek man that led to auto-amputation of the penis and a large chasm in the lower abdominal wall. The clinical staging was T4N3M0 and our patient was treated with a bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our patient died 18 months after his first admission in our clinic. Conclusions Emphasis must be placed on early diagnosis and treatment of penile cancer, so further development of the disease can be prevented. PMID:22152757

2011-01-01

209

Temporary relocation of testes to the anterior abdominal wall before radiation therapy of the pelvis or perineum.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the treatment of pelvic malignancies in children has resulted in an increased life expectancy. In the past, treatment of soft tissue sarcomas with simple surgical excision resulted in a recurrence rate of approximately 75%. Combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have significantly altered the outcome of advanced pelvic soft tissue sarcomas. With the improved survival rate of patients treated with combination therapy, sterility secondary to radiation therapy has become an issue. As little as 600 rads to the gonads may result in sterility later in life. To alleviate this problem, relocating the gonads from the field of radiation has been suggested. In this report, we present a novel approach in which the testes are wrapped in SILASTIC (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) sheaths and are relocated temporarily into the anterior abdominal wall away from the radiation field. This alternative surgical approach should be considered in boys who are afflicted with a pelvic/perineal malignancy requiring radiation therapy. PMID:12149714

Acosta, Juan M; Tiao, Greg; Stein, James E; Mahour, G Hossein

2002-08-01

210

Crack growth in the through-thickness direction of hydrided thin-wall Zircaloy Patrick A. Raynaud a,  

E-print Network

Crack growth in the through-thickness direction of hydrided thin-wall Zircaloy sheet Patrick A occur by crack initiation within a defect such as a hydride rim or blister and subsequent crack resistance to crack propagation in the through-thick- ness direction is crucial to predicting cladding

Motta, Arthur T.

211

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

2000-05-01

212

Dissipative particle dynamics study of relationship between wall thickness and size in polymer vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesicles and membrane properties have long been thought to be essential for reproducing the natural environment of living cells. By using dissipative particle dynamics method, we have studied the relationship between wall thickness and size of vesicles obtained from A1BnA1 block copolymers, where block A is hydrophilic and block B is hydrophobic. Our findings suggest that, the wall thickness is sensitive to the size of vesicles at a low block length ratio of B/A, but insensitive to the size at a large ratio. It shows both weak and strong effects with a crossover point in between. These behaviors are consistent with the experimental results of Eisenberg and co-workers. Besides, an additional crossover point also has been observed. With the B/A ratio increases, the relationship goes from strong to weak behavior, and this transformation first appears to affect the outer area for large sized vesicles, and then to the inner area for small sized vesicles. These results may also be useful in delivery applications through controlling the hydrophobic membrane and the hydrophilic coronas.

Xiao, Mengying; Wang, Rong; Xie, Daiqian

2012-02-01

213

Abdominal wall reconstruction with components separation and mesh reinforcement in complex hernia repair  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal closure in the presence of enterocutaneous fistula, stoma or infection can be challenging. A single-surgeon’s experience of performing components separation abdominal reconstruction and reinforcement with mesh in the difficult abdomen is presented. Methods Medical records from patients undergoing components separation and reinforcement with hernia mesh at Royal Liverpool Hospital from 2009 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients were classified by the Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grading system. Co-morbidities, previous surgeries, specific type of reconstruction technique, discharge date, complications and hernia recurrence were recorded. Results Twenty-three patients’ (15 males, 8 females) notes were reviewed. Median age was 57 years (range 20-76 years). Median follow-up at the time of review was 17 months (range 2-48 months). There were 13 grade III hernias and 10 grade IV hernias identified. Synthetic mesh was placed to reinforce the abdomen in 6 patients, cross-linked porcine dermis was used in 3, and a Biodesign® Hernia Graft was placed in 14. Complications included wound infection (13%), superficial wound dehiscence (22%), seroma formation (22%) and stoma complications (9%). To date, hernias have recurred in 3 patients (13%). Conclusions Components separation and reinforcement with biological mesh is a successful technique in the grade III and IV abdomen with acceptable rate of recurrence and complications. PMID:24886111

2014-01-01

214

Use of the photoelastic method and finite element analysis in the assessment of wall strain in abdominal aortic aneurysm models.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a significant health problem. Current clinical rupture-risk relies primarily on the maximum diameter of the AAA and also growth rate. However, AAAs are a patient-specific problem and recently, numerical tools have been employed to estimate rupture-potential. Alternatively, experimental assessment of AAA biomechanics receives less attention, yet, rigorous validation of numerical tools is required prior to clinical acceptance. This paper examines the use of the photoelastic method to assess wall strain and its validation using finite element analysis (FEA) in a small number of patient-specific AAA models. Experimental models were manufactured in-house using the injection-moulding procedure together with a commercially available photoelastic material. The material was mechanically characterised prior to testing, with models examined under three loading regimes (80, 120 and 160mmHg). Each experimental model was imaged using computed tomography (CT) and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) for numerical analyses. Experimental wall strain was measured and numerical wall strain calculated with finite element analysis (FEA). Results were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. There was good qualitative agreement between the experimental and numerical methods, with similar trends apparent throughout all models at all pressures. Overall, acceptable percentage errors between the techniques were observed for all models. Median errors of -6.5%, -0.4% and 3.9% for the models at 80, 120 and 160mmHg pressures, respectively, were determined. The photoelastic method is a very useful experimental tool that provides instant, easy to interpret, information regarding wall strain. The technique is useful for validation of numerical AAA studies. PMID:22633540

Doyle, Barry J; Killion, John; Callanan, Anthony

2012-06-26

215

Suitability of Pharmacokinetic Models for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Vessel Wall: A Comparison  

PubMed Central

Purpose Increased microvascularization of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) vessel wall has been related to AAA progression and rupture. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of three pharmacokinetic models to describe AAA vessel wall enhancement using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Materials and Methods Patients with AAA underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5 Tesla. The volume transfer constant (Ktrans), which reflects microvascular flow, permeability and surface area, was calculated by fitting the blood and aneurysm vessel wall gadolinium concentration curves. The relative fit errors, parameter uncertainties and parameter reproducibilities for the Patlak, Tofts and Extended Tofts model were compared to find the most suitable model. Scan-rescan reproducibility was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Further, the relationship between Ktrans and AAA size was investigated. Results DCE-MRI examinations from thirty-nine patients (mean age±SD: 72±6 years; M/F: 35/4) with an mean AAA maximal diameter of 49±6 mm could be included for pharmacokinetic analysis. Relative fit uncertainties for Ktrans based on the Patlak model (17%) were significantly lower compared to the Tofts (37%) and Extended Tofts model (42%) (p<0.001). Ktrans scan-rescan reproducibility for the Patlak model (ICC?=?0.61 and CV?=?22%) was comparable with the Tofts (ICC?=?0.61, CV?=?23%) and Extended Tofts model (ICC?=?0.76, CV?=?22%). Ktrans was positively correlated with maximal AAA diameter (Spearman’s ??=?0.38, p?=?0.02) using the Patlak model. Conclusion Using the presented imaging protocol, the Patlak model is most suited to describe DCE-MRI data of the AAA vessel wall with good Ktrans scan-rescan reproducibility. PMID:24098370

Nguyen, V. Lai; Kooi, M. Eline; Backes, Walter H.; van Hoof, Raf H. M.; Saris, Anne E. C. M.; Wishaupt, Mirthe C. J.; Hellenthal, Femke A. M. V. I.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Leiner, Tim

2013-01-01

216

Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583 PMID:22647387

2012-01-01

217

Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.  

PubMed

Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

2015-02-01

218

Subcutaneous Splenosis of the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Splenosis is a common benign condition that occurs after splenic rupture via trauma or surgery. The mechanism behind splenic cell autotransplantation begins with the splenic rupture, either from trauma or surgical removal. Splenosis is usually found incidentally and, unless symptomatic, surgical therapy is not indicated. Subcutaneous splenosis is an extremely rare form of splenosis, mostly observed in abdominal surgical scars. We report a case of subcutaneous splenosis, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. In our case, a 43-year-old woman who had splenectomy after traumatic splenic rupture at the age of 7 years old presented for plastic reconstruction of her postoperative scar. Upon surgery, two asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules were incidentally discovered. The presence of splenic tissue was confirmed by the histological study. The nodules were not excised, as the patient was not symptomatic. PMID:23401837

Papakonstantinou, Evangelia; Kalles, Vasileios; Papapanagiotou, Ioannis; Piperos, Theodoros; Karakaxas, Dimitrios; Bonatsos, Vasileios; Tsoumakas, Konstantinos; Orfanos, Filotheos; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros

2013-01-01

219

Airway wall thickness is increased in COPD patients with bronchodilator responsiveness  

PubMed Central

Rationale Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) is a common but variable phenomenon in COPD. The CT characteristics of airway dimensions that differentiate COPD subjects with BDR from those without BDR have not been well described. We aimed to assess airway dimensions in COPD subjects with and without BDR. Methods We analyzed subjects with GOLD 1–4 disease in the COPDGene® study who had CT airway analysis. We divided patients into two groups: BDR?+?(post bronchodilator ?FEV1???10%) and BDR-(post bronchodilator ?FEV1?wall area percent (WA%) of six segmental bronchi in each subject was quantified using VIDA. Using 3D SLICER, airway wall thickness was also expressed as the square root wall area of an airway of 10 mm (Pi10) and 15 mm (Pi15) diameter. %Emphysema and %gas trapping were also calculated. Results 2355 subjects in the BDR-group and 1306 in the BDR?+?group formed our analysis. The BDR?+?group had a greater Pi10, Pi15, and mean segmental WA% compared to the BDR-group. In multivariate logistic regression using gender, race, current smoking, history of asthma, %emphysema, %gas trapping, %predicted FEV1, and %predicted FVC, airway wall measures remained independent predictors of BDR. Using a threshold change in FEV1???15% and FEV1???12% and 200 mL to divide patients into groups, the results were similar. Conclusion BDR in COPD is independently associated with CT evidence of airway pathology. This study provides us with greater evidence of changes in lung structure that correlate with physiologic manifestations of airflow obstruction in COPD. PMID:25248436

2014-01-01

220

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.

Hill, P R

1958-01-01

221

Residual stress analysis in forming process of filament wound thick-walled CFRP pipes  

SciTech Connect

Residual stress analysis for the cracking phenomenon of filament would thick-walled CFRP pipes, which frequently occurs in the forming process of curing and thermal cycling through the course of the wet filament winding, was made from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. A simple analytical model to study the cracking in the CFRP pipes was proposed. The pipes are multilayered and reinforced in the axial and circumferential directions alternatively by carbon fibers. Taking account of the anisotropy of mechanical and thermal properties including the shrinkage strain, which depend considerably on the temperature, the residual stresses in the CFRP pipes were elucidated in the forming process, particularly, in cooling of the cure process.

Kondo, Toshimi [Nagaoka College of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Sekine, Hideki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautics and Space Engineering; Nakano, Kunio [Japan Space Utilization Center, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-01

222

Risk factors associated with early failure in complex abdominal wall reconstruction: A 5 year single surgeon experience.  

PubMed

Abstract Complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) is commonly performed, but with a significant rate of surgical complications and hernia recurrence. The aim of this experiential review is to assess risk factors for hernia recurrence after complex AWR. A retrospective review of AWR patients from 2007-2012 was performed. Rates of hernia recurrence were assessed. Univariate analyses and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of early hernia recurrence. One hundred and thirty-four consecutive cases of AWR were performed over a 5-year period. Hernia recurrence developed in 14 (10.4%) patients. Hernias derived from trauma (OR = 19.76, p = 0.011) and those who experienced postoperative wound infections (OR = 18.81, p = 0.004) were at increased risk for hernia recurrence. In conclusion, increased vigilance must be paid to patients presenting after trauma with massive loss of domain and those who experience postoperative infection, as these cohorts are at added risk for failed reconstruction. PMID:24693869

Wink, Jason D; Wes, Ari M; Fischer, John P; Nelson, Jonas A; Stranksy, Carrie; Kovach, Stephen J

2014-04-01

223

Utilization of a global data grid repository in CAD assessment of carotid wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CAD method of calculating wall thickness of carotid vessels addresses the time-consuming issue of using B-mode ultrasound as well as inter- and intra-observer variability in results. Upon selection of a region-of-interest and filtering of a series of ultrasound carotid images, the CAD is able to measure the geometry of the lumen and plaque surfaces using a least-square fitting of the active contours during systole and diastole. To evaluate the approach, ultrasound image sequences from 30 patients were submitted to the procedure. The images were stored on an international data grid repository that consists of three international sites: Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) Laboratory at University of Southern California, USA; InCor (Heart Institute) at Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. The three chosen sites are connected with high speed international networks including the Internet2, and the Brazilian National Research and Education Network (RNP2). The Data Grid was used to store, backup, and share the ultrasound images and analysis results, which provided a large-scale and a virtual data system. In order to study the variability between the automatic and manual definition of artery boundaries, the pooled mean and the standard deviation for the difference between measurements of lumen diameter were computed. The coefficient of variation and correlation were also calculated. For the studied population the difference between manual and automatic measurement of the lumen diameter (LD) and intima-media-thickness (IMT) were 0.12 +/-0.10 and 0.09+/- 0.06, respectively.

Gutierrez, Marco A.; Lee, Jasper; Zhou, Zheng; Pilon, Paulo E.; Lage, Silvia G.

2007-03-01

224

The preferential contraction ratios of transversus abdominis on the variations of knee angles during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in wall support standing  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine appropriate knee angles for the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) through evaluation of changes in contraction ratios of the abdominal muscles and activity of quadriceps muscle in relation to changes in knee angles occurring while the ADIM is performed in the wall support standing (WSS). 20 subjects performed the ADIM at different knee angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°) in random order, standing at a point 6 inches away from the wall with the spine maintained in the neutral position. The WSS with knee flexion at 20° showed significantly higher preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of transversus abdominis (TrA) compared to other positions (0°, 40°, 60°). Therefore, performing the ADIM in the WSS with knee flexion at 20° appears to be the most appropriate position for TrA PCR. PMID:24877045

Hwang, Young-In; Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Du-Jin

2014-01-01

225

Surgery for Abdominal Wall Pain Caused by Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment in Children-A Single Institution Experience in the Last 5 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) is a serious medical condition which needs to be approached with great attention. Chronic abdominal pain may be caused by entrapment of cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves (ACNES). Objectives The aim of this study is the surgery for abdominal wall pain which caused by cutaneous nerve entrapment in children during last 5 years. Materials and Methods In all children with ACNES, we tried conservative treatment with anesthetic and steroid injections. In children who were refractory to conservative treatment, we received surgical procedure like sectioning the entrapped nerve to obtain relief. Results In 12 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain, we diagnosed ACNES. Each presented with abdominal pain and a positive Carnett sign. Local nerve blocks using anesthetic and steroid injections are the treatment. In all patients, we tried with local nerve block. In 3 patients, pain improvement occurs in the few minutes, and they were without pain after 5 days. In other 4 patients required a reinjection for pain recurrence. In one patients pain was gone. The maximum reinjection was 3. In other 5 patients, we did operative treatment like sectioning the entrapped nerve. Conclusions Some children with CAP have ACNES. In all children with ACNES, we recommended local nerve blocks. If the local block in 3 times is not helping, neurectomy of the peripheral nerve is method of choice. PMID:23682329

Žganjer, Mirko; Boji?, Davor; Bum?i, Igor

2013-01-01

226

A quantitative comparison of the cell response to commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V implants in the abdominal wall of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially pure (c.p.) titanium and Ti-6Al-4V implants were inserted in the abdominal wall of rats. The surrounding fluid space, inflammatory cells and fibrous capsule were evaluated after 1, 6 and 12 weeks. Light-microscopic morphometry demonstrated a fluid space around both implant materials which gradually decreased with time. Macrophages were preferentially distributed close to the implant surface in the innermost zone

C. B. Johansson; T. Albrektsson; L. E. Ericson; P. Thomsen

1992-01-01

227

Successful treatment of mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration by the delivery of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an abdominal wall vein.  

PubMed

Bleeding from mesenteric varices associated with portal hypertension is occasionally life-threatening. A 53-year-old man who had undergone esophageal transection for esophageal varices and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices presented with melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. He was treated by injecting N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an abdominal wall vein to obtain retrograde transvenous obliteration. PMID:23716126

Ikeda, Osamu; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Koichi; Inoue, Seijiro; Takamori, Hiroshi; Baba, Hideo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

2014-04-01

228

Failure analysis of the brittle fracture of a thick-walled 20 steel pipe in an ammonia synthesis unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the analysis of a brittle fracture explosion accident of a thick-walled 20 steel pipe, which connects the outlet of an ammonia separator and the inlet of a cold exchanger in an ammonia synthesis unit of a chemical fertilizer plant, is presented in detail. The causes and mechanism of the material degradation are investigated by analyzing chemical compositions

Haoxuan Cui; Weiqiang Wang; Aiju Li; Mengli Li; Shugen Xu; Huadong Liu

2010-01-01

229

Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect

It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended service. This involved determining the room-temperature tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness properties of the bobbin-tool friction-stir welds after a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging heat-treatment. These mechanical properties were used to conduct fracture-mechanics analyses to determine critical flaw sizes. Phased-array and conventional ultrasonic non-destructive examination was used to demonstrate that no flaws that match or exceed the calculated critical flaw-sizes exist in or near the friction-stir welds.

Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

2007-06-06

230

Stability of a microvessel subject to structural adaptation of diameter and wall thickness.  

PubMed

Vascular adaptation--or structural changes of microvessels in response to physical and metabolic stresses--can influence physiological processes like angiogenesis and hypertension. To better understand the influence of these stresses on adaptation, Pries et al. (1998, 2001a,b, 2005) have developed a computational model for microvascular adaptation. Here, we reformulate this model in a way that is conducive to a dynamical systems analysis. Using th ese analytic methods, we determine the equilibrium geometries of a single vessel under different conditions and classify its type of stability. We demonstrate that our closed-form solution for vessel geometry exhibits the same regions of stability as the numerical predictions of Pries et al. (2005, Remodeling of blood vessels: responses of diameter and wall thickness to hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli. Hypertension, 46, 725-731). Our analytic approach allows us to predict the existence of limit-cycle oscillations and to extend the model to consider a fixed pressure across the vessel in addition to a fixed flow. Under these fixed pressure conditions, we show that the vessel stability is affected and that the multiple equilibria can exist. PMID:20870949

Shafer, Ilari; Nancollas, Rachel; Boes, Morgan; Sieminski, Alisha L; Geddes, John B

2011-09-01

231

Is there an association between asymmetry of carotid artery wall thickness (ACAWT) and cerebrovascular symptoms?  

PubMed

Purpose: Previous publications demonstrated that multi-detector-row computed tomography Angiography (MDCTA) can evaluate the carotid artery wall thickness (CAWT). The purpose of this work was to compare the asymmetry of CAWT between carotids in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive symptomatic (males 44; median age 64) and 60 asymptomatic sex- and age-matched patients were analysed by using a 40-detector-row CT system. CAWT was calculated for both carotids in each patient and the ratio between the thicker CAWT and the contra-lateral was calculated to obtain the ACAWT index. Bland-Altman, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were calculated. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrates a very good agreement between measurements with a mean difference value of 3.4% and 95% CI from -8% to 14.8%. The ACAWT was significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (with a p value of 0.0001). The ROC area under the curve was 0.742 (p = 0.001). Logistic regression model indicated that ACAWT, CAWT, stenosis degree, and fatty plaques were independent variables associated with cerebrovascular symptoms (p value, respectively, 0.0108, 0.0231, 0.0002, and 0.013). Conclusion: Results of our study indicated that the index of asymmetry in the CAWT might be used as a further parameter to stratify the risk of symptoms related to carotid artery. PMID:25057761

Saba, Luca; Raz, Eytan; di Martino, Michele; Suri, Jasjit S; Montisci, Roberto; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Piga, Mario

2014-08-21

232

Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT) and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW) values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men) aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA) at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI) and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32). BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = –0.50) and bladder surface area (r = –0.57). Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36), bladder surface area (r = 0.48) and BWT (r = 0.25). Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening. PMID:23914210

Kanyilmaz, Selcen; Calis, Funda Atamaz; Cinar, Yasemin; Akkoc, Yesim

2013-01-01

233

Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of female radiation workers as an aid in in-vivo detection of the actinides  

SciTech Connect

An equation was derived to estimate female chest wall thickness from a series of biometric measurements. This technique will result in improved performance for actinide detection in females by accounting for variations in chest wall thickness in derivation of calibration factors.

Lane, B.H.; Berger, C.D.

1983-01-01

234

Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

2014-01-01

235

Please cite this article in press as: C. Zohios, et al., Geometrical methods for level set based abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus and outer wall 2D image segmentation, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2011.06.009  

E-print Network

abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus and outer wall 2D image segmentation, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/cmpb Geometrical methods for level set based abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus and outer wall 2D image form 9 December 2010 Accepted 28 June 2011 Keywords: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Level Set Methods

Papaharilaou, Yannis

236

Analysis of the effects of gravity and wall thickness in a model of blood flow through axisymmetric vessels.  

PubMed

The effects of gravitational forces and wall thickness on the behaviour of a model of blood flow through axisymmetric vessels were studied. The governing fluid dynamic equations were derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid and linked to a simple model of the vessel wall. A closed form of the hyperbolic partial differential equations was found, including a significant source term from the gravitational forces. The inclination of the vessel is modelled using a slope parameter that varied between -1 and 1. The wave speed was shown to be related to the wall thickness, and the time to first shock formation was shown to be directly proportional to this thickness. Two non-dimensional parameters were derived for the ratio of gravitational forces to viscous and momentum forces, respectively, and their values were calculated for the different types of vessel found in the human vasculature, showing that gravitational forces were significant in comparison with either viscous or momentum forces for every type of vessel. The steady-state solution of the governing equations showed that gravitational forces cause an increase in area of approximately 5% per metre per unit slope. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the aorta showed that a positive slope causes a velocity pulse to change in amplitude approximately linearly with distance: -4% per metre and +5% per metre for vessels inclined vertically upwards and downwards, respectively, in comparison with only +0.5% for a horizontal vessel. These simulations also showed that the change relative to the zero slope condition in the maximum rate of change of area with distance, which was taken to be a measure of the rate of shock formation, is proportional to both the slope and the wall thickness-to-inner radius ratio, with a constant of proportionality of 1.2. At a ratio of 0.25, typical of that found in human arteries, the distance to shock formation is thus decreased and increased by 30% for vessels inclined vertically downwards and upwards, respectively. Gravity and wall thickness thus have a significant impact on a number of aspects of the fluid and wall behaviour, despite conventionally being neglected. PMID:15587471

Payne, S J

2004-11-01

237

Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus. Shortly after the onset of the disease, patients become colonized with their own aerobic and anaerobic microflora from the gastrointestinal and/or urogenital tracts. Early diagnosis with aggressive multidisciplinary treatment is mandatory. We describe three clinical cases with NF. The first is a 69 years old man with diabetes mellitus type II, who presented with NF on the posterior chest wall, shoulder and arm. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical picture of severe sepsis. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 3 hours after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The second case is of a 63 years old paraplegic man with diabetes mellitus type I. Pressure sores and perineal abscesses progressed to Fournier's gangrene of the perineum and scrotum. He had NF of the anterior abdominal wall and the right thigh. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 6 hour after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The third patient was a 56 year old man who had NF of the anterior abdominal wall, flank and retroperitoneal space. He had an operation of the direct inguinal hernia, which was complicated with a bowel perforation and secondary peritonitis. After establishing the diagnosis of NF of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneal space (RS), he was transferred to the ICU. There he first received intensive care therapy, after which emergency surgical debridement of the abdominal wall, left colectomy, and extensive debridement of the RS were done (72 hours after operation of inquinal hernia). On average, 4 serial debridements were performed in each patient. The median of serial debridement in all three cases was four times. Other intensive care therapy with a combination of antibiotics and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was applied during the treatment. After stabilization of soft tissue wounds and the formation of fresh granulation tissue, soft tissue defect were reconstructed using simple to complex reconstructive methods. PMID:22196774

2011-01-01

238

Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus. Shortly after the onset of the disease, patients become colonized with their own aerobic and anaerobic microflora from the gastrointestinal and/or urogenital tracts. Early diagnosis with aggressive multidisciplinary treatment is mandatory. We describe three clinical cases with NF. The first is a 69 years old man with diabetes mellitus type II, who presented with NF on the posterior chest wall, shoulder and arm. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical picture of severe sepsis. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 3 hours after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The second case is of a 63 years old paraplegic man with diabetes mellitus type I. Pressure sores and perineal abscesses progressed to Fournier's gangrene of the perineum and scrotum. He had NF of the anterior abdominal wall and the right thigh. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 6 hour after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The third patient was a 56 year old man who had NF of the anterior abdominal wall, flank and retroperitoneal space. He had an operation of the direct inguinal hernia, which was complicated with a bowel perforation and secondary peritonitis. After establishing the diagnosis of NF of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneal space (RS), he was transferred to the ICU. There he first received intensive care therapy, after which emergency surgical debridement of the abdominal wall, left colectomy, and extensive debridement of the RS were done (72 hours after operation of inquinal hernia). On average, 4 serial debridements were performed in each patient. The median of serial debridement in all three cases was four times. Other intensive care therapy with a combination of antibiotics and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was applied during the treatment. After stabilization of soft tissue wounds and the formation of fresh granulation tissue, soft tissue defect were reconstructed using simple to complex reconstructive methods. PMID:22196774

Roje, Zdravko; Roje, Zeljka; Mati?, Dario; Librenjak, Davor; Dokuzovi?, Stjepan; Varvodi?, Josip

2011-01-01

239

Abdominal hernias: Radiological features  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

2011-01-01

240

Differences in cell wall thickness between resistant and nonresistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: using transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the cell wall of extensively drug-resistant (XDR), multidrug-resistant (MDR) and susceptible tuberculosis (TB) bacilli was viewed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under the TEM, marked differences were observed in the thickness of their cell wall: 20.2 +/-1.5 and 17.1 +/-1.03 nm for the XDR and MDR TB bacilli, respectively, and 15.6 +/- 1.3 nm for the susceptible isolates (p < 0.05). In MDR bacilli, thickening of the cell wall was observed in the intermediate electron-transparent layer (ETL) and outer electron-opaque layer, whereas in XDR TB cells the basal peptidoglycan layer was denser and almost fused with the ETL. Five to seven percent of XDR TB bacilli had the appearance of the stationary phase with cell wall thickness ranging from 21 to 26 nm (p < 0.001). Information provided in this study is of significant importance in terms of drug selection for effective treatment of resistant strains. PMID:19556787

Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Haroun, Rafiuz Zaman; Kuan, Ho Oi; Ghanavi, Jalaledin; Farnia, Poopak; Kabarei, Ali Naghee; Tabarsi, Payam; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Varahram, Mohammad; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

2009-01-01

241

Determination of the corrosion wear allowance to the wall thickness of vessels and pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the kinetics of the corrosion rate and of the stresses in a thin-wall cylinder which is subjected to the simultaneous effect of the torque, axial force, and internal and external pressures of the corrosion medium. The corrosion wear allowance of the walls of vessels and pipelines is expressed by means of the product of the standardized service

E. M. Gutman; R. S. Zainullin

1984-01-01

242

Thicknesses of domain walls in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films evaluated by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the thicknesses of domain walls (DWs) in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films epitaxially grown on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (100), (110), and (111) single crystals by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM). The SNDM phase signal revealed an abrupt change in the sign of polarization components normal to the surface at DWs within one or two unit cells. On the other hand, the SNDM amplitude signals gradually changed across DWs, corresponding to the change in the electrostatic potential. The minimum thicknesses estimated from the SNDM amplitude signals are 4, 1, and 2 nm for 71, 109, and 180° DWs, respectively. The relationship between these DW thicknesses and the nature and situation of DWs is discussed taking account of the polarization configuration in adjacent domains.

Fujisawa, Hironori; Seto, Shota; Nakashima, Seiji; Shimizu, Masaru

2014-09-01

243

Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications. PMID:23606857

Kohli, Ritesh; Argento, Vivian; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw

2013-01-01

244

Stress-intensity factors for a thick-walled cylinder containing an annular imbedded or external or internal surface crack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastostatic axisymmetric problem for a long thick-walled cylinder containing a ring-shaped internal or edge crack is considered. Using the standard transform technique the problem is formulated in terms of an integral equation which has a simple Cauchy kernel for the internal crack and a generalized Cauchy kernel for the edge crack as the dominant part. As examples the uniform axial load and the steady-state thermal stress problems have been solved and the related stress intensity factors have been calculated. Among other findings the results show that in the cylinder under uniform axial stress containing an internal crack the stress intensity factor at the inner tip is always greater than that at the outer tip for equal net ligament thicknesses and in the cylinder with an edge crack which is under a state of thermal stress the stress intensity factor is a decreasing function of the crack depth, tending to zero as the crack depth approaches the wall thickness.

Erdol, R.; Erdogan, F.

1976-01-01

245

The hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall and quadratus lumborum is sport-specific: an MRI segmental study in professional tennis and soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of quadratus lumborum (QL), obliques, and transversus abdominis; the last two considered conjointly (OT), in tennis and soccer players. The volume of QL and OT was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in professional tennis and soccer players, and in non-active controls (n = 8, 14, and 6, respectively). In tennis players the hypertrophy of OT was limited to proximal segments (cephalic segments), while in soccer players it was similar along longitudinal axis. In tennis players the hypertrophy was asymmetric (18% greater volume in the non-dominant than in the dominant OT, p = 0.001), while in soccer players and controls both sides had similar volumes (p > 0.05). In controls, the non-dominant QL was 15% greater than that of the dominant (p = 0.049). Tennis and soccer players had similar volumes in both sides of QL. Tennis alters the dominant-to-non-dominant balance in the muscle volume of the lateral abdominal wall. In tennis the hypertrophy is limited to proximal segments and is greater in the non-dominant side. Soccer, however, is associated to a symmetric hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall. Tennis and soccer elicit an asymmetric hypertrophy of QL. PMID:23724609

Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, Jose A; Dorado, Cecilia

2013-03-01

246

Successful percutaneous treatment for massive hemorrhage due to infectious pseudoaneurysm in the abdominal wall after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is often performed for alimentation and to prevent weight loss in patients with feeding problems due to central neurologic diseases such as cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage. Although infection at the skin site after PEG placement is a typical late complication of PEG, a ruptured infectious pseudoaneurysm caused massive bleeding adjacent to the tract is rare. Prompt treatment is required to avoid the hemorrhage shock, however surgical ligation is difficult to obtain the arrest of bleeding in damaged skin due to the infection. Case presentation A 70-year-old male was bedridden due a cerebral infarction suffered 1 year previously. APEG was placed because of feeding problems, and a push-type, 20-Fr gastrostomy tube was inserted through the anterior abdominal wall. On day 16 after PEG placement, the patient had massive bleeding from the PEG site due to the rupture of infectious pseudoaneurysm and developed a decreased level of consciousness and hypotension. Treatment by percutaneous direct injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol was performed and achieved good hemostasis is obtained. Conclusions A rare case of an infectious pseudoaneurysm that developed in the abdominal wall and caused massive bleeding at a PEG placement site was described. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol under ultrasound guidance is an effective treatment in this case. PMID:24915936

2014-01-01

247

Ureteral wall thickness at the impacted ureteral stone site: a critical predictor for success rates after SWL.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the possible predictive value of certain patient- and stone-related factors on the stone-free rates and auxiliary procedures after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with impacted proximal ureteral calculi. A total of 111 patients (86 male, 25 females M/F: 3.44/1) with impacted proximal ureteral stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy were evaluated. Cases were retrieved from a departmental shock wave lithotripsy database. Variables analyzed included BMI of the case, diameter of proximal ureter and renal pelvis, stone size and Hounsfield unit, ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site. Stone-free status on follow-up imaging at 3 months was considered a successful outcome. All patients had a single impacted proximal ureteral stone. While the mean age of the cases was 46 ± 13 years (range 26-79 years), mean stone size was 8.95 mm (5.3-15.1 mm). Following shock wave lithotripsy although 87 patients (78.4 %) were completely stone-free at 3-month follow-up visit, 24 (21.6 %) cases had residual fragments requiring further repeat procedures. Prediction of the final outcome of SWL in patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones is a challenging issue and our data did clearly indicate a highly significant relationship between ureteral wall thickness and the success rates of shock wave lithotripsy particularly in cases requiring additional procedures. Of all the evaluated stone- and patient-related factors, only ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site independently predicted shock wave lithotripsy success. PMID:25417717

Sarica, Kemal; Kafkasli, Alper; Yazici, Özgür; Çetinel, Ali Cihangir; Demirkol, Mehmet Kutlu; Tuncer, Murat; ?ahin, Cahit; Eryildirim, Bilal

2015-02-01

248

Safety Analysis Using Lebesgue Strain Measure of Thick-Walled Cylinder for Functionally Graded Material under Internal and External Pressure  

PubMed Central

Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

249

Safety analysis using Lebesgue strain measure of thick-walled cylinder for functionally graded material under internal and external pressure.  

PubMed

Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of "stress saving" that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

Aggarwal, A K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

250

A comparative assessment of the wall thickness margin taking into account the initial flaws in steam line elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for estimating the wall thickness margin for operation during a specified design service life under creep conditions if the metal of articles contains initial flaws is presented. The analysis is carried out taking as an example parts of steam lines made of two different grades of steel: a cast elbow with the size d = 426 × 30 mm made of 15Kh1M1FL low-alloy steel and a pipe bend with the size d = 219 × 32 mm made of EI-756 12% chromium steel. The calculated assessments are compared with the results obtained from long-term operation.

Gladshtein, V. I.

2011-02-01

251

Determination of the Optimum Directional Angles of Ultrasonic Oscillation in Testing Seamless Thick-Wall Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for determining the optimum angles at which ultrasonic waves must be directed in the pipe body for the purpose of testing the pipe quality by means of the ultrasonic test method that employs shear waves propagating in the pipe wall along a zigzag trajectory perpendicularly to the generatrix.

V. I. Uvarov; A. S. Sedykhov; S. S. Taroyants

2001-01-01

252

In Vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and a custom MR-compatible exercise bicycle were used to measure, in vivo, the effects of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta of eleven young, healthy subjects. Heart rate increased from 73±6.2 beats\\/min at rest to 110±8.8 beats\\/min during exercise (p p p p 2 at rest to 6.2±0.5 dyn\\/cm2 during exercise (p 2

Charles A. Taylor; Christopher P. Cheng; Leandro A. Espinosa; Beverly T. Tang; David Parker; Robert J. Herfkens

2002-01-01

253

Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls  

SciTech Connect

A fusion power plant is described that utilizes a new version of the tandem mirror device including spinning liquid walls. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an axisymmetric equilibrium code predicting an average beta of 60%. The geometry allows a flowing molten salt, (flibe-Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), which protects the walls and structures from damage arising from neutrons and plasma particles. The free surface between the liquid and the burning plasma is heated by bremsstrahlung radiation, line radiation, and by neutrons. The temperature of the free surface of the liquid is calculated, and then the evaporation rate is estimated from vapor-pressure data. The allowed impurity concentration in the burning plasma is taken as 1% fluorine, which gives a 17% reduction in the fusion power owing to D/T fuel dilution, with F line-radiation causing minor power degradation. The end leakage power density of 0.6 MW/m{sup 2} is readily handled by liquid jets. The tritium breeding is adequate with natural lithium. A number of problem areas are identified that need further study to make the design more self-consistent and workable; however, the simple geometry and the use of liquid walls promise the cost of power competitive with that from fission and coal.

Moir, R W; Rognlien, T D

2006-04-26

254

Collapse pressure analysis of transversely isotropic thick-walled cylinder using Lebesgue strain measure and transition theory.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for the design of the thick-walled cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material so that collapse of cylinder due to influence of internal and external pressure can be avoided. The concept of transition theory based on Lebesgue strain measure has been used to simplify the constitutive equations. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From this analysis, it has been concluded that, under the influence of internal and external pressure, circular cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material (beryl) is on the safer side of the design as compared to the cylinders made up of isotropic material (steel). This is because of the reason that percentage increase in effective pressure required for initial yielding to become fully plastic is high for beryl as compared to steel which leads to the idea of "stress saving" that reduces the possibility of collapse of thick-walled cylinder due to internal and external pressure. PMID:24523632

Aggarwal, A K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

255

Therapy of a clear cell adenocarcinoma of unknown primary arising in the abdominal wall after cesarean section and after hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinoma arising in a cesarean section scar is extremely rare. Due to the rarity of the tumor, treatment strategies still need to be further elucidated. We report a case of a woman with a clear cell carcinoma of 10 cm outside the abdominal cavity in her cesarean section scar. Staging surgery revealed two lymph nodes with metastatic dissemination of a clear cell adenocarcinoma. After staging surgery, six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel were performed. The patient was disease-free 10 months after completion of chemotherapy. Comprehensive treatment consisting of radical surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered for this uncommon tumor entity. PMID:25301100

Aust, Stefanie; Tiringer, Denise; Grimm, Christoph; Stani, Josefine; Langer, Martin

2014-10-10

256

Thick growing multilayer nanobrick wall thin films: super gas barrier with very few layers.  

PubMed

Recent work with multilayer nanocoatings composed of polyelectrolytes and clay has demonstrated the ability to prepare super gas barrier layers from water that rival inorganic CVD-based films (e.g., SiOx). In an effort to reduce the number of layers required to achieve a very low oxygen transmission rate (OTR (<0.01 cc/m(2)·day·atm)) in these nanocoatings, buffered cationic chitosan (CH) and vermiculite clay (VMT) were deposited using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Buffering the chitosan solution and its rinse with 50 mM Trizma base increased the thickness of these films by an order of magnitude. The OTR of a 1.6-?m-thick, six-bilayer film was 0.009 cc/m(2)·day·atm, making this the best gas barrier reported for such a small number of layers. This simple modification to the LbL process could likely be applied more universally to produce films with the desired properties much more quickly. PMID:24914613

Guin, Tyler; Krecker, Michelle; Hagen, David Austin; Grunlan, Jaime C

2014-06-24

257

Different Transition Mechanisms and Tunable Wall Thicknesses of Block Copolymer Vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using dissipative particle dynamics, we studied how to control the two pathways for vesicle-formation mechanism considering the hydrophobic/hydrophilic block ratio, polymer-solvent interaction, and polymer concentration. A crucial balance between the segregation of inner-hydrophobic beads and the attraction of outer-hydrophilic beads drastically affects the self-assembly pathways of amphiphilic block copolymer into vesicles from one mechanism over the other. And during the transition period between these two pathways, vesicles are formed through an in-between pathway. In addition, we have evaluated the thickness of the hydrophobic layer and observed two types of dependence on the vesicle size. Our results indicate that as the degree of hydrophobicity of the blocks increases, from the whole strong behavior to the whole weak behavior relationship, the transformation is observed in large sized vesicles first and then in small sized vesicles. Two characteristics, the chain compaction of the vesicles and the area densities of inner corona, are thought to be important in controlling the membrane thickness. Acknowledgments. This work has been supported by NNSFC (Nos. 20874046, 21074053 and 21133006) and NBRPC (No. 2010CB923303).

Xiao, Mengying; Wang, Rong; Xie, Daiqian

2013-03-01

258

Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses  

SciTech Connect

We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (?{sub F}?=??40?nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10?K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ?}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than ?{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ?}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

Park, Y., E-mail: youngok@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

2014-01-13

259

Fracture behavior of shallow cracks in full-thickness clad beams from an RPV wall section  

SciTech Connect

A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in weld material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from an RPV shell segment that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients and material inhomogeneities in welded regions. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for in-plane loss of constraint for uniaxially tested beams, but cannot predict the observed effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on shallow-crack fracture toughness. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation (based on plastic zone width) performed acceptably when applied to the uniaxial and biaxial shallow-crack fracture toughness data.

Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

1995-04-01

260

Viscoelastic fluid flow in a 2D channel bounded above by a deformable finite thickness elastic wall  

E-print Network

The steady flow of three viscoelastic fluids (Oldroyd-B, FENE-P, and Owens model for blood) in a two-dimensional channel, partly bound by a deformable, finite thickness neo-Hookean solid, is computed. The limiting Weissenberg number beyond which computations fail to converge is found to increase with increasing dimensionless solid elasticity parameter {\\Gamma}, following the trend Owens > FENE- P > Oldroyd-B. The highly shear thinning nature of Owens model leads to the elastic solid always collapsing into the channel, for the wide range of values of {\\Gamma} considered here. In the case of the FENE-P and Oldroyd-B models, however, the fluid-solid interface can be either within the channel, or bulge outwards, depending on the value of {\\Gamma}. This behaviour differs considerably from predictions of earlier models that treat the deformable solid as a zero-thickness membrane, in which case the membrane always lies within the channel. The capacity of the solid wall to support both pressure and shear stress, in c...

Chakraborty, Debadi

2015-01-01

261

Lotus petal flaps for scrotal reconstruction combined with Integra resurfacing of the penis and anterior abdominal wall following necrotising fasciitis.  

PubMed

Necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia following routine circumcision is uncommon. We describe reconstruction of the scrotum with local perforator flaps and a dermal regeneration template (Integra) to cover the penile shaft after debridement. Lotus petal flaps were originally designed to cover vulvo-vaginal defects, but in this instance integrated well with the remaining scrotal sac to produce a good volume neoscrotum for testicular cover. Integra creates an acceptable neodermis usually to cover areas of debrided full thickness burns. In this case, Integra adequately replaced the mobile dermal layer over Bucks fascia over the penis to create a pliable and cosmetically acceptable result with erectile capability. PMID:17974514

Payne, Caroline E; Williams, Andrew M; Hart, Nicholas B

2009-03-01

262

January 12, 2005 Bone Thickness Name Part I. In general, bones with thicker walls are stronger and heavier, and bones with thinner  

E-print Network

thickness of the limb bones in 5 animals: alligators, chickens, cows, humans, and the giant dinosaur to the K values you expect to find. The five animals are: alligator, chicken, cow, human, Stegosaurus bones with thin walls." Alligator Chicken Cow Human Stegosaurus Part II. Measure the bones and calculate

California at Berkeley, University of

263

H-bond and ?-? stacking directed self-assembly of two-component supramolecular nanotubes: tuning length, diameter and wall thickness.  

PubMed

A series of supramolecular nanotubes with fine-tuned length, diameter and wall thickness were obtained from co-assembly of an L-glutamic acid based bolaamphiphile (HDGA) and melamine with different molar ratios. The changes in tubular nanostructures were found to be dependent on different self-assembly mechanisms. PMID:24445810

Shen, Zhaocun; Wang, Tianyu; Liu, Minghua

2014-02-28

264

Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube

R. A. Kisner; S. W. Kercel; B. Damiano; P. R. Bingham; T. F. Gee; R. W. Tucker; M. R. Moore; M. Hileman; M. Emery; R. Lenarduzzi; J. E. Hardy; K. Weaver; R. Crutcher; R. V. Kolarik; R. H. Vandervaart

2002-01-01

265

A tale of two neglected systems—structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves  

PubMed Central

There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However, there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate, and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled) and late (thick-walled) sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes (TSTs) that lack companion cells. TSTs are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube (ST) -companion cell complexes, TSTs are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the STs. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5–7 million years old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer. PMID:23964280

Botha, C. E. J.

2013-01-01

266

A numerical model for adiabatic shear bands with application to a thick-walled cylinder in 304 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of an adiabatic shear band (ASB) experiences three stages: stable plastic flow, nucleation and a fluid-like stage. For different stages, the microstructures of the material undergo great changes. The mechanical behavior of the material in each stage has its own unique characteristics. To describe these characteristics, a multi-stage model for the shear band is proposed. For the stable plastic flow stage, a modified adiabatic J-C constitutive relationship is used. For the nucleation stage, the effects of work hardening and temperature softening are described by a power function of plastic strain. A Newtonian fluid model is used for the fluid-like stage. The formation of a shear band is an instability process. Various defects in the material are perturbation sources, which change the local yield stress. To describe the disturbances, a probability factor is introduced into the macroscopic constitutive relationship. The yield stress in the material is assumed to obey a Gaussian distribution. The multi-stage model combined with a probability factor is applied to simulate the rupture of thick-walled cylinder in 304 Stainless Steel (304SS). A close agreement is found between the simulation and experimental results, such as the failure mechanism, shear band spacing and propagating velocity of the shear band. By combining the experimental results with the simulation results, the importance of the nucleation stage is emphasized.

Liu, Mingtao; Li, Yongchi; Hu, Haibo; Hu, Xiuzhang

2014-01-01

267

Mechanical Performance and Failure Mechanism of Thick-walled Composite Connecting Rods Fabricated by Resin Transfer Molding Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resin transfer molding technique was used to fabricate thick-walled composite connecting rods, and then the mechanical performance of the connecting rod was studied experimentally, at the same time the stress and failure index distributions were simulated numerically. The experimental results show that under a tensile load, the connecting rod first cracks near the vertex of the triangle areas at the two ends, and then the damage propagates along the interface between the main bearing beam and the triangle area as well as along the round angle of the triangle area. Whereas under a compressive load, the delamination primarily occurs at the corner of the U-shaped flange, and the final destruction is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam. The simulated results reveal that the tensile failure is originated from the delamination at the round angle transition areas of the T-joints, and the failure strength is determined by the interlaminar strength. Whereas the compressive failure is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam, and the failure strength of the structure is determined by the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite material. The simulated results are basically consistent with the experimental results. Hence the mechanical performance and failure mechanism of the complicated composite structure are revealed in great detail through the coupling of the two kinds of research methods, which is helpful for the optimal design of composite structures.

Liu, Gang; Luo, Chuyang; Zhang, Daijun; Li, Xueqin; Qu, Peng; Sun, Xiaochen; Jia, Yuxi; Yi, Xiaosu

2014-08-01

268

Failure Analysis of Weld Cracking in a Thick-Walled 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel Pressure Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crack in thick-walled 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessel girth weld was found during manufacturing. To investigate the cause of failure, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness tester were used in this study. According to test results, the fracture is classified as reheat cracking with multiple origins. The cracking occurred during surfacing or final post-weld heat treatment process. Coarse-grains in the weld and bulk-carbides precipitated along grain boundaries induced by multiple heating are main causes of the fracture from material aspect, while high level of the hoop stress component and excess localized deformation in stress relief procedure are mechanical aspect causes of the cracking. The fracture surfaces present major intergranular feature with a small fraction of transgranular morphologies. Large numbers of M3C and M23C6 carbides particles were found on the fracture surface, these carbides mainly precipitated on prior austenite-grain boundaries, columnar-grain boundaries, and sub-grain boundaries. Additionally, several proposals were also offered to reduce weld cracking of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessels.

Lei, Xiaowei; Niu, Jing; Zhang, Jianxun; Fu, Anqing; Feng, Yaorong

2014-04-01

269

Welding for testability: An approach aimed at improving the ultrasonic testing of thick-walled austenitic and dissimilar metal welds  

SciTech Connect

Austenitic and dissimilar welds in thick walled components show a coarse grained, dendritic microstructure. Therefore, ultrasonic testing has to deal with beam refraction, scattering and mode conversion effects. As a result, the testing techniques typically applied for isotropic materials yield dissatisfying results. Most approaches for improvement of ultrasonic testing have been based on modeling and improved knowledge of the complex wave propagation phenomena. In this paper, we discuss an alternative approach: is it possible to use a modified welding technology which eliminates the cause of the UT complications, i.e. the large-grained structure of the weld seams? Various modification parameters were tested, including: TIG current pulsing, additional DC and AC magnetic fields, and also additional external vibrations during welding. For all welds produced under different conditions, the grain structure of the weld seam was characterized by optical and GIUM microstructure visualizations on cross sections, wave field propagation measurements, and ultrasonic tests of correct detectability of flaws. The mechanical properties of the welds were also tested.

Wagner, Sabine; Dugan, Sandra [Materials Testing Institute University of Stuttgart (MPA), Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Barth, Martin; Schubert, Frank; Köhler, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Dresden Branch (IZFP-D), Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-18

270

Human coronary plaque wall thickness correlated positively with flow shear stress and negatively with plaque wall stress: an IVUS-based fluid-structure interaction multi-patient study  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture are believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. In this paper, patient-specific in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) coronary plaque image data were used to construct computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and cyclic bending to investigate correlations between plaque wall thickness and both flow shear stress and plaque wall stress conditions. Methods IVUS data were acquired from 10 patients after voluntary informed consent. The X-ray angiogram was obtained prior to the pullback of the IVUS catheter to determine the location of the coronary artery stenosis, vessel curvature and cardiac motion. Cyclic bending was specified in the model representing the effect by heart contraction. 3D anisotropic FSI models were constructed and solved to obtain flow shear stress (FSS) and plaque wall stress (PWS) values. FSS and PWS values were obtained for statistical analysis. Correlations with p?wall thickness and flow shear stress. The mean Pearson correlation r-value was 0.278?±?0.181. Similarly, 9 out of the 10 patients showed negative correlation between wall thickness and plaque wall stress. The mean Pearson correlation r-value was -0.530?±?0.210. Conclusion Our results showed that plaque vessel wall thickness correlated positively with FSS and negatively with PWS. The patient-specific IVUS-based modeling approach has the potential to be used to investigate and identify possible mechanisms governing plaque progression and rupture and assist in diagnosis and intervention procedures. This represents a new direction of research. Further investigations using more patient follow-up data are warranted. PMID:24669780

2014-01-01

271

Midurethral autologous fascial sling surgery with reconstruction of the lower abdominal wall using the tensor fascia lata muscle flap for post-hemipelvectomy stress urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

Hemipelvectomy is surgery for pelvic bone neoplasms. In the case of pubic bone osteosarcoma, the distal end of the rectus abdominis muscle is severed from the pubic and ischium bones, and the pelvic floor muscles are resected en bloc with the bone, which leads to stress urinary incontinence. Cancer control is prioritized over complications, and stress urinary incontinence is generally disregarded. A 25-year-old woman presented with stress urinary incontinence. She had undergone a hemipelvectomy for left pubic bone osteosarcoma, and stress urinary incontinence appeared and persisted since the surgery. We carried out a reconstruction of the tissue deficit of the rectus abdominis using the tensor fascia lata muscle flap simultaneously with a midurethral autologous fascial sling anchoring to the tensor fascia lata flap. Stress incontinence was successfully improved without morbidity. This is the first reported case of midurethral suspension with reconstruction of the lower abdominal wall with the tensor fascia lata flap for post-hemipelvectomy stress urinary incontinence. PMID:24954425

Niimi, Aya; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Homma, Yukio

2014-09-01

272

Method and Apparatus to Produce and Maintain a thick, flowing, Liquid Lithium first wall for Toroidal Magnetic Confinement DT Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fission reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

Woolley, Robert D.

1998-10-21

273

Accurate method for measurement of pipe wall thickness using a circumferential guided wave generated and detected by a pair of noncontact transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A noncontact method of an accurate estimation of a pipe wall thickness using a circumferential (C-) Lamb wave is presented. The C-Lamb waves circling along the circumference of pipes are transmitted and received by the critical angle method using a pair of noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. For the accurate estimation of a pipe wall thickness, the accurate measurement of the angular wave number that changes minutely owing to the thickness must be achieved. To achieve the accurate measurement, a large number of tone-burst cycles are used so as to superpose the C-Lamb wave on itself along its circumferential orbit. In this setting, the amplitude of the superposed region changes considerably with the angular wave number, from which the wall thickness can be estimated. This paper presents the principle of the method and experimental verifications. As results of the experimental verifications, it was confirmed that the maximum error between the estimates and the theoretical model was less than 10 micrometers.

Nishino, H.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yoshida, K.

2012-05-01

274

Quantitative assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the ?2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (?=0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661

Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C; Finol, Ender A

2011-01-01

275

A population-level analysis of abdominal wall reconstruction by component separation in the morbidly obese patient: can it be performed safely?  

PubMed

Morbid obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a significant portion of patients presenting for complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) and component separation fall into this category, creating added medical and surgical challenges to an already difficult operation. The goal of this study was to utilise the Nationwide 2005-2010 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement database (ACS-NSQIP) to perform a population level analysis of the role of morbid obesity on 30-day perioperative morbidity with the hope of improving patient care, counselling and risk stratification. Morbidly obese patients (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) were compared to non-obese patients (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)). Outcome variables assessed included major surgical complications, major medical complications, major renal complications, major wound complications, return to OR (ROR), and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Significant variables in a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient characteristics (p < 0.05). In total, 1695 patients undergoing AWR were identified in the ACS-NSQIP database. Of these, 614 patients were non-obese (average BMI = 25.7 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)) and 314 were morbidly obese (average BMI = 45.9 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). Multivariate analyses determined that morbid obesity did not significantly contribute to major surgical, medical, renal or wound complications. However, it was significantly associated with ROR (OR = 2.8, p < 0.001) and VTE (OR = 5.2, p = 0.04). Morbid obesity is an independent risk factor for ROR and VTE related complications, in the 30 day post-operative period. Additional perioperative care is warranted to decrease such early re-operations and for preventable complications. PMID:24495185

Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Wink, Jason D; Kovach, Stephen J

2014-10-01

276

Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness.  

PubMed

Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction < 30%) underwent cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Left ventricular long-axis function was measured as the portion of the SV, in milliliters, generated by AVPD. EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function. PMID:19933422

Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

2010-02-01

277

Analytical and numerical investigation of strain-hardening viscoplastic thick-walled cylinders under internal pressure by using sequential limit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic limit load of strain-hardening viscoplastic thick-walled cylinders subjected to internal pressure is investigated numerically and analytically in the paper. The paper applies sequential limit analysis to deal with the quasi-static problem involving hardening material properties and weakening behavior corresponding to the strain-rate sensitivity and widening deformation. By sequential limit analysis, the paper treats the plasticity problems as a sequence

S.-Y. Leu

2007-01-01

278

Effects of Mechanical Vibration and Wall Thickness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Processed by Expendable Pattern Shell Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical vibration was introduced into the solidification process of AZ91D magnesium alloy during the expendable pattern shell casting process, and the combined effects of mechanical vibration and wall thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicate that with the increase of wall thickness, the morphologies in ?-Mg phase and ?-Mg17Al12 phase of the samples obtained without vibration evolved from a fine dendrite to a coarse dendrite and from a fine continuous network structure to a coarse continuous network structure, respectively, and the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy continuously decreased. With the application of mechanical vibration, the coarser dendrites transformed into fine equiaxed grains, and the previous coarse continuous network structure of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase was changed to a discontinuous granular morphology. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy greatly increased. The effect of mechanical vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties increased with increasing vibration frequency and wall thickness. The fractographs of the tensile samples show a change in fracture surface from brittle to that of a tough fracture with the addition of vibration.

Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian; Chen, Xu; Wang, Benjing; Wu, Hebao

2015-01-01

279

An experimental investigation of lead zirconate titanate--epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube bulk and flexible thick film composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are needed for a wide range of applications from physiological measurement to industrial monitoring systems. Sensors that can be easily integrated with the host, while maintaining high sensitivity and reliability over a wide range of frequencies are not readily feasible and economical with homogenous piezoelectric materials. It is well known that two-phase piezoelectric-epoxy composites offer several benefits over their single phase counterparts, as the properties of the constituent phases combine to improve the range of applicability. However, the piezoelectric properties of these materials suffer from the electrically insulating properties of the epoxy matrix. The electrical properties of the matrix may be enhanced by including electrically conducting inclusions however, less is known about the mechanisms that drive the changes in these properties. Hence, this experimental investigation of sensor materials builds on the previous work in two-phase piezoelectric composites, where the aims are to understand the roles that specific fabrication parameters and inclusion composition play in determining the piezoelectric and dielectric performance the aforementioned composites. The materials under investigation will be comprised of Lead Zirconate Titanate, Epofix Cold-Setting Embedding Resin and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, i.e. the piezoelectric, epoxy and electrical inclusions respectively. Our work suggests that inclusion of MWCNTs enhances the piezoelectric and dielectric properties with increasing volume fraction below the percolation threshold. This work seeks to understand how the processing parameters: poling temperature, poling type and particle distribution influence the contact resistance, space charge double layer at the piezoelectric and conductor interfaces and electric field intensity at the piezoelectric boundary, which all ultimately dictate the piezoelectric and dielectric performance of the composite materials. Conventional solid oxide mixing, spin coating and deposition techniques will be used to fabricate the bulk and thick films. The piezoelectric and dielectric performance will be determined from the measurement of the piezoelectric strain coefficients, d33 and d31, dielectric constant, impedance and dielectric spectrum, dielectric loss tangent, and capacitance. These measurements will be correlated with inclusion size, shape, distribution, and surface morphology observations obtained from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Banerjee, Sankha

280

Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this

Nuri Sisman; Emin Kahya; Nil Aras; Haydar Aras

2007-01-01

281

Ultraviolet Photoresponse Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Thickness-Controlled ZnO Layer by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) covered with a thickness-controlled ZnO layer (ZnO-SWNTs) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and investigated their UV photoresponse, induced by the photodesorption of oxygen molecules from the ZnO surface. The magnitude of the negative photocurrent and the recovery time were strongly dependent on the thickness and morphology of the ZnO layer, and were highest when the ZnO layer was 3-4 nm thick. The observed recovery curves of the negative photocurrent were fitted with double-exponential-function curves, which indicate the coexistence of two types of adsorption sites for oxygen molecules on the ZnO surface. The light intensity dependence of the negative photocurrent was also measured.

Itabashi, Kenta; Tabata, Hiroshi; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Minami, Shinji; Matsushita, Kazutoshi; Shimazaki, Ryotaro; Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Katayama, Mitsuhiro

2012-05-01

282

Abdominal pain  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

283

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia  

PubMed Central

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei

2014-01-01

284

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.  

PubMed

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

2014-11-01

285

The influence of the thickness of the walls and their properties on the treatment of rising damp in historic buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention in older buildings increasingly requires extensive and objective knowledge of what one will be working with. In old buildings, rising damp in walls that are in direct contact with the ground leads to the migration of soluble salts that are responsible for many of the pathologies observed. Our research allows us to conclude that the most efficient way of

Isabel Torres; Vasco Peixoto de Freitas

2010-01-01

286

Survival of Phytophthora cinnamomi as oospores, stromata, and thick-walled chlamydospores in roots of symptomatic and asymptomatic annual and herbaceous perennial plant species.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine how Phytophthora cinnamomi survives during hot and dry Mediterranean summers in areas with limited surviving susceptible hosts. Two Western Australian herbaceous perennials Chamaescilla corymbosa and Stylidium diuroides and one Western Australian annual Trachymene pilosa were collected weekly from a naturally infested site from the Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) forest from winter to spring and less frequently during summer 2011/2012. Selfed oospores, thick-walled chlamydospores, and stromata of P. cinnamomi were observed in each species. Oospores and thick-walled chlamydospores germinated in planta confirming their viability. This is the first report of autogamy by P. cinnamomi in naturally infected plants. Stromata, reported for the first time for P. cinnamomi, were densely aggregated inside host cells, and germinated in planta with multiple germ tubes with hyphae capable of producing oospores and chlamydospores. Trachymene pilosa was completely asymptomatic, S. diuroides did not develop root lesions but some plants wilted, whilst C. corymbosa remained asymptomatic above ground but lesions developed on some tubers. The presence of haustoria suggests that P. cinnamomi grows biotrophically in some hosts. Asymptomatic, biotrophic growth of P. cinnamomi in some annual and herbaceous perennials and the production of a range of survival structures have implications for pathogen persistence over summer and its management. PMID:23452949

Crone, Michael; McComb, Jen A; O'Brien, Philip A; Hardy, Giles E St J

2013-02-01

287

Analysis of transient heat flow to thick-walled plates and cylinders. [to determine gas heat transfer coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.

Powell, W. B.

1973-01-01

288

Estimation of PSD shifts for high-resolution metrology of thickness micro-changes with possible applications in vessel walls and biological membrane characterization.  

PubMed

Achieving accurate measurements of inflammation levels in tissues or thickness changes in biological membranes (e.g., amniotic sac, parietal pleura) and thin biological walls (e.g., blood vessels) from outside the human body, is a promising research line in the medical area. It would provide a technical basis to study the options for early diagnosis of some serious diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis or tuberculosis. Nevertheless, achieving the aim of non-invasive measurement of those scarcely-accessible parameters on patient internal tissues, currently presents many difficulties. The use of high-frequency ultrasonic transducer systems appears to offer a possible solution. Previous studies using conventional ultrasonic imaging have shown this, but the spatial resolution was not sufficient so as to permit a thickness evaluation with clinical significance, which requires an accuracy of a few microns. In this paper a broadband ultrasonic technique, that was recently developed by the authors to address other non-invasive medical detection problems (by integrating a piezoelectric transducer into a spectral measuring system), is extended to our new objective; the aim is its application to the thickness measurement of sub-millimeter membranes or layers made of materials similar to some biological tissues (phantoms). The modeling and design rules of such a transducer system are described, and various methods of estimating overtones location in the power spectral density (PSD) are quantitatively assessed with transducer signals acquired using piezoelectric systems and also generated from a multi-echo model. Their effects on the potential resolution of the proposed thickness measuring tool, and their capability to provide accuracies around the micron are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with typical tools for extracting spatial parameters in laminar samples from echo-waveforms acquired with ultrasonic transducers. Results of this advanced measurement spectral tool are found to improve the performance of typical cross-correlation methods and provide reliable and high-resolution estimations. PMID:23202216

Ramos, Antonio; Bazán, Ivonne; Negreira, Carlos; Brum, Javier; Gómez, Tomás; Calás, Héctor; Ruiz, Abelardo; de la Rosa, José Manuel

2012-01-01

289

Successful Treatment of Abdominal Cutaneous Entrapment Syndrome Using Ultrasound Guided Injection  

PubMed Central

There are various origins for chronic abdominal pain. About 10-30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain have abdominal wall pain. Unfortunately, abdominal wall pain is not thought to be the first origin of chronic abdominal pain; therefore, patients usually undergo extensive examinations, including diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the muscular foramen of the rectus abdominis is a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. If abdominal wall pain is considered in earlier stage of chronic abdominal pain, unnecessary invasive procedures are not required and patients will reach symptom free condition as soon as the diagnosis is made. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by ultrasound guided injection therapy. PMID:23862004

Hong, Myong Joo; Seo, Dong Hyuk

2013-01-01

290

A new multichannel time reversal focusing method for circumferential Lamb waves and its applications for defect detection in thick-walled pipe with large-diameter.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new multichannel time reversal focusing (MTRF) method for circumferential Lamb waves which is based on modified time reversal algorithm and applies this method for detecting different kinds of defects in thick-walled pipe with large-diameter. The principle of time reversal of circumferential Lamb waves in pipe is presented along with the influence from multiple guided wave modes and propagation paths. Experimental study is carried out in a thick-walled and large-diameter pipe with three artificial defects, namely two axial notches on its inner and outer surface respectively, and a corrosion-like defect on its outer surface. By using the proposed MTRF method, the multichannel signals focus at the defects, leading to the amplitude improvement of the defect scattered signal. Besides, another energy focus arises in the direct signal due to the partial compensation of dispersion and multimode of circumferential Lamb waves, alongside the multichannel focusing, during MTRF process. By taking the direct focus as a time base, accurate defect localization is implemented. Secondly, a new phenomenon is exhibited in this paper that defect scattered wave packet appears just before the right boundary of truncation window after time reversal, and to which two feasible explanations are given. Moreover, this phenomenon can be used as the theoretical basis in the determination of defect scattered waves in time reversal response signal. At last, in order to detect defects without prior knowing their exact position, a large-range truncation window is used in the proposed method. As a result, the experimental operation of MTRF method is simplified and defect detection and localization are well accomplished. PMID:24877582

Liu, Zenghua; Xu, Qinglong; Gong, Yu; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

2014-09-01

291

Abdominal trauma by ostrich  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen.

Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

2015-01-01

292

Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.  

PubMed

To compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs, which were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, were measured before and after the application at topical negative pressures of -50, -75 and -125 mmHg, using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced, to 64·6 ± 6·7% (P < 0·05) after the application of -50 mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3 ± 9·6% (P < 0·05) after the application of -50 mmHg with the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced, to 39·6 ± 6·7% (P < 0·05) after the application of -125 mmHg using VAC, and to 40·5 ± 6·2% (P < 0·05) after the application of -125 mmHg with ABThera. No significant difference in the reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system gave significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound compared to the VAC system. There was no difference between the dressings regarding the reduction in blood flow, but the ABThera dressing afforded better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing. PMID:23517436

Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

2015-02-01

293

Extremal states of energy of a double-layered thick-walled tube - application to residually stressed arteries.  

PubMed

Various biological tissues are designed to optimally support external loads for complex geometries and mechanobiological structures. This results in complex microstructures of such materials. The design of, for instance, (healthy) arteries, which are in the focus of this work, is characterised by a residually stressed fibre-reinforced multi-layered composite with highly non-linear elastic response. The complex interaction of material properties with the geometry and residual stress effects enables the optimal support under different blood pressures, respectively blood flow, within the vessel. The fibres reinforcing the arterial wall, as well as residual stresses present in the vessel, strongly influence its overall behaviour and performance. Turn-over and remodelling processes of the collagenous fibres occurring in the respective layers - either resulting from natural growth phenomena or from artificially induced changes in loading condition such as stent deployment - support the optimisation of the multi-layered composite structure of arteries for the particular loading conditions present in the artery. Within this contribution, the overall energetic properties of an artery are discussed by means of the inflation, bending and extension of a double-layered cylindrical tube. Different states of residual stresses and different fibre orientations are considered so that, for instance, representative fibre angles that result in extremal states of the total potential energy can be identified. In view of turn-over and remodelling processes, these orientations are considered to constitute preferred directions of fibre alignment. In summary, the main goal of this work is to calculate optimal material, structural and loading parameters by concepts of energy-minimisation. Several numerical studies show that the obtained values - such as the fibre orientations, the residual axial stretch and the opening angle - are in good agreement with respective physiological parameters reported in the literature. PMID:23845915

Waffenschmidt, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

2014-01-01

294

Abdominal ultrasound features and reference values in 21 healthy rabbits.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the ultrasonographic features and reference values of the abdominal anatomy in mixed-breed dwarf rabbits. Complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed in 21 mixed-breed rabbits (12 males and 9 females) referred for examination to the Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padua, Italy. All animals were sedated during the procedure. The ultrasonographic anatomy of the abdomen was determined, including measurement (mean±SD) of the right kidney (length 2.87±0.34?mm; width 1.62±0.17?mm; height 1.66±0.14?mm) and left kidney (length 2.86±0.33?mm; width 1.72±0.19; height 1.58±0.15?mm), left adrenal gland (width 0.38±0.11?mm; length 0.71±0.14), right adrenal gland (width 0.34±0.08?mm; length 0.73±0.15?mm) and thickness of the walls of the stomach (0.10±0.01?mm), pylorus (0.28±0.04?mm), duodenum (0.19±0.04?mm), sacculus rotundus (0.22±0.06?mm), caecum (0.08±0.01?mm), appendix (0.19±0.04?mm), spiral loop of the ascending colon (0.14±0.04?mm) and distal colon (0.10±0.02?mm). A significant positive correlation between bodyweight and kidney size, adrenal gland length, stomach wall and sacculus rotundus wall was detected. PMID:25362002

Banzato, T; Bellini, L; Contiero, B; Selleri, P; Zotti, A

2015-01-24

295

Abdominal Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

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Niall O. Aston

1997-01-01

296

Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption. PMID:25541927

Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

2014-11-01

297

Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube wall and therefore provide a more precisely dimensioned product for their customers. The resulting process energy savings are substantial, as is lowered environmental burden. The expected savings are $85.8 million per year in seamless mechanical tube piercing alone. Applied across the industry, this measurement has a potential of reducing energy consumption by 6 x 10{sup 12} BTU per year, greenhouse gas emissions by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year, and toxic waste by 0.255 million pounds per year. The principal technical contributors to the project were the Timken Company, Industrial Materials Institute (IMI, a contractor to Timken), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Timken provided mill access as well as process and metallurgical understanding. Timken researchers had previously developed fundamental ultrasonic analysis methods on which this project is based. IMI developed and fabricated the laser ultrasonic generation and receiver systems. ORNL developed Bayesian and wavelet based real-time signal processing, spread-spectrum wireless communication, and explored feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. The resulting instrument has successfully measured production tubes at one of Timken's piercing mills. This report concentrates on ORNL's contribution through the CRADA mechanism. The three components of ORNL's contribution were met with mixed success. The real-time signal-processing task accomplished its goal of improvement in detecting time of flight information with a minimum of false data. The signal processing algorithm development resulted in a combination of processing steps that can be set to generate no spoofs from noise, while simultaneously missing fewer than 10% of good trials. The algorithm leads to a 95% probability that the estimate of time of flight is good to within 4 time bins or fewer for laser excitations above 30 mJ for the first two echoes of the signal. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for the algorithm indicate that the algorithm is very robust against errors for excitations above at 35 mJ and above, tolerable at 30 mJ and unacceptable below 30 mJ.

Kisner, R.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Damiano, B.; Bingham, P.R.; Gee, T.F.; Tucker, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Hileman, M.; Emery, M.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Hardy, J.E.; Weaver, K.; Crutcher, R.; Kolarik, R.V., II; Vandervaart, R.H.

2002-04-24

298

Left ventricular hypertrophy, abnormal ventricular geometry and relative wall thickness are associated with increased risk of stroke in hypertensive patients among the Han Chinese.  

PubMed

Our study aimed to explore whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), abnormal LV geometry and relative wall thickness (RWT) are associated with an increased risk of stroke in a hypertensive Chinese population. This study included 462 stroke patients and 3808 non-stroke hypertensive patients. LVH was diagnosed using the criteria of LV mass ?49.2?g?m(-2.7) for men and 46.7?g?m(-2.7) for women. A partition value of 0.43 was used for RWT. LV geometric patterns (normal, concentric remodeling, concentric or eccentric hypertrophy) were calculated according to LVH and RWT. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of LVH, LV geometry abnormality and RWT for stroke. Our study suggested that LVH was associated with increased stroke risk (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.85; multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.75) and that concentric hypertrophy carried the highest risk of stroke (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.21-2.17), followed by eccentric hypertrophy (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.12-2.03), with concentric remodeling ranked third (adjusted OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.80). RWT was associated with an increased risk of stroke and was independent of LVMI and other risk factors for stroke (adjusted OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.10-14.34). Our observations in Chinese patients with hypertension indicated that LVH was an important risk factor for stroke, LV geometry abnormality was related to the presence of stroke, concentric hypertrophy carried the highest risk of stroke in cases of abnormal LV geometry and that RWT was also a risk factor for stroke and was independent of LVMI and other stroke risk factors. PMID:24830536

Wang, Shuxia; Xue, Hao; Zou, Yubao; Sun, Kai; Fu, Chunyan; Wang, Hu; Hui, Rutai

2014-09-01

299

The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance, and Selected Anthropometric Measures  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of self-administered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on changes in strength, endurance, selected anthropometric measures, and subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the abdominal wall. Twenty-four adults (experimental group) stimulated their abdominals 5 days per week (20-40 minutes per session) for 8 weeks and refrained from engaging in any additional exercise during the study. A control group (N=16) refrained from exercising the abdominals or engaging in any other exercise training during the study. Subjects were tested at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the study. Isometric strength of the abdominal muscles was tested using a isokinetic dynamometer, endurance was measured using the ACSM curl-up test, abdominal circumference was measured using a steel tape measure, and body shape and satisfaction were assessed via questionnaire. The stimulation group had a 58% increase in abdominal strength, whereas the control group did not change. The stimulation group also had a 100% increase in abdominal endurance versus a 28% increase in the control group. Waist circumference decreased by of 3.5 cm in the stimulation group compared to no significant change in the control group. All 24 subjects in the stimulation group felt that their midsections were more “toned” and “firmed” and 13/24 (54%) felt that their posture had improved as a result of the stimulation. None of the control group subjects reported changes in these parameters. There were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness over the course of the study in either group. NMES, as used in the current study, resulted in significant improvements in the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal region, as well as subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the mid-section. Key Points Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was effective in increasing muscle strength and endurance All subjects perceived their abdominal muscles to be firmer and more toned as a result of EMS Abdominal and waist girth was also significantly reduced, despite no changes in body weight or subcutaneous fat PMID:24431963

Porcari, John P.; Miller, Jennifer; Cornwell, Kelly; Foster, Carl; Gibson, Mark; McLean, Karen; Kernozek, Tom

2005-01-01

300

Fermion localization on thick branes  

SciTech Connect

We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Tempo, Jose David [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Centro de Estudios Cientificos CECS, Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

2006-02-15

301

Critical oxide thickness for efficient single-walled carbon nanotube growth on silicon using thin SiO2 diffusion barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand their range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultrathin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a noncatalytic silicide. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we

Robert J. Hamers

2006-01-01

302

A case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting a case of scar endometriosis following caesarean section, which was being treated as stitch granuloma for long time. Medical treatment was not helpful. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. Now the patient is under regular follow up, because there is chance of recurrence. PMID:24858173

Saha, K; Shahida, S M; Mostafa, G; Ahmed, M

2014-04-01

303

[Abdominal compartimental syndrome as a complica-tion of Fournier's gangrene].  

PubMed

Analyzing a complex case and referring to the literature, the authors describe abdominal compartmental syndrome as a complication of Fournier's gangrene, stressing out the importance of an early diagnosis to perform prompt and effective treatment. The characteristic of this case is not represented only by the Fournier's gangrene rarity, but also by the appearance of an abdominal compartmental syndrome due to the gangrene extension from the scrotum to the abdominal wall and cavity through the spermatic funiculus. The treatment of the abdominal compartmental syndrome was the surgical toilette of the necrotic regions (scrotum, abdominal wall and cavity) together with an orchiectomy. PMID:19419615

Cattorini, L; Cirocchi, R; Spizzirri, A; Morelli, U; De Sol, A; Napolitano, V; La Mura, F; Locci, E; Coccetta, M; Mecarelli, V; Giustozzi, G; Sciannameo, F

2009-04-01

304

Identification of rupture locations in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms using experimental and computational techniques.  

PubMed

In the event of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, the outcome is often death. This paper aims to experimentally identify the rupture locations of in vitro AAA models and validate these rupture sites using finite element analysis (FEA). Silicone rubber AAA models were manufactured using two different materials (Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170, Dow Corning) and imaged using computed tomography (CT). Experimental models were inflated until rupture with high speed photography used to capture the site of rupture. 3D reconstructions from CT scans and subsequent FEA of these models enabled the wall stress and wall thickness to be determined for each of the geometries. Experimental models ruptured at regions of inflection, not at regions of maximum diameter. Rupture pressures (mean+/-SD) for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 models were 650.6+/-195.1mmHg and 410.7+/-159.9mmHg, respectively. Computational models accurately predicted the locations of rupture. Peak wall stress for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 models was 2.15+/-0.26MPa at an internal pressure of 650mmHg and 1.69+/-0.38MPa at an internal pressure of 410mmHg, respectively. Mean wall thickness of all models was 2.19+/-0.40mm, with a mean wall thickness at the location of rupture of 1.85+/-0.33 and 1.71+/-0.29mm for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 materials, respectively. Rupture occurred at the location of peak stress in 80% (16/20) of cases and at high stress regions but not peak stress in 10% (2/20) of cases. 10% (2/20) of models had defects in the AAA wall which moved the rupture location away from regions of elevated stress. The results presented may further contribute to the understanding of AAA biomechanics and ultimately AAA rupture prediction. PMID:20152982

Doyle, Barry J; Cloonan, Aidan J; Walsh, Michael T; Vorp, David A; McGloughlin, Timothy M

2010-05-01

305

International Angiology Title: Studying the Expansion of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Is There a  

E-print Network

the Expansion of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Is There a Role for Peak Wall Stress? Paper code: Int Angiol 95 #12;1 Studying the Expansion of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Is There a Role for Peak Wall expanding small aneurysms Correspondence: Christos Ioannou, MD Lecturer in Vascular Surgery, Vascular

Papaharilaou, Yannis

306

Association of Coronary Heart Disease Incidence with Carotid Arterial Wall Thickness and Major Risk Factors: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have determined whether greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic individuals is associated prospectively with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the Atheroscle- rosis Risk in Communities Study, carotid IMT, an index of generalized atherosclerosis, was defined as the mean of IMT measurements at six sites of the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound. The authors

Lloyd E. Chambless; Gerardo Heiss; Aaron R. Folsom; Wayne Rosamond; Moyses Szklo; A. Richey Sharrett; Limin X. Clegg

307

Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions  

E-print Network

The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

2006-01-01

308

[Thoracic and abdominal trauma in children].  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of thoraco-abdominal trauma in children is important to optimize the imaging work up while keeping radiation exposure to a minimum. Because of the plasticity of the pediatric rib cage, rib fractures are infrequent, and severe parenchymal injuries may be present in the absence of rib fracture. Mediastinal injuries are unusual. The increased mobility of solid intraabdominal organs combined with a weaker abdominal wall are specific to pediatric patients. First-line imaging typically includes chest radiograph and abdominal US with Doppler imaging. Contrast-material enhanced CT is used as a second-line technique, with delayed imaging in patients with urinary tract lesions. Dedicated pediatric acquisition protocols are mandatory. Follow-up is obtained mainly with US. PMID:19106844

Chaumoître, K; Merrot, T; Petit, P; Panuel, M

2008-11-01

309

Abdominal muscle size and symmetry at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in healthy control subjects  

PubMed Central

The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732

Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H

2008-01-01

310

Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yi-xiang.wang@astrazeneca.com; Kuribayashi, Hideto [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom); Wagberg, Maria [AstraZeneca (Sweden); Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C. [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15

311

Epiploic appendagitis: adding to the differential of acute abdominal pain 1 1 Clinical Communications (Adults) is coordinated by Ron M. Walls, MD, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with epiploic appendagitis who presented with acute abdominal pain. Emergency Department and discharge courses are described. The pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder are discussed. Knowledge of this uncommonly diagnosed entity and its usual benign course may allow the Emergency Physician to order the appropriate studies to help avoid unnecessary surgical treatment.

Eric L Legome; Carrie Sims; Patrick M Rao

1999-01-01

312

A numerical implementation to predict residual strains from the homogeneous stress hypothesis with application to abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a promising method of identifying AAAs at high risk of rupture. However, neglecting residual strains (RS) in the load-free configuration of patient-specific finite element analysis models is a sever limitation that strongly affects the computed wall stresses. Although several methods for including RS have been proposed, they cannot be directly applied to patient-specific AAA simulations. RS in the AAA wall are predicted through volumetric tissue growth that aims at satisfying the homogeneous stress hypothesis at mean arterial pressure load. Tissue growth is interpolated linearly across the wall thickness and aneurysm tissues are described by isotropic constitutive formulations. The total deformation is multiplicatively split into elastic and growth contributions, and a staggered schema is used to solve the field variables. The algorithm is validated qualitatively at a cylindrical artery model and then applied to patient-specific AAAs (n = 5). The induced RS state is fully three-dimensional and in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, i.e., wall strips that were excised from the load-free wall showed stress-releasing-deformations that are typically seen in laboratory experiments. Compared to RS-free simulations, the proposed algorithm reduced the von Mises stress gradient across the wall by a tenfold. Accounting for RS leads to homogenized wall stresses, which apart from reducing the peak wall stress (PWS) also shifted its location in some cases. The present study demonstrated that the homogeneous stress hypothesis can be effectively used to predict RS in the load-free configuration of the vascular wall. The proposed algorithm leads to a fast and robust prediction of RS, which is fully capable for a patient-specific AAA rupture risk assessment. Neglecting RS leads to non-realistic wall stress values that severely overestimate the PWS. PMID:23386030

Polzer, Stanislav; Bursa, Jiri; Gasser, T Christian; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert

2013-07-01

313

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

2001-01-01

314

Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van Ginneken, Max A. Viergever, and Wiro J. Niessen  

E-print Network

Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in CTA images Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms from CTA data is presented. After manual segmentation of the first aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, resulting from weakened arterial walls

Utrecht, Universiteit

315

Abdominal aortic aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Aneurysm - aortic; AAA ... pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ... one or more risk factors. The larger the aneurysm, the more likely it is to break open. ...

316

Normal Abdominal CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt

317

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by\\u000a the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits,\\u000a or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377–1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently

Madhusudan Grover; Douglas A. Drossman

2010-01-01

318

Measurement of arterial stiffness in subjects with and without renal disease: Are changes in the vessel wall earlier and more sensitive markers of cardiovascular disease than intima media thickness and pulse pressure?  

PubMed Central

There is increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Arterial stiffness in these subjects is increased when compared to a healthy population. Markers of arterial stiffness and intima media thickness (IMT) are predictors of CV mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any difference in markers of arterial stiffness and IMT between subjects with normal renal function and those with mild renal disease. The arterial distension waveform, IMT, diameter, and brachial blood pressure were measured to calculate Young's modulus (E) and elastic modulus (Ep) in the common carotid arteries of subjects with normal kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] >90) and those mild CKD (stage 2, eGFR 89–60). Data were available for 15 patients with normal kidney function and 29 patients with mild CKD. The subjects with mild CKD were older, but other co-variables were not significantly different. Both arterial wall stiffness parameters (E and Ep), but not IMT were significantly higher in the mild CKD group. Logistic regression demonstrated that only the arterial wall stiffness parameters (Ep and E) were independently associated with mild renal disease compared with normal, in a model adjusting for sex, age and diabetes and history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). E and Ep may be early markers of CVD in subjects with mild CKD that may manifest change before other more recognized markers such as IMT and pulse pressure. PMID:25684868

Claridge, M.; Wilmink, T.; Ferring, M.; Dasgupta, I.

2015-01-01

319

Infected abdominal sacrocolpopexies: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

The abdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent procedure to surgically treat vaginal vault prolapse. A synthetic graft is often used to support the vaginal apex, but has the potential to become infected or erode, requiring its removal or revision. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the management of patients with infected synthetic grafts after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A review of the patient databases from three specialty gynecology centers was performed from March 1996 to June 2002. Only patients with an infected graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy were included in the study; patients with either suture or graft erosion responding to conservative treatment were excluded. Twenty-two women, ages 37-73 years, developed infection of the synthetic graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy (1-60 months after their initial surgery, mean 8.8 months). The infected materials included polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Goretex, n =15) and polypropylene (n=7). Nine of the 15 PTFE meshes and four of the seven polypropylene meshes were placed at the time of a contaminated case (abdominal hysterectomy [n=12], colon resection [n=1]). Eighteen (82%) of the infected grafts involved braided permanent suture to attach the graft to the vaginal wall, monofilament/non-braided permanent suture was used in three patients, and suture type could not be determined in one. All graft removals were attempted vaginally, and this was successful in 16 cases (73%). Two patients experienced significant bleeding: the first patient required an emergency laparotomy and the second patient's bleeding was controlled with packing. A rectovaginal fistula occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in one patient. Synthetic graft infection should be considered as the differential diagnosis in a patient who has undergone an abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Transvaginal removal is preferred, but is fraught with potentially serious complications. The use of braided permanent sutures to affix the graft to the vagina may be associated with mesh infections. PMID:15580416

Mattox, T Fleming; Stanford, Edward J; Varner, E

2004-01-01

320

Common carotid artery wall thickness and external diameter as predictors of prevalent and incident cardiac events in a large population study  

PubMed Central

Background Arterial diameters enlarge in response to wall thickening, plaques, and many atherosclerotic risk factors. We hypothesized that right common carotid artery (RCCA) diameter would be independently associated with cardiac disease and improve risk discrimination. Methods In a middle-aged, biracial population (baseline n = 11225), we examined associations between 1 standard deviation increments of baseline RCCA diameter with prevalent myocardial infarction (MI) and incident cardiac events (MI or cardiac death) using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used to estimate model discrimination. Results MI was present in 451 (4%) participants at baseline (1987–89), and incident cardiac events occurred among 646 (6%) others through 1999. Adjusting for IMT, RCCA diameter was associated with prevalent MI (female OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.61–2.49; male OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04–1.30) and incident cardiac events (female HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.51–2.02; male HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.15–1.40). Associations were attenuated but persisted after adjustment for risk factors (not including IMT) (prevalent MI: female OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.40–2.14; male OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02–1.28, and incident cardiac events: female HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.08–1.48; male HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08–1.32). After additional adjustment for IMT, diameter was associated with incident cardiac events in women (HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.00–1.40) and men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29), and with prevalent MI only in women (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.37–2.17). In women, when adjustment was limited, diameter models had larger AUC than other models. Conclusion RCCA diameter is an important correlate of cardiac events, independent of IMT, but adds little to overall risk discrimination after risk factor adjustment. PMID:17349039

Eigenbrodt, Marsha L; Sukhija, Rishi; Rose, Kathryn M; Tracy, Richard E; Couper, David J; Evans, Gregory W; Bursac, Zoran; Mehta, Jawahar L

2007-01-01

321

The Relationship of Abdominal Muscles Balance and Body Balance  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data. PMID:24259848

Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

2013-01-01

322

Resolvin D1 and Lipoxin A4 Improve Alveolarization and Normalize Septal Wall Thickness in a Neonatal Murine Model of Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The critical fatty acids Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (AA) decline in preterm infants within the first postnatal week and are associated with neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). DHA and AA are precursors to downstream metabolites that terminate the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that treatment with Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 would prevent lung injury in a murine model of BPD. Objective To determine the effect of Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 on hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Methods C57/BL6 pups were randomized at birth to Room Air, Hyperoxia (>90% oxygen), Hyperoxia + Resolvin D1, Hyperoxia + Lipoxin A4, or Hyperoxia + Resolvin D1/Lipoxin A4. Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 (2 ng/g) were given IP on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. On day 10, mice were sacrificed and lungs collected for morphometric analyses including Mean Linear Intercept (MLI), Radial Alveolar Count (RAC), and Septal Thickness (ST); RT-PCR analyses of biomarkers of lung development and inflammation; and ELISA for TGF?1 and TGF?2. Result The increased ST observed with hyperoxia exposure was normalized by both Resolvin D1 and Lipoxin A4; while, hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification was attenuated by Lipoxin A4. Relative to hyperoxia, Resolvin D1 reduced the gene expression of CXCL2 (2.9 fold), TIMP1 (6.7 fold), and PPAR? (4.8 fold). Treatment with Lipoxin A4 also led to a reduction of CXCL2 (2.4 fold) while selectively increasing TGF?2 (2.1 fold) and Smad3 (1.58 fold). Conclusion The histologic and biochemical changes seen in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in this murine model can be reversed by the addition of DHA and AA fatty acid downstream metabolites that terminate the inflammatory pathways and modulate growth factors. These fatty acids or their metabolites may be novel therapies to prevent or treat lung injury in preterm infants. PMID:24892762

Martin, Camilia R.; Zaman, Munir M.; Gilkey, Calvin; Salguero, Maria V.; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Freedman, Steven D.

2014-01-01

323

LATERAL ABDOMINAL MUSCLE SYMMETRY IN COLLEGIATE SINGLE-SIDED ROWERS  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Although side to side symmetry of lateral abdominal muscle thickness has been established in healthy individuals, it is unknown whether abdominal muscle symmetry exists in athletes with asymmetrical physiological demands, such as those of single-sided rowers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oarside versus the non-oarside lateral abdominal musculature thickness in collegiate single-sided rowers, as measured by ultrasound imaging (USI). Methods: The study was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational design. Thirty collegiate crew team members (17 males, 13 females, age 19.8±1.2 years) characterized as single-sided rowers participated. Resting muscle thickness measurements of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles were obtained via USI. Comparisons of absolute and relative muscle thickness between oarside and non-oarside were performed using paired t-tests. Potential differences based on gender, rowing experience, and history of low back pain were investigated using mixed model analysis of variance. Results: There were no clinically significant differences in absolute or relative thickness of the TrA, IO or EO on the oarside versus the non-oarside. There were no significant side to side differences in the relative muscle thickness of the TrA, IO or EO based on gender, rowing experience, or history of low back pain. Conclusions: In this sample of single-sided rowing athletes, no clinically significant side to side differences in lateral abdominal muscle thickness were observed. Despite the asymmetrical functional demands of single-sided rowers in this study, thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles was symmetric. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:22319677

Gill, Norman W.; Mason, Beth E.; Gerber, J. Parry

2012-01-01

324

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

325

DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms “DIEP”, “deep inferior epigastric”, “TRAM”, “transverse rectus abdominis”, “perforator” and “laparotomy”, “abdominal wall”, “liposuction”, “liposculpture”, “fat graft”, “pfannenstiel”, with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Results: Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. Conclusions: We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months.

Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

2014-01-01

326

Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes  

SciTech Connect

We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.

Castillo-Felisola, Oscar [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 34100 Trieste (Italy); Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)

2004-11-15

327

Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

328

A longitudinal comparison of hemodynamics and intraluminal thrombus deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is often accompanied by in traluminal thrombus (ILT), which complicates AAA progression and risk of rupture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling of 10 small human AAA was performed to investigate relations between hemodynamics and ILT progression. The patients were imaged using magnetic resonance twice in a 2- to 3-yr interval. Wall content data were obtained by a planar T1-weighted fast spin echo black-blood scan, which enabled quantification of thrombus thickness at midaneurysm location during baseline and followup. Computational simulations with patient-specific geometry and boundary conditions were performed to quantify the hemodynamic parameters of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and mean exposure time at baseline. Spatially resolved quantifications of the change in ILT thickness were compared with the different hemodynamic parameters. Regions of low OSI had the strongest correlation with ILT growth and demonstrated a statistically significant correlation coefficient. Prominent regions of high OSI (>0.4) and low TAWSS (<1 dyn/cm(2)) did not appear to coincide with locations of thrombus deposition. PMID:25326533

Arzani, Amirhossein; Suh, Ga-Young; Dalman, Ronald L; Shadden, Shawn C

2014-12-15

329

Intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma.  

PubMed

Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon intra-abdominal lesion that is an occasional incidental finding. We report herein the case of a 27-year-old woman with a 3-year history of abdominal pain due to a large intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma. The lesion was removed surgically with a complete resection that is the optimal treatment with excellent prognosis. PMID:16647365

Guinier, David; Denue, Pierre O; Mantion, George A

2006-05-01

330

Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

2014-01-01

331

Rectus abdominal muscle endometriosis in a patient with cesarian scar: case report.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue out of the intrauterine cavity. Abdominal wall endometrioma is a well-defined mass composed of endometrial glands and stroma that may develop after gynecologic and obstetrical surgeries. A cyclic painful mass at the site of a cesarean section scar is most likely due to an endometrioma, and wide local excision is the advisable treatment. The authors present a case of endometrioma in the abdominal wall, which was treated with local excision. PMID:24597267

Sahin, L; Dinçel, O; Türk, B Aydin

2013-01-01

332

Are antihypertensive drugs associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between anti-hypertensive drugs, the risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic wall stiffness, collagen turnover, and change in aortic diameter. Study Design, Setting and Methods: Data on present medication, smoking status, and medical history of participants in two population-based aneurysm screening programs in the United Kingdom were

Antonius B. M. Wilmink; Catherine S. ff. Hubbard; Nicholas E. Day; Hilary A. Ashton; Alan P. Scott; Clive R. G. Quick

2002-01-01

333

Thick-walled carbon composite multifunctional structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite programs are moving in the direction of smaller and lighter structures. Technological advances have permitted more sophisticated equipment to be consolidated into compact spaces. Micro-satellites, between 10 and 100 kg, will incorporate micro-electric devices into the lay-up of the satellite structure. These structures will be designed to carry load, provide thermal control, enhance damping, and include integrated passive electronics. These multifunctional structures offer lighter weight, reduced volume, and a 'smarter' overall package for incorporation of sensors, electronics, fiber optics, powered appendages or active components. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has applied technology from the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES) and independent research and development (IRAD) programs to the modular instrument support system (MISS) for multifunctional space structures and micro-satellites. The SPICES program was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop affordable manufacturing processes for smart materials to be used in vibration control, and the MISS program was funded by NASA-Langley. The MISS program was conceived to develop concepts and techniques to make connections between different multifunctional structures. MDA fabricated a trapezoidal carbon composite structure out of IM7/977-3 tape prepreg. Flex circuits, thermal and optical conduits were embedded to realize a utility modular connector. These provide electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical connections between micro- satellite components. A quick disconnect mount was also developed to accommodate a variety of devices such as solar arrays, power sources, thermal transfer and vibration control modules.

Haake, John M.; Jacobs, Jack H.; McIlroy, Bruce E.

1997-06-01

334

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

335

Robotic abdominal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a whole, abdominal surgeons possess excellent videoendoscopic surgical skills. However, the limitations of laparoscopy—such as reduced range of motion and instrument dexterity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field—have inspired even the most accomplished laparoscopists to investigate the potential of surgical robotics to broaden their application of the minimally invasive surgery paradigm. This review discusses data obtained from articles

Eric J. Hanly; Mark A. Talamini

2004-01-01

336

Functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

2005-01-01

337

Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models.  

PubMed

Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models has been examined for four aneurysm sizes over Reynolds numbers from 500 to 2600. The Reynolds number is based on entrance tube diameter, and the inlet condition is fully developed flow. Experimental and numerical methods have been used to determine: (i) the overall features of the flow, (ii) the stresses on the aneurysm walls in laminar flow, and (iii) the onset and characteristics of turbulent flow. The laminar flow field is characterized by a jet of fluid (passing directly through the aneurysm) surrounded by a recirculating vortex. The wall shear stress magnitude in the recirculation zone is about ten times less than in the entrance tube. Both wall shear stress and wall normal stress profiles exhibit large magnitude peaks near the reattachment point at the distal end of the aneurysm. The onset of turbulence in the model is intermittent for 2000 < Re < 2500. The results demonstrate that a slug of turbulence in the entrance tube grows much more rapidly in the aneurysm than in a corresponding length of uniform cross section pipe. When turbulence is present in the aneurysm the recirculation zone breaks down and the wall shear stress returns to a magnitude comparable to that in the entrance tube. PMID:8309237

Budwig, R; Elger, D; Hooper, H; Slippy, J

1993-11-01

338

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.  

PubMed

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

2014-11-01

339

Ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system and method  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system uses an ultrasonic fsed beam probe for measuring thickness of an object, such as a wall of a tube, a computer for controlling movement of the probe in a scanning pattern within the tube and processing an analog signal produced by the probe which is proportional to the tube wall thickness in the scanning pattern, and a line scan recorder for producing a record of the tube wall thicknesses measured by the probe in the scanning pattern. The probe is moved in the scanning pattern to sequentially scan circumferentially the interior tube wall at spaced apart adjacent axial locations. The computer processes the analog signal by converting it to a digital signal and then quantifies the digital signal into a multiplicity of thickness points with each falling in one of a plurality of thickness ranges corresponding to one of a plurality of shades of grey. From the multiplicity of quantified thickness points, a line scan recorder connected to the computer generates a pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses with each quantified thickness point thus being obtained from a minute area, e.g. 0.010 inch by 0.010 inch, of tube wall and representing one pixel of the pictorial map. In the pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses, the pixels represent different wall thicknesses having different shades of grey.

Bylenok, Paul J. (Clifton Park, NY); Patmos, William M. (Schenectady, NY); Wagner, Thomas A. (Bronswick, NY); Martin, Francis H. (Melrose, NY)

1992-01-01

340

Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

2013-01-01

341

Corrections to the thin wall approximation in general relativity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question is considered whether the thin wall formalism of Israel applies to the gravitating domain walls of a lambda phi(exp 4) theory. The coupled Einstein-scalar equations that describe the thick gravitating wall are expanded in powers of the thickness of the wall. The solutions of the zeroth order equations reproduce the results of the usual Israel thin wall approximation for domain walls. The solutions of the first order equations provide corrections to the expressions for the stress-energy of the wall and to the Israel thin wall equations. The modified thin wall equations are then used to treat the motion of spherical and planar domain walls.

Garfinkle, David; Gregory, Ruth

1989-01-01

342

Imaging of complications associated with port access of abdominal laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Advanced techniques and equipment in laparoscopic surgery offer advantages over open surgery, expanding the application of this minimally invasive procedure to a wide range of abdominal operations that used to be performed as an open procedure. Laparoscopic surgery is performed in the closed abdominal cavity in which the space is limited. To create a working space in the abdominal cavity, an artificial pneumoperitoneum is established and multiple ports are placed for the introduction of various laparoscopic instruments. Unlike open surgery in which the incision is made just above the target organ, laparoscopic access is made away from the area of dissection, with the instruments triangulated around the target organ within the abdomen. This fundamental difference in approach between the open and laparoscopic procedures may lead to peculiar postoperative complications after laparoscopic surgery, which may be present away from the target organ or in the abdominal wall, and be easily missed on postoperative imaging studies. These complications include port-related direct organ injuries, such as abdominal organ or vascular injury; abdominal wall complications related to laparoscopic port insertion such as vascular injury, infection, and hernia; abdominal wall complications related to specimen removal, such as port site tumor seeding and endometriosis; and complications related to gas insufflation. The radiologist plays an important role in the diagnosis of complications after laparoscopic surgery, and therefore should be familiar with the features of such complications on imaging scans in the era of laparoscopic surgeries. PMID:24362952

Han, Na Yeon; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan

2014-04-01

343

Hypnosis for Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other

David Gottsegen

2011-01-01

344

How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

Haycock, Christine E.

1986-01-01

345

Acquired Abdominal Intercostal Hernia: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is a rare disease phenomenon where intra-abdominal contents reach the intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. We discuss a case of a 51-year-old obese female who arrived to the emergency room with a painful swelling between her left 10th rib and 11th rib. She gave a history of a stab wound to the area 15 years earlier. A CT scan revealed a fat containing intercostal hernia with no diaphragmatic defect. An open operative approach with a hernia patch was used to repair this hernia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose, so a high clinical suspicion and thorough history and physical exam are important. This review discusses pathogenesis, clinical presentation, complications, and appropriate treatment strategies of AAIH. PMID:25197605

Tripodi, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

346

Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.  

PubMed

The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

2009-01-01

347

Tissue Responses to Stent Grafts with Endo-Exo-Skeleton for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the effect of close contact between the stent and the graft on the induction of endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms were made with Dacron patch in eight dogs. The stent graft consisted of an inner stent, a expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and an outer stent. After sacrificing the animals, the aortas with an embedded stent graft were excised. The aortas were inspected grossly and evaluated microscopically. Results The animals were sacrificed at two (n = 3), six (n = 3), and eight months (n = 2) after endovascular repair. In two dogs, the aortic lumen was occluded at two months after the placement. On gross inspection of specimens from the other six dogs with a patent aortic lumen, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by glossy white neointima, whereas, stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by brownish neointima. On microscopic inspection, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by thin neointima (0.27 ± 0.05 mm, mean ± standard deviation) with an endothelial layer, and stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by thick neointima (0.62 ± 0.17 mm) without any endothelial lining. Transgraft cell migration at the normal aortic wall was more active than that at the aneurysmal aortic wall. Conclusion Close contact between the stent and the graft, which was achieved with stent grafts with endo-exo-skeleton, could not enhance endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over the aneurysms. PMID:25246823

Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; So, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Beom; Min, Seung-Kee; Park, Jae Hyung

2014-01-01

348

Determination of the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in human thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries  

PubMed Central

The established method of polarized microscopy in combination with a universal stage is used to determine the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in 11 human non-atherosclerotic thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries (63 ± 15.3 years, mean ± s.d.). A dispersion model is used to quantify over 37 000 recorded fibre angles from tissue samples. The study resulted in distinct fibre families, fibre directions, dispersion and thickness data for each layer and all vessels investigated. Two fibre families were present for the intima, media and adventitia in the aortas, with often a third and sometimes a fourth family in the intima in the respective axial and circumferential directions. In all aortas, the two families were almost symmetrically arranged with respect to the cylinder axis, closer to the axial direction in the adventitia, closer to the circumferential direction in the media and in between in the intima. The same trend was found for the intima and adventitia of the common iliac arteries; however, there was only one preferred fibre alignment present in the media. In all locations and layers, the observed fibre orientations were always in the tangential plane of the walls, with no radial components and very small dispersion through the wall thickness. A wider range of in-plane fibre orientations was present in the intima than in the media and adventitia. The mean total wall thickness for the aortas and the common iliac artery was 1.39 and 1.05 mm, respectively. For the aortas, a slight thickening of the intima and a thinning of the media in increasingly distal regions were observed. A clear intimal thickening was present distal to the branching of the celiac arteries. All data, except for the media of the common iliac arteries, showed two prominent collagen fibre families for all layers so that two-fibre family models seem most appropriate. PMID:22171063

Schriefl, Andreas J.; Zeindlinger, Georg; Pierce, David M.; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

2012-01-01

349

Prenatal Closure of Abdominal Defect in Gastroschisis: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the routine use of fetal imaging studies during prenatal care, increased numbers of unusual intrauterine events are now\\u000a detected. Prenatal closure of the abdominal defect in gastroschisis is an example. We report a 34 5\\/7–week stillborn who had\\u000a prenatal closure of a ventral abdominal wall defect, which had been seen earlier on fetal ultrasound examination. Two ultrasound\\u000a examinations performed

Abir Tawil; Christine H. Comstock; Chung-ho Chang

2001-01-01

350

Functional Abdominal Pain in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... be intermittent (recurrent abdominal pain or RAP) or continuous. Although the exact cause is not known, nerve ... fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological ...

351

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... Weight lifting, coughing, straining during bowel movement • Cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infections • Previous abdominal surgery COMPLICATIONS ... hernia recurring, but the mesh material can become infected. In some cases, hernia repairs may be performed ...

352

Effects of Different Types of Contraction in Abdominal Bracing on the Asymmetry of Left and Right Abdominal Muscles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject’s left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength.

Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

2014-01-01

353

Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequently after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management. PMID:18023087

Rampone, Bernardino; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Marrelli, Daniele; Pinto, Enrico; Roviello, Franco

2007-01-01

354

Management of functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The diagnosis of functional abdominal pain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing\\u000a to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be\\u000a supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominal pain is\\u000a critical for successful

Yuri A. Saito; Jean C. Fox

2004-01-01

355

Chronic abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain, defined as long-lasting intermittent or constant abdominal pain, is a common pediatric problem encountered by primary care physicians, medical subspecialists, and surgical specialists. Chronic abdominal pain in children is usually functional, that is, without objective evidence of an underlying organic disorder. The Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition has prepared this report based on a comprehensive, systematic review and rating of the medical literature. This report accompanies a clinical report based on the literature review and expert opinion. The subcommittee examined the diagnostic and therapeutic value of a medical and psychological history, diagnostic tests, and pharmacologic and behavioral therapy. The presence of alarm symptoms or signs (such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent fever, chronic severe diarrhea, and significant vomiting) is associated with a higher prevalence of organic disease. There was insufficient evidence to state that the nature of the abdominal pain or the presence of associated symptoms (such as anorexia, nausea, headache, and joint pain) can discriminate between functional and organic disorders. Although children with chronic abdominal pain and their parents are more often anxious or depressed, the presence of anxiety, depression, behavior problems, or recent negative life events does not distinguish between functional and organic abdominal pain. Most children who are brought to the primary care physician's office for chronic abdominal pain are unlikely to require diagnostic testing. Pediatric studies of therapeutic interventions were examined and found to be limited or inconclusive. PMID:15741363

2005-03-01

356

Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

2014-01-01

357

Influence of ferromagnetic walls on resistive wall mode stability in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a ferromagnetic wall on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in a tokamak is calculated using a simple quasi-cylindrical plasma model in which the dissipation required to stabilize the mode (in combination with toroidal plasma rotation) is provided by neoclassical poloidal flow damping. For present-day tokamaks, which possess relatively thin walls, ferromagnetism is found to have relatively little influence on the critical toroidal plasma rotation velocity above which the RWM is stabilized, which is almost the same as that calculated for a non-ferromagnetic wall. The same is true for walls of moderate thickness. In fact, ferromagnetism is only found to have a significant effect on the critical velocity in the limit of extreme wall thickness (i.e., a wall thickness comparable with the wall minor radius), in which case increasing wall permeability leads to a marked increase in the critical velocity.

Fitzpatrick, R.

2014-10-01

358

4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE OF THE ROCK WALL. WALL PHOTOGRAPHED IS THE NORTHERNMOST WALL TAKEN FROM THE INTERIOR OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

359

The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.  

PubMed

While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. PMID:25226984

Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

2014-01-01

360

Limiting extensibility constitutive model with distributed fibre orientations and ageing of abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The abdominal aorta is susceptible to age-related pathological changes (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and tortuosity). Computational biomechanics and mechanobiology provide models capable of predicting mutual interactions between a changing mechanical environment and patho-physiological processes in ageing. However, a key factor is a constitutive equation which should reflect the internal tissue architecture. Our study investigates three microstructurally-motivated invariant-based hyperelastic anisotropic models suitable for description of the passive mechanical behaviour of the human abdominal aorta at a multiaxial state of stress known from recent literature. The three adopted models have also been supplemented with a newly proposed constitutive model (limiting extensibility with fibre dispersion). All models additively decouple the mechanical response of the isotropic (elastin and smooth muscle cells represented by the neo-Hookean term) and the anisotropic (collagen) parts. Two models use exponential functions to capture large strain stiffening ascribed to the engagement of collagen fibres into the load-bearing process. The other two models are based on the concept of limiting extensibility. Perfect alignment of reinforcing fibres with two preferred directions as well as fibre dispersion are considered. Constitutive models are calibrated to the inflation-extension response adopted from the literature based on the computational model of the residually-stressed thick-walled tube. A correlation analysis of determined material parameters was performed to reveal dependence on the age. The results of the nonlinear regression suggest that limiting fibre extensibility is the concept which is suitable to be used for the constitutive description of the aorta at multiaxial stress states and is highly sensitive to ageing-induced changes in mechanical response. PMID:25016175

Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Daniel, Mat?j

2014-10-01

361

Sonographic measurement of thickened bowel wall segments as a quantitative parameter for activity in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with morphological changes of the bowel wall that can be visualized by abdominal ultrasound (US). This method is a tool to detect the extent of bowel wall thickening and the length of involved segments. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of sonographic measurement of inflamed bowel wall segments as a quantitative parameter for disease activity. 137 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 32 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in the present study. A total 356 US examinations were performed within a one-year period. In a segment-by-segment analysis we determined the "volume of inflamed bowel wall" (VIB) by measuring wall thickness and longitudinal extent of pathologically altered bowel segments. VIB was used as a quantitative parameter for disease activity based on sonomorphological findings. At the same time the following parameters were also determined: CD activity index (CDAI) in patients with CD, clinical activity index (CAI) in patients with UC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). We found no relevant correlation between VIB and biochemical indices of inflammation (ESR, CRP) and between VIB and clinical activity of IBD (CDAI, CAI). All correlation coefficients were below 0.5. It can be concluded that the extent of inflammatory changes of the bowel wall detected by US is not strictly associated with clinical activity and laboratory parameters of inflammation. PMID:10820861

Mayer, D; Reinshagen, M; Mason, R A; Muche, R; von Tirpitz, C; Eckelt, D; Adler, G; Beckh, K; Kratzer, W

2000-04-01

362

Evaluation of Bowel Wall Thickening by Computed Tomography to Differentiate Benign from Malignant Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Computed tomography(CT) is an excellent non-invasive modality to evaluate bowel wall thickening.The aim of our study was to evaluate CT appearance of bowel wall thickening due to various benign and malignant conditions taking into consideration pattern of attenuation, bowel wall thickness, extent of lesion, symmetry of lesion and other associated CT findings. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out on 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic evaluation of abdomen for suspicion of bowel pathology based on ultrasonography, barium studies and/or clinical grounds. The studies were conducted on Siemens ART and GE High speed CT scanners. The examination was performed as is done routinely for an abdominal scan with imaging done from diaphragm to pubic symphysis in supine position with the right lateral decubitus scans in selected cases for better characterization of gastric antral and duodenal lesions. Oral, rectal and intravenous (IV) contrast agents were administered. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology or histopathology of any biopsy or surgical specimen. However, in cases where surgery was not done, diagnosis was confirmed by clinical response to medical treatment. Results: Based on the various CT characteristics of abnormal bowel wall thickening, sensitivity and specificity of classifying a lesion as benign or malignant were calculated. Majority of the malignant bowel lesions were showing the following characteristics i.e. heterogeneous pattern of enhancement, marked bowel wall thickening, asymmetry of the lesion and focal/segmental bowel involvement. Overall, CT showed a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 93% in differentiating between benign and malignant etiology of abnormal bowel wall thickening. Conclusion: Due to its high sensitivity and specificity, CT is an ideal imaging modality for differentiating between benign and malignant etiology of abnormal bowel wall thickening. Radiologists should be aware of the usefulness of specific CT criteria of bowel wall thickening to better differentiate benign lesions from malignant or potentially malignant lesions that warrant further diagnostic evaluation.

Prajapati, Neeraj; Madhok, Rajneesh; Gupta, Ashish K.; Taneja, Vichi; Aggarwal, Abhinav

2014-01-01

363

Effects of selenium on the vessel walls and anti-elastin antibodies in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is an exogenous antioxidant that performs its role via expression of selenoproteins. Pathological changes of the structure of the vessel wall, elastin turnover and collagen production may lead to increased stiffness of the vessels with decreased blood flow to the peripheries. The level of anti-elastin antibodies (AEABs) may give information for elastin metabolism. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of Se intake on the vessel wall changes and production of AEABs in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Twenty-four male, 32-week-old SHR were used, divided into three groups, G1, G2 and G3. Before blood and morphological testing, G1 received a low-Se diet for eight weeks, G2 received a diet with adequate Se content and G3 received a diet with Se supplementation. The Se nutritional status was assessed by determination of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) activity in whole blood, using the 'Ransel' kit. The rats from group G3 showed higher GPx-1 activity and lower level of AEABs than the other groups (P = 0.021), and the aortic wall histology showed slight degenerative changes compared with other rats. A low-Se diet caused severe changes to the aortic wall's ultrastructure, whereas Se supplementation slowed the changes down. The morphometry revealed a thicker abdominal aortic wall in rats of G1 compared with the other groups, and reduced thickness of the wall of the left coronary artery in G3 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Our results have shown that low Se intake leads to severe changes in the vessel walls in SHR, whereas selenium supplementation slows down the elastin degradation and degenerative changes of the vessel walls. PMID:22312058

Ruseva, Boryana; Atanasova, Milena; Georgieva, Miglena; Shumkov, Nikolay; Laleva, Pavlina

2012-02-01

364

Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernia: one-year experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 101 consecutive laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repairs (LTPR) were performed in 62 patients by a single surgeon. The series was begun in April 1991, and involved repair of 49 direct, 41 indirect, 4 femoral, 3 umbilical, 3 sliding, and 1 incisional hernias. Twelve cases were bilateral, eleven hernias were incarcerated, and fifteen hernias were recurrent. There were no intraoperative complications, and none of the procedures required conversion to open surgery. Patients experienced the following postoperative complications: transient testicular pain (1), transient anterior thigh paresthesias (2), urinary retention requiring TURP (1), and hernia recurrences (2). Follow up has ranged from 4 - 15 months and initial results have been encouraging.

Kavic, Michael S.

1993-05-01

365

Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in abdominal wall surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, mainly in those undergoing surgery. In this setting, the development of convenient and safe prophylactic measures has become a need. The main role in fulfilling this need is currently played by the so-called low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), among which one of the latest

M. Hidalgo; J. M. Figueroa

2000-01-01

366

Results of Laparoscopic Versus Open Abdominal and Incisional Hernia Repair  

PubMed Central

Background: Incisional hernia is a frequent complication of abdominal surgery. The object of this study was to confirm the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of laparoscopic treatment of abdominal wall defects. Methods: Fifty consecutive laparoscopic abdominal and incisional hernia repairs from September 2001 to May 2003 were compared with 50 open anterior repairs. Results: The 2 groups were not different for age, body mass index, or American Society of Anaesthesiologists scores. Mean operative time was 59 minutes for the laparoscopic group, 164.5 minutes for the open group. Mean hernia diameter was 10.6 cm for the laparoscopic group, 10.5 cm for the open group. Mean length of stay was 2.1 days for the laparoscopic group, 8.1 days for the open group. Complications occurred in 16% of the laparoscopic and 50% of open group. Median follow-up was 9.0 months for the laparoscopic group, 24.5 months for the open group. Recurrence rates were 2% for laparoscopic group and 0% for the open group. Conclusion: Results for laparoscopic abdominal and incisional hernia repair seem to be superior to results for open repair in terms of operative time, length of stay, wound infection, major complications, and overall hospital reimbursement. PMID:15984708

Magnone, Stefano; Erba, Luigi; Bertolini, Aimone; Croce, Enrico

2005-01-01

367

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

368

Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies  

PubMed Central

Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

2009-01-01

369

Chronic abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain in children is usually not caused by organic disease. Diagnostic triage focuses on the assessment of alarm symptoms by means of history and physical examination. Additional diagnostic evaluation is not required in children without alarm symptoms. Family characteristics have an important influence on the chronicity of abdominal pain. A specific intervention is not recommended owing to lack of evidence of a beneficial effect. The greatest challenge is to identify children at risk of a prolonged course of pain and its correlated functional disability. The evaluation of family for coping strategies, psychosocial factors and appropriate follow-up can prevent ineffective use of healthcare resources. PMID:22886462

Singh, Utpal Kant; Prasad, Rajniti; Verma, Nishant

2013-02-01

370

Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

1998-01-01

371

[Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The role of parapancreatitis in the intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) progression in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with various forms of organs failure was studied. It was analyzed the treatment results of 63 patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the first group (n=24) had not the signs of organs failure, the second group (n=15) - with symptoms of acute respiratory failure (ARF), the third group (n=11) - with a combination of ARF and acute cardiovascular failure (CVF) and the fourth group (n=13) - with a combination of ARF, CVF and acute renal failure. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured at 1, 3, 5, 7- days from the beginning of the disease with calculation of the abdominal perfusion pressure and filtration gradient values. The prevalence evaluation of parapancreatitis was carried out on the basis of CT-data with bolus-dosing of the contrast agent, ultrasound, video laparoscopy as well as data obtained during operation and autopsy. It was defined that the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) values was not significantly different and complied with intra-abdominal hypertension of the first grade in patients of the groups 1-3 at the first day. IAP was significantly higher and complied with intra-abdominal hypertension of the second grade in patients of the fourth group. IAP normalized to 5-7th days in patients of the first and the second groups. The patients of the third and the fourth groups had IAH of the second grade in the 7th day. There was reliable (p<0.01) average positive correlation (r=0.57) between the indications of IAH and the scale APACHE II. The patients with common parapancreatitis (n=39) had indications of IAP and APACHE II significantly higher than in patients with local forms of parapancreatitis (n=24; p<0.01). Common defeat of retroperitoneal fat determined persistent increase of IAP more than the presence of effusion in the abdominal cavity. In case of the first grade of IAH the mortality was 6.6%, the second grade - 37.5%, the third grade - 58.3% and the fourth grade - 80%. All died patients had a common parapancreatitis. The authors consider that the indications of IAP and APACHE II let to suppose an adverse outcome by the development of multiple organ failure in the early stages of the disease. Common parapancreatitis is the main feature of the persistent IAH (IAP increase during 5-7 days), which is an indication for early decompression operations on the abdominal wall. PMID:24429710

Diuzheva, T G; Shefer, A V

2014-01-01

372

Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of “recurrent characteristics of the complaints” that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-01-01

373

Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of "recurrent characteristics of the complaints" that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

2014-11-16

374

Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.

Chi, M. R.

1976-01-01

375

Importance of Corneal Thickness  

MedlinePLUS

The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's name: ... intraocular eye pressure and glaucoma development. Why is Corneal Thickness Important? Corneal thickness is important because it ...

376

Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective

2006-01-01

377

Vaginal versus abdominal reconstructive surgery for the treatment of pelvic support defects: A prospective randomized study with long-term outcome evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether a vaginal or abdominal approach is more effective in correcting uterovaginal prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-eight women with cervical prolapse to or beyond the hymen or with vaginal vault inversion >50% of its length and anterior vaginal wall descent to or beyond the hymen were randomized to a vaginal versus abdominal surgical approach. Forty-eight

J. Thomas Benson; Vincent Lucente; Elizabeth McClellan

1996-01-01

378

Abdominal pain - children under age 12  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

379

Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

2006-01-01

380

Elastic Coupling between Nonferroelastic Domain Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal a strong elastic interaction between nonferroelastic domain walls in ferroelectric thin films. This interaction, having no analogue in bulk materials, is governed by elastic fields that are associated with the domain walls and extends to distances comparable to the film thickness. Such elastic widening of the nonferroelastic domain walls is shown to be particularly strong in common ferroelectric perovskites. The results are especially relevant for the control of domain wall propagation and the understanding of polarization dynamics.

Shapovalov, K.; Yudin, P. V.; Tagantsev, A. K.; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Setter, N.

2014-11-01

381

Sterile abdominal abscess resulting from remnant laparoscopic clips after sigmoidectomy: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The occurrence of intra-abdominal sterile abscesses due to remnant clips after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy is rare. Here, we report one such case in a 74-year-old woman. Two years after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, abdominal CT indicated an area of fluid accumulation approximately 5?cm in diameter and located in the middle of the abdominal cavity that contained a cluster of clips. Fine-needle aspiration of the fluid was performed through the wall of the sigmoid colon. The luminal fluid was found not to contain cancer cells on histological examination. After 1 year, abdominal surgery was performed. The abscess was located in the mesorectum at the anastomosis site; it was incised and a significant quantity of ivory-white viscous solution containing a cluster of clips was extracted. This case emphasizes the importance of reducing the number of clips used in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25131325

Komori, Koji; Kimura, Kenya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuichi; Uemura, Norihisa; Kawai, Ryosuke; Osawa, Takaaki; Kawakami, Jiro; Asano, Tomonari; Iwata, Yoshinori; Kurahashi, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

2014-08-01

382

Implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed and evaluated a surgical procedure for implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Transmitters were implanted in the abdominal cavity and the antennas exited through the caudal abdominal wall and skin. Birds with implanted transmitters developed mild to moderate localized air sac reactions. These reactions involved adhesions of the right anterior abdominal air sac to the liver with contractions around the transmitters and antenna catheters. The adhesions were reinforced by a proliferation of connective tissue and lined by multinucleated giant cells (foreign body reaction). Casual observation indicated that neither behavior nor activity of the birds was altered by the histological reaction to the transmitter implant. No increase in systemic lesions (particularly liver or kidney) could be correlated with the histological reactions. Our evaluations indicate that the procedure is a reliable method for radiomarking ducks and the technique has been successfully used in 2 field studies.

Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Green, W.L.; Dein, F.J.

1996-01-01

383

Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2% (positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography. METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 mL of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 mL of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent (P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent. PMID:25550995

Hashemi, Jahanbakhsh; Davoudi, Yasmin; Taghavi, Mina; Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Moghadam, Amien Mahajeri

2014-01-01

384

[Transdrainage closed ultrasonic cleansing of the abdominal cavity in the prevention and treatment of infectious complications in abdominal gunshot wounds].  

PubMed

Under analysis were results of treatment of 112 wounded with gunshot injuries of the abdomen. The flowing-irrigating aspiration dialysis followed by the closed transdrainage ultrasonic sanitation in combination with a medicinal composition (dioxidine, gentamycine, tripsin) and simultaneous intramuscular injection of solcoseryl and thymalin were used for prophylactics and treatment of infectious complications in the abdominal cavity and in the wound of the abdominal wall. The method of treatment was found to result in less amount of pyo-inflammatory complications (from 34.8 to 2.6%), shorter terms of cleansing the wound from pyo-necrotic formations and liquidation of the perifocal inflammatory reaction, shorter duration of the stationary treatment. PMID:10368889

Ibishov, K G

1999-01-01

385

Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

2001-01-01

386

Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

2014-01-01

387

In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient. PMID:25497379

Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

2015-01-21

388

Interaction between gravitational waves and domain walls  

E-print Network

We study the gravitational perturbations of thick domain walls. The refraction index and spin properties of the solutions interior to the wall are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the gravitational waves suffer a refraction process by domain walls. The reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in the thin wall limit. In relation to the spin content, it is shown that the ``$\\times$'' helicity 2 gravitational wave mode maintains in the domain wall the same polarization state as in vacuum. On the contrary, the ``+'' mode, of pure helicity 2 in vacuum, is contaminated inside the wall with a spin 0 state, as well as with spin 2, helicity 0 and 1 states.

Luis Bento; Jose P. S. Lemos

2001-06-04

389

In Vivo Three-Dimensional Surface Geometry of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local, progressive dilation of the distal aorta that risks rupture until treated. Using the law of Laplace, in vivo assessment of AAA surface geometry could identify regions of high wall tensions as well as provide critical dimensional and shape data for customized endoluminal stent grafts. In this study, six patients with AAA underwent spiral

Michael S. Sacks; David A. Vorp; M. L. Raghavan; Michael P. Federle; Marshall W. Webster

1999-01-01

390

Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins

1998-01-01

391

Pulse Wave Imaging of Normal and Aneurysmal Abdominal Aortas In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease. The current clinical criterion for treating AAAs is an increased diameter above a critical value. However, the maximum diameter does not correlate well with aortic rupture, the main cause of death from AAA disease. AAA disease leads to changes in the aortic wall mechanical properties. The pulse-wave velocity (PWV) may

Jianwen Luo; Kana Fujikura; Leslie S. Tyrie; M. David Tilson III; Elisa E. Konofagou

2009-01-01

392

Typhlitis and abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli).  

PubMed

An abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli) is described. This case was most likely due to a congenital abnormality with long-term compensation by the animal. The case describes the clinical course and subsequent postmortem examination. The death in the animal was caused by an abscess in the peritoneal wall and subsequent peritonitis. PMID:22779253

Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Gál, János; Németh, Attila; Perge, Edina; Lajos, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor

2012-06-01

393

Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls  

E-print Network

Hazard volatilization emitted from walls enters into airflow in the room, making the indoor air quality worse. An exterior wall of some thickness is affected on its surface by the outdoor air environment. In this paper, conjugated double diffusive...

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01

394

External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

Pfleger, R. O.

1966-01-01

395

Breakup of finite thickness viscous shell microbubbles by ultrasound: A simplified zero-thickness shell model  

PubMed Central

A simplified three-dimensional (3-D) zero-thickness shell model was developed to recover the non-spherical response of thick-shelled encapsulated microbubbles subjected to ultrasound excitation. The model was validated by comparison with previously developed models and was then used to study the mechanism of bubble break-up during non-spherical deformations resulting from the presence of a nearby rigid boundary. The effects of the shell thickness and the bubble standoff distance from the solid wall on the bubble break-up were studied parametrically for a fixed insonification frequency and amplitude. A diagram of bubble shapes versus the normalized shell thickness and wall standoff was derived, and the potential bubble shapes at break-up from reentrant jets were categorized resulting in four distinct zones. PMID:23556560

Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

2013-01-01

396

Abdominal perforation after rupture of a diamond-studded wire: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are numerous cases of abdominal injuries due to bullets. Abdominal injuries due to bullets are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Here, an unusual case of an abdominal perforation caused by a metal projectile, lead to confusion in the interpretation of the preoperative computer tomography. Case presentation We present an unusual case of a 32-year-old male worker who sustained a "shot" to the left upper abdominal quadrant, as a result of a work-related accident. The projectile derived from a special wire that tore during operation. One chain element happened to accelerate towards the patients belly and perforated the abdominal wall. Computer tomography located the radiopaque projectile to the cortex of the left kidney and showed a lesion of the tail of the pancreas. The presence of intraperitoneal free air suggested a gastrointestinal perforation. Immediate open exploration of the peritoneal cavity and the retroperitoneal space revealed perforating lesions of the anterior and posterior gastric wall, as well as the pancreatic tail. The projectile was finally retrieved in the upper pole of the left kidney. The patient had a good clinical course subsequent to surgery and was discharged in good general condition. Conclusion This case represents a rare form of a retained bullet injury and corroborates the need of sufficient measures of worker-protection in area of diamond-studded wire cutting devices. PMID:19014528

Schmelzle, Moritz; Matthaei, Hanno; Tustas, Roy Y; Schmitt, Marcus; Müller-Mattheis, Volker; Linhart, Wolfgang; Eisenberger, Claus F; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Esch, Jan Schulte am

2008-01-01

397

Wonderful Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

Greenman, Jim

2006-01-01

398

Use of blunt scalp hooks for abdominal procedure in lumboperitoneal shunt placement: technical note.  

PubMed

In obese patients, we often find difficulty in laparotomy for placing a lumboperitoneal shunt catheter. The authors introduced an easy technique to get a sufficiently wide and shallow operative field through small abdominal incision in obese people. Four blunt scalp hooks and rubber bands, commonly used in craniotomy, were prepared. The fat layer and the rectus abdominis muscle layer were retracted and pulled up using these hooks. Blunt scalp hooks were useful for safe and effective retraction of abdominal wall, which made a sufficient and shallow operative field. PMID:24759096

Kawahara, Takashi; Higashi, Takuichiro; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori; Atsuchi, Masamichi; Takasaki, Koji

2014-01-01

399

Extrahepatic Portal Hypertension Following Abdominal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of non-cirrhotic extrahepatic portal hypertension in a 31-year-old woman following exten- sive abdominal laparotomy for the drainage of multiple retroperitoneal and liver abscesses following a perfo- rated appendix. Chronic portal, splenic, and mesenteric vein thrombosis with portal hypertension was caused by a hypercoagulable state due to the abdominal infec- tion and abdominal surgery. Various etiological aspects

Ajit Singh Ahluwalia; Joseph J. Mazza; Steven H. Yale

400

Carcinoid abdominal crisis: a case report.  

PubMed

Over the past 40 years, the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been increasing. Distal small bowel (i.e., midgut) NETs most often cause carcinoid syndrome manifested as cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, bronchial constriction, and cardiac involvement. Carcinoid abdominal crisis occurs when submucosal tumors impede the vascular supply to the gut leading to mesenteric ischemia and worsening abdominal pain. Here, we report the case of a young woman with progressively worsening abdominal pain. PMID:24860963

Jacobs, Ramon E A; Bai, Shuting; Hindman, Nicole; Shah, Paresh C

2014-09-01

401

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

402

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.

2007-12-05

403

[Surgical abdominal pain in children].  

PubMed

Abdominal pain in child could be related to surgical pathologies in 10 to 20 % of cases. The more frequent etiology remains appendicitis. Regarding to clinical presentation, age and medical history, intestinal intussusception, incarcerated hernia, adhesive occlusion and Meckel's diverticulum could be evocated. But the most dreadful diagnosis is malrotation with volvulus, because of mortality and morbidities induced by bowel necrosis. Usually, medical history and clinical exam allowed diagnosis. Ultrasound remains the more helpful exam in children with surgical pathologies and in some selected cases, CT scan and others biological and/or radiological exams could be performed. PMID:21698888

Arnaud, Alexis; Sauvat, Frédérique

2011-05-01

404

Arterial Wall Dosimetry for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with Radioimmunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Tumors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients are often proximal to the major blood vessels in the abdomen or neck. In external-beam radiotherapy, these tumors present a challenge because imaging resolution prevents the beam from being targeted to the tumor lesion without also irradiating the artery wall. This problem has led to potentially life-threatening delayed toxicity. Because radioimmunotherapy has resulted in long-term survival of NHL patients, we investigated whether the absorbed dose (AD) to the artery wall in radioimmunotherapy of NHL is of potential concern for delayed toxicity. SPECT resolution is not sufficient to enable dosimetric analysis of anatomic features of the thickness of the aortic wall. Therefore, we present a model of aortic wall toxicity based on data from 4 patients treated with 131I-tositumomab. Methods Four NHL patients with periaortic tumors were administered pretherapeutic 131I-tositumomab. Abdominal SPECT and whole-body planar images were obtained at 48, 72, and 144 h after tracer administration. Blood-pool activity concentrations were obtained from regions of interest drawn on the heart on the planar images. Tumor and blood activity concentrations, scaled to therapeutic administered activities—both standard and myeloablative—were input into a geometry and tracking model (GEANT, version 4) of the aorta. The simulated energy deposited in the arterial walls was collected and fitted, and the AD and biologic effective dose values to the aortic wall and tumors were obtained for standard therapeutic and hypothetical myeloablative administered activities. Results Arterial wall ADs from standard therapy were lower (0.6–3.7 Gy) than those typical from external-beam therapy, as were the tumor ADs (1.4–10.5 Gy). The ratios of tumor AD to arterial wall AD were greater for radioimmunotherapy by a factor of 1.9–4.0. For myeloablative therapy, artery wall ADs were in general less than those typical for external-beam therapy (9.4–11.4 Gy for 3 of 4 patients) but comparable for 1 patient (32.6 Gy). Conclusion Blood vessel radiation dose can be estimated using the software package 3D-RD combined with GEANT modeling. The dosimetry analysis suggested that arterial wall toxicity is highly unlikely in standard dose radioimmunotherapy but should be considered a potential concern and limiting factor in myeloablative therapy. PMID:20150265

Hobbs, Robert F.; Baechler, Sébastien; Wahl, Richard L.; He, Bin; Song, Hong; Esaias, Caroline E.; Frey, Eric C.; Jacene, Heather; Sgouros, George

2010-01-01

405

Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.  

PubMed

Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious. PMID:23624445

Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

2013-04-01

406

Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:25153670

Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

2014-01-01

407

Microsurgical Chest Wall Reconstruction After Oncologic Resections  

PubMed Central

Defect reconstruction after radical oncologic resection of malignant chest wall tumors requires adequate soft tissue reconstruction with function, stability, integrity, and an aesthetically acceptable result of the chest wall. The purpose of this article is to describe possible reconstructive microsurgical pathways after full-thickness oncologic resections of the chest wall. Several reliable free flaps are described, and morbidity and mortality rates of patients are discussed. PMID:22294944

Sauerbier, Michael; Dittler, S.; Kreutzer, C.

2011-01-01

408

Wall Turbulence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

Hanratty, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

409

Wall Tension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, develops the relationship between tension, pressure, and radius in a balloon. The same ideas are then applied to the walls of spherical and cylindrical containers. Several links provide further information.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-11-15

410

VAGAL WITHDRAWAL AND RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common pediatric problem characterized by recurrent bouts of abdominal pain in children with no identifiable etiology. RAP affects 10 to 15% of the children in elementary school, increasing to nearly 20% in middle and high school. The symptoms are severe enough to cause disruption of daily activities and are associated with learning difficulties, perhaps

Elizabeth Bigham

411

Abdominal Situs inversus in a sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam:— Transposition of thoracic and\\/or abdominal viscera is recognised in humans, rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, amphibians and fish, but does not appear to have been previously described in sheep. We report the finding of an apparently complete transposition of abdominal viscera in a nine-month-old castrated male lamb slaughtered at the Tomoana Freezing Works, Hastings

C. Larsen; E. J. Kirk

1987-01-01

412

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2010-04-01

413

Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

414

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked