Sample records for abdominal wall thickness

  1. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: effects of asymmetry and wall thickness

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Christine M; Shkolnik, Alexander D; Muluk, Satish C; Finol, Ender A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent disease which is of significant concern because of the morbidity associated with the continuing expansion of the abdominal aorta and its ultimate rupture. The transient interaction between blood flow and the wall contributes to wall stress which, if it exceeds the failure strength of the dilated arterial wall, will lead to aneurysm rupture. Utilizing a computational approach, the biomechanical environment of virtual AAAs can be evaluated to study the affects of asymmetry and wall thickness on this stress, two parameters that contribute to increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Methods Ten virtual aneurysm models were created with five different asymmetry parameters ranging from ? = 0.2 to 1.0 and either a uniform or variable wall thickness to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses. The AAA wall was designed to have a (i) uniform 1.5 mm thickness or (ii) variable thickness ranging from 0.5 – 1.5 mm extruded normally from the boundary surface of the lumen. These models were meshed with linear hexahedral elements, imported into a commercial finite element code and analyzed under transient flow conditions. The method proposed was then compared with traditional computational solid stress techniques on the basis of peak wall stress predictions and cost of computational effort. Results The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of aneurysm asymmetry and wall thickness heterogeneity on the estimation of peak wall stress. These parameters affect the magnitude and distribution of Von Mises stresses; varying wall thickness increases the maximum Von Mises stress by 4 times its uniform thickness counterpart. A pre-peak systole retrograde flow was observed in the AAA sac for all models, which is due to the elastic energy stored in the compliant arterial wall and the expansion force of the artery during systole. Conclusion Both wall thickness and geometry asymmetry affect the stress exhibited by a virtual AAA. Our results suggest that an asymmetric AAA with regional variations in wall thickness would be exposed to higher mechanical stresses and an increased risk of rupture than a more fusiform AAA with uniform wall thickness. Therefore, it is important to accurately reproduce vessel geometry and wall thickness in computational predictions of AAA biomechanics. PMID:16271141

  2. A simple technique of laparoscopic full-thickness anterior abdominal wall repair of retrosternal (Morgagni) hernias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Azzie; Kiki Maoate; Spencer Beasley; Wilhelm Retief; Arie Bensoussan

    2003-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Previous reports of laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernias in children have involved relatively complex laparoscopic techniques. This report describes a simpler method of repair that we have applied to 4 children. Methods: Four children with retrosternal (Morgagni) hernias underwent primary laparoscopic repair by placement of interrupted synthetic nonabsorbable sutures through the full-thickness of the anterior abdominal wall, incorporating the

  3. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  4. LATISSIMUS DORSI FREE FLAP FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF EXTENSIVE FULL-THICKNESS ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECT

    PubMed Central

    Kadoch, V.; Bodin, F.; Himy, S.; Bollecker, V.; Bruant-Rodier, C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Desmoid tumor is a rare, benign fibroblastic tumor that is characterized by highly aggressive local invasiveness. The authors report the case of a 35 year old male who presented with a 20 cm para-umbilical tumor invading the right rectus abdominis muscle. This required a wide excision of the abdominal wall. The resulting defect was closed with a single-stage latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap in combination with a prosthetic mesh reconstruction. The authors discuss the therapeutic options for management of these rare tumors and the variety of available techniques for coverage and reconstruction after extensive parietal loss of substance. PMID:20692637

  5. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

  6. A thick-walled fluid-solid-growth model of abdominal aortic aneurysm evolution: application to a patient-specific geometry.

    PubMed

    Grytsan, Andrii; Watton, Paul N; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel thick-walled fluid-solid-growth (FSG) computational framework for modeling vascular disease evolution. The arterial wall is modeled as a thick-walled nonlinearly elastic cylindrical tube consisting of two layers corresponding to the media-intima and adventitia, where each layer is treated as a fiber-reinforced material with the fibers corresponding to the collagenous component. Blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with constant density and viscosity; no slip and no-flux conditions are applied at the arterial wall. Disease progression is simulated by growth and remodeling (G&R) of the load bearing constituents of the wall. Adaptions of the natural reference configurations and mass densities of constituents are driven by deviations of mechanical stimuli from homeostatic levels. We apply the novel framework to model abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution. Elastin degradation is initially prescribed to create a perturbation to the geometry which results in a local decrease in wall shear stress (WSS). Subsequent degradation of elastin is driven by low WSS and an aneurysm evolves as the elastin degrades and the collagen adapts. The influence of transmural G&R of constituents on the aneurysm development is analyzed. We observe that elastin and collagen strains evolve to be transmurally heterogeneous and this may facilitate the development of tortuosity. This multiphysics framework provides the basis for exploring the influence of transmural metabolic activity on the progression of vascular disease. PMID:25473877

  7. Behaviour of a New Composite Mesh for the Repair of Full-Thickness Abdominal Wall Defects in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Gemma; Sotomayor, Sandra; Rodríguez, Marta; Bayon, Yves; Bellón, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Composite biomaterials designed for the repair of abdominal wall defects are composed of a mesh component and a laminar barrier in contact with the visceral peritoneum. This study assesses the behaviour of a new composite mesh by comparing it with two latest-generation composites currently used in clinical practice. Methods Defects (7x5cm) created in the anterior abdominal wall of New Zealand White rabbits were repaired using a polypropylene mesh and the composites: PhysiomeshTM; VentralightTM and a new composite mesh with a three-dimensional macroporous polyester structure and an oxidized collagen/chitosan barrier. Animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 90 postimplant. Specimens were processed to determine host tissue incorporation, gene/protein expression of neo-collagens (RT-PCR/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (RAM-11-immunolabelling) and biomechanical resistance. On postoperative days 7/14, each animal was examined laparoscopically to quantify adhesions between the visceral peritoneum and implant. Results The new composite mesh showed the lowest incidence of seroma in the short term. At each time point, the mesh surface covered with adhesions was greater in controls than composites. By day 14, the implants were fully infiltrated by a loose connective tissue that became denser over time. At 90 days, the peritoneal mesh surface was lined with a stable mesothelium. The new composite mesh induced more rapid tissue maturation than PhysiomeshTM, giving rise to a neoformed tissue containing more type I collagen. In VentralightTM the macrophage reaction was intense and significantly greater than the other composites at both follow-up times. Tensile strengths were similar for each biomaterial. Conclusions All composites showed optimal peritoneal behaviour, inducing good peritoneal regeneration and scarce postoperative adhesion formation. A greater foreign body reaction was observed for VentralightTM. All composites induced good collagen deposition accompanied by optimal tensile strength. The three-dimensional macroporous structure of the new composite mesh may promote rapid tissue regeneration within the mesh. PMID:24236192

  8. Abdominal wall competence in transverse abdominal island flap operations.

    PubMed

    Hartrampf, C R

    1984-02-01

    This study critically evaluates the abdominal wall in 82 patients following breast and chest wall reconstruction using the transverse abdominal island flap operation. Experience with these patients led to an awareness of the important muscle and ligamentous structures in the anterior abdominal wall. An operative procedure is presented for selective harvesting of the transverse abdominal island flap in a manner that preserves viability of the flap and at the same time reestablishes abdominal competence. PMID:6230981

  9. Considerations in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the central abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, it is our goal to review pertinent anatomy, pre- and postoperative care regimens, and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the central abdomen. PMID:23372451

  10. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children. PMID:25458796

  11. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Somendra; Vyas, Kailash C

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias are rare injuries despite the high incidence of blunt abdominal traumas. The mechanism of this injury includes a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure and extensive shear forces applied to the abdominal wall. We report a case of traumatic hernia of the anterior abdominal wall in a 42-year-old woman presented with blunt injury of the upper abdomen. She was attacked by a bull. She had a clinically evident abdominal fascial disruption with intact skin and was hemodynamically stable. The presence of localized pain, bruising and a reducible swelling or a cough impulse suggested the diagnosis. An emergency mesh repair of the defect was performed, and she recovered well. PMID:25972694

  12. Intestine Submucosa and Polypropylene Mesh for Abdominal Wall Repair in Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Clarke; Gary C. Lantz; S. Kathleen Salisbury; Stephen F. Badylak; Michael C. Hiles; Sherry L. Voytik

    1996-01-01

    Continuing investigations of abdominal body wall reconstruction materials suggest that unacceptable implant complications continue and that the ideal material has not yet been found. This pilot study compared xenogeneic (porcine) small intestine submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene mesh (PPM) for repair of created partial-thickness (six dogs) and full-thickness (six dogs) abdominal wall defects. Postoperative clinical evaluation of all dogs showed no

  13. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  14. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  15. Closure of massive abdominal wall defects in adults.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, P F; Forde, K A

    1976-03-01

    Large full-thickness abdominal wall defects may be satisfactorily closed with the temporary use of prosthetic mesh. Within two weeks after placing silastic mesh directly over exposed bowel, a membrane forms below the mesh. When the membrane thickens, central eliptical portions of the mesh are progressively excised, diminishing the size of the defect. Eventually, the mesh may be removed and the defect closed primarily or repaired with permanent prosthetic mesh. PMID:130852

  16. [Laparoscopic treatment of abdominal wall hernias: prosthesis material comparison].

    PubMed

    Biondi, A; Tropea, A; Monaco, N; Musmeci, G; Basile, G; Basile, F

    2011-12-01

    Hernia is due to abdominal wall weakening. This allows the contents of the abdomen to protrude from normal boundaries. Hernias are repaired by implanting a sterile surgical mesh to strengthen the weakened abdominal wall. Aim of this study is to compare the results obtained by bard Composix® L/P mesh or Dualmesh Plus Gore® implanting. The mesh has various beneficial characteristics. It is a reinforcing material for the abdominal wall, even when in the direct contact with the intestinal tract does not cause adhsion problems. The use of biocompatible materials is necessary in laparoscopic hernia repair. e-PTFE prosthesis and Dual Mesh® were the first to be used for laparoscopic treatment of the abdominal wall defects. These prosthesis are the result of many improvements, actually they are 1-mm thick and the two surfaces have different characteristics. Compound meshes are composed by e-PTFE and polypropylene with different percentage of the two materials and methods of interactions. The incidence of early complications were poor in relation to both types of implants, only seroma cases e-PTFE treated showed a prevalence of complication, in agreement with literature. About relapses in our experience we found that e-PTFE cases were predominantly. Dual Mesh® has better adaptability than Bard Composix®, which allows easier placement of the prosthesis as well as a better adaptation to the wall surface. The Bard Composix®, thanks to rigidity due to the polypropylene component has better handling than the Dual Mesh®, as it promotes a rapid and easy deployment of the prosthesis inside the abdominal cavity, favoring its positioning. The use of both prosthesis depends also on the experience specific to each operator, moreover, a rigorous surgical technique remains fundamental for the application of the mesh used. PMID:22233661

  17. Anterior Abdominal Wall Haemangioma with Inguinal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Dubhashi, Siddharth P; Choudhary, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Haemangioma are common benign vascular tumour but Intramuscular haemangiomas are rare tumours comprising less than 1% of all. The most frequent sites are extremities, head and neck whereas abdominal wall is a quiet rare location. Ultrasonography is an appropriate initial diagnostic modality and MRI is the investigation of choice. A rare case presented to us as Intramuscular haemangioma of anterior abdominal wall with inguinal extension. Ultrasonography with Doppler study and MRI was suggestive of same finding. Intraoperatively patient had huge haemangioma involving external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominus muscle. Wide local excision with meshplasty was done as part of muscle had to be removed. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Intramuscular Haemangioma. PMID:25584266

  18. Temporary abdominal closure followed by definitive abdominal wall reconstruction of the open abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Howdieshell; Charles D. Proctor; Erez Sternberg; Jorge I. Cué; J. Sheppard Mondy; Michael L. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundInability to close the abdominal wall after laparotomy for trauma may occur as a result of visceral edema, retroperitoneal hematoma, use of packing, and traumatic loss of tissue. Often life-saving, decompressive laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure require later restoration of anatomic continuity of the abdominal wall.

  19. Abdominoplasty repair for abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J Douglas; de la Torre, Jorge I; Gardner, Paul M; Grant, John H; Fix, R Jobe; Vásconez, Luis O

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of abdominal hernial repair are to reconstruct the structural integrity of the abdominal wall while minimizing morbidity. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair, and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. By incorporating these aspects into hernial repairs, the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. The medical records were reviewed of 123 consecutive patients who underwent hernial repair. Seventy-six of these patients underwent a total of 82 herniorrhaphies using an abdominoplasty approach. This included using a transverse lower abdominal incision with or without extending it into an inverted-T incision. The hernial defect was then identified and isolated. Repair was obtained with primary fascial closure and plication, primary fascial approximation and reinforcement with absorbable Vicryl mesh, or placement of permanent mesh with or without fascial approximation. Overall, 8 of 82 hernias recurred. Most complications were minor and could be managed with local wound care only. Major complications included one enterocutaneous fistula, one occurrence of skin flap necrosis requiring operative debridement and skin grafting, and one delayed permanent mesh extrusion 2 years after repair. The abdominoplasty approach isolates the incision from the hernial defect and repair. This technique is safe with a low risk of complications and a low rate of recurrence. It is particularly helpful in obese patients, in patients with multiple hernias, and in those patients with recurrent hernias. PMID:12838119

  20. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  1. Abdominal Wall Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Hamadto, M.; Azzabi, M.; Elfagieh, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be “ancient” schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  2. Abdominal wall schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Hamadto, M; Azzabi, M; Elfagieh, M

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be "ancient" schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  3. Creating universes with thick walls

    E-print Network

    Andrew Ulvestad; Andreas Albrecht

    2012-02-27

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  4. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of unusual congenital abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Schnur, Jessica; Dolgin, Stephen; Vohra, Nidhi; Soffer, Samuel; Glick, Richard

    2008-02-01

    We report three cases of unusual skin covered abdominal wall defects not accurately diagnosed by prenatal sonography. An associated omphalocele was recognized in two but misinterpreted as a giant omphalocele in one. Suspicious sonographic features--an enlarged abdominal circumference, irregular laxity of the abdominal--may be clarified by MRI. PMID:18240083

  5. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Samuel T.W.; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  6. Endometriosis in a scarless abdominal wall with underlying umbilical hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramsanahie; S. K. Giri; S. Velusamy; G. T. Nessim

    2000-01-01

    Introductionis a gynaecological entity in women of child bearing age which may present with symptoms and signs of general surgical conditions. Abdominal wall involvement usually occurs in a scar, and rarely in the intact rectus abdominis muscle. I We report a case where the endometriosis occurred in the umbilicus of a scarless abdominal wall associated with an umbilical hernia. Case

  7. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  8. Early reconstruction of the abdominal wall in giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Zama, Mario; Gallo, Simona; Santecchia, Luigino; Bertozzi, Ettore; Zaccara, Antonio; Trucchi, Alessandro; Nahom, Antonella; Bagolan, Pietro; De Stefano, Cosmoferruccio

    2004-12-01

    Omphalocele is the most common congenital defect of the abdominal wall. Mortality rate is between 20 and 70% and early closure of the abdominal wall, within 10 days of life, is vital to the successful outcome of the surgical treatment. The authors describe the use of two bipedicled flaps of abdominal skin to correct the defect of the midline as soon as the reduction of all viscera has been accomplished. PMID:15544772

  9. Guidelines for Thermoforming Part Wall Thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Throne

    1991-01-01

    Finite element analysis and analytical geometric analysis are two active approaches to calculating local wall thicknesses in simple vacuum formed parts. FEA requires substantial computational skills and mainframe computer access. Analytical geometric analysis is usually restricted to relatively simple shapes such as cones and wedges. In this paper, an easy-to-learn protocol is proposed for calculating wall thickness of relatively complex

  10. Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    artifacts seen in abdominal imaging via ray tracing through arrangements of homogeneous structures, each, New York 14627 Victor W. Sparrow Graduate Program in Acoustics, The Pennsylvania State University by the abdominal wall. © 1997 Acoustical Society of America. S0001-4966 97 00308-1 PACS numbers: 43.80.Cs, 43.20.Fn

  11. An abdominal wall jig for surgical craft workshops.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Kiff, E S

    1990-11-01

    An improved jig simulating the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity is described. It can be used to teach the techniques of abdominal wound closure and stoma formation. It has proved to be a valuable addition to our anastomosis workshops. PMID:2146917

  12. Teratogens inducing congenital abdominal wall defects in animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Van Dorp; John M. Malleis; Brian P. Sullivan; Michael D. Klein

    2010-01-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects are common anomalies which include gastroschisis, omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia.\\u000a Recent reports indicate that gastroschisis is increasing in prevalence, whereas omphalocele has remained steady, suggesting\\u000a that environmental factors may play a part in their pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to review animal teratogen studies\\u000a resulting in abdominal wall defects to investigate their possible

  13. Delayed repair for traumatic abdominal wall hernia: is it safe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sall; H. El Kaoui; S. M. Bouchentouf; A. Ait Ali; A. Bounaim; A. Hajjouji; H. Baba; M. Fahssi; A. Alhyane; A. Zentar; K. Sair

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias after trauma have been recognized for more than a century, with the first case reported as occurring\\u000a after a fall. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) after blunt trauma are uncommon. The timing of definitive repair, early\\u000a or delayed, is not clear. We report a case on TAWH and mesenteric avulsion, highlighting the reasons for immediate or delayed

  14. Abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh and components separation.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; Chike-Obi, Chuma; Xue, Amy Shengnan

    2012-02-01

    Incisional hernias in the abdominal wall are a by-product of multiple previous laparotomies. Unfortunately, the incidence of incisional hernias has risen, as we have progressed with new surgical techniques in the treatment of abdominal pathologies. Many methods have been attempted in the past to achieve a better and more durable repair, namely using components separation to bring the fascia into the midline, and reinforce incisional hernias with different mesh materials. The authors review the recent literature regarding the efficacy of these synthetic materials and biomaterials in incisional hernia repair, as well as share their experience in treating complex abdominal wall defects using components separation and biologic mesh. PMID:23372456

  15. Giant Abdominal Wall Hernia in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Anahita; Ali Asgari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common problems found in patients with cirrhosis because of persistently high intra-abdominal pressure. When abdominal hernias are neglected in such patients, they may become larger and could result in cosmetic problems and pressure effects that are also difficult to treat. We found a voluminous mass in the anterior abdominal wall of a 40-year-old patient with cirrhosis. The patient was operated on for acute cholecystitis 12 years earlier. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an epigastric hernia presenting as a grossly distended hernia sac filled with serous fluid and intestinal loops. The patient was not operated on and was discharged with sodium-restricted diet and diuretics PMID:25093066

  16. Delayed dynamic abdominal wall closure following multi-visceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Satheesh; Butler, Andrew; Jamieson, Neville; Middleton, Stephen; Jah, Asif

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary closure of the abdominal wall following intestinal transplantation or multivisceral transplantation could become a challenging problem in a significant number of patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) underwent a multi-visceral transplantation for short gut syndrome. She subsequently developed acute graft rejection that proved resistant to conventional treatment. She was relisted and underwent re-transplantation along with kidney transplantation. Abdominal wall closure could not be achieved because of the large size of the graft and bowel oedema. The wound was initially managed with laparostomy followed by insertion of the delayed dynamic abdominal closure (DDAC) device (Abdominal Retraction Anchor – ABRA® system). Continuous dynamic traction to the wound edges resulted in gradual approximation and complete closure of the abdominal wound was achieved within 3 weeks. DISCUSSION Successful abdominal closure after multivisceral transplantation or isolated intestinal transplantation often requires biological mesh, vascularised flaps or abdominal wall transplantation. DDAC eliminated the need for a prosthetic mesh or skin graft and provided an excellent cosmetic result. Adjustment of the dynamic traction at the bedside minimised the need for multiple returns to the operating theatre. It resulted in a well-healed linear scar without a hernia. CONCLUSION Dynamic traction allows delayed closure of laparotomy resulting in strong and cosmetically sound wound healing with native tissue. PMID:25460454

  17. The biology of hernias and the abdominal wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Franz

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism for hernia formation is loss of the mechanical integrity of abdominal wall structural tissue that\\u000a results in the inability to offset and contain intra-abdominal forces during valsalva and loading of the torso. There is evidence\\u000a that genetic or systemic extracellular matrix disorders may predispose patients to hernia formation. There is also evidence\\u000a that acute laparotomy wound failure

  18. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  19. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  20. Abdominal wall closure after a stomal reversal procedure.

    PubMed

    López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José Antonio; Villanueva, Borja; Vallribera, Francesc; Espin, Eloy; Armengol Carrasco, Manuel; Arbós Vía, María Antonia; Feliu, Xavier; Morales-Conde, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The closure of a temporary stoma involves 2 different surgical procedures: the stoma reversal procedure and the abdominal wall reconstruction of the stoma site. The management of the abdominal wall has different areas that should be analyzed such us how to avoid surgical site infection (SSI), the technique to be used in case of a concomitant hernia at the stoma site or to prevent an incisional hernia in the future, how to deal with the incision when the stoma reversal procedure is performed by laparoscopy and how to close the skin at the stoma site. The aim of this paper is to analyze these aspects in relation to abdominal wall reconstruction during a stoma reversal procedure. PMID:24581880

  1. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  2. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Bergren, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  3. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  4. Abdominal wall cellulitis and sepsis secondary to percutaneous cecostomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Maginot; Philip N. Cascade

    1993-01-01

    We report 1 case of abdominal wall cellulitis and sepsis which developed following percutaneous placement of a Cope catheter\\u000a for cecal decompression in a patient with Ogilvie's syndrome. This case highlights that further laboratory investigation and\\u000a clinical evaluation are needed to determine the safest and most efficacious technique of percutaneous drainage.

  5. [PAUL procedure. A new biocompatible concept for the therapy of congenital abdominal wall defects].

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Seifert, A; Meyer, B; Ulrichs, K; Germer, C-T

    2010-03-01

    Treatment of small congenital abdominal wall defects (e.g. omphalocele and gastroschisis) can be performed by direct closure. In large defects non-resorbable artificial materials (e.g. Gore-Tex) are necessary to close the fascia. The aim of this study was to find out whether a new procedure, the PAUL pocedure, might be suitable for the treatment of large abdominal wall defects. A full thickness abdominal wall defect was created in young Wistar Rats. These defects were then closed by implantation of a 1x2 cm sized piece of PTFE (Dual-Mesh), a polypropylene mesh (Prolene(R)) or by using the PAUL procedure. Over a period of 6 weeks no wound infections or hernias were monitored. In contrast to PTFE the PAUL procedure showed only minimal adhesion to the intestine and a high stability of the implanted material. A xenogenic extracellular matrix, such as that used in the PAUL procedure, may induce an immune response, which is comparable with a remodeling reaction rather than rejection. Based on these good results a large animal model study (Goettinger mini-piglets) was performed. No wound infections or hernias could be observed throughout the experiment. Control laparoscopy after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months showed only minimal adhesion to the intestine. Our results indicate that the PAUL procedure can be used easily and successfully for the therapy of congenital abdominal wall defects. PMID:19756429

  6. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  7. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  8. Complex abdominal wall repair using a porcine dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Colicchia, Gianfranco Marcello; Nicoli, Fabio; Cervelli, Giulio; Curcio, Cristiano Beniamino; Brinci, Lorenzo; Cervelli, Valerio

    2013-12-01

    Management of complex abdominal defects remains a significant challenge for many surgeons, especially in contaminated fields. Currently, available biosynthetic grafts include human cadaveric dermis (AlloDerm), porcine dermal (Permacol and Strattice), and submucosal (Surgisis) sources. All these grafts are composed of an acellular collagen scaffold to provide a bridge for tissue incorporation and neovascularization. The authors describe a case report of a woman who required dual mesh explantation and successive reparative surgery using a porcine dermal matrix for a complex and infected abdominal wound. Twelve months postdischarge the patient remains well, she is pain free, and she returned home to full activities with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual or recurrent hernia. The patient was satisfied with her cosmetic results. In conclusion, the authors' experience shows that the use of Permacol, a porcine dermal matrix, has been successful in treating an infected abdomen and a vast abdominal wall defect. PMID:22006210

  9. High accuracy wall thickness loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of wall thickness in pipes is a standard technique applied widely in the petrochemical industry. The potential precision of repeat measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors however significantly surpasses that of handheld sensors as uncertainties associated with coupling fluids and positional offsets are eliminated. With permanently installed sensors the precise evaluation of very small wall loss rates becomes feasible in a matter of hours. The improved accuracy and speed of wall loss rate measurements can be used to evaluate and develop more effective mitigation strategies. This paper presents an overview of factors causing variability in the ultrasonic measurements which are then systematically addressed and an experimental setup with the best achievable stability based on these considerations is presented. In the experimental setup galvanic corrosion is used to induce predictable and very small wall thickness loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental measurements can be used to assess the effect of reduced wall loss that is produced by the injection of corrosion inhibitor. The measurements show an estimated standard deviation of about 20nm, which in turn allows us to evaluate the effect and behaviour of corrosion inhibitors within less than an hour.

  10. Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas Richard The influence of finite wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in a tokamak walls, finite wall thickness effects are found to have relatively little influence on the RWM stability

  11. Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas Richard://pop.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas Richard) The influence of finite wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in a tokamak

  12. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Achach, Thouraya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ltaief, Rached; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated. PMID:19266089

  13. Cross-sectional analysis of the chest and abdominal wall

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the musculoskeletal envelope of the internal viscera as seen in cross section on computed tomographic (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and ultrasound images. The contents proceed on the basis of anatomic areas, from the axilla and supraclavicular fossa, through the thoracic and abdominal wall and paraspinal musculature, to the glutei. Normal anatomic structure is described. Specific disease processes-such as inflammatory lymphadenitis, primary tumors, and vascular diseases-are covered.

  14. The management of abdominal wall hernias – in search of consensus

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Kamil; ?mieta?ski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic repair is becoming an increasingly popular alternative in the treatment of abdominal wall hernias. In spite of numerous studies evaluating this technique, indications for laparoscopic surgery have not been established. Similarly, implant selection and fixation techniques have not been unified and are the subject of scientific discussion. Aim To assess whether there is a consensus on the management of the most common ventral abdominal wall hernias among recognised experts. Material and methods Fourteen specialists representing the boards of European surgical societies were surveyed to determine their choice of surgical technique for nine typical primary ventral and incisional hernias. The access method, type of operation, mesh prosthesis and fixation method were evaluated. In addition to the laparoscopic procedures, the number of tackers and their arrangement were assessed. Results In none of the cases presented was a consensus of experts obtained. Laparoscopic and open techniques were used equally often. Especially in the group of large hernias, decisions on repair methods were characterised by high variability. The technique of laparoscopic mesh fixation was a subject of great variability in terms of both method selection and the numbers of tackers and sutures used. Conclusions Recognised experts have not reached a consensus on the management of abdominal wall hernias. Our survey results indicate the need for further research and the inclusion of large cohorts of patients in the dedicated registries to evaluate the results of different surgical methods, which would help in the development of treatment algorithms for surgical education in the future. PMID:25960793

  15. Bioprosthetic Tissue Matrices in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Justin M.; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex abdominal defects are difficult problems encountered by surgeons in multiple specialties. Although current evidence supports the primary repair of these defects with mesh reinforcement, it is unclear which mesh is superior for any given clinical scenario. The purpose of this review was to explore the characteristics of and clinical relevance behind bioprosthetic tissue matrices in an effort to better clarify their role in abdominal wall reconstruction. Methods: We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature on the use of bioprosthetic mesh in human subjects. Basic science articles and large retrospective and prospective reviews were included in author’s analysis. The clinical performance and characteristics of 13 bioprosthetic tissue matrices were evaluated. Results: The majority of the products evaluated perform well in contaminated fields, where the risk of wound-healing difficulties is high. Clinical outcomes, which included infection, reherniation, and bulge formation, were variable, and the majority of the studies had a mean follow-up of less than 24 months. Conclusions: Although bioprosthetic matrix has a multitude of indications within the growing field of abdominal wall reconstruction, the functionality, regenerative capacity, and long-term fate of these products have yet to be fully established. Furthermore, the clinical performance, indications, and contraindications for each type of matrix need to be fully evaluated in long-term outcome studies. PMID:25289285

  16. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ biologic mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2013-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. We aimed to review the experience of a large healthcare organization with Permacol™. A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent abdominal hernia repair with Permacol™ in 14 Southern California hospitals. One hundred ninety-five patients were analyzed over a 4-year period. Operations included ventral/incisional hernia repairs, ostomy closures, parastomal hernia repairs, and inguinal hernia repairs. In 50 per cent of the patients, Permacol™ was used to reinforce a primary fascial repair and in 50 per cent as a fascial bridge. The overall complication rate was 39.5 per cent. The complication rate was higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds, body mass index (BMI) 40 kg/m(2) or greater versus BMI less than 40 kg/m(2), in patients with prior mesh repair, and when mesh was used as a fascial bridge. With a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, morbid obesity was associated with a higher recurrence. To date this is the largest study on the use of Permacol™ in abdominal wall hernia repair. In our patient population undergoing heterogeneous operations with a majority of wounds as Class II or higher, use of Permacol™ did not eliminate wound morbidity or prevent recurrence, especially in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24160785

  17. Regeneration of abdominal wall aponeurosis: new dimension in Marlex peritoneal sandwich repair of incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Matapurkar, B G; Bhargave, A; Dawson, L; Sonal, B

    1999-05-01

    Loss of abdominal wall substance is a major cause of incisional hernia formation. It makes repair of this iatrogenic human ailment a difficult surgical problem. The abdominal wall substance loss has compelled the world's surgical community dealing with this condition to substantiate the repair with extra material such as skin, fascia, wire mesh, and lately biocompatible synthetic mesh. Even though the synthetic mesh is compatible and well tolerated by body tissues, it is not without complications. Regenerative repair in the region of the abdominal wall with substance loss is probably the best repair if it can be achieved. With reasonable success in animal experiments and the positive regenerative capacity of stem cells to transform the peritoneum into an aponeurotic layer, the new technique using a Marlex peritoneal sandwich for repair of large incisional hernias was attempted but was not reported in the article published in the World Journal of Surgery in 1991. The present study is based on experiments on seven mongrel dogs. A suitable embryonal segment of autogenous peritoneum was excised and transferred to the rectus sheath region. The gross appearance of the grafted membrane 3 months after operation revealed tough, thick tissue formation. The histology confirmed the presence of collagen fiber tissue in layers similar to the aponeurosis in the grafted peritoneal membrane. The use of this regeneration in the Marlex peritoneal sandwich technique of repair of large incisional hernias and the scientific rationale of tissue regeneration by desired metaplasia is discussed. PMID:10085391

  18. Clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Samel, S; Post, S; Martell, J; Becker, H

    1997-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a considerable rate of infectious complications of up to 2.8%. Such infections are usually of minor clinical importance. However, we observed a case of life-threatening Clostridial gas gangrene centering around the right lateral port site and developing across all of the right-sided abdominal wall, causing septic shock and severe multi-organ failure. Considering the overall infection rate and the possibility of even severe morbidity, we advocate perioperative antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9448120

  19. Tissue Expander Capsule for Abdominal Wall in Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Ronaldo Scholze; Netto, Rafael; de Araujo, Thiago Bozzi; Ely, Pedro Bins

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Adjuvant treatment planning can change after breast cancer resection and definitive pathological examination. Radiation therapy is often chosen as a supplementary treatment. Rectus abdominis–based muscle flaps are one of the main choices when breast reconstruction plans must be changed from implant-based to autologous methods. We herein report a case in which the patient’s own tissue expander capsule was used to repair an abdominal wall defect after muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction. PMID:25506530

  20. Use of synthetic mesh for the entire abdominal wall after TRAM flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Moscona, R A; Ramon, Y; Toledano, H; Barzilay, G

    1998-03-01

    Abdominal wall competence is a major concern of all plastic surgeons using the TRAM flap for breast reconstruction. Low hernia rates and adequate abdominal stability are standard expectations in abdominal wall closure. Described here is this institution's experience with the use of a large piece of synthetic mesh as a supplementary reinforcement for the entire abdominal wall in an attempt to stabilize it and achieve a superior abdominal aesthetic result. Twenty-five consecutive patients had routine reinforcement with the extended mesh technique. Mean patient follow-up was 24 months with a minimum of 1 year. No hernia or mesh-related infection were encountered and only one patient had a lower abdominal bulge. We recommend the use of a large synthetic mesh for improved strength and aesthetic quality of the abdominal wall after TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:9500387

  1. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  2. Histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall to non-covered stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubio Bombonato; José Honório PALMA; José Augusto MARCONDES; Aury Nunes de MORAES; João Luiz da ROCHA; Márcio Rodrigo; Rodrigo Mezzalira; Enio Buffolo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall in pigs' renal arteries to the presence of non-covered stainless steel stents. Methods: The abdominal aorta of ten pigs (6 months old and weighing 86.6 kg on average) was histopathologically studied 100 days after the implant of stainless steel stents in the abdominal aorta, with one segment of the

  3. Numerical Simulation of Jumbo Jet Impacting on Thick Concrete Walls —— Effects of Reinforcement and Wall Thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahide KATAYAMA; Masaharu ITOH; Robert RAINSBERGER

    A three-dimensional computer simulation of the impact of a Boeing 747 passenger jet has been conducted using the AUTODYN®-3D computer program. The targets are reinforced or non-reinforced concrete wall with three different thicknesses. The fuselage, the wings and the engines of the airplane are modeled by shell elements. The stringers are represented by beam elements, and the jet fuel by

  4. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  5. Functional and morphological evaluation of different polypropylene-mesh modifications for abdominal wall repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Klosterhalfen; U. Klinge; V. Schumpelick

    1998-01-01

    Modern surgical hernia repair depends increasingly on synthetic meshes for the reconstruction of the abdominal wall. Despite the undisputed advantages of the polypropylene (PP) meshes currently available (Marlex®, Prolene®), reports of complications after implantation are increasing. Although, serious complications such as perforation and fistula formation are rare, minor and local complaints such as seromas, misfeelings and a decreased abdominal wall

  6. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. Methods One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Results Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (p<0.01). In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (p<0.01). Conclusion Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage. PMID:26157696

  7. Measuring and modeling patient-specific distributions of material properties in abdominal aortic aneurysm wall.

    PubMed

    Reeps, C; Maier, A; Pelisek, J; Härtl, F; Grabher-Meier, V; Wall, W A; Essler, M; Eckstein, H-H; Gee, M W

    2013-08-01

    Both the clinically established diameter criterion and novel approaches of computational finite element (FE) analyses for rupture risk stratification of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are based on assumptions of population-averaged, uniform material properties for the AAA wall. The presence of inter-patient and intra-patient variations in material properties is known, but has so far not been addressed sufficiently. In order to enable the preoperative estimation of patient-specific AAA wall properties in the future, we investigated the relationship between non-invasively assessable clinical parameters and experimentally measured AAA wall properties. We harvested n = 163 AAA wall specimens (n = 50 patients) during open surgery and recorded the exact excision sites. Specimens were tested for their thickness, elastic properties, and failure loads using uniaxial tensile tests. In addition, 43 non-invasively assessable patient-specific or specimen-specific parameters were obtained from recordings made during surgery and patient charts. Experimental results were correlated with the non-invasively assessable parameters and simple regression models were created to mathematically describe the relationships. Wall thickness was most significantly correlated with the metabolic activity at the excision site assessed by PET/CT (? = 0.499, P = 4 × 10(-7)) and to thrombocyte counts from laboratory blood analyses (? = 0.445, P = 3 × 10(-9)). Wall thickness was increased in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, while it was significantly thinner in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elastic AAA wall properties had significant correlations with the metabolic activity at the excision site (PET/CT), with existent calcifications, and with the diameter of the non-dilated aorta proximal to the AAA. Failure properties (wall strength and failure tension) had correlations with the patient's medical history and with results from laboratory blood analyses. Interestingly, AAA wall failure tension was significantly reduced for patients with CKD and elevated blood levels of potassium and urea, respectively, both of which are associated with kidney disease. This study is a first step to a future preoperative estimation of AAA wall properties. Results can be conveyed to both the diameter criterion and FE analyses to refine rupture risk prediction. The fact that AAA wall from patients suffering from CKD featured reduced failure tension implies an increased AAA rupture risk for this patient group at comparably smaller AAA diameters. PMID:22955570

  8. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

    2014-09-22

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

  9. Left ventricular wall thickness and disease duration in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, I.; Czirják, L.

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial thickness, left ventricular functions, and right heart overloading were investigated in 80 patients with systemic sclerosis by echocardiography. Based on the left ventricular wall thickness, three groups were formed. Fifteen patients with asymmetrical left ventricular wall hypertrophy (Group 1) showed shorter mean disease duration with marked diastolic and mild systolic left ventricular functional impairment. The 25 patients with wall thinning (Group 3) had a slight increase in left ventricular diameters, impaired systolic functions and longer disease duration. Group 2 with wall thickness exhibited mixed changes. Patients with increased wall thickness tended to have a shorter disease duration than patients with wall thinning. Patients with systemic sclerosis showed systolic and diastolic function impairment as compared to the 18 control healthy individuals. Pericardial disease was found in 23 cases (28.7%). PMID:8321792

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure by measuring abdominal wall tension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-zhuo; Yan, Shu-ying; Chen, Yan-qing; Zhuang, Yu-gang; Wei, Zhao; Zhou, Shu-qin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) by measuring abdominal wall tension (AWT) was effective and feasible in previous postmortem and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the AWT method for noninvasively monitoring IAP in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this prospective study, we observed patients with detained urethral catheters in the ICU of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital between April 2011 and March 2013. The correlation between AWT and urinary bladder pressure (UBP) was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The effects of respiratory and body position on AWT were evaluated using the paired samples t test, whereas the effects of gender and body mass index (BMI) on baseline AWT (IAP<12 mmHg) were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were studied. A significant linear correlation was observed between AWT and UBP (R=0.986, P<0.01); the regression equation was Y=–1.369+9.57X (P<0.01). There were significant differences among the different respiratory phases and body positions (P<0.01). However, gender and BMI had no significant effects on baseline AWT (P=0.457 and 0.313, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant linear correlation between AWT and UBP and respiratory phase, whereas body position had significant effects on AWT but gender and BMI did not. Therefore, AWT could serve as a simple, rapid, accurate, and important method to monitor IAP in critically ill patients.

  11. Comparison of Two Porcine-Derived Materials for Repairing Abdominal Wall Defects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Song, Zhicheng; Wang, Huichun; Gu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical properties, host responses and incorporation of porcine small intestine submucosa (PSIS) and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) in a rat model of abdominal wall defect repair. Materials and Methods Prior to implantation, PSIS and PADM were prepared and evaluated in terms of structure and mechanical properties. Full-thickness abdominal wall defects were created in 50 Sprague-Dawley rats, and were repaired using either PSIS or PADM. Rats were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-repair and examined for herniation, infection, adhesions, contraction, and changes in the thickness and strength of the tissues incorporated at the defect sites. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and vascularization. Results PADM showed more dense collagen deposition and stronger mechanical properties than PSIS prior to implantation (P<0.01). However, the mechanical properties observed after integration with the surrounding native tissues was similar for PADM and PSIS. Both PADM and PSIS showed significant contraction by week 12. However, PADM tissue induced less adhesion and increased in thickness more slowly, and showed less infiltration by foreign giant cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and mononuclear cells. Improved remodeling of host tissue was observed after PSIS implantation, which was apparent from the orientation of bands of fibrous connective tissue, intermixed with newly formed blood vessels by Week 12. Conclusion PSIS showed weaker mechanical properties prior to implantation. However, after implantation PSIS induced more pronounced host responses and showed better incorporation into host tissues than PADM. PMID:21637777

  12. The effects of dynamic exercise utilizing PNF patterns on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dynamic exercise utilizing the PNF (proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation) patterns accompanied by abdominal drawing-in exercises on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults. [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 30;15 were randomly placed in the training group (TG), and the remaining 15 made up the control group (CG). [Methods] The subjects in the TG conducted 3–5 sets of dynamic exercises utilizing the PNF patterns each day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of the abdominal muscles was measured by ultrasonography. [Results] When the TG’s abdominal muscle thickness pre-test and post-test were compared in this study, there was a statistical significance in all of the external obliquus abdominis (Eo), the internal obliquus abdominis (Io), and the transversus abdominis (Tra). [Conclusion] Dynamic exercise utilizing the PNF patterns increased the thickness of the abdominal muscles that are the basis of trunk stabilization.

  13. Thick domain walls in a polynomial approximation

    E-print Network

    H. Arodz

    1995-01-18

    Relativistic domain walls are studied in the framework of a polynomial approximation to the field interpolating between different vacua and forming the domain wall. In this approach we can calculate evolution of a core and of a width of the domain wall. In the single, cubic polynomial approximation used in this paper, the core obeys Nambu-Goto equation for a relativistic membrane. The width of the domain wall obeys a nonlinear equation which is solved perturbatively. There are two types of corrections to the constant zeroth order width: the ones oscillating in time, and the corrections directly related to curvature of the core. We find that curving a static domain wall is associated with an increase of its width. As an example, evolution of a toroidal domain wall is investigated.

  14. Rectus abdominis muscle malignant fibrous histiocytoma causing a large abdominal wall defect: reconstruction with biological mesh.

    PubMed

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Goudeli, Christina; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh. PMID:24653854

  15. Rectus Abdominis Muscle Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Causing a Large Abdominal Wall Defect: Reconstruction with Biological Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Goudeli, Christina; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Villias, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh. PMID:24653854

  16. Comparison of novel synthetic materials with traditional methods to repair exposed abdominal wall fascial defects.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi-Wahle, S; Cnota, M; Choe, E; Jacob, J T; Flint, L M; Ferrara, J J

    1998-01-01

    Repair of large abdominal wall defects is a challenge, particularly when full-thickness tissue loss prohibits coverage of the fascial repair. Two novel synthetic materials (TMS-1 and TMS-2) have been shown to be better accepted than expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex), and polypropylene (Marlex) in the closure of clean and contaminated fascial wounds that are immediately covered by skin/soft tissue. Therefore, 1-cm2 abdominal wall defects were created in each of the four quadrants of rat groups. Gore-Tex, Marlex, and TMS-1 or TMS-2 were used to repair three defects, the fourth being primarily closed. To ensure that each repair remained exposed, skin edges were sutured to underlying muscle. Additional animal groups underwent the same protocol; however, peritonitis was induced at surgery using a fecal inoculum technique. Animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later, at which time a blinded observer assessed the surface area and severity of adhesions. In clean wounds, the surface area of formed adhesions was less (p < .004) after primary closure than each synthetic material; among the synthetics, TMS-2 caused significantly (p < .01) less extensive adhesions than Marlex. In addition, the severity of adhesions to TMS-2 was comparable to that of defects closed primarily, and less severe (p < .02) than those formed to Gore-Tex and Marlex. In animals with peritonitis, primary closure caused less extensive (p < .03) adhesions than Marlex and Gore-Tex and significantly (p < .002) less severe adhesions than Marlex, Gore-Tex, and TMS-2. However, the severity of adhesions formed to TMS-1 repairs proved comparable to primarily closed wounds. These experiments reaffirm the tenet that, whenever possible, abdominal wounds should undergo primary fascial closure. When soft tissue coverage over the repair cannot be achieved, TMS-2 is well tolerated in clean wounds. However, the superiority of TMS-1 over the other synthetic materials in contaminated wounds suggests it may also ultimately prove to be of clinical utility. PMID:9700617

  17. The use of a biological graft for the closure of large abdominal wall defects following excision of soft tissue tumours

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Emma; Rooney, Paul S.; Heath, Richard; Chandrasekar, Coonoor R.

    2015-01-01

    Primary soft tissue tumours arising from the abdominal wall are uncommon and surgical excision of such tumours can result in large abdominal wall defects. There are many techniques available for abdominal wall repair following tumour excision, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The options range from direct closure to the use of tissue flap reconstructions and/or prosthetic meshes. Currently, synthetic material such as polypropylene mesh is a common choice for closure of abdominal wall defects after tumour excision. Biological meshes are an alternative option for repair, and this report outlines two cases of abdominal wall repair using the porcine intestinal submucosa biological graft following excision of abdominal wall tumours. There was no evidence of infection, recurrence, seroma or hernias at 2-year follow-up. Following excision of soft tissue tumours of the abdominal wall, biological reconstructions can be successfully used to bridge the defect with minimal morbidity. PMID:26109681

  18. The use of a biological graft for the closure of large abdominal wall defects following excision of soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Emma; Rooney, Paul S; Heath, Richard; Chandrasekar, Coonoor R

    2015-01-01

    Primary soft tissue tumours arising from the abdominal wall are uncommon and surgical excision of such tumours can result in large abdominal wall defects. There are many techniques available for abdominal wall repair following tumour excision, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The options range from direct closure to the use of tissue flap reconstructions and/or prosthetic meshes. Currently, synthetic material such as polypropylene mesh is a common choice for closure of abdominal wall defects after tumour excision. Biological meshes are an alternative option for repair, and this report outlines two cases of abdominal wall repair using the porcine intestinal submucosa biological graft following excision of abdominal wall tumours. There was no evidence of infection, recurrence, seroma or hernias at 2-year follow-up. Following excision of soft tissue tumours of the abdominal wall, biological reconstructions can be successfully used to bridge the defect with minimal morbidity. PMID:26109681

  19. Experience with abdominal wall closure for patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia repaired on ECMO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J Schnitzer; Colin S Kikiros; Billie L Short; Ann O'Brien; Kathryn D Anderson; Kurt D Newman

    1995-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and its attendant lack of abdominal domain can create major technical challenges with respect to diaphragmatic and abdominal wall reconstruction, especially in seriously ill infants who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The authors reviewed the medical records of all infants with CDH repaired on ECMO at their institution (group 1, 15 patients), and compared them with

  20. Abdominal wall desmoid tumors: A proposal for US-guided resection

    PubMed Central

    Bolzon, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Alessio; Zanzi, Federico; Negri, Marco; Guerrini, Gian Piero; Rossi, Camilla; Soliani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors (DTs) is a benign tumor with high tendency to infiltrative evolution and recurrence. Nowadays, in abdominal localization, the standard approach is surgery with R0 condition. The need to repair post-surgical wide wall defect requires conservative technique to decrease the incidence of incisional hernia and to obtain better quality of life (QoL). Methods We perform an abdominal wall desmoid resection using ultrasound guide. This technique ensures to spare a wide wall area and to obtain a multilayer reconstruction minimizing postoperative risk. This approach allows good oncological results and better managing abdominal wall post-resection defect. Results We use US guided surgery to get radical approach and wall tissue spare that allows us a multilayer reconstruction minimizing post-operative complications. No recurrences were observed in one year follow up period. Conclusion Our experience represents first step to consider ultrasound mediated technique usefull to optimize wall resection surgery and to minimize following complications. PMID:25706804

  1. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    PubMed

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. PMID:26118508

  2. Instant Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Biologic Mesh following Resection of Locally Advanced Colonic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Oskay; Olcucuoglu, Engin; Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of immediate abdominal wall reconstruction with biologic mesh following the resection of locally advanced colonic cancer. The tumor in the right colon did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical enbloc excision, including excision of the invasion in the abdominal wall, was achieved, and the defect was reconstructed with porcine dermal collagen mesh. The patient was discharged with no complication, and adaptation of the mesh was excellent at the six-month followup. PMID:22577393

  3. Severe cellulitis and abdominal wall emphysema following laparoscopic colonic surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Chida, Tadasu; Kanda, Tatsuo; Kano, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal wall emphysema is a common complication of laparoscopic surgery. This condition is usually harmless; however, if an infection occurs, it can develop into a serious condition such as necrotizing fasciitis. We report a case of a 51-year-old woman suffering from severe cellulitis that spread from an area of abdominal wall emphysema after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. Recognizing this complication, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment are cornerstones for successful management of this potentially fatal disease. PMID:25913586

  4. Instant Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Biologic Mesh following Resection of Locally Advanced Colonic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Oskay; Olcucuoglu, Engin; Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of immediate abdominal wall reconstruction with biologic mesh following the resection of locally advanced colonic cancer. The tumor in the right colon did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical enbloc excision, including excision of the invasion in the abdominal wall, was achieved, and the defect was reconstructed with porcine dermal collagen mesh. The patient was discharged with no complication, and adaptation of the mesh was excellent at the six-month followup. PMID:22577393

  5. The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

  6. Thickness dependent wall mobility in thin Permalloy films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Redjdal; J. Giusti; M. F. Ruane; F. B. Humphrey

    2002-01-01

    Domain wall mobility in Permalloy films has been calculated as a function of thickness at 10, 80, and 160 nm which reflects the structure change of Néel, symmetric Bloch and C-shaped (asymmetric Bloch) domain walls. The mobility has been derived from the dynamics of a single nonperiodic domain wall using direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in a Cartesian lattice.

  7. Abdominal wall pain in obese women: frequently missed and easily treated

    PubMed Central

    Mishriki, Yehia Yousri

    2009-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom with an extensive differential diagnosis. The work-up is frequently costly, yet many patients elude definitive diagnosis. We describe 12 obese women with long-standing abdominal pain, many of whom eluded diagnosis but who met criteria for abdominal wall pain. Each patient underwent a focused history and physical examination which included checking for Carnett’s sign and performing a “pinch test”. All patients had positive Carnett’s sign and pinch tests. An injection of local anaesthetic, with or without corticosteroid, completely relieved the pain within 10 min. Of the six patients seen in follow-up, four remained pain free and two responded to a second injection of local anaesthetic. Abdominal wall pain is an under-appreciated cause of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnosis is often straightforward and treatment with a local injection of anaesthetic is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:21686788

  8. Myocardium wall thickness transducer and measuring method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A miniature transducer for measuring changes of thickness of the myocardium is described. The device is easily implantable without traumatizing the subject, without affecting the normal muscle behavior, and is removable and implantable at a different muscle location. Operating features of the device are described.

  9. Local administration of TGF-beta1 to reinforce the anterior abdominal wall in a rat model of incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Korenkov, M; Yuecel, N; Koebke, J; Schierholz, J; Morsczeck, Ch; Tasci, I; Neugebauer, E A M; Nagelschmidt, M

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate different forms of the local application of TGF-beta(1) for augmentation of the anterior abdominal wall in an appropriate model of an incisional hernia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Artificial defects of the anterior abdominal wall were closed with one of the following methods: running Prolene suture, Vicryl mesh, prolene suture followed by an intramuscular injection of 1 mug TGF-beta(1), Vicryl mesh coated with 1 mug TGF-beta(1), and prolene suture coated with 1 mug TGF-beta(1). A control group did not receive any defect and treatment. Six weeks after operation, tensile strength, collagen content, gene expression of collagen I and III, blood vessels, and thickness of collagen fibres were evaluated. Tensile strength was strongest in the controls (14.2 (10.5-18 N)). There was no increase in tensile strength due to the administration of TGF-beta(1). On the contrary, bolus injection of the growth factor resulted in a significantly decreased strength of the wound tissue when compared to the groups 1, 4, 5, and 6 (9.1 (4.2-9.1 N)). These results correlated with the gene expression of collagen I and III. Local application of TGF-beta(1) did not augment the strength of the abdominal wall after 6 weeks. PMID:15912258

  10. Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. PMID:23835844

  11. Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

    2013-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach.

  12. In vivo analysis of mechanical wall stress and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. Fillinger; M. L. Raghavan; Steven P. Marra; Jack L. Cronenwett; Francis E. Kennedy

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to calculate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall stresses in vivo for ruptured, symptomatic, and electively repaired AAAs with three-dimensional computer modeling techniques, computed tomographic scan data, and blood pressure and to compare wall stress with current clinical indices related to rupture risk. Methods: CT scans were analyzed for 48 patients with AAAs: 18

  13. The Limb-Abdominal Wall Complex Defects, a form of Amniotic Band Sydrome: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudhanshu Ku.; Maharana, Sidharth Sankar; Subudhi, Monalisa; Rao, P. V. Subha

    2013-01-01

    The limb-body wall complex defects a form of amniotic band syndrome which consists of a polymal formation with a thoracic and /or an abdominal-schisis, eventration of the internal organ and anomalies of the extremities. We are presenting a case of a limb-body wall complex defect with the phenotype of a placenta-abdominal attachment, anomalies of the abdominal wall defect, absence of the right lower limb and genitourinary defects. PMID:23634417

  14. Gear-shift lever having variable thickness walls

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1988-01-03

    A one-piece elongated tubular transmission gear shift lever, is described comprising a tubular connector part at a first end of the gear shift lever, whereby the tubular connector part is adapted to be secured to a pivot means; a spherical part extending from the connector part, the connector part and the spherical part having a first wall thickness; a cylindrical part extending from the spherical part in a direction opposite the tubular connector part, the cylindrical part having a second wall thickness less than the first wall thickness; a tapered part extending from the cylindrical part; and a threaded part extending from the tapered part, the threaded part formed at a second end of the gear shift lever opposite the first end, whereby a gear shift knob may be attached.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal wall hernias in aortic surgery 1 1 No competing interests declared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Musella; Francesco Milone; Massimo Chello; Pierluigi Angelini; Raffaele Jovino

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of abdominal wall hernias (AWH) in patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compared with patients treated for aortoiliac occlusive disease. The efficacy of MRI in early diagnosis of AWH also was studied.STUDY DESIGN:One hundred fourteen patients operated for either AAA (51 patients, group A) or aortoiliac occlusive disease

  16. The paradox of pressure vessel wall thickness calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Marc

    1986-05-01

    The calculation of pressure vessel wall thickness is made with formulae usually imposed by national codes. Although the Lamés formulae give actual stresses and leave the decision on the safety factor to the designer, these codes impose certain safety factors in the calculation of allowable stresses, or even include the safety factor in the wall thickness calculation formula. If we take as an example a pressure vessel made of 316 SS with 125 mm ID, and designed for 400 bar, the methods of calculation which are most commonly used are: -Lamé -Stoomwezen (Dutch Code), -AD Merkblatt (German Code), -CODAP (French Code), -ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1 or 2 (USA) . Obviously, the thicker the wall, the lower the stresses due to the pressure. However, some other factors need to be considered, the most important of them probably being thermal stresses. The thicker the wall, the higher the thermal stresses, all other parameters being equal. When such a vessel is heated from the outside, a temperature gradient is created across the wall and the temperature is higher on the outside than the inside. Consequently, the thermal stresses are in compression on the outside, and in tension on the inside, and come in addition to the pressure stresses. The designer must choose the wall thickness so as to minimize the total of pressure and thermal stresses.

  17. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture analysis can improve the level set segmentation around the abdominal region.

  18. Use of biological meshes for abdominal wall reconstruction in highly contaminated fields

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Di Vita, Maria; Zanghì, Antonio; Cavallaro, Vincenzo; Veroux, Pier Francesco; Cappellani, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects and incisional hernias represent a challenging problem. In particular, when a synthetic mesh is applied to contaminated wounds, its removal is required in 50%-90% of cases. Biosynthetic meshes are the newest tool available to surgeons and they could have a role in ventral hernia repair in a potentially contaminated field. We describe the use of a sheet of bovine pericardium graft in the reconstruction of abdominal wall defect in two patients. Bovine pericardium graft was placed in the retrorectus space and secured to the anterior abdominal wall using polypropylene sutures in a tension-free manner. We experienced no evidence of recurrence at 4 and 5 years follow-up. PMID:20397274

  19. [Use of nickel-titanium alloys in plasty of the anterior abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Veronski?, G I; Zotov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The work presents results of the surgical treatment of postoperative hernias of the abdominal wall using explants of titanium nickelide in 48 patients. Data of biopsy of the anterior abdominal wall muscles in these patients are given. The anatomo-morphological and functional incompetence is shown. A method of preparing the patients with giant hernias to operation with the help of dynamic pneumocompression is described. The indications to using the explants in hernioplasty are determined by the methods of somatometry and intraoperative dynamometry. The data of three methods of combined hernioplasty are presented: with the use of a superelastic network from a nickelide-titanium alloy; explant with tractional properties, effect of the "shape memory"; method of extracorporeal extension of the abdominal wall at the postoperative period. The nearest and long-term results followed-up during 3 years are shown. PMID:11188829

  20. Dust thin shell limit of a thick wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobov, I. V.; Tegai, S. Ph.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the vanishing thickness limit of a wall separating Minkowski spacetime from Schwarzschild or Friedmann spacetime with the purpose of obtaining the thin shell described by the Israel matching formalism. We show that the thin shell cannot be a limit of the wall consisting of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi dust. To successfully implement the required limit, it is necessary to add anisotropy to the stress tensor of the wall matter. For such anisotropic matter, we derive boundary conditions that allow carrying out the limit. Finally, we provide an example of a solution satisfying these conditions.

  1. Herniation of the gallbladder within a hernia of the abdominal wall associated with Mirizzi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paolino, LA; Millan, M; Bossi, M; Champault, G; Barrat, C

    2011-01-01

    A gallbladder incarcerated hernia associated with Mirizzi syndrome is a very rare entity and to our knowledge this is the first case ever described in literature. An 85-year-old man presented at the emergency department with a tender right upper quadrant mass. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a gallbladder lithiasis with signs of acute cholecystitis, herniated through the abdominal wall with an associated Mirizzi syndrome. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed. The patient recovered very well and the postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:24950574

  2. Herniation of the gallbladder within a hernia of the abdominal wall associated with Mirizzi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, LA; Millan, M; Bossi, M; Champault, G; Barrat, C

    2011-01-01

    A gallbladder incarcerated hernia associated with Mirizzi syndrome is a very rare entity and to our knowledge this is the first case ever described in literature. An 85-year-old man presented at the emergency department with a tender right upper quadrant mass. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a gallbladder lithiasis with signs of acute cholecystitis, herniated through the abdominal wall with an associated Mirizzi syndrome. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed. The patient recovered very well and the postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:24950574

  3. The abdominal wall lumps and bumps: cross-sectional imaging spectrum.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Vivek; Sethi, Vineeta; Fasih, Najla; Ryan, John; Kielar, Ania

    2014-02-01

    This article focuses on the cross-sectional imaging spectrum of abnormalities that affect the abdominal wall, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sectional imaging is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of abdominal-wall masses. With the increasing use of MRI, it is often possible to reach a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby guiding effective management. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies will be illustrated, and the distinctive imaging characteristics of these entities will be highlighted. PMID:22884230

  4. Reversibility of Abdominal Wall Atrophy and Fibrosis After Primary or Mesh Herniorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Eric J.; Xing, Liyu; Wen, Yuan; Franz, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether primary or mesh herniorrhaphy reverses abdominal wall atrophy and fibrosis associated with hernia formation. Background We previously demonstrated that hernia formation is associated with abdominal wall atrophy and fibrosis after 5 weeks in an animal model. Methods Arat model of chronic incisional hernia was used. Groups consisted of uninjured control (UC, n = 8), sham repair (SR, n = 8), unrepaired hernia (UR, n = 8), and 2 repair groups: primary repair (PR, n = 8) or tension-free polypropylene mesh repair (MR, n = 8) hernia repair on postoperative day (POD) 35. All rats were killed on POD 70. Intact abdominal wall strips were cut perpendicular to the wound for tensiometric analysis. Internal oblique muscles were harvested for fiber type and size determination. Results No hernia recurrences occurred after PR or MR. Unrepaired abdominal walls significantly demonstrated greater stiffness, increased breaking and tensile strengths, yield load and yield energy, a shift to increased type IIa muscle fibers than SR (15.9% vs 9.13%; P < 0.001), and smaller fiber cross-sectional area (CSA, 1792 vs 2669 ?m2; P < 0.001). PR failed to reverse any mechanical changes but partially restored type IIa fiber (12.9% vs 9.13% SR; P < 0.001 vs 15.9% UR; P < 0.01) and CSA (2354 vs 2669 ?m2 SR;P < 0.001 vs 1792 ?m2 UR; P < 0.001). Mesh-repaired abdominal walls demonstrated a trend toward an intermediate mechanical phenotype but fully restored type IIa muscle fiber (9.19% vs 9.13% SR; P > 0.05 vs 15.9% UR; P < 0.001) and nearly restored CSA (2530 vs 2669 ?m2 SR; P < 0.05 vs 1792 ?m2 UR; P < 0.001). Conclusions Mesh herniorrhaphy more completely reverses atrophic abdominal wall changes than primary herniorrhaphy, despite failing to restore normal anatomic muscle position. Techniques for hernia repair and mesh design should take into account abdominal wall muscle length and tension relationships and total abdominal wall compliance. PMID:22801088

  5. Varicose Veins of the Abdominal Wall in a Child. A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Antebi; E. Freund

    1984-01-01

    A case of a venous malformation of the abdominal wall in a 13-year-old boy is hereby presented. This malformation, manifesting as varicosities which were present from infancy caused no disturbances other than cosmetic. Clinical, laboratory and radiological examinations revealed no underlying pathology linked with this malformation. Considering the patient's history, we assumed the varicosities to be sequelae of a deep

  6. Subcutaneous emphysema of the abdominal wall from diverticulitis with necrotizing fasciitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward R. Lipsit; Ann M. Lewicki

    1979-01-01

    The case history of a patient with subcutaneous emphysema of the abdomen from sigmoid diverticulitis is presented. The mechanisms for developing abdominal wall emphysema are reviewed. Thus when the gas originates from the gastrointestinal tract, mechanical factors are mainly responsible for this phenomenon. These include a direct communication through a colonocutaneous fistula. Gas may, however, also be spread into the

  7. Abdominal Wall Desmoid Fibromatosis Mimics Sarcoma With Intense FDG Uptake on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Min-Ling; Pastakia, Behram; Liu, Frank

    2015-08-01

    We present the case of an abdominal wall soft tissue mass with intense FDG uptake in a 61-year-old man with unintentional weight loss. The appearance of this mass and high focal FDG uptake mimics high-grade sarcoma on F-FDG PET/CT. However, the final excisional histopathological diagnosis was desmoid fibromatosis. PMID:25674878

  8. Mechanical behaviour of synthetic surgical meshes: Finite element simulation of the herniated abdominal wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hernández-Gascón; E. Peña; H. Melero; G. Pascual; M. Doblaré; M. P. Ginebra; J. M. Bellón; B. Calvo

    2011-01-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia surgery contribute to the overall mechanical behaviour of the repaired abdominal wall. The mechanical response of a surgical mesh has to be defined since the haphazard orientation of an anisotropic mesh can lead to inconsistent surgical outcomes. This study was designed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of three surgical meshes (Surgipro®, Optilene®

  9. Laparoscopic Extraperitoneal Uterine Suspension to Anterior Abdominal Wall Bilaterally Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Uterovaginal Prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Chen; Bin Ling; Jia Li; Ping Xu; Weiping Hu; Weidong Zhao; Dabao Wu

    2010-01-01

    Between August 2007 and May 2009, 28 patients with uterovaginal prolapse, stage 2 or greater, and who desired uterine preservation, underwent laparoscopic extraperitoneal uterine suspension to the anterior abdominal wall bilaterally using mesh. The primary outcome was recurrence, which was evaluated using point C. Secondary outcomes were effects on quality of life (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory [PFDI-20] and Pelvic Floor

  10. Tissue response to polypropylene meshes used in the repair of abdominal wall defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M Bellón; L. A Contreras; J Buján; D Palomares; A Carrera-San Mart??n

    1998-01-01

    SynopsisThe degree of integration of biomaterials used in the repair of abdominal wall defects seems to depend upon the structure of the prosthesis. Several polypropylene (PP) prostheses are currently available which differ in the number of PP filaments, the type of weave and the porosity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integration, adhesion formation and resistance to

  11. Wall "Thickness" Effects on Raman Spectrum Shift, Thermal Conductivity, and Young's Modulus of Single-Walled Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    Wall "Thickness" Effects on Raman Spectrum Shift, Thermal Conductivity, and Young's Modulus of Single-Walled Nanotubes Gang Zhang* Department of Physics, National UniVersity of Singapore, Singapore wall thickness of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) should be W ) Ws + Wd, where Ws is the static

  12. Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, Bartycka 18 (Poland); Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2006-08-15

    Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.

  13. Noninvasive Stiffness Sensing of Ventricular Wall Based on a Thick-walled Cylinder Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, Mitsuru; Ojio, Takeshi; Takeda, Yasuharu; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Makoto

    This paper discusses a concept of a noninvasive sensing method that can estimate a left ventricular wall stiffness towards a medical diagnosis. Focusing on not only the strain of ventricular wall but also the displacements of epicardium during diastole of heart beat, we propose an index of ventricular wall stiffness based on a thick-walled cylinder model. Applying the proposed method to the echocardiography, we show statistical results where normal and HFpEF (Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction) can be separated towards a medical diagnosis.

  14. Chest wall thickness measurements for enriched uranium: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G H; Puscalau, M

    1994-05-01

    The Human Monitoring Laboratory has developed a technique to determine the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using phoswich detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with lung sets containing homogeneously distributed 93% enriched uranium, 20% enriched uranium, natural uranium, and 241Am. It was found that a 3-cm chest wall thickness can be estimated to within 9% when measuring 93% enriched uranium. The technique does not work for the latter two radionuclides because of an insufficient separation in the photon energies and poor resolution of the phoswich detectors. The technique is only of value for activity levels well above the detection limit. PMID:8175366

  15. Abdominal fat thickness measurement using Focused Impedance Method (FIM) - phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haowlader, Salahuddin; Baig, Tanveer Noor; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Abdominal fat thickness is a risk indicator of heart diseases, diabetes, etc., and its measurement is therefore important from the point of view of preventive care. Tetrapolar electrical impedance measurements (TPIM) could offer a simple and low cost alternative for such measurement compared to conventional techniques using CT scan and MRI, and has been tried by different groups. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) appears attractive as it can give localised information. An intuitive physical model was developed and experimental work was performed on a phantom designed to simulate abdominal subcutaneous fat layer in a body. TPIM measurements were performed with varying electrode separations. For small separations of current and potential electrodes, the measured impedance changed little, but started to decrease sharply beyond a certain separation, eventually diminishing gradually to negligible values. The finding could be explained using the intuitive physical model and gives an important practical information. TPIM and FIM may be useful for measurement of SFL thickness only if the electrode separations are within a certain specific range, and will fail to give reliable results if beyond this range. Further work, both analytical and experimental, are needed to establish this technique on a sound footing.

  16. Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

  17. Lipedema complicated by lymphedema of the abdominal wall and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Zelikovski, A; Haddad, M; Koren, A; Avrahami, R; Loewinger, J

    2000-06-01

    We describe a 52 year-old woman in whom lymphedema primarily of the abdominal wall was superimposed on lipedema resulting in an abdomen of enormous dimensions with marked impairment of ambulation. Treatment consisted of preoperative compression of the legs by an external pneumatic device (Lympha-Press) followed by excision of the lymphedematous abdominal fat pad in conjunction with "debulking" of the right leg. The patient illustrates the extremes of lipedema complicated by lymphedema and the technical difficulties associated with its management. PMID:10897469

  18. Clinical Application of a Silk Fibroin Protein Biologic Scaffold for Abdominal Wall Fascial Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Susan; Agullo, Frank; Lehfeldt, Max R.; Kind, Gabriel M.; Palladino, Humberto; Marshall, Deirdre; Jewell, Mark L.; Mathur, Anshu B.; Bengtson, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that macroporous silk fibroin protein scaffolds are capable of promoting physiologically durable supportive tissue, which favors application of these engineered tissues for clinical implantation. The safety and effectiveness of a long-lasting, transitory, 510(k)-cleared purified silk fibroin biologic scaffold (SBS) are investigated for soft-tissue support and repair of the abdominal wall. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of all consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall soft-tissue reinforcement with an SBS device between 2011 and 2013. Indications, comorbid conditions, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Results: We reviewed the records of 172 consecutive patients who received an SBS for soft-tissue support. Of those, 77 patients underwent abdominal wall fascial repair, with a mean follow-up of 18.4?±?7.5 months. Procedures using an SBS included reinforcement of an abdominal-based flap donor site (31.2%), ventral hernia repair (53.2%), and abdominoplasty (15.6%). The overall complication rate was 6.5%, consisting of 2 wound dehiscences, 1 with device exposure, 1 seroma, 1 infection with explantation, and a perioperative bulge requiring reoperation. There were no reports of hernia. Conclusions: Postoperative complication rates after 18 months were low, and most surgical complications were managed nonoperatively on an outpatient basis without mesh removal. To our knowledge, this is the only series to report on a long-lasting, transitory SBS for abdominal wall repair and reinforcement. Procedure-specific outcome studies are warranted to delineate optimal patient selection and define potential device characteristic advantages. PMID:25506529

  19. The effects of bridge exercise with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable surface on the abdominal muscle thickness of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Cho, Misuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a bridge exercise with an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed with different surface conditions on abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an unstable bridge exercise group (UBE group, n=15) and a stable bridge exercise group (SBE group, n=15). [Methods] After 6 weeks of performing bridge exercises accompanied by ADIM, the change in the muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique abdominis (IOA) muscles was assessed using ultrasonography. [Results] After 6 weeks of exercise, the TrA was significantly altered in the SBEG, and the TrA and IOA were both significantly changed in the UBEG. [Conclusion] When performing bridge exercises to increase the Tra and the IO muscle thicknesses, exercising on an unstable surface is recommended. PMID:25642086

  20. The effects of bridge exercise with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable surface on the abdominal muscle thickness of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a bridge exercise with an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed with different surface conditions on abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an unstable bridge exercise group (UBE group, n=15) and a stable bridge exercise group (SBE group, n=15). [Methods] After 6 weeks of performing bridge exercises accompanied by ADIM, the change in the muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique abdominis (IOA) muscles was assessed using ultrasonography. [Results] After 6 weeks of exercise, the TrA was significantly altered in the SBEG, and the TrA and IOA were both significantly changed in the UBEG. [Conclusion] When performing bridge exercises to increase the Tra and the IO muscle thicknesses, exercising on an unstable surface is recommended. PMID:25642086

  1. Thick-wall effects in the theory of resistive wall modes

    SciTech Connect

    Pustovitov, V. D. [Institute of Tokamak Physics, National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    Magnetic interaction of the plasma perturbations with the nearby resistive wall is considered as a resistive wall mode (RWM) problem, but with two essential differences from the traditional thin-wall approach. First, the wall is treated as magnetically thick, which means that the skin depth is not assumed larger than the wall thickness. Second, the plasma is allowed to enter the region where the RWM must be deeply unstable without rotation. The latter corresponds to the plasma operation above the no-wall stability limit demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak [E. J. Strait et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2505 (2004)]. It is shown that the rotational stabilization observed in these experiments can be reproduced in this model if the mode is forced to rotate with a frequency above a critical level. The analytical estimates show that this effect (absent in the model based on the thin-wall approximation) is strong at realistic parameters. The model also predicts that the locking of the rotationally stabilized mode gives rise to instability with a growth rate much larger than its thin-wall estimate.

  2. A new description of the anterior abdominal wall in man and mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, N N

    1980-01-01

    The ventral abdominal walls of 116 specimens (41 human and 75 from nine mammalian families) of various ages and both sexes were studied anatomically and histologically. In man, each abdominal aponeurosis was bilaminar, and each wall of the rectus sheath was trilaminar (plywood-like). The two layers of the internal oblique emerged, in part of its extent, superficial to the external oblique and also passed deep to the transversus abdominis. All the six aponeurotic layers were oblique and crossed the mid-line, forming the following digastric muscles: the two external obliques together, the two transversus abdominis muscles together, one internal oblique (anterior layer) with the opposite external oblique (posterior layer) and one internal oblique (posterior layer) with the opposite transversus abdominis (anterior layer). The linea alba might be considered less the insertion of the abdominal muscles, but rather the common area of decussation of their intermediate aponeuroses. In all mammals, the internal oblique aponeurosis passed either superficial to that of the external oblique or deep to that of the transversus. The transversus aponeurosis was always oblique and in all eutheria it split into two layers. All abdominal aponeuroses crossed the middle line forming digastric muscles between the two sides. The functional significance and surgical application of these findings are discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:6452433

  3. Development of a novel synthetic material to close abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Cnota, M A; Aliabadi-Wahle, S; Choe, E U; Jacob, J T; Flint, L M; Ferrara, J J

    1998-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of a novel synthetic material (TMS-2) with polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene (Marlex), and primary closure of experimentally fashioned clean and contaminated abdominal wounds, 1-cm2 abdominal wall defects were created in each of the four abdominal quadrants of rats (n = 10). Patches of each material were used to repair three of these defects, the fourth being primarily closed. A second group of rats (n = 7) underwent the same operative protocol; however, peritonitis was induced at the time of surgery using a fecal inoculation technique. Animals were killed 2 weeks later, and surface area and severity of formed adhesions were assessed by a "blinded" observer. All closure techniques were successful insofar as none demonstrated fascial dehiscence. Compared with each synthetic material, the surface area of formed adhesions was smaller after primary closure in clean and in contaminated conditions; however, the three synthetic materials were equally matched regarding surface area of adhesions under both conditions. In the face of fecal contamination, TMS-2 proved identical to primary closure, each generating significantly (P < 0.02) milder adhesions than the other prosthetic materials. It is concluded that the TMS-2 may prove of clinical benefit to repair abdominal wall defects. PMID:9585774

  4. Use of bovine pericardium graft for abdominal wall reconstruction in contaminated fields

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambra, Luigi; Berti, Stefano; Feleppa, Cosimo; Magistrelli, Prospero; Bonfante, Pierfrancesco; Falco, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To employ, in such conditions, a biological graft such as bovine pericardium that offers resistance to infection. METHODS: In our surgical department, from January 2006 to June 2010, 48 patients underwent abdominal wall reconstruction using acellular bovine pericardium; of these 34 patients had a contaminated wound due to diffuse peritonitis (complicated diverticulitis, bowel perforation, intestinal infarction, strangled hernia, etc.) and 14 patients had hernia relapse on infected synthetic mesh. RESULTS: In our series, one patient died of multi-organ failure 3 d after surgery. After placement of the pericardium mesh four cases of hernia relapse occurred. CONCLUSION: Recurrence rate is similar to that of prosthetic mesh repair and the application of acellular bovine pericardium (Tutomesh®, Tutogen Medical Gmbh Germany) is moreover a safe and feasible option that can be employed to manage complicated abdominal wall defects where prosthetic mesh is unsuitable. PMID:22905285

  5. Laparoscopic drainage of abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Ram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case on abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy and describe laparoscopic drainage as our choice of management. Mr M is a 75-year-old male who presented on multiple occasions to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He also required multiple courses of antibiotics. Subsequent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed a number of retained stone with signs of chronic inflammation. Hence, 6 months after his initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, he proceeded to an exploratory laparoscopy. We found an abscess cavity measuring 3 × 4 cm over the anterior abdominal wall. The cavity was de-roofed, drained and washed out. The tissue culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laparoscopic approach is optimal as the abscess cavity can be clearly identified, stones visualized and removed under direct vision. Patient does not require a laparotomy. PMID:26183574

  6. Abdominal wall reconstruction following removal of a chronically infected mid-urethral tape.

    PubMed

    Walker, Helen; Brooker, Thomas; Gelman, Wolf

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare postoperative complication of a mid-urethral tape. The patient presented with a chronic infection resistant to treatment with several weeks of antibiotics, with eventual surgical removal, and the resulting complications of an infected incisional hernia and vesico-cutaneous fistula required reconstruction of the abdominal wall with Permacol and excision of the vesico-cutaneous fistula. We also look briefly at the impact of health tourism on the National Health Service. PMID:19730929

  7. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (EGIST) in the abdominal wall: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Loiy; Albtoush, Omar; Bataineh, Nesreen; Gharaibeh, Kamal; Matalka, Ismail; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). GIST that arises primarily outside the GI tract is termed Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (EGIST). To the best of our knowledge, few cases of EGIST in the abdominal wall were reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a rare case of EGIST in the abdominal wall of a 57 year-old female patient. The asymptomatic tumor was located in the superior aspect of the left rectus abdominis muscle, measured 5.4 × cm 5.3 × cm 6.9 cm and was well circumscribed. Histological examination showed an epithelioid cell morphology. The mitotic count was 7/50 HPFs. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse strong CD117 positivity, focal positivity for S100. The tumor was excised and the margins were free of malignancy. The patient was doing well postoperatively and was discharged on STI-571 regimen. DISCUSSION Although GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, a case with EGIST in the abdominal wall is rare. Positive immunohistochemical staining for CD117 is a defining feature of GISTs. A great percentage of EGISTs represent a metastasis from a primary GIST. In our case, the clinical and diagnostic work-up have been proved it to be an EGIST. CONCLUSION The existing data on EGIST is insufficient to make a final conclusion regarding the malignant potential and clinicopathological factors of EGISTs that determine patient prognosis. Thus a follow-up for a long period is required. EGISTs should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with solid mass of the abdominal wall. PMID:22096744

  8. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  9. Thick-wall Kevlar 49/Epoxy pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of thick-wall composite vessels for very high pressure applications is demonstrated. Prototype vessels, in both spherical and cylindrical geometries, were designed, fabricated and burst tested. It is shown that experimental burst pressures are in excellent agreement with predicted values for burst pressures up to 60 ksi. Each unit consisted of a thin, seamless, copper liner with stainless steel fill stems and a filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy outer shell. Analysis of vessel performance accounted for liner thickness and yield strengths, composite thickness, mechanical properties and fiber volume fraction, and stress concentrations caused by the fill stem. Spherical vessels of three different sizes (inside diameters of 2.15 inches, 4.0 inches and 5.3 inches) with either 30 ksi or 60 ksi design burst pressure are discussed. Also, cylindrical vessels with identical liners but of two different composite thicknesses are described. These vessels achieved 50 ksi and 57 ksi burst pressures, respectively. In addition to the design considerations alluded to throughout the paper, the stress state in a thin metal liner during cyclic loading and the life prediction of composite vessels under sustained loading are discussed.

  10. Value-based Clinical Quality Improvement (CQI) for Patients Undergoing Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Bradley; Ramshaw, Bruce; Forman, Brandie

    2015-05-01

    Patients with complex ventral/incisional hernias often undergo an abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). These operations have a high cost of care and often result in a long hospital stay and high complication rates. Using the principles of clinical quality improvement (CQI), several attempts at process improvement were implemented in one hernia program over a 3-year period. For consecutive cases of patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction, process improvement attempts included the use of a long-term resorbable synthetic mesh (TIGR® Resorbable Matrix, Novus Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden) in place of a biologic mesh, the use of the transversus abdominis release approach in place of an open or endoscopic component separation (external oblique release) technique, and the use of a preoperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block using a long-acting local anesthetic (Exparel®, Pacira Pharmaceutical, Parsippany, NJ) as a part of perioperative multi-modal pain management and an enhanced recovery program. After over 60 cases, improvement in materials costs and postoperative outcomes were documented. No mesh-related complications occurred and no mesh removal was required. In this real-world, value-based application of CQI, several attempts at process improvement led to decreased costs and improved outcomes for patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction for complex ventral/incisional hernias. Value-based CQI could be a tool for improved health care value globally. PMID:26055001

  11. Impairment of Lung and Chest Wall Mechanics in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Role of Abdominal Distension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. MARCO RANIERI; NICOLA BRIENZA; SERGIO SANTOSTASI; FILOMENA PUNTILLO; LUCIANA MASCIA; NICOLA VITALE; ROCCO GIULIANI; VINCENZO MEMEO; FRANCESCO BRUNO; TOMMASO FIORE; ANTONIO BRIENZA; ARTHUR S. SLUTSKY

    Recent data have suggested that the elastic properties of the chest wall (CW) may be compromised in patients with ARDS because of abdominal distension (4). We partitioned CW and lung (L) mechan- ics, assessed the role of abdominal distension, and verified whether the underlying disease responsi- ble for ARDS affects the impairment of respiratory mechanics. Volume-pressure (V-P) curves (inter- rupter

  12. Tissue Reaction to Polypropylene Mesh: A Study of Oedema, Blood Flow, and Inflammation in the Abdominal Wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dabrowiecki; K. Svanes; J. Lekven; K. Grong

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the tissue reaction to polypropylene mesh (Marlex®) implanted in three different layers of the abdominal wall, comparable to common clinical practices. The reaction to mesh was compared in terms of tissue oedema, blood flow, and histological appearance in rats. When mesh was placed between muscle layers, blood flow in the abdominal

  13. Impact of poroelasticity of intraluminal thrombus on wall stress of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The predictions of stress fields in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) depend on constitutive descriptions of the aneurysm wall and the Intra-luminal Thrombus (ILT). ILT is a porous diluted structure (biphasic solid–fluid material) and its impact on AAA biomechanics is controversially discussed in the literature. Specifically, pressure measurements showed that the ILT cannot protect the wall from the arterial pressure, while other (numerical and experimental) studies showed that at the same time it reduces the stress in the wall. Method To explore this phenomenon further a poroelastic description of the ILT was integrated in Finite Element (FE) Models of the AAA. The AAA model was loaded by a pressure step and a cyclic pressure wave and their transition into wall tension was investigated. To this end ILT’s permeability was varied within a microstructurally motivated range. Results The two-phase model verified that the ILT transmits the entire mean arterial pressure to the wall while, at the same time, it significantly reduces the stress in the wall. The predicted mean stress in the AAA wall was insensitive to the permeability of the ILT and coincided with the results of AAA models using a single-phase ILT description. Conclusion At steady state, the biphasic ILT behaves like a single-phase material in an AAA model. Consequently, computational efficient FE single-phase models, as they have been exclusively used in the past, accurately predict the wall stress in AAA models. PMID:22931215

  14. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for increased carotid intima- media thickness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Hacihamdio?lu, Bülent; Okutan, Vedat; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Yildirim, Düzgün; Kocao?lu, Murat; Lenk, Mustafa Koray; Ozcan, Okan

    2011-01-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children and evaluate the relationship of IMT to various cardiovascular risk factors. One-hundred four obese children (9.3 +/- 2.5 years) and 30 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. All children were assessed for fasting levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, skinfold thickness (SFT), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP). Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Carotid IMT measurements and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were diagnosed with ultrasonographic findings. IMT was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (0.49 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.02 mm, p < 0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between increased carotid IMT and body fat percentage (BFP), body mass index (BMI), age, height, systolic BP, WC, SFT, triglyceride and insulin levels, and insulin resistance index. In a linear logistic regression analysis, the only parameter affecting the increase in carotid IMT was WC (beta: 0.589, p < 0.001). Furthermore, IMT was increased significantly in obese children with NAFLD when compared to obese children without NAFLD (0.54 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.05 mm, p < 0.001). Children with abdominal obesity are at increased risk for atherosclerosis, and WC can be used to determine the atherosclerosis risk in obese children. PMID:21534339

  15. Correlations of coronary plaque wall thickness with wall pressure and wall pressure gradient: a representative case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS) acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP) acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT) with wall pressure (WP, blood pressure on the lumen wall) and spatial wall pressure gradient (WPG) in a human atherosclerotic right coronary artery were studied. The pulsatile blood flow was simulated using a three dimensional mathematical model. The blood was treated as an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid. The geometry of the artery was re-constructed using an in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) 44-slice dataset obtained from a patient with consent obtained. The WT, the WP and the WPG were averaged on each slice, respectively, and Pearson correlation analysis was performed on slice averaged base. Each slice was then divided into 8 segments and averaged vessel WT, WP and WPG were collected from all 352 segments for correlation analysis. Each slice was also divided into 2 segments (inner semi-wall of bend and outer semi-wall of bend) and the correlation analysis was performed on the 88 segments. Results Under mean pressure, the Pearson coefficient for correlation between WT and WP was r?=?? 0.52 (p?wall thickness correlated negatively with wall pressure (r?=??0.81 by slice) and positively with wall pressure gradient (r?=?0.45). The slice averaged WT has a strong linear relationship with the slice averaged WP. Large-scale patient studies are needed to further confirm our findings. PMID:22839647

  16. Abdominal Wall Abscess due to Acute Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Case Report with MDCT and US Findings

    PubMed Central

    Vasileios, Rafailidis; Anna, Gavriilidou; Christos, Liouliakis; Asimina, Tsimitri; Sofia, Paschaloudi; Vasiliki, Karadimou

    2013-01-01

    Perforation of the inflamed diverticula is a common diverticulitis complication. It usually leads to the formation of a local abscess. In some rare cases, the inflammatory process may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the anterior or posterior abdominal wall or the thigh and form an abscess in these sites. We present the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of pain at the lower left quadrant of the abdomen for 20 days and a visible mass in this site. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed this mass to be an abscess of the abdominal wall which had been formed by the spread of ruptured sigmoid diverticulitis by continuity of tissue through the lower left abdominal wall. Local drainage of the abscess was performed and the patient was discharged after alleviation of symptoms and an uneventful course. We also discuss causes of abdominal wall abscesses along with the possible pathways by which an intra-abdominal abscess could spread outside the abdominal cavity. PMID:24386584

  17. Abdominal Wall Abscess due to Acute Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Case Report with MDCT and US Findings.

    PubMed

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Vasileios, Rafailidis; Gavriilidou, Anna; Anna, Gavriilidou; Liouliakis, Christos; Christos, Liouliakis; Tsimitri, Asimina; Asimina, Tsimitri; Paschaloudi, Sofia; Sofia, Paschaloudi; Karadimou, Vasiliki; Vasiliki, Karadimou

    2013-01-01

    Perforation of the inflamed diverticula is a common diverticulitis complication. It usually leads to the formation of a local abscess. In some rare cases, the inflammatory process may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the anterior or posterior abdominal wall or the thigh and form an abscess in these sites. We present the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of pain at the lower left quadrant of the abdomen for 20 days and a visible mass in this site. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed this mass to be an abscess of the abdominal wall which had been formed by the spread of ruptured sigmoid diverticulitis by continuity of tissue through the lower left abdominal wall. Local drainage of the abscess was performed and the patient was discharged after alleviation of symptoms and an uneventful course. We also discuss causes of abdominal wall abscesses along with the possible pathways by which an intra-abdominal abscess could spread outside the abdominal cavity. PMID:24386584

  18. Rejection of Permacol® mesh used in abdominal wall repair: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, Franchesca T; Akoh, Jacob A

    2009-01-01

    Permacol® mesh has shown promise when used in abdominal wall repair, especially in the presence of a contaminated surgical field. This biomaterial, derived from porcine dermis collagen, has proposed advantages over synthetic materials due to increased biocompatibility and reduced foreign body reaction within human tissues. However, we present a case report describing a patient who displayed rejection to a Permacol® mesh when used in the repair of abdominal wound dehiscence following an emergency laparotomy. Review of the English language literature using PubMed and Medline, showed only two previously published cases of explantation of Permacol® due to sepsis or wound breakdown. The authors believe this is the first case of severe foreign body reaction leading to rejection of Permacol®. Both animal and human studies show conflicting evidence of biocompatibility. There are several reports of successful use of Permacol® to repair complex incisional herniae or abdominal walls in the presence of significant contamination. It appears from the literature that Permacol® is a promising material, but as we have demonstrated, it has the potential to evoke a foreign body reaction and rejection in certain subjects. PMID:19750579

  19. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with biologic mesh: Permacol™ versus Strattice™.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2014-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. Numerous biologic products are available with virtually no clinical comparison studies. A retrospective study was conducted to compare patients who underwent abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ (crosslinked porcine dermis) and Strattice™ (noncrosslinked porcine dermis). Of 270 reviewed patients, 195 were implanted with Permacol™ and 75 with Strattice™. Ventral hernia repairs comprised the majority (85% for Permacol, 97% for Strattice™). Postoperative infection rate was lower in the Strattice™ group (5 vs 21%, P < 0.01). In the Permacol™ group only, the overall complication rates were significantly higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds (55 vs 35%, P < 0.05) and in obese patients (body mass index 40 kg/m(2) or greater [57 vs 34%], P < 0.01). Short-term complication and recurrence rates were higher when mesh was used as a fascial bridge: 51 versus 28 per cent for Permacol™, 58 versus 20 per cent for Strattice™. The hernia recurrence was similar in both groups. In this review of patients undergoing abdominal hernia repair with biologic mesh, Strattice™ mesh was associated with a lower short-term complication rate compared with Permacol™, but the hernia recurrence rate was similar. PMID:25264647

  20. A decoupled fluid structure approach for estimating wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Papaharilaou, Yannis; Ekaterinaris, John A; Manousaki, Eirini; Katsamouris, Asterios N

    2007-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation of the aortic wall. The lack of an accurate AAA rupture risk index remains an important problem in the clinical management of the disease. To accurately estimate AAA rupture risk, detailed information on patient-specific wall stress distribution and aortic wall tissue yield stress is required. A complete fluid structure interaction (FSI) study is currently impractical and thus of limited clinical value. On the other hand, isolated static structural stress analysis based on a uniform wall loading is a widely used approach for AAA rupture risk estimation that, however, neglects the flow-induced wall stress variation. The aim of this study was to assess the merit of a decoupled fluid structure analysis of AAA wall stress. Anatomically correct, patient specific AAA wall models were created by 3D reconstruction of computed tomography images. Flow simulations were carried out with inflow and outflow boundary conditions obtained from patient extracted data. Static structural stress analysis was performed applying both a uniform pressure wall loading and a flow induced non-uniform pressure distribution obtained during early systolic deceleration. For the structural analysis, a hyperelastic arterial wall model and an elastic intraluminal thrombus model were assumed. The results of this study demonstrate that although the isolated static structural stress analysis approach captures the gross features of the stress distribution it underestimates the magnitude of the peak wall stress by as much as 12.5% compared to the proposed decoupled fluid structure approach. Furthermore, the decoupled approach provides potentially useful information on the nature of the aneurysmal sac flow. PMID:16500664

  1. Intimal Thickness Is not Associated With Wall Shear Stress Patterns in the Human Right Coronary Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Joshi; Richard L. Leask; Jerry G. Myers; Matadial Ojha; Jagdish Butany; C. Ross Ethier

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Low wall shear stress has been implicated in atherogenesis throughout the arterial tree, including the right coronary artery (RCA). The objective of this study was to determine the level of covariation of intimal thickness and wall shear stress in the human RCA. Methods and Results—Postmortem histological measurements of intimal thickness were compared with wall shear stresses calculated from computational flow

  2. A simulation framework for estimating wall stress distribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Chui, Chee-Kong; Huang, Wei-Min; Yang, Tao; Pang, Wai-Man; Sudhakar, Venkatesh; Chang, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. In endovascular aneurysm repair, a stent-graft in a catheter is released at the aneurysm site to form a new blood vessel and protect the weakened AAA wall from the pulsatile pressure and, hence, possible rupture. In this paper, we propose a framework to estimate the wall stress distribution of non-stented/stented AAA based on fluid-structure interaction, which is utilized in a surgical simulation system (IRAS). The 3D geometric model of AAA is reconstructed from computed tomography angiographic (CTA) images. Based on our experiments, a combined logarithm and polynomial strain energy equation is applied to model the elastic properties of arterial wall. The blood flow is modeled as laminar, incompressible, and non-Newtonian flow by applying Navier-Stokes equation. The obtained pressure of blood flow is applied as load on the AAA meshes with and without stent-graft and the wall stress distribution is calculated by fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver equipped in ANSYS. Experiments demonstrate that our analytical results are consistent with clinical observations. PMID:22254456

  3. Trace elements in the wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms with and without coexisting iliac artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Damian; Chudek, Jerzy; Sznapka, Mariola; Kita, Andrzej; Biolik, Grzegorz; Siero?-Sto?tny, Karolina; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Domalik, Jolanta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Iliac artery aneurysms (IAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) frequently coexist. It remains unknown whether the content of trace elements in AAA walls depends on the coexistence of IAAs. The aim of this study was to compare the content of selected trace elements in AAA walls depending on the coexistence of IAAs. The content of trace elements was assessed in samples of AAA walls harvested intraoperatively in 19 consecutive patients. In the studied group, coexisting IAAs were diagnosed in 11 out of the 19 patients with AAA. The coexistence of IAAs was associated with a slightly lower content of nickel (0.28 (0.15-0.40) vs. 0.32 (0-0.85)?mg/g; p?=?0.09) and a significantly higher content of cadmium (0.71 (0.26-1.17) vs. 0.25 (0.20-0.31)?mg/g; p?=?0.04) in AAA walls. The levels of the remaining studied elements, copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium and calcium, were comparable. The elevated levels of cadmium in the walls of AAA coexisting with IAAs may suggest an impact of the accumulation of this trace element on the greater damage of the iliac artery wall. PMID:25637566

  4. Layer-dependent wall properties of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Experimental study and material characterization.

    PubMed

    Sassani, Sophia G; Kakisis, John; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Sokolis, Dimitrios P

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical testing and in-depth characterization of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall from fifteen patients undergoing open surgery was performed to establish the layer-dependent tissue properties that are non-available in the literature. Quantitative microscopic evaluation was performed to identify the spatial organization of collagen-fiber network. Among a number of candidate models, the four-fiber family (microstructure-motivated) model, especially that including dispersions of fiber angles about the main directions, was superior to the Fung- and Gasser-type models in the fitting quality allowed, though it presented a practical difficulty in parameter estimation, so that an analysis was conducted aiding the identification of a more specific diagonal- and circumferential-fiber family model for all three layers. The adventitia was stiffer and stronger than the other layers, owing to its increased collagen content, and its contribution to the response of the intact wall was augmented being under greater residual tension than the media, whereas the intima was under residual compression. All layers were stiffer circumferentially than longitudinally, due to preferential collagen arrangement along that axis. The histologically-guided material characterization of layered wall presented herein is expected to assist clinical decision, by developing reliable criteria to predict the rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and optimize endovascular interventions. PMID:26011656

  5. Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, Alberto [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: alberto.bossi@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; De Wever, Ivo [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Van Limbergen, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Vanstraelen, Bianca [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.

  6. [Testing of implants used in the correction of abdominal wall defects in hernia surgery].

    PubMed

    Ninger, V; Sákra, L; Havlícek, K; Rothröckel, P

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study is experimental testing of various kinds of meshes. They are used for correction of abdominal wall defects during operations of hernias (especially by the laparoscopic technique). The following implants were tested: Goretex, Prolen, Mersilen and Vicryl. Each of them represents one group of artificial materials (nonabsorbable, monofilaments multifilament, absorbable) which are usually used. Semiabsorbable materials were not tested because they are not usually used. The objects of testing were firstly constant quality of implants lasting in the time and secondly the reaction of tissues after implantation of those materials. PMID:11109329

  7. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: Imaging findings and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Robbert J.; Bonenkamp, Johannes J.; Flucke, Uta E.; de Rooy, Jacky W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is the fourth most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma (following undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, liposarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), and should be considered a high-grade neoplasm with a high number of local recurrences and late metastases. Synovial sarcoma predominantly occurs in adolescents and young adults, and typically arises near the joints of the lower extremity. However, this tumor can also occur at uncommon sites such as the abdominal wall, which is illustrated in this article. Furthermore, we reviewed the available literatures on the clinical, pathological and radiological appearances, as well as the current knowledge concerning treatment options and prognosis. PMID:25926925

  8. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  9. Laparoscopic Treatment of Ventral Abdominal Wall Hernias: Preliminary Results in 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín del Olmo, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Jose Ignacio; de la Cuesta, Carmen; Martín, Fernando; Toledano, Miguel; Perna, Christiam; Vaquero, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The laparoscopic treatment of eventrations and ventral hernias has been little used, although these hernias are well suited to a laparoscopic approach. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a laparoscopic approach in the surgical treatment of ventral hernias. Methods: Between January 1994 and July 1998, a series of 100 patients suffering from major abdominal wall defects were operated on by means of laparoscopic techniques, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 30 months. The mean number of defects was 2.7 per patient, the wall defect was 93 cm2 on average. There were 10 minor hernias (<5 cm), 52 medium-size hernias (5-10 cm), and 38 large hernia (>10 cm). The origin of the wall defect was primary in 21 cases and postsurgical in 79. Three access ports were used, and the defects were covered with PTFE Dual Mesh measuring 19 × 15 cm in 54 cases, 10 x 15 cm in 36 cases, and 12 × 8 cm in 10 cases. An additional mesh had to be added in 21 cases. In the last 30 cases, PTFE Dual Mesh Plus with holes was employed. Results: Average surgery time was 62 minutes. One procedure was converted to open surgery, and only one patient required a second operation in the early postoperative period. Minor complications included 2 patients with abdominal wall edema, 10 seromas, and 3 subcutaneous hematomas. There were no trocar site infections. Two patients developed hernia relapse (2%) in the first month after surgery and were reoperated with a similar laparoscopic technique. Oral intake and mobilization began a few hours after surgery. The mean stay in hospital was 28 hours. Conclusions: Laparoscopic technique makes it possible to avoid large incisions, the placement of drains, and produces a lower number of seromas, infections and relapses. Laparoscopic access considerably shortens the time spent in the hospital. PMID:10917121

  10. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

  11. Experience with management of anterior abdominal wall defects using bovine pericard.

    PubMed

    van Tuil, Cornelia; Saxena, Amulya K; Willital, Günter H

    2006-03-01

    During 5 years from 1999 until 2003, our experience with 29 (100%) neonates managed for anterior abdominal wall defects is presented. Twenty-one (72%) neonates presented with gastroschisis and 8 (28%) neonates with giant omphaloceles. The male:female ratio was almost equal in gastroschisis (1:1) while a male predominance was observed in omphaloceles (6:1). A primary closure of the defect was possible in 5 (17%) cases and a single patch along with skin closure was achieved in a further 9 (31%) cases. In 15 (52%) neonates the defect was large and two patches were employed to sufficiently cover the defect. All patients (97%), except one (mortality due to extreme prematurity), were managed successfully. Depending upon the size of the defect and the metabolic condition of the neonate, the defect closure was completed after a mean of 85.7 days. Special protocols were created to manage the bovine pericard patches, which behaved differently to lyophilized dura patches previously used at our center. Integration of the patches was successful in 28 (97%) neonates; however, one neonate with gastroschisis presented significant challenges in the management. Bovine pericard patches are optimal biomaterials for the closure of anterior abdominal wall defects in gastroschisis and omphaloceles. PMID:16283075

  12. Symptomatic schwannoma of the abdominal wall: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    BALZAROTTI, RUBEN; RONDELLI, FABIO; BARIZZI, JESSICA; CARTOLARI, ROBERTO

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the nerve sheath. This tumor usually involves the extremities, but can also be found in the head and neck, trunk, pelvis, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and gastrointestinal tract. In numerous cases, the tumors are asymptomatic and are identified incidentally on physical examination or imaging. Occasionally, schwannoma is symptomatic due to compression of surrounding large nerves. In the present study, a 57-year-old female presented to the surgical outpatient’s department due to a well-localized parietal pain in the left lower quadrant. The onset of the pain occurred three years prior to presentation, without apparent cause and in the absence of other symptoms. Ultrasound and a computed tomography scan revealed a small solid tumor in the anterior abdominal wall, which was dimensionally stable over time, but was not noted in a preliminary analysis by a radiologist. The lesion was surgically removed using an anterior surgical approach. Histopathology revealed the tumor to be benign schwannoma. The painful symptoms completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of an abdominal wall benign schwannoma in the medical literature, and the first symptomatic case. PMID:25663862

  13. Efficacy and safety of hyaluronate membrane in the rabbit cecum-abdominal wall adhesion model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Young; Cho, Wan Jin; Kim, Jun Ho; Lim, Sae Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Young Woo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tissue adhesion is a well-known postsurgical phenomenon, causing pain, functional obstruction, and difficult reoperative surgery. To overcome these problems, various synthetic and natural polymer membranes have been developed as postoperative tissue adhesion barriers. However, limitation in their use has hindered its actual application. We prepared a hyaluronate membrane (HM) to evaluate its efficacy and safety as an adhesion barrier compared to a commercialized product (Interceed, Ethicon). Methods To evaluate the antiadhesion effect, a cecum-abdominal wall abrasion model was adopted in a rabbit. The denuded cecum was covered by Interceed or HM or neither and apposed to the abdominal wall (each, n = 10). Four weeks after surgery, the level of adhesion was graded. Acute and chronic toxicity of the three groups were also evaluated. Results Blood samples drawn to evaluate acute toxicity at postoperative day 3 and 7 showed no significant difference among the three groups. The grade and area of adhesion were significantly lower in the HM compared to those of the control and Interceed at four weeks after surgery. Histologic evaluations, which was carried out to estimate tissue reactions at the site of application, as well as to assess chronic toxicity for the major organs, were not significantly different in the three groups. Conclusion This study showed that the antiadhesion efficacy of HM was superior to commercialized antiadhesion membrane, Interceed. Low inflammatory response and nontoxicity were also demonstrated. From these results, we suggest that the HM is a good candidate as a tissue adhesion barrier. PMID:23908960

  14. Abdominal wall competence after free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, S; Asko-Seljavaara, S; Kinnunen, J; Sainio, P; Alaranta, H

    1997-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to evaluate the possible changes in abdominal wall strength following free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were examined 1 day before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Trunk muscle strength was measured by the same physiotherapist using an isokinetic dynamometer (Lido Multi Joint II, Loredan Biomedical Inc., Davies, CA). The peak torque and average torque for both flexion and extension at 60 degrees per second angular velocity were recorded from the curves obtained. There was a significant reduction in trunk flexion strength at 3 months postoperatively (peak torque mean, 92% of the preoperative value; p = 0.04), but this was corrected by 6 months (mean, 96%), and improved to 98% by 12 months. The patient's ability to do curled trunk sit-ups was evaluated by the same physiotherapist and graded on a scale from 1 to 6. In 9 of 19 patients the operation had no effect on sit-up performance during follow-up. In 10 of 19 patients there was a reduction of one or two grades at 3 months that did not improve by 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal wall was performed on 9 patients. The mean area of the upper third of both rectus muscles was measured on the axial images. At 3 months postoperatively the mean area of the upper third of the donor muscle was significantly larger than the contralateral (p = 0.03). There was no difference in size at 6 months, and by 12 months the donor side was smaller. This prospective study shows that harvesting of a free TRAM flap can cause a subclinical reduction in abdominal strength, although this was not noticed by the patients themselves. PMID:9326701

  15. Violation of the Rectus Complex Is Not a Contraindication to Component Separation for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Patrick B; Bailey, Chad M; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Background Component separation (CS) is an effective technique for reconstructing complex abdominal wall defects. Violation of the rectus abdominis complex is considered a contraindication for CS, but we hypothesized that patients have similar outcomes with or without rectus complex violation. Study Design We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients who underwent CS for abdominal wall reconstruction over 8 years and compared outcomes of patients with and without rectus violation. Primary outcome measures included complications and hernia recurrence. Logistic regression analysis identified potential associations between patient, defect, and reconstructive characteristics and surgical outcomes. Results One hundred and sixty-nine patients were included: 115 (68%) with and 54 (32%) without rectus violation. Mean follow-up was 21.3 ± 14.5 months. Patient and defect characteristics were similar except for the rectus violation group having a higher body mass index (BMI). The overall complication rates were similar in the violation (24.3%) and the non-violation (24.0%) groups, as were the respective rates of recurrent hernia (7.8% vs. 9.2%, p=0.79), abdominal bulge (3.5% vs. 5.6%, p=0.71), skin dehiscence (20.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.74), skin necrosis (6.1% vs. 3.7%, p=0.72), cellulitis (7.8% vs. 9.2%, p=0.75), and abscess (12.3% vs. 9.2%, p=0.58). Regression analysis demonstrated BMI to be the only factor predictive of complications. Conclusions CS surgical outcomes were similar whether or not the rectus complex was violated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effects of rectus violation on surgical outcomes in CS patients. Surgeons should not routinely avoid CS when the rectus complex is violated. PMID:22169002

  16. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePLUS

    JAMA PATIENT PAGE Abdominal Hernia Common abdominal hernias Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Direct inguinal hernia Intestinal loop Umbilical annulus Peritoneum Peritoneum Abdominal wall Intestinal ...

  17. A continuum description of the damage process in the arterial wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marini, Giacomo; Maier, Andreas; Reeps, Christian; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Wall, Wolfgang A; Gee, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we develop a three-dimensional isotropic finite-strain damage model for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall that considers both the characteristic softening of the material caused by damage and the spatial variation of the material properties. A strain energy function is formulated that accounts for a hyperelastic, slightly compressible, isotropic material behavior during the elastic phase, whereas the damage process only contributes to the material response when the elastic limit of the AAA wall is exceeded. Material and damage parameters are obtained by fitting the strain energy function to the experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile tests of freshly harvested AAA wall samples. The damage model extends the validity of the material law to a strain range of up to 50%. Purely elastic material laws for AAA wall are only valid for a strain range of up to 17%. In a series of finite element simulations of patient-specific AAAs, serving as numerical examples, we investigate the applicability of the damage model. The use of the damage model does not yield a more distinct identification of rupture-prone AAAs than other computational-based risk indices. However, the benefit of the finite-strain damage model is the potential capability to trigger growth and remodeling processes in mechanobiological models. PMID:25830207

  18. The Effects of Horse Riding Simulation Training on Stroke Patients’ Balance Ability and Abdominal Muscle Thickness Changes

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Il-Hun; Kim, Byeong Jo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of horse riding simulation training on changes in balance ability and abdominal muscle thicknesses of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited, and they were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. [Methods] The experimental group performed horse riding simulation training, whereas the control group performed trunk exercises for 8 weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue system. The thicknesses of subjects’ external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasonic imaging. [Results] In the experimental group, balance ability was significantly improved after training. Similarly, the thickness of the abdominal muscles on the affected side changed after training in the experimental group, whereas the control group showed no statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] We suggest that horse riding simulation training is more effective than trunk exercises at reducing the center of pressure path length and travel speed and improving the asymmetry of the abdominal muscles of stroke patients. PMID:25202200

  19. Colonic wall thickness, pancreatic enzyme dose and type of preparation in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H Ramsden; E F Moya; J M Littlewood

    1998-01-01

    Increased colonic wall thickness has been reported in patients exposed to large doses of high strength pancreatic enzyme preparations who did not develop fibrosing colonopathy. This has been interpreted as evidence for a spectrum of subclinical disease. The relation between sonographically measured colonic wall thickness and pancreatic enzyme preparation and dose was studied in 86 children with cystic fibrosis (CF).

  20. Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests: Hidden Role of Catalyst Support

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests: Hidden Role of Catalyst Support Suguru Noda the realizations of the vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (VA-SWNT) forests1) by alcohol chemical-called "super growth" of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was done by using combinatorial libraries

  1. Forces and deformations of the abdominal wall--a mechanical and geometrical approach to the linea alba.

    PubMed

    Förstemann, T; Trzewik, J; Holste, J; Batke, B; Konerding, M A; Wolloscheck, T; Hartung, C

    2011-02-24

    Force-elongation responses of the human abdominal wall in the linea alba region were determined by tensile tests in which the linea alba was seen to exhibit a nonlinear elastic, anisotropic behavior as is frequently observed in soft biological tissues. In addition, the geometry of the abdominal wall was determined, based on MRI data. The geometry can be specified by principal radii of curvature in longitudinal of approximately 470 mm and in the transverse direction of about 200 mm. The determined radii agree with values found in other studies. Mechanical stresses, deformations and abdominal pressures for load cases above 6% elongation can be related using Laplace's formula and our constitutive and geometrical findings. Results from uni- and biaxial tensile tests can thus be compared using this model. Calculations confirm that abdominal pressures of approximately 20 kPa correspond to related biaxial forces of about 3.4N/mm in the transverse and 1.5 N/mm in the longitudinal direction. Young's moduli can be calculated with respect to the uniaxial as well as the biaxial loading. At these physiological loadings, a compliance ratio of about 2:1 between the longitudinal and transversal directions is found. Young's moduli of about 50 kPa occur in transversal direction and of about 20 kPa in longitudinal direction at transverse and longitudinal strains both in the order of 6%. These findings coincide with results from other investigations in which the properties of the abdominal wall have been examined. PMID:21130459

  2. How should an infected perinephric haematoma be drained in a tetraplegic patient with baclofen pump implanted in the abdominal wall? – A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul M Soni; Peter L Hughes; Gurpreet Singh; John WH Watt; Tun Oo; Pradipkumar Sett

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a case to illustrate controversies in percutaneous drainage of infected, perinephric haematoma in a tetraplegic patient, who had implantation of baclofen pump in anterior abdominal wall on the same side as perinephric haematoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male with C-4 tetraplegia had undergone implantation of programmable pump in the anterior abdominal wall for intrathecal infusion of baclofen

  3. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane phenol injection for abdominal wall cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Garces, Carlos Eduardo; Asenjo, Juan Francisco; Gomez, Carlos Mario; Jaramillo, Santiago; Acosta, Nathalia; Ramirez, Lizeth Jazmin; Lopera, Luz Maria; Vargas, Juan Felipe

    2014-03-01

    A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful. PMID:23560547

  4. The use of Permacol™ mesh in contaminated complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bee Meng; Moore, Patrick; Grossberg, Peter; Clough, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    The repair of complex abdominal wall defects in contaminated fields often presents a dilemma for general surgeons. Synthetic mesh, although strong, may lead to chronic infection or even visceral erosion. Leaving the abdomen open presents challenges for ward management and delays definitive care, as well as allowing the musculature to retract over time. Numerous biological mesh alternatives have arisen over the previous decade, which may make primary closure in this setting a practical alternative, although durability may prove the downside. Here we present our local experience with PermacolTM mesh (Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix - PADM; Covidien, Mansfield, MA) in four challenging cases and discuss the role this relatively new mesh may have for these and other applications. PMID:23686799

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis infection of the liver presenting as abdominal wall fistula.

    PubMed

    Juodeikis, Zygimantas; Poskus, Tomas; Seinin, Dmitrij; Strupas, Kestutis

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis causes infection where the most commonly affected organ is the liver, followed by the lung, kidney, bone and the brain. Other sites such as the heart, spleen, pancreas and soft tissues are very rarely affected. Surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy using various technical approaches remains the main therapeutic modality for echinococcal liver disease. To the best of our knowledge there are less than five clinical cases of cutaneous presentation of liver alveolar echinococcosis described. We present a unique case of liver echinococcosis presenting as recurrent abdominal wall fistula and abscess in a 29-year-old man. Diagnosis was based on CT imaging, serological analysis and histological findings from the fistula. Medical treatment with albendazole was initiated and liver resection was performed. The patient has no symptoms and signs of recurrence 1 year after operation, while still on albendazole therapy. This case description highlights the importance of early suspicion and treatment of unusual echinococcosis clinical presentations. PMID:24810453

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Abdominal Wall Hernias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery has rapidly progressed from the animal laboratory to clinical use since mass production of multichannel ports began in 2007. Indeed, it has now been shown to be feasible and safe for many commonly performed operations. Methods: This study cohort comprised 22 unselected patients with abdominal wall hernias of varying types: multiply recurrent inguinal (n=2), suprapubic (n=1), ventral/incisional (n=17), and parastomal hernias (n=2), who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site ventral hernia repair between December 2009 and February 2011. Standard dissecting instruments and a 52cm/5.5mm/30°angle laparoscope were used. Results: Patients included 14 men and 8 women, with a median age of 56 (range, 32 to 78) years and a mean body mass index of 31.5±4.7kg/m2. The mean mesh size was 460cm2 (range, 225 to 884cm2). Mean operation time was 125 minutes for ventral/incisional hernias and 270 minutes for parastomal hernias. No conversions to multiport or open surgeries were necessary. There was no mortality or morbidity, and no recurrence at 6- to 18-month follow-up. The mean satisfaction score was 2.7 (range, 2 to 3) with no patients reporting dissatisfaction with the procedure. Conclusion: This series, though relatively small, represents a diverse group of patients with varying abdominal wall hernias, including parastomal hernias. These successful laparoendoscopic single-site surgeries, with no complications, demonstrate safety and efficacy, albeit in a specialized hernia center. This study is a prelude to the eventual validation of laparoendoscopic single-site hernia surgery with prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:23477172

  7. Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 deficient mice as a model for human abdominal wall defects

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Renata; Stachtea, Xanthi; Maccarana, Marco; Grottling, Emma; Eklund, Erik; Malmström, Anders; Oldberg, Åke

    2014-01-01

    Background Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a highly sulfated polysaccharide with a variety of biological functions in extracellular matrix organization and processes such as tumorigenesis and wound healing. A distinct feature of DS is the presence of iduronic acid, produced by the two enzymes, DS-epimerase 1 and 2, which are encoded by Dse and Dsel, respectively. Methods We have previously shown that Dse knockout (KO) mice in a mixed C57BL/6–129/SvJ background have an altered collagen matrix structure in skin. In the current work we studied Dse KO mice in a pure NFR genetic background. Results Dse KO embryos and newborns had kinked tails and histological staining revealed significantly thicker epidermal layers in Dse KO mice when compared with heterozygote (Het) or wild-type (WT) littermates. Immunochemical analysis of the epidermal layers in newborn pups showed increased expression of keratin 5 in the basal layer and keratin 1 in the spinous layer. In addition, we observed an abdominal wall defect with herniated intestines in 16% of the Dse KO embryos. Other, less frequent, developmental defects were exencephaly and spina bifida. Conclusion We conclude that the combination of defective collagen structure in the dermis and imbalanced keratinocyte maturation could be responsible for the observed developmental defects in Dse KO mice. In addition, we propose that Dse KO mice could be used as a model in pathogenetic studies of human fetal abdominal wall defects. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:712–720, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25186462

  8. Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects with Biodegradable Laminar Prostheses: Polymeric or Biological?

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Gemma; Sotomayor, Sandra; Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Köhler, Bárbara; Bellón, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting in place the formation of a neotissue. This study was designed to assess the host tissue’s incorporation of collagen bioprostheses and a synthetic absorbable prosthesis. Methods Partial defects were created in the abdominal walls of 72 New Zealand rabbits and repaired using collagen bioprostheses Tutomesh® and Strattice® or a synthetic prosthesis Bio-A®. Specimens were collected for light microscopy, collagens gene and protein expression, macrophage response and biomechanical resistance at 14, 30, 90 and 180 days post-implantation. Results Tutomesh® and Bio-A® were gradually infiltrated by the host tissue and almost completely degraded by 180 days post-implantation. In contrast, Strattice® exhibited material encapsulation, no prosthetic degradation and low cell infiltration at earlier timepoints, whereas at later study time, collagen deposition could be observed within the mesh. In the short term, Bio-A® exhibited higher level of collagen 1 and 3 mRNA expression compared with the two other biological prostheses, which exhibited two peaks of higher expression at 14 and 90 days. The expression of collagen III was homogeneous throughout the study and collagen I deposition was more evident in Strattice®. Macrophage response decreased over time in biomeshes. However, in the synthetic mesh remained high and homogeneous until 90 days. The biomechanical analysis demonstrated the progressively increasing tensile strength of all biomaterials. Conclusions The tissue infiltration of laminar absorbable prostheses is affected by the structure and composition of the mesh. The synthetic prosthesis exhibited a distinct pattern of tissue incorporation and a greater macrophage response than did the biological prostheses. Of all of the laminar, absorbable biomaterials that were tested in this study, Strattice® demonstrated the optimal levels of integration and degradation. PMID:23285119

  9. What we know about management of traumatic abdominal wall hernia: review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Skweres, Justin; Sangster, Guillermo; Johnson, Lester; Samra, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is an uncommon form of hernia caused by blunt traumatic disruption of the abdominal wall musculature/fascia and abdominal organ herniation. Diagnosis of TAWH is challenging and requires a high level of suspicion. This form of hernia seems to be underrepresented in the English-language medical literature. There is currently no consensus on the optimal management for TAWH. In this article, we discuss the management of a 36-year-old motorcycle driver who was involved in a road traffic accident. On evaluation at our trauma center, he was found to have TAWH. Diagnostic criteria, imaging modalities and different management options for TAWH will be discussed. PMID:25692423

  10. Domain wall structure in Permalloy films with decreasing thickness at the Bloch to Néel transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Trunk; M. Redjdal; A. Kákay; M. F. Ruane; F. B. Humphrey

    2001-01-01

    The Bloch to Néel wall transition is investigated in Permalloy films between 160 and 10 nm thickness using direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in a three-dimensional Cartesian lattice. At 80 nm, the wall is a symmetric Bloch wall characterized by two adjoining vortices with the magnetization at the wall center pointing perpendicular to the plane of the material throughout

  11. Method of manufacturing hollow members having uniform wall thickness through use of ablation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Paul R. (Toledo, OH); Downs, Raymond L. (Ann Arbor,, MI); Henderson, Timothy M. (Ann Arbor,, MI)

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a hollow structure of uniform wall thickness comprising the steps of selecting or forming a precursor having one wall surface of desired geometry, treating a portion of the precursor consisting of the one wall surface and a uniform depth of material beneath the wall surface to increase resistance to ablation, and then removing by ablation and discarding the remaining or untreated portion of the precursor.

  12. Energy dependent chest wall thickness equations for male lung monitoring with germanium detectors.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Abline, O; Fleury, B; Vial, A; Corrèze, P; Franck, D; Merzoug, V

    2014-03-01

    The thickness and fat fraction of the chest wall are important parameters for in vivo lung monitoring. They have been measured from ultrasonic images on 374 male workers of the French nuclear industry using four measurement locations, as dictated by the size and position of the germanium detectors used for monitoring. The plastic muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (PMECWT) and the plastic 50% muscle-50% adipose equivalent chest wall thickness (X5050) have been calculated for each worker at 17, 59.5, and 185.7 keV, respectively. Multi-linear regression models have been tested to predict PMECWT and X5050 as a function of anthropometric measurements. Finally, it was considered whether the average chest wall thickness could be used instead of the material equivalent chest wall thickness. It was found that the mean chest wall thickness was (27 ± 5) mm and the mean fat fraction was (25 ± 8)%. The best and more convenient model for material equivalent chest wall thickness is a linear function of the body mass index. Depending on the energy, the standard errors of estimate for this model range between 3.2-3.4 mm for PMECWT and between 3.2-3.7 mm for X5050. At 59.5 and 185.7 keV, it was determined, to an excellent approximation, that the fat fraction and consideration of an equivalent material are unnecessary, contrary to the case at 17 keV. PMID:25208016

  13. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  14. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Steinman, David A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  15. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  16. Clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis: a unique case with bladder and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare event and poorly understood. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of the reported cases have a solitary tumor in the abdominal scar. A few cases have metastasis. Here we report a case of clear cell carcinoma in abdominal wall endometriosis with bladder and lymph system metastasis. The patient had a history of abdominal wall endometriosis and recently developed symptoms of urgent urination and inguinal mass. Physical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan detected lymph node metastasis. CT and cystoscopy confirmed bladder involvement. The patient underwent extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Pathological analysis made a diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma with bladder and lymph node metastasis. The patient was followed up and died of the disease. Symptoms of bladder invasion and lymph node spread could be a sign of malignant transformation. Local invasion and lymph node spread are two important forms of tumor metastasis. Extensive lymph nodes metastasis might be related with poor prognosis. PMID:24597651

  17. Comparison of the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques during plank exercises on different support surfaces.

    PubMed

    Do, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied variable plank exercises on a stable surface consisting of a mat, on an unstable surface consisting of a dynamic cushion placed under the upper extremities and lower extremities. [Subjects] Forty-three healthy male and female subjects in their 20s voluntarily consented to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed the plank exercises on the three support surfaces. Ultrasound imaging was conducted while they carried out plank exercises. [Results] The changes in the thicknesses of both the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for MatP. In addition, the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for UEDCP. [Conclusion] Therefore, applying an unstable condition to the lower limbs using a dynamic cushion is considered more effective during plank exercises. PMID:25642065

  18. Comparison of the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques during plank exercises on different support surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Do, Yong-chan; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied variable plank exercises on a stable surface consisting of a mat, on an unstable surface consisting of a dynamic cushion placed under the upper extremities and lower extremities. [Subjects] Forty-three healthy male and female subjects in their 20s voluntarily consented to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed the plank exercises on the three support surfaces. Ultrasound imaging was conducted while they carried out plank exercises. [Results] The changes in the thicknesses of both the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for MatP. In addition, the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for UEDCP. [Conclusion] Therefore, applying an unstable condition to the lower limbs using a dynamic cushion is considered more effective during plank exercises. PMID:25642065

  19. A microfluidic device approach to generate hollow alginate microfibers with controlled wall thickness and inner diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Uyen H. T.; Hanif, Madiha; Asthana, Amit; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2015-06-01

    Alginate is a natural polymer with inherent biocompatibility. A simple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device based self-assembled fabrication of alginate hollow microfibers is presented. The inner diameter as well as wall thickness of the microfibers were controlled effortlessly, by altering core and sheath flow rates in the microfluidic channels. The gelation/cross-linking occured while the solutions were ejected. The microfibers were generated spontaneously, extruding out of the outlet microchannel. It was observed that the outer diameter was independent of the flow rates, while the internal diameter and wall thickness of the hollow fibers were found to be functions of the core and sheath flow rates. At a constant sheath flow, with increasing core flow rates, the internal diameters increased and the wall thicknesses decreased. At a fixed core flow, when sheath flow rate increased, the internal diameters decreased and the wall thickness increased. The immobilization of enzymes in such hollow microfibers can be a potential application as microbioreactors.

  20. Gravity trapping on a finite thickness domain wall: An analytic study

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Mirjam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); CAMTP - Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Robnik, Marko [CAMTP - Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    We construct an explicit model of the gravity trapping domain-wall potential, where for the first time we can study explicitly the graviton wave function fluctuations for any thickness of domain wall. A concrete form of the potential depends on one parameter 0{<=}x{<=}({pi}/2), which effectively parameterizes the thickness of the domain wall with specific limits x{yields}0 and x{yields}({pi}/2) corresponding to the thin and the thick wall, respectively. The analysis of continuum Kaluza-Klein fluctuations yields explicit expressions for both small and large Kaluza-Klein energy. We also derive specific explicit conditions in the regime x>1, for which the fluctuation modes exhibit a resonance behavior, and which could sizably affect the modifications of the four-dimensional Newton's law at distances that typically are by 4 orders of magnitude larger than those relevant for Newton's law modifications of thin walls.

  1. The importance of bladder wall thickness in the assessment of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison H. Blatt; Lewis Chan

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of bladder wall thickness using ultrasound has been postulated to contribute diagnostic information in patients\\u000a with voiding dysfunction. In particular, several studies have focused on this tool’s role in patients with overactive bladder\\u000a and detrusor overactivity. Given the evidence that increasing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity cause detrusor\\u000a hypertrophy, bladder wall thickness and its derivative, ultrasound-estimated bladder

  2. A Comparison of Vaginal Pressures and Abdominal Muscle Thickness According to Childbirth Delivery Method during the Valsalva Maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haroo; Kak, Hwang-Bo; Kim, Boin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of childbirth delivery method on vaginal pressure and abdominal thickness during the Valsalva maneuver (VAL). [Subjects] Thirty healthy female volunteers (26–39?years of age) were selected for this research. Their delivery histories were: nulliparous 10, vaginal delivery 10, and Cesarean delivery 10. None of the participants had a history of incontinence. [Methods] In the crook-lying position, a perineometer probe was inserted into the vagina and the transducer was placed transversely on the right side of the body during the Valsalva maneuver. [Results] There were significant differences in the thickness of the transverses abdominis (TrA) between in all the groups rest and the Valsalva maneuver, and there were significant differences in the internus oblique (IO) in the nulliparous group. During the Valsalva maneuver, there were significant differences in the TrA between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and there were significant differences in the IO between the nulliparous delivery group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean section group. Delivery history changed vaginal pressure, and there were significant differences between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean delivery group. [Conclusion] Pregnancy and delivery method may affect pelvic floor and abdominal muscles during the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:24707104

  3. Growth Window and Possible Mechanism of Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Growth Window and Possible Mechanism of Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests Kei-called "supergrowth", has an outstanding growth rate of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) [1]. However, few 4 nm as shown in Fig. 1(b), and thicker Fe grew thicker nanotubes. Nanotube forests grew up

  4. Prevalence and histopathological finding of thin-walled and thick-walled Sarcocysts in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs. PMID:26064016

  5. Impact of T2 Decay on Carotid Artery Wall Thickness Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ye; Steinman, David A.; Etesami, Maryam; Martinez-Marquese, Alex; Lakatta, Edward G.; Wasserman, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of T2 relaxation of the carotid wall on measurements of its thickness. Materials and Methods The common carotid artery wall was imaged using a spin echo sequence acquired at four echo times (17 ms to 68 ms) in 65 participants as part of VALIDATE study. Images were acquired transverse to the artery 1.5 cm proximal to the flow divider. Mean wall thickness, mean wall signal intensity, lumen area, and outer wall area were measured for each echo. Contours were also traced on the image from the fourth echo and then propagated to the images from the preceding echoes. This was repeated using the image from the first echo. Mean wall signal intensity measurements at the four echo times were fit to a mono-exponential decay curve to derive the mean T2 relaxation time for each set of contours. Results Mean wall thickness decreased with increasing echo time, with an average thickness reduction of 8.6% between images acquired at the first and last echo times (TE) (0.93 mm at TE 17 ms versus 0.85 mm at TE 68 ms, P < 0.001). Average T2 relaxation time of the carotid wall decreased by 3% when the smaller contours from the last echo were used, which excluded the outer-most layer (54.3 ± 7.6 ms versus 52.7 ± 6.6 ms, P = 0.03). Conclusion Carotid wall thickness measurements decrease with echo time as expected by the fast T2 relaxation time of the outer-most layer, namely the adventitia. A short echo time is needed for thickness measurements to include adventitia, which plays an important role in plaque development. PMID:23172683

  6. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  7. Rib fracture patterns predict thoracic chest wall and abdominal solid organ injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassani, Ammar; Abdulrahman, Husham; Afifi, Ibrahim; Almadani, Ammar; Al-Den, Ahmed; Al-Kuwari, Abdulaziz; Recicar, John; Nabir, Syed; Maull, Kimball I

    2010-08-01

    Blunt trauma patients with rib fractures were studied to determine whether the number of rib fractures or their patterns were more predictive of abdominal solid organ injury and/or other thoracic trauma. Rib fractures were characterized as upper zone (ribs 1 to 4), midzone (ribs 5 to 8), and lower zone (ribs 9 to 12). Findings of sternal and scapular fractures, pulmonary contusions, and solid organ injures (liver, spleen, kidney) were characterized by the total number and predominant zone of ribs fractured. There were 296 men and 14 women. There were 38 patients with scapular fracture and 19 patients with sternal fractures. There were 90 patients with 116 solid organ injuries: liver (n = 42), kidney (n = 27), and spleen (n = 47). Lower rib fractures, whether zone-limited or overlapping, were highly predictive of solid organ injury when compared with upper and midzones. Scapular and sternal fractures were more common with upper zone fractures and pulmonary contusions increased with the number of fractured ribs. Multiple rib fractures involving the lower ribs have a high association with solid organ injury, 51 per cent in this series. The increasing number of rib fractures enhanced the likelihood of other chest wall and pulmonary injuries but did not affect the incidence of solid organ injury. PMID:20726423

  8. An Elastomeric Patch Electrospun from a Blended Solution of Dermal Extracellular Matrix and Biodegradable Polyurethane for Rat Abdominal Wall Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yi; Takanari, Keisuke; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P.; Freund, John M.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    A biodegradable elastomeric scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixed solution of poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and porcine dermal extracellular matrix (dECM) digest, with PEUU included to provide elasticity, flexibility, and mechanical support and dECM used to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility. Micrographs and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated partial miscibility between PEUU and dECM. With greater dECM content, scaffolds were found to possess lower breaking strains and suture retention strength, although initial modulus was greater with higher dECM concentrations. The hybrid scaffolds containing 0% to 50% dECM had tensile strengths of 5 to 7?MPa, breaking strains of 138% to 611%, initial moduli of 3 to 11 Mpa, and suture retention strengths of 35 to 59?MPa. When hydrated, scaffolds were found to contract markedly with 50% dECM content. When used in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall replacement model, no herniation, infection, or tissue adhesion was observed after 4 and 8 weeks with a scaffold containing 25% dECM or a control 100% PEUU scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating dECM were significantly thicker at the time of explant, with greater numbers of associated smooth muscle actin–positive staining cells than in the control, but minimal cellular infiltration and remodeling of the scaffold were detected regardless of dECM addition. The processing of dECM and PEUU from a mixed solution thus provided a scaffold with evidence of better bioactivity and with mechanical properties not achievable with digested dECM alone. PMID:21933017

  9. Long-term evaluation of the abdominal wall competence after total and selective harvesting of the rectus abdominis muscle.

    PubMed

    Galli, A; Adami, M; Berrino, P; Leone, S; Santi, P

    1992-05-01

    Fifty patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap transposition between January 1987 and December 1989 are the object of this study. Every patient underwent selective harvesting of the medial portion of the muscle, whereas the lateral strip was left in place and studied intraoperatively by selective stimulation of the ninth intercostal motor nerve before closure of the fascial defect. Two separate ecographic scans of the abdominal wall were performed respectively 7 days and 6 months postoperatively, to evaluate the diameters of the residual portion of the rectus muscle and its long-term evolution. Our results show that in a considerable number of patients, the lateral strip of rectus was denervated at surgery. Long-term ecographic scans demonstrate, however, that in spite of this finding, the residual muscle usually maintains its diameters, thus significantly contributing to the competence of the abdominal wall, at least from the static point of view. PMID:1535765

  10. Evaluation of a Porcine Dermal Collagen (Permacol) Implant for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction in a Pediatric Multitrauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mnouskin, Youri; Verdiger Kurzbart, Edna; Yoffe, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a contaminated surgical field in abdominal wall defects caused by trauma presents a challenge for surgeons. Both primary suture and synthetic meshes are strongly discouraged as surgical treatments in such cases. We describe the use of a porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) implant in an eight-year-old patient with multiple injuries. Three months after discharge, the child remains well with good cosmetic results. He is free of pain and has returned to full activity levels with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual hernia. In conclusion, our experience indicates that the use of Permacol can be considered an efficient technique for reconstructing an infected abdominal wall defect of a pediatric multitrauma patient. PMID:24839568

  11. Evaluation of a porcine dermal collagen (permacol) implant for abdominal wall reconstruction in a pediatric multitrauma patient.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Idit; Mnouskin, Youri; Verdiger Kurzbart, Edna; Yoffe, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a contaminated surgical field in abdominal wall defects caused by trauma presents a challenge for surgeons. Both primary suture and synthetic meshes are strongly discouraged as surgical treatments in such cases. We describe the use of a porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) implant in an eight-year-old patient with multiple injuries. Three months after discharge, the child remains well with good cosmetic results. He is free of pain and has returned to full activity levels with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual hernia. In conclusion, our experience indicates that the use of Permacol can be considered an efficient technique for reconstructing an infected abdominal wall defect of a pediatric multitrauma patient. PMID:24839568

  12. Use of a pre-expanded "propeller" deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for a large abdominal wall defect.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Angela; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Large abdominal wall soft tissue defects are traditionally reconstructed using loco-regional flaps and/or tissue expanders. Pedicled perforator flaps offer similar tissue coverage with minimal donor site morbidity and do not require microsurgical skills. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has become increasingly popular for breast reconstruction and offers abundant soft tissue while permitting primary donor site closure. To minimize operative sessions, recovery time, donor site morbidity, and avoid microsurgery, we combined tissue expansion with a "propeller" flap design and report this first case of a pre-expanded pedicled perforator flap based on the DIEP to address a large abdominal wall defect due to a burn injury. PMID:23031631

  13. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Okajima, Hideaki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Transplantation and Pediatric Surgery (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  14. A Comparative Study of Aortic Wall Stress Using Finite Element Analysis for Ruptured and Non-ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Venkatasubramaniam; M. J Fagan; T Mehta; K. J Mylankal; B Ray; G Kuhan; I. C Chetter; P. T McCollum

    2004-01-01

    Background. The decision to repair an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently based on diameter (?5.5 cm) alone. However, aneurysms less than 5.5 cm do rupture while some reach greater than 5.5 cm without rupturing. Hence the need to predict the risk of rupture on an individual patient basis is important. This study aims to calculate and compare wall

  15. Intrathoracic Desmoid Tumor Presenting as Multiple Lung Nodules 13 Years after Previous Resection of Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Gun woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Kwak, Joo Hee; Oh, Chang Kyo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyeon Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Oh, Young-Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare soft tissue tumors considered to have locally infiltrative features without distant metastasis until now. Although they are most commonly intraabdominal, very few cases have extra-abdominal locations. The origin of intrathoracic desmoid tumors is predominantly the chest wall with occasional involvement of pleura. True intrathoracic primary desmoid tumors with no involvement of the chest wall or pleura are extremely rare. We recently experienced a case of true intrathoracic desmoid tumor presenting as multiple lung nodules at 13 years after resection of a previous intraabdominal desmoid tumor. PMID:26175783

  16. The use of biological mesh to repair one large, contaminated abdominal wall defect due to neoplastic invasion. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Galli, Davide; Goi, Gloria; Pariani, Dario; Moroni, Eliana; Danelli, Piergiorgio

    2012-01-01

    We hereby report a case of use of biological mesh to repair one large, contaminated abdominal wall defect due to a sigmoid tumour presented as an abscess infiltrating the abdominal wall. Our patient was a 48-year-old woman. Her medical history was negative for any previous disease or surgical procedure. Because of the abscence of neoplastic secondarism an en-bloc resection of the interested sigmoid colon and of the infiltrated abdominal wall was performed, thus resulting a large wall defect in the left inguinal region. In order to close the wall defect a biological porcine collagen mesh was used. In our case we used a Permacol mesh made of porcine acellular dermal collagen. Reconstruction of complicated abdominal wall defects is a challenging surgical problem and primary repair is often difficult to achieve without excessive tension in the abdominal wall. The use of a syntethic mesh in this patient could have been inappropriate due to the possibility of creating adhesions with intra-abdominal viscera and fistula formation. We chose to use a biological mesh because of its safer properties in case of infected, inflamed or infiltrated surgical fields, as demonstrated in the literature. PMID:22462340

  17. Imaging observations of a schwannoma of low malignant potential in the anterior abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YONGKANG; CHEN, XIAO; WANG, TIANYAO; WANG, ZHONGQIU

    2014-01-01

    Neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma, is an uncommon benign neoplasm that is most commonly found in the trunk and head and neck regions. The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old female with schwannoma localized in the anterior abdominal wall and analyzes the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging observations of the schwannoma. A dynamic time-intensity curve was also recorded in the study. A well-defined, elliptic low echo level, heterogeneous mass was observed during ultrasound examination. The CT scan revealed a solid, heterogeneous, low-density mass in the abdominal wall. Contrast-enhanced scans showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass during the arterial and venous phase. Centripetal fill-in was demonstrated and the mass was markedly, homogenously enhanced relative to the muscles during the delayed phase. Peak enhancement was observed during the venous phase and then slowly declined. However, the mass was hyperattenuated during the delayed phase. The lesion was completely excised and no evidence of recurrence has been identified during the 3 months of follow-up. The present study suggested that a diagnosis of schwannoma should be considered for certain patients with masses in the abdominal wall. Peripheral enhancement during the arterial and venous phases and homogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase are the significant imaging findings of a schwannoma. PMID:25120678

  18. Imaging observations of a schwannoma of low malignant potential in the anterior abdominal wall: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongkang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Tianyao; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2014-09-01

    Neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma, is an uncommon benign neoplasm that is most commonly found in the trunk and head and neck regions. The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old female with schwannoma localized in the anterior abdominal wall and analyzes the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging observations of the schwannoma. A dynamic time-intensity curve was also recorded in the study. A well-defined, elliptic low echo level, heterogeneous mass was observed during ultrasound examination. The CT scan revealed a solid, heterogeneous, low-density mass in the abdominal wall. Contrast-enhanced scans showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass during the arterial and venous phase. Centripetal fill-in was demonstrated and the mass was markedly, homogenously enhanced relative to the muscles during the delayed phase. Peak enhancement was observed during the venous phase and then slowly declined. However, the mass was hyperattenuated during the delayed phase. The lesion was completely excised and no evidence of recurrence has been identified during the 3 months of follow-up. The present study suggested that a diagnosis of schwannoma should be considered for certain patients with masses in the abdominal wall. Peripheral enhancement during the arterial and venous phases and homogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase are the significant imaging findings of a schwannoma. PMID:25120678

  19. Effect of relaparotomy through previously integrated polypropylene and polytetrafluoroethylene experimental implants in the abdominal wall 1 1 No competing interests declared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M Bellón; Luis A Contreras; Julia Buján; Gemma Pascual; Antonio Carrera-San Mart??n

    1999-01-01

    Background: The appearance of new pathologies affecting abdominal organs after implant of a prosthesis to repair an abdominal wall defect may necessitate reintervention. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of two types of biomaterial widely used in clinical practice, polypropylene (PL) and polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), after a second laparotomy involving the implant. The behavior, in terms of

  20. A successful early gore-tex reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect in a neonate with Cantrell pentalogy: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Divkovic, Dalibor; Kvolik, Slavica; Sipl, Mirna; Sego, Krunoslav; Puseljic, Silvija; Rakipovic-Stojanovic, Andreja; Kovacic, Borna

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A surgical technique, materials used for abdominal wall reconstruction, and postoperative care are important for patient outcomes. We report the first case of neonate with Cantrell's pentalogy surviving early reconstruction of abdominal, diaphragmal and pericardial defects. Several recent investigations suggest that intraabdominal pressure monitoring may improve outcomes in this patient category. PMID:25678967

  1. Delayed primary closure of contaminated abdominal wall defects with non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix compared with conventional staged repair: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Synthetic mesh has been used traditionally to repair abdominal wall defects, but its use is limited in the case of bacterial contamination. New biological materials are now being used successfully for delayed primary closure of contaminated abdominal wall defects. The costs of biological materials may prevent surgeons from using them. We compared the conventional staged repair of contaminated abdominal wall defects with a single-stage procedure using a non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix. Methods A total of 14 cases with Grade 3 contaminated abdominal wall defects underwent delayed primary closure of the abdomen using a non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix, LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, NJ, USA). The results were compared with a group of 14 patients who had received conventional treatment for the repair of contaminated abdominal wall defects comprising a staged repair during two separate hospital admissions employing synthetic mesh. Treatment modalities, outcomes, and costs were compared. Results In all cases treated with delayed primary closure employing non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix, there were no complications related to its use. Two patients died due to unrelated events. Although treatment costs were estimated to be similar in the two groups, the patients treated with porcine acellular dermal matrix spent less time as an inpatient than those receiving conventional two-stage repair. Conclusions Delayed primary closure of contaminated abdominal wall defects using a non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix may be a suitable alternative to conventional staged repair. In our patients, it resulted in early restoration of abdominal wall function and shorter hospitalization. The costs for treating contaminated abdominal wall defects using porcine acellular dermal matrix during a single hospital admission were not higher than costs for conventional two-stage repair. Further randomized studies are needed to expand upon these findings. PMID:25015374

  2. Surface plasmon and photonic mode propagation in gold nanotubes with varying wall thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Jesse [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Fireman, Micha [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); O'Carroll, Deirdre M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials Devices and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Gold nanotube arrays are synthesized with a range of wall thicknesses (15 to >140 nm) and inner diameters of {approx}200 nm using a hard-template method. A red spectral shift (>0.39 eV) with decreasing wall thickness is observed in dark-field spectra of nanotube arrays and single nanowire/nanotube heterostructures. Finite-difference-time-domain simulations show that nanotubes in this size regime support propagating surface plasmon modes as well as surface plasmon ring resonances at visible wavelengths (the latter is observed only for excitation directions normal to the nanotube long axis with transverse polarization). The energy of the surface plasmon modes decreases with decreasing wall thickness and is attributed to an increase in mode coupling between propagating modes in the nanotube core and outer surface and the circumference dependence of ring resonances. Surface plasmon mode propagation lengths for thicker-walled tubes increase by a factor of {approx}2 at longer wavelengths (>700 nm), where ohmic losses in the metal are low, but thinner-walled tubes (30 nm) exhibit a more significant increase in surface plasmon propagation length (by a factor of more than four) at longer wavelengths. Additionally, nanotubes in this size regime support a photonic mode in their core, which does not change in energy with changing wall thickness. However, photonic mode propagation length is found to decrease for optically thin walls. Finally, correlations are made between the experimentally observed changes in dark-field spectra and the changes in surface plasmon mode properties observed in simulations for the various gold nanotube wall thicknesses and excitation conditions.

  3. Multimodal optical measurement in vitro of surface deformations and wall thickness of the pressurized aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Katia; Humphrey, Jay D

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling of arterial mechanics continues to progress, even to the point of allowing the study of complex regions such as the aortic arch. Nevertheless, most prior studies assign homogeneous and isotropic material properties and constant wall thickness even when implementing patient-specific luminal geometries obtained from medical imaging. These assumptions are not due to computational limitations, but rather to the lack of spatially dense sets of experimental data that describe regional variations in mechanical properties and wall thickness in such complex arterial regions. In this work, we addressed technical challenges associated with in vitro measurement of overall geometry, full-field surface deformations, and regional wall thickness of the porcine aortic arch in its native anatomical configuration. Specifically, we combined two digital image correlation-based approaches, standard and panoramic, to track surface geometry and finite deformations during pressurization, with a 360-deg fringe projection system to contour the outer and inner geometry. The latter provided, for the first time, information on heterogeneous distributions of wall thickness of the arch and associated branches in the unloaded state. Results showed that mechanical responses vary significantly with orientation and location (e.g., less extensible in the circumferential direction and with increasing distance from the heart) and that the arch exhibits a nearly linear increase in pressure-induced strain up to 40%, consistent with other findings on proximal porcine aortas. Thickness measurements revealed strong regional differences, thus emphasizing the need to include nonuniform thicknesses in theoretical and computational studies of complex arterial geometries. PMID:25867620

  4. The Component Separation Index: A Standardized Biometric Identity in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Michael R.; Apostolides, John; Rodriguez, Eduardo D.; Manson, Paul N.; Gens, David; Scalea, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of traumatic ventral hernias often requires additional techniques to the abdominal wall component separation, such as the use of interpositional reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix or other mesh to bridge the defect. Methods: We have developed a new value termed the “Component Separation Index” to evaluate ventral hernia defects. Choosing a fixed point on a preoperative axial computed tomographic scan (aorta) and the medial leading edges of the rectus abdominus muscles, we determined the angle of diastasis of the hernia. This angle is divided by 360° giving a relative value of the transverse defect size as compared to the estimated circular body habitus for that specific patient. A retrospective review of 36 cases of ventral hernia repairs was performed. The Component Separation Index was calculated from the preoperative computed tomographic scans obtained before repair. Group 1 (n = 18) required component separation for closure. Group 2 (n = 18) required component separation and placement of interpositional mesh to span the hernia defect. Results: The Component Separation Index values were then compared using the student t test for each group. The mean Component Separation Index for group 1 was 0.11 with standard deviation of 0.06. The mean Component Separation Index for group 2 was 0.21 with standard deviation of 0.04 (P < .0001). As this value approaches 0.21, the likelihood of an interpositional repair in addition to component separation becomes much greater. Conclusions: While there is no substitute for clinical acumen when evaluating these defects, objective measurements can provide a valuable additional tool for the surgeon facing these challenging cases. PMID:22461951

  5. Use of intraoperative indocyanin-green angiography to minimize wound healing complications in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan M; Bhanot, Parag; Franklin, Brenton; Albino, Frank; Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2013-12-01

    Complication rates following abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) remain high. Early complications are related to skin necrosis and delayed healing, whereas late complications are related to recurrence. When concomitant body contouring procedures are performed, complication rates can be further increased. It is hypothesised that fluorescent angiography using indocyanin green (ICG) can identify poorly perfused tissues and thus reduce the incidence of delayed healing. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent AWR with concomitant panniculectomy from 2007-2012. Intraoperative ICG angiography with the SPY system (LifeCell Corp.) was used to determine the amount of resection for body contouring in patients who underwent reconstruction in a cohort of patients. SPY-Q was used to assess relative perfusion of analysed areas. Preoperative, postoperative, and operative details were analyzed. Seventeen patients met inclusion criteria, 12 patients were included in the non-ICG cohort, while five patients were included in the ICG cohorts. Wound-healing complications occurred in 5/12 (42%) patients in the non-ICG cohort vs 1/5 (20%) of the ICG cohorts. A description of the sole patient with complications in the ICG cohort is illustrated. Operative debridement and wound infection development occurred more frequently in the non-ICG cohort compared with the ICG cohort (17%, 17% vs 0%, 0%, respectively). Average time to wound healing was 41.1 days. Intraoperative ICG angiography can accurately detect perfusion abnormalities and can decrease wound healing related complications in complex hernia repair with concomitant panniculectomy. Assessing and ensuring skin viability can decrease the need for operative debridement. PMID:23596988

  6. Airway wall thickness assessment: a new functionality in virtual bronchoscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Brillet, P. Y.; Prêteux, F.; Grenier, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    While classic virtual bronchoscopy offers visualization facilities for investigating the shape of the inner airway wall surface, it provides no information regarding the local thickness of the wall. Such information may be crucial for evaluating the severity of remodeling of the bronchial wall in asthma and to guide bronchial biopsies for staging of lung cancers. This paper develops a new functionality with the virtual bronchoscopy, allowing to estimate and map the information of the bronchus wall thickness on the lumen wall surface, and to display it as coded colors during endoluminal navigation. The local bronchus wall thickness estimation relies on a new automated 3D segmentation approach using strong 3D morphological filtering and model-fitting. Such an approach reconstructs the inner/outer airway wall surfaces from multi-detector CT data as follows. First, the airway lumen is segmented and its surface geometry reconstructed using either a restricted Delaunay or a Marching Cubes based triangulation approach. The lumen mesh is then locally deformed in the surface normal direction under specific force constraints which stabilize the model evolution at the level of the outer bronchus wall surface. The developed segmentation approach was validated with respect to both 3D mathematicallysimulated image phantoms of bronchus-vessel subdivisions and to state-of-the-art cross-section area estimation techniques when applied to clinical data. The investigation in virtual bronchoscopy mode is further enhanced by encoding the local wall thickness at each vertex of the lumen surface mesh and displaying it during navigation, according to a specific color map.

  7. Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the right anterolateral abdominal wall caused by a ruptured gangrenous appendix in an elderly diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Marinis, Athanasios; Voultsos, Mavroudis; Foteinos, Argyrios; Tselioti, Paraskevi; Avraamidou, Alexandra; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Rizos, Spyros

    2015-06-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) of the abdominal wall usually occur when either a common superficial soft tissue infection progresses down to, or an injury (e.g. knife stab) penetrates, the investing muscle fascia, or an intra-abdominal infection spreads directly to the muscle layers of the abdominal wall. These infections are severe and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present an 83-year-old female diabetic patient who was admitted to the surgical emergency department complaining of right abdominal pain after a fall to the floor. She had previously received oral antibiotics for a minor superficial skin infection attributed to her subcutaneous use of insulin. On admission she exhibited signs of agitation and dyspnoea with hypotension and tachycardia (systolic arterial pressure 90mmHg, heart rate >110 bpm, oxygen saturation 88%). Furthermore, she had a tender right abdomen but without any demonstrable pathology on her skin or crepitus. Arterial blood gases revealed metabolic acidosis and hypoxaemia. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated signs of infection of the entire right anterior abdominal wall and the LRINEC score was calculated to be 13. Subsequent operative aggressive necrosectomy of all the involved layers of the right anterolateral abdominal wall sparing the peritoneum was undertaken. Unfortunately, the patient died the next day due to multiple organ failure. PMID:26110301

  8. Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects In Vitro and In Vivo Using VEGF Sustained-Release Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) Composite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhengni; Peng, Zhiyou; Tang, Rui; Gu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Porcine acellular dermal matrices (ADM) have been widely used in experimental and clinical research for abdominal wall repair. Compared to porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), the effect of these matrices on the regenerative capacity of blood vessels is still not ideal. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can more effectively transport VEGF to cells or tissues because of their large specific surface area and interior cavity. In this study, we explored the safety and efficacy of implanted VEGF-loaded MWNT composite scaffolds in vitro and vivo to repair abdominal wall defects. Materials and Methods VEGF-loaded MWNTs were prepared by a modified plasma polymerization treatment. Four composite scaffolds were evaluated for cytotoxicity, proliferation, and release dynamics. We created 3 cm×4 cm abdominal wall defects in 43 Sprague-Dawley rats. After implantation times of 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the scaffolds and the surrounding tissues were collected and examined by gross inspection, biomechanical testing, and histological examination. Results A 5–10 nm poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was evenly distributed on MWNTs. The 3% MWNT composite group showed lower cytotoxicity and appropriate release performance, and it was thus tested in vivo. In rats with the 3% composite implanted, host cells were prevented from migrating to the ADM at 2 weeks, vascularization was established more rapidly at 12 weeks, and the values for both the maximum load and the elastic modulus were significantly lower than in the ADM-alone group (p<0.01). Histological staining revealed that the MWNT was still not completely eliminated 12 weeks after implantation. Conclusion MWNTs were able to carry VEGF to cells or tissues, and the 3% MWNT composite material showed lower cytotoxicity and had an appropriate release performance, which prompted faster vascularization of the ADM than other scaffolds. Nevertheless, the MWNTs induced harmful effects that should be carefully considered in biomedical studies. PMID:23717603

  9. A Case of Pediatric Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Components Separation within the Austere War Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Jennifer; Kumar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructive surgeons supporting military operations are required to definitively treat severe pediatric abdominal injuries in austere environments. The safety and efficacy of using a components separation technique to treat large ventral hernias in pediatric patients in this setting remains understudied. Components separation technique was required to achieve definitive closure in a 12-month-old pediatric patient in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Her course was complicated by an anastomotic leak after small bowel resection. Her abdominal was successfully reopened, the leak repaired, and closed primarily without incident on postinjury day 9. Abdominal trauma with a large ventral hernia requiring components separation is extremely rare. A pediatric patient treated with components separation demonstrated minimal complications, avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome, and no mortality. PMID:25426363

  10. CT of the extrahepatic bile ducts: wall thickness and contrast enhancement in normal and abnormal ducts.

    PubMed

    Schulte, S J; Baron, R L; Teefey, S A; Rohrmann, C A; Freeny, P C; Shuman, W P; Foster, M A

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have described thickening and enhancement of the extrahepatic bile duct wall on CT scans obtained after administration of IV contrast material. We undertook this study to establish parameters for the normal thickness and enhancement of the bile duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated prospectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%. The mean thickness of the duct wall was 1 mm, with a maximal thickness of 1.5 mm. Wall enhancement was similar to (51%), slightly greater than (44%), or markedly greater than (5%) the enhancement of adjacent pancreatic parenchyma. A review of records covering a 5-year period identified 52 patients in whom CT showed thickening of the bile duct wall (greater than or equal to 2 mm). These patients could be categorized by seven underlying diseases, and analysis of the CT scans revealed four general patterns of thickening. Focal, concentric wall thickening in the distal common bile duct was associated with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and common bile duct stones; focal, eccentric thickening tended to occur with cholangiocarcinoma and sclerosing cholangitis. Diffuse, concentric thickening was seen with acute cholangitis; diffuse, eccentric thickening was associated with oriental cholangiohepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis. Thickening of greater than 5 mm was seen only with cholangiocarcinoma. Enhancement of the duct wall in these groups varied and was of no predictive value. In summary, the extrahepatic bile ducts can be visualized in the majority of patients, and the normal duct wall should be 1.5 mm or less in thickness. Contrast enhancement of the duct wall occurs in patients without biliary tract disease and alone is predictive not predictive of pathology. Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, common bile duct stones, cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, acute cholangitis, and oriental cholangiohepatitis are associated with thickening of the duct wall. PMID:2104731

  11. Growth window and possible mechanism of millimeter-thick single-walled carbon nanotube forests

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Growth window and possible mechanism of millimeter-thick single-walled carbon nanotube forests@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Our group recently reproduced the water-assisted growth method, so-called "super growth and catalyst conditions. Results revealed that a thin Fe catalyst layer (about 0.5 nm) yielded rapid growth

  12. PTFE distribution across the wall thickness of an impregnated powder metallurgy bushing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Medvedev

    1972-01-01

    1.A study was made of the parameters of impregnation of porous sintered iron materials by the method of application of excess pressure.2.A technique has been developed for investigating the distribution of PTFE across the wall thickness of porous sintered bushings impregnated with this polymer.

  13. Size dependence in hexagonal mesoporous germanium : pore wall thickness versus energy gap and photoluinescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Armatas, G. S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Crete

    2010-08-10

    A series of hexagonal mesoporous germanium semiconductors with tunable wall thickness is reported. These nanostructures possess uniform pores of 3.1-3.2 nm, wall thicknesses from 1.3 to 2.2 nm, and large internal BET surface area in the range of 404-451 m{sup 2}/g. The porous Ge framework of these materials is assembled from the templated oxidative self-polymerization of (Ge{sub 9}){sup 4-} Zintl clusters. Total X-ray scattering analysis supports a model of interconnected deltahedral (Ge{sub 9})-cluster forming the framework and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates nearly zero-valence Ge atoms. We show the controllable tuning of the pore wall thickness and its impact on the energy band gap which increases systematically with diminishing wall thickness. Furthermore, there is room temperature photoluminescence emission which shifts correspondingly from 672 to 640 nm. The emission signal can be quenched via energy transfer with organic molecules such as pyridine diffusing into the pores.

  14. Magnet Fall inside a Conductive Pipe: Motion and the Role of the Pipe Wall Thickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental results are presented for the retarded fall of a strong magnet inside a vertical conductive non-magnetic tube. Predictions and experimental results are in good agreement modelling the magnet as a simple magnetic dipole. The effect of varying the pipe wall thickness on the retarding magnetic drag is studied for…

  15. Measure of condition monitoring for thick-wall pipeline with high dynamic pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Ailian Zhou; Chao Luo

    2000-01-01

    Some characters of thick-wall pipeline with high dynamic pressure were analyzed and the ways to detect its pressure was discussed. It has been proven by certain experiments that the parameters of dynamic pressure in the pipeline can be gained by utilizing its strain signals at pipeline. The result can be used to monitor the condition of fuel system in engine

  16. Nitrate Diffusional Releases from the Saltstone Facility, Vault 2, with Respect to Different Concrete Wall Thicknesses

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERT, HIERGESELL

    2005-01-31

    To assist the Saltstone Vault 2 Design Team, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative concrete wall thicknesses in limiting nitrate diffusion away from the planned facility. While the current design calls for 18-inch concrete walls, alternative thicknesses of 12-in, 8-in, and 6-in were evaluated using a simplified 1-D numerical model. To serve as a guide for Saltstone Vault 2 conceptual design, the results of this investigation were applied to Saltstone Vault 4 to determine what the hypothetical limits would be for concrete wall thicknesses thinner than the planned 18-inches. This was accomplished by adjusting the Vault 4 Limits, based on the increased nitrate diffusion rates through the thinner concrete walls, such that the 100-m well limit of 44 mg/L of nitrate as nitrate was not exceeded. The implication of these preliminary results is that as thinner vault walls are implemented there is a larger release of nitrate, thus necessitating optimal vault placement to minimize the number of vaults placed along a single groundwater flow path leading to the discharge zone.

  17. Entero-colocutaneous fistula: a late consequence of polypropylene mesh abdominal wall repair: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Losanoff; B. W. Richman; J. W. Jones

    2002-01-01

      \\u000a \\u000a Background. The underlying risk associated with visceral mesh erosion is the close opposition of adjacent intestines to the prosthetic\\u000a graft. This highly morbid condition has been described with most types and techniques of abdominal wall mesh repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patient. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with an entero-colocutaneous fistula 10 years after prosthetic mesh\\u000a repair of an

  18. A role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in a strategy for abdominal wall metastasis of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma developed after laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the abdominal wall including port sites after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is rare. Resection of metastatic lesions may lead to greater survival benefit if the abdominal wall metastasis is the only manifestation of recurrent disease. A 57-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic surgery for advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum 6 years prior, developed a nodule in the surgical wound at the lower right abdomen. Although tumor markers were within normal limits, the metastasis to the abdominal wall and abdominal cavity from the previous cecal cancer was suspected. An abdominal computed tomography scan did not provide detective evidence of metastasis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) was therefore performed, which demonstrated increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (maximum standardized uptake value: 3.1) in the small abdominal wall nodule alone. Histopathological examination of the resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma is reported to be poorer than that of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, this case suggests an important role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in early diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy for recurrent disease in cases where a firm diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer is difficult to make. PMID:21352607

  19. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Emanuel; Fu, Ganhua; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Summary Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO) were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs) with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed. PMID:21977422

  20. Effect of wall thickness on measurement of dose for high energy neutrons.

    PubMed

    Perez-Nunez, Delia; Braby, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Neutrons produced from the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and spacecraft materials are responsible for a very important portion of the dose received by astronauts. The neutron energy spectrum depends on the incident charged particle spectrum and the scattering environment but generally extends to beyond 100 MeV. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used to measure the dose during the space mission, but their weight and size are very important factors for their design and construction. To achieve ideal neutron dosimetry, the wall thickness should be at least the range of a proton having the maximum energy of the neutrons to be monitored. This proton range is 0.1 cm for 10 MeV neutrons and 7.6 cm for 100 MeV neutrons. A 7.6 cm wall thickness TEPC would provide charged particle equilibrium (CPE) for neutrons up to 100 MeV, but for space applications it would not be reasonable in terms of weight and size. In order to estimate the errors in measured dose due to absence of CPE, MCNPX simulations of energy deposited by 10 MeV and 100 MeV neutrons in sites with wall thickness between 0.1 cm and 8.5 cm were performed. The results for 100 MeV neutrons show that energy deposition per incident neutron approaches a plateau as the wall thickness approaches 7.6 cm. For the 10 MeV neutrons, energy deposition per incident neutron decreases as the wall thickness increases above 0.1 cm due to attenuation. PMID:19959949

  1. Abdominopelvic actinomycosis in three different locations with invasion of the abdominal wall and ureteric obstruction: An uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Galata, Christian L.; Vogelmann, Roger; Gaiser, Timo; Post, Stefan; Horisberger, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Actinomycosis is a rare chronic infectious disease caused by Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that normally colonize the bronchial system and gastrointestinal tract in humans. The most common diseases associated with actinomycosis are orocervicofacial, thoracic and abdominal infections involving Actinomyces israelii. Due to its rarity, its various clinical presentations and often-infiltrative characteristics in radiological imaging, it can easily be mistaken for other clinical conditions, including malignancy. Presentation of case We present an uncommon case of extended abdominopelvic actinomycosis with infiltrative lesions in multiple locations, including an abscess in the abdominal wall and ureteric obstruction, which underwent successful surgical and subsequent long-term antibiotic therapy. Discussion To our knowledge, such a combination of different sites of manifestation has not yet been reported for actinomycosis in the presence of an IUD. Possible differential diagnoses included diverticulitis with covered perforation, pelvic inflammatory disease, tuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease. The possibility of a malignant process required radical resection. As in most cases of actinomycosis, diagnosis could not be established with certainty until postoperative pathology investigation. Conclusion A rare actinomyceal infection should be considered in patients with a non-specific pelvic mass and atypical abdominal presentations, especially if a previous history of IUD usage is known. PMID:26001364

  2. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)]. E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nomoto, Satoru [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toba, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Anai, Shigeo [Radiology Center, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Hiromi [Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

  3. Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

  4. Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Jundzi??, Arkadiusz; Nazarewski, ?ukasz; Kotela, Andrzej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Skopi?ska-Wisniewska, Joanna; ?ukasiewicz, Aleksander; Nazarewski, S?awomir; Kotela, Ireneusz; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I), and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II). As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III). The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74 ± 1.48, 7.27 ± 1.56, and 14.4 ± 3.7?N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds. PMID:25705696

  5. Wall energy and wall thickness of exchange-coupled rare-earth transition-metal triple layer stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, D. [Philips Research, Weisshausstrasse 2, D-52066 Aachen (Germany)] [Philips Research, Weisshausstrasse 2, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Mathieu, C. [University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)] [University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The room-temperature wall energy {sigma}{sub w}=4.0{times}10{sup {minus}3}J/m{sup 2} of an exchange-coupled Tb{sub 19.6}Fe{sub 74.7}Co{sub 5.7}/Dy{sub 28.5}Fe{sub 43.2}Co{sub 28.3} double layer stack can be reduced by introducing a soft magnetic intermediate layer in between both layers exhibiting a significantly smaller anisotropy compared to Tb{endash}FeCo and Dy{endash}FeCo. {sigma}{sub w} will decrease linearly with increasing intermediate layer thickness, d{sub IL}, until the wall is completely located within the intermediate layer for d{sub IL}{ge}d{sub w}, where d{sub w} denotes the wall thickness. Thus, d{sub w} can be obtained from the plot {sigma}{sub w} versus d{sub IL}. We determined {sigma}{sub w} and d{sub w} on Gd{endash}FeCo intermediate layers with different anisotropy behavior (perpendicular and in-plane easy axis) and compared the results with data obtained from Brillouin light-scattering measurements, where exchange stiffness, A, and uniaxial anisotropy, K{sub u}, could be determined. With the knowledge of A and K{sub u}, wall energy and thickness were calculated and showed an excellent agreement with the magnetic measurements. A ten times smaller perpendicular anisotropy of Gd{sub 28.1}Fe{sub 71.9} in comparison to Tb{endash}FeCo and Dy{endash}FeCo resulted in a much smaller {sigma}{sub w}=1.1{times}10{sup {minus}3}J/m{sup 2} and d{sub w}=24nm at 300 K. A Gd{sub 34.1}Fe{sub 61.4}Co{sub 4.5} with in-plane anisotropy at room temperature showed a further reduced {sigma}{sub w}=0.3{times}10{sup {minus}3}J/m{sup 2} and d{sub w}=17nm. The smaller wall energy was a result of a different wall structure compared to perpendicular layers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Physical modeling of friction conditions on the wall thickness variation during sheet hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xinlong; Liu, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In order to research the influence of friction conditions on the sheet metal deformation behavior under the fluid pressure, the experimental method that can test the relationship between fluid pressure and wall thickness was proposed in this paper. The theoretical model about the quantitative variation relationship between fluid pressure and wall thickness together with the theoretical model about the quantitative variation relationship between friction coefficient and wall thickness, was obtained by theoretical derivation. At the same time, it could be concluded that friction contact region close to the tensile end was easier to satisfy the plastic yield criterion. Therefore, the plastic deformation initially occurred at this area and fracture emerged on account of excessive reduction of the sheet thickness. Simulation analysis with 304 stainless steel was carried out. The result indicated that the capacity of sheet uniform deformation decreased with the increasing of the friction coefficient. When the friction coefficient increased from 0.08 to 0.20, the uniform elongation decreased by 32%. But when other conditions were kept unchanged, the greater the fluid pressure was, the thinner the sheet would be. Experiments indicated that the necking and fracture appeared in the gauge length near the tensile end with different lubricants. And these provided a theoretical basis for the process and device design of sheet metal hydroforming.

  7. Sensitivity of dual-wall structures under hypervelocity impact to multi-layer thermal insulation thickness and placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study in which Al dual-wall structures were tested, under various high-speed impact conditions, with a view to the effect of multilayer insulation thickness and location on perforation resistance. Attention is given to comparisons of the damage sustained by dual-wall systems with multilayer insulation blankets of various thicknesses and at various locations within the dual-wall system, under comparable impact loading conditions. The placement of the insulation has a significant effect on the ballistic limit of the dual-wall structures considered, while reducing insulation thickness by as much as a third did not.

  8. The effect of fig wall thickness in Ficus erecta var. beecheyana on parasitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ou, Chern-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Yuan; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Fig wasp communities constitute a model system to analyse determinants of community complexity and to investigate how biological interaction networks are maintained. It has been suggested for monoecious figs, that fig pollinating wasps avoid ovipositing in flowers located close to the fig wall because of strong parasitic pressure by wasps ovipositing through the fig wall. This behaviour could help explain why mainly seeds are produced in flowers located close to the fig wall, thus stabilizing the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. In this contribution we explore, for dioecious figs, whether ovipositor length of parasitic species may really be limiting. In dioecious figs, functionally male figs produce pollinating wasps and pollen while female figs produce only seeds, facilitating selection of traits favouring pollinator reproduction in male figs. We show in Ficus erecta that fig walls are thicker in male figs than in female figs. Male figs presenting thick walls, thicker than the length of the parasites' ovipositors, went unparasitized while male figs presenting thinner walls were systematically parasitized. Hence, in F. erecta, ovipositor length of the parasites is limiting access to some figs. However, we also show that in another dioecious species, Ficus formosana, presenting thin walled male figs, no fig is protected against oviposition by its two parasites. Hence in dioecious as well as in monoecious figs, in some Ficus species, ovipositors of the parasites are limiting access to ovules, while in other Ficus species all ovules are exposed to parasitism.

  9. Production of thick single-walled carbon nanotubes by arc discharge in hydrogen ambience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yoshinori; Zhao, Xinluo; Hirahara, Kaori; Iijima, Sumio

    2001-10-01

    High-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been produced by DC arc discharge in hydrogen ambience. By using Fe 1% catalyst a large amount of SWNTs are produced in pure H2 gas. Other transition metals of iron group and its combination are also used as catalyst for preparing SWNTs by adding 1% H2S gas in H2. Tri-metal catalyst, Fe(0.25%)-Ni(0.9%)-Co(0.9%), is found to be most effective for high yield of SWNTs. The SWNTs diameters are fairly thick ˜1.4-4 nm, and some double-walled carbon nanotubes also exist with them.

  10. Modelling the solidification of ductile cast iron parts with varying wall thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerre, M.; Tiedje, N. S.; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper modelling the solidification of cast iron parts is considered. Common for previous efforts in this field is that they have mainly considered thin walled to medium thickness castings. Hence, a numerical model combining the solidification model presented by Lesoultet al. [1] with a 2D FE solution of the heat conduction equation is developed in an in-house code and model parameters are calibrated using experimental data from representative castings made of ductile cast iron. The main focus is on the influence of casting thickness and resulting local cooling conditions on the solidification pattern and the relation to formation of degenerate graphite.

  11. A thermoelastic transversely isotropic thick walled cylinder/disk application: An analytical solution and study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    A continuum theory is utilized to represent the thermoelastic behavior of a thick walled composite cylinder that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. A multiaxial statement of the constitutive theory employed is presented, as well as the out of the plane of isotropy, plane stress, and plane strain reductions. The derived analytical solution presented is valid for a cylindrical tube or thin disk with a concentric hole, subjected to internal and/or external pressure and a general radial temperature distribution. A specific problem examined is that of a thick walled cylinder subjected to an internal and external pressure loading and a linear radial temperature distribution. The results are expressed in nondimensional form and the effects on the response behavior are examined for various material properties, fiber orientation and types of loadings.

  12. Successful vaginal delivery following laparoscopic abdominal wall reconstruction in an adult survivor of an omphalocele without prior surgical repair: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kim, W B; Kim, J; Boo, Y J; Park, S H; Song, T J; Suh, S O

    2009-08-01

    We report the case of a successful vaginal delivery following laparoscopic abdominal wall reconstruction in an adult survivor of an omphalocele without prior surgical repair. Untreated omphaloceles are rare in adulthood. A 30-year-old female patient presented with a large anterior abdominal wall defect due to an untreated omphalocele, who expressed a desire to have a baby in the near future. A laparoscopic herniorrhaphy was performed with a double-layered expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE, Gore-Tex) mesh. The patient delivered a full-term healthy baby vaginally 2 years after surgical repair of the omphalocele. PMID:19085039

  13. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Milde, Anne Marita; Nylund, Kim; Mujic, Maja; Grimstad, Tore; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2012-01-01

    Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood) were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis was able to be visualized by transabdominal sonography. Moreover, ultrasound findings, occult blood sampling, and histological findings supported each other, indicating that ultrasonography can be used to assess inflammation in a rat experimental model. PMID:23055765

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Prediction by Measurement of Arterial Elastic Properties and Wall Thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Aznaouridis; Saurabh S. Dhawan; Arshed A. Quyyumi

    \\u000a Arterial elastic properties (stiffness, wave reflections, and central pressures) and carotid wall thickness are important\\u000a determinants of global cardiovascular (CV) performance. There is mounting evidence that these arterial characteristics are\\u000a associated with the presence and extent of CV disease. Furthermore, they are important and independent predictors of CV risk\\u000a in several populations, and may even be used to monitor the

  15. Research on laser engineered net shaping of thick-wall nickel-based alloy parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhao; Wenbin Cao; Changchun Ge; Yongsheng Tan; Yan Zhang; Qunxing Fei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to investigate the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) of metal thick-wall parts from Ni-based alloy powders. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The composition of Ni-based alloy powders was determined from phase diagram, which was 84Ni14.4Cu1.6Sn. The powders were prepared by gas atomization. Deoxygenation and screen separation were applied to the powders to improve the sintering ability and narrow

  16. Wave propagation through a newtonian fluid contained within a thick-walled, viscoelastic tube.

    PubMed

    Ox, R H

    1968-06-01

    The propagation of harmonic pressure waves through a Newtonian fluid contained within a thick-walled, viscoelastic tube is considered as a model of arterial blood flow. The fluid is assumed to be homogeneous and Newtonian, and its motion to be laminar and axisymmetric. The wall is assumed to be isotropic, incompressible, linear, and viscoelastic. It is also assumed that the motion is such that the convective acceleration is negligible. The motion of the fluid is described by the linearized form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the motion of the wall by classical elasticity theory. The frequency dependence of the wall mechanical properties are represented by a three parameter, relaxation-type model. Using boundary conditions describing the continuity of stress and velocity components in the fluid and the wall, explicit solutions for the system of equations of the model have been obtained. The longitudinal fluid impedance has been expressed in terms of frequency and the system parameters. The frequency equation has been solved and the propagation constant also expressed in terms of frequency and system parameters. The results indicate that the fluid impedance is smaller than predicted by the rigid tube model or by Womersley's constrained elastic tube model. Also, the velocity of propagation is generally slower and the transmission per wavelength less than predicted by Womersley's elastic tube model. The propagation constant is very sensitive to changes in the degree of wall viscoelasticity. PMID:5699803

  17. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Treatment on Ultrasound-Determined Bladder Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Tubaro, Andrea; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Trucchi, Alberto; Palleschi, Giovanni; Miano, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Detrusor hypertrophy associated with bladder outlet obstruction can be imaged on suprapubic ultrasound, and bladder mass can be quantified from the evaluation of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume. Bladder wall hypertrophy has been found to be correlated with detrusor function. Independent studies have shown that surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction results in a significant decrease of bladder mass. Preliminary data suggest the possibility that medical treatment with ?-adrenergic antagonists might also produce a reduction of bladder wall hypertrophy, although confirmation is still awaited. The development of dedicated automated ultrasound systems for the evaluation of bladder mass might result in the use of such parameters in clinical trials of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and ultimately in daily urologic practice. PMID:16986028

  18. Cell-wall thickness: possible mechanism of acriflavine resistance in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Mako; Yamada, Sakuo; Ishidoshiro, Ai; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Jun-Ichi

    2009-03-01

    Acriflavine resistance in the clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate KT24 was found not to be mediated by multidrug efflux pumps encoded by qacA/B, smr, qacE, qacG, qacH, qacJ or norA. Early uptake and accumulation of ethidium bromide in MRSA KT24 was significantly lower than that in a susceptible strain, although the efflux rates were similar. Therefore, a permeability barrier in MRSA KT24 may be the conceivable mechanism of acriflavine resistance. Interestingly, it was found that MRSA KT24 had a significantly thickened cell wall, and that cell-wall thickness increased gradually during bacterial growth. In contrast, cell size and surface area in MRSA KT24 were not different from those in the susceptible strain. Moreover, MRSA KT24 exposure to sub-MIC concentrations of acriflavine resulted in a thicker cell wall. These results indicate that cell-wall thickness may be responsible for acriflavine resistance in S. aureus. PMID:19208883

  19. Analysis of radiation-induced embrittlement gradients on fracture characteristics of thick-walled pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Loss; J. R. Hawthorne; C. Z. Jr. Serpan; P. P. Puzak

    1971-01-01

    The fracture behavior of thick-walled nuclear vessels is considered for the case of a radiation-induced toughness gradient through the wall which characteristically results from neutron attenuation by the wall material itself. Fracture-safe design analyses based on linear elastic formulations or extrapolations of these formulations to the elastic-plastic regime are not sufficiently developed to characterize the integrated behavior of a wall

  20. Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Ashcroft, Brian A.; Beenakker, Jan-Willem M.; van Es, Maarten; Koekkoek, Nico B. R.; Prins, Frans A.; Tielemans, Jarl F.; Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Bank, Ruud A.; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H.

    2009-01-01

    An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmental weakening of the artery. Although it is generally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Here we show that vessel-wall failure in growing aneurysms of patients who have aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA) or Marfan syndrome is not related to a collagen defect at the molecular level. On the contrary our findings indicate similar (Marfan) or even higher collagen concentrations (AAA) and increased collagen cross-linking in the aneurysms. Using 3D confocal imaging we show that the two conditions are associated with profound defects in collagen microarchitecture. Reconstructions of normal vessel wall show that adventitial collagen fibers are organized in a loose braiding of collagen ribbons. These ribbons encage the vessel, allowing the vessel to dilate easily but preventing overstretching. AAA and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome show dramatically altered collagen architectures with loss of the collagen knitting. Evaluations of the functional characteristics by atomic force microscopy showed that the wall has lost its ability to stretch easily and revealed a second defect: although vascular collagen in normal aortic wall behaves as a coherent network, in AAA and Marfan tissues it does not. As result, mechanical forces loaded on individual fibers are not distributed over the tissue. These studies demonstrate that the mechanical properties of tissue are strongly influenced by collagen microarchitecture and that perturbations in the collagen networks may lead to mechanical failure. PMID:20080766

  1. Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Jan H N; Ashcroft, Brian A; Beenakker, Jan-Willem M; van Es, Maarten; Koekkoek, Nico B R; Prins, Frans A; Tielemans, Jarl F; Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Bank, Ruud A; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H

    2010-01-12

    An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmental weakening of the artery. Although it is generally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Here we show that vessel-wall failure in growing aneurysms of patients who have aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA) or Marfan syndrome is not related to a collagen defect at the molecular level. On the contrary our findings indicate similar (Marfan) or even higher collagen concentrations (AAA) and increased collagen cross-linking in the aneurysms. Using 3D confocal imaging we show that the two conditions are associated with profound defects in collagen microarchitecture. Reconstructions of normal vessel wall show that adventitial collagen fibers are organized in a loose braiding of collagen ribbons. These ribbons encage the vessel, allowing the vessel to dilate easily but preventing overstretching. AAA and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome show dramatically altered collagen architectures with loss of the collagen knitting. Evaluations of the functional characteristics by atomic force microscopy showed that the wall has lost its ability to stretch easily and revealed a second defect: although vascular collagen in normal aortic wall behaves as a coherent network, in AAA and Marfan tissues it does not. As result, mechanical forces loaded on individual fibers are not distributed over the tissue. These studies demonstrate that the mechanical properties of tissue are strongly influenced by collagen microarchitecture and that perturbations in the collagen networks may lead to mechanical failure. PMID:20080766

  2. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  3. Novel superhydrophilic poly(l-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone)/fibrinogen electrospun patch for rat abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhang; Li, Shaojie; Su, Ling; Sun, Kang; Wu, Xujun; Wu, Feng; Huang, Weihong; Yang, Li; Tang, Jianxiong; He, Hongbing

    2015-08-01

    A novel superhydrophilic hybrid scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixture of poly(l-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) and formulated fibrinogen. The hybrid scaffolds possess the combined benefits of each individual component, such as moderate mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility. In vitro studies also revealed that endothelial cells seeded on the hybrid scaffolds achieved a relatively high level of cell attachment after three days of culture and a significant increase in the proliferation rate after seven days of culture, compared with pure fibrinogen or poly(l-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) scaffolds. A comparative study of hybrid and pure poly(l-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) patches was performed in an abdominal wall defect model in rats. In both groups, implants degraded by six months, but muscle reconstruction was only observed in the hybrid patch group. PMID:25791683

  4. Radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion and abdominal wall reconstruction: an interesting case of multidisciplinary management

    PubMed Central

    Sofos, Stratos S; Walsh, Ciaran J; Parr, Nigel J; Hancock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The ileal conduit for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is a well-described procedure. Furthermore, parastomal hernias, prolapse, stenosis, and retraction of the stoma have been reported as some of the more common complications of this procedure. The subsequent repair of parastomal hernias with a biological mesh and the potential of the conduit to “tunnel” through it has also been described. In this case report, we present a combined repair of a large incisional hernia with a cystectomy and a pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer, with the use of a biological mesh for posterior component abdominal wall primary repair as well as for support to the ileal conduit used for urinary diversion. PMID:25653561

  5. A Relation Between Near-Wall Particle-Hemodynamics and Onset of Thrombus Formation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Basciano, C.; Kleinstreuer, C.; Hyun, S.; Finol, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational particle-hemodynamics analysis of key criteria for the onset of an intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. The focus is on enhanced platelet and white blood cell residence times as well as their elevated surface-shear loads in near-wall regions of the AAA sac. The generalized results support the hypothesis that a patient's AAA geometry and associated particle-hemodynamics have the potential to entrap activated blood particles, which will play a role in the onset of ILT. Although the ILT history of only a single patient was considered, the modeling and simulation methodology provided allow for the development of an efficient computational tool to predict the onset of ILT formation in complex patient-specific cases. PMID:21373952

  6. Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583 PMID:22647387

  7. Aphid (Sitobion yakini) investigation suggests thin-walled sieve tubes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) to be more functional than thick-walled sieve tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Matsiliza; C. E. J. Botha

    2002-01-01

    Barley, like most other grasses that have been studied, contains two kinds of sieve tube. The first formed are called thinwalled sieve tubes because of their thin wall compared to the late-formed, and are associated with companion cells. The late- formed are thick-walled sieve tubes, which differentiate next to the metaxylem vessels and lack companion cells. Aphid (Sitobion yakini (Eastop)

  8. Estimation of Maximum Wall Thickness Loss of Five DSTs (AN-107, AP-102, AW-101, AZ-102, and SY-101)

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2005-09-17

    The DST Integrity Plan requires the ultrasonic wall thickness measurement of two vertical scans of the tank primary wall from a single riser. The resulting measurements are then used in an extreme value methodology to predict the minimum wall thickness expected for the entire tank. The methodology was developed in previous work by the authors of this report. A component of the methodology is to consider the possible impact of riser differences had multiple risers instead been used. The approach is based on previous analyses of Tank AY-101 which had measurements taken from multiple risers. This report presents estimated maximum wall thickness loss for five DST's with associated uncertainty estimation and confidence bounds. Several sources of variability are incorporated since the individual sources cannot be separated. These sources include original manufacturing plate thickness and the precision of the measurement process, as well as loss due to corrosion, the actual feature of interest.

  9. Fatigue life simulation and estimation of an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel with an external groove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Koh

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue tests that simulate an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel with an external groove under pulsating internal pressure loading conditions were performed using specimens taken from an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel. Load-controlled simulation fatigue tests using rectangular, elliptical, and shot-peened elliptical grooved specimens were performed for three different autofrettage levels of 50, 75, and 100% overstrains. In order to estimate the

  10. Indications and Outcomes of the Components Separation Technique in the Repair of Complex Abdominal Wall Hernias: Experience From the Cambridge Plastic Surgery Department

    PubMed Central

    Adekunle, Shola; Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Hall, Nigel R.; Praseedom, Raaj; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The components separation technique (CST) is a widely described abdominal wall reconstructive technique. There have, however, been no UK reports of its use, prompting the present review. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, 13 patients who underwent this procedure by a single plastic surgeon (C.M.M.) were retrospectively evaluated. The indications, operative details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: There were 7 women and 6 men in the series with a mean age of 53 years (range: 30-80). Patients were referred from a variety of specialties, often as a last resort. The commonest indication for CST was herniation following abdominal surgery. All operations except 1 were jointly performed with general surgeons (for bowel resection, stoma reversal, and hernia dissection). The operations lasted a mean of 5 hours (range: 3-8 hours). There were no major intra- and postoperative problems, except in 1 patient who developed intra-abdominal compartment syndrome, secondary to massive hemorrhage. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic improvement in their abdominal contours. None of the patients have developed a clinical recurrence after a mean follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-38 months). Conclusions: The components separation technique is an effective method of treating large recalcitrant hernias but appears to be underutilized in the United Kingdom. The management of large abdominal wall defects requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input across a variety of specialities. Liaison with plastic surgery teams should be encouraged at an early stage and the CST should be more widely considered when presented with seemingly intractable abdominal wall defects. PMID:24058718

  11. An approach for patient-specific multi-domain vascular mesh generation featuring spatially varying wall thickness modeling.

    PubMed

    Raut, Samarth S; Liu, Peng; Finol, Ender A

    2015-07-16

    In this work, we present a computationally efficient image-derived volume mesh generation approach for vasculatures that implements spatially varying patient-specific wall thickness with a novel inward extrusion of the wall surface mesh. Multi-domain vascular meshes with arbitrary numbers, locations, and patterns of both iliac bifurcations and thrombi can be obtained without the need to specify features or landmark points as input. In addition, the mesh output is coordinate-frame independent and independent of the image grid resolution with high dimensional accuracy and mesh quality, devoid of errors typically found in off-the-shelf image-based model generation workflows. The absence of deformable template models or Cartesian grid-based methods enables the present approach to be sufficiently robust to handle aneurysmatic geometries with highly irregular shapes, arterial branches nearly parallel to the image plane, and variable wall thickness. The assessment of the methodology was based on i) estimation of the surface reconstruction accuracy, ii) validation of the output mesh using an aneurysm phantom, and iii) benchmarking the volume mesh quality against other frameworks. For the phantom image dataset (pixel size 0.105mm; slice spacing 0.7mm; and mean wall thickness 1.401±0.120mm), the average wall thickness in the mesh was 1.459±0.123mm. The absolute error in average wall thickness was 0.060±0.036mm, or about 8.6% of the largest image grid spacing (0.7mm) and 4.36% of the actual mean wall thickness. Mesh quality metrics and the ability to reproduce regional variations of wall thickness were found superior to similar alternative frameworks. PMID:25976018

  12. New scale to assess breathing movements of the chest and abdominal wall: preliminary reliability testing

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hideo; Horie, Jun; Ishikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical examinations for chest movements by inspection and palpation are poorly reproducible. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability of a new breathing movement scale for patients with respiratory diseases, in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six patients with respiratory diseases were enrolled. BMS measurements were obtained during quiet breathing for 13 patients and during deep breathing for the other 13 patients. The BMS used to assess QB and DB movements of the upper chest, lower chest, and abdomen was based on a scale of ?1 to 8. Scale values were measured while in the supine position using a pen-sized breathing movement-measuring device used by two raters during the same session. Scale values at five observation points and total values were recorded. A weighted Kappa coefficient and percentage agreement were used to assess inter-rater reliability with this BMS. [Results] The weighted Kappa coefficients during quiet and deep breathing had substantial to excellent strength of agreement (0.63–1.00) with percentage agreements of 31–100%. [Conclusion] Our results provide preliminary evidence to support the reliability of breathing movement scale measurements to assess breathing movements and chest and abdominal mobility for patients with respiratory diseases.

  13. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

  14. Airway wall thickness is increased in COPD patients with bronchodilator responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) is a common but variable phenomenon in COPD. The CT characteristics of airway dimensions that differentiate COPD subjects with BDR from those without BDR have not been well described. We aimed to assess airway dimensions in COPD subjects with and without BDR. Methods We analyzed subjects with GOLD 1–4 disease in the COPDGene® study who had CT airway analysis. We divided patients into two groups: BDR?+?(post bronchodilator ?FEV1???10%) and BDR-(post bronchodilator ?FEV1?wall area percent (WA%) of six segmental bronchi in each subject was quantified using VIDA. Using 3D SLICER, airway wall thickness was also expressed as the square root wall area of an airway of 10 mm (Pi10) and 15 mm (Pi15) diameter. %Emphysema and %gas trapping were also calculated. Results 2355 subjects in the BDR-group and 1306 in the BDR?+?group formed our analysis. The BDR?+?group had a greater Pi10, Pi15, and mean segmental WA% compared to the BDR-group. In multivariate logistic regression using gender, race, current smoking, history of asthma, %emphysema, %gas trapping, %predicted FEV1, and %predicted FVC, airway wall measures remained independent predictors of BDR. Using a threshold change in FEV1???15% and FEV1???12% and 200 mL to divide patients into groups, the results were similar. Conclusion BDR in COPD is independently associated with CT evidence of airway pathology. This study provides us with greater evidence of changes in lung structure that correlate with physiologic manifestations of airflow obstruction in COPD. PMID:25248436

  15. Reconstruction of large-size abdominal wall defect using biodegradable poly-p-dioxanone mesh: an experimental canine study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of large-size abdominal wall defect (AWDs) is a huge challenge faced in current surgical practice. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of biodegradable poly-p-dioxanone (PDO) mesh for reconstructing large-size AWDs in an experimental canine model. Methods Eighteen experimental canines were randomly and equally divided into three groups, namely, a PDO group, a Marlex group and a control group (n = 6 each). Following the creation of a 6 cm × 5.5 cm AWD, PDO mesh and Marlex mesh were used to reconstruct the defect in the PDO and Marlex groups, respectively. The defect was closed using relaxation sutures alone in the control group. Animals were killed 24 weeks after surgery, and reconstruction outcomes were evaluated using radiography, histology and biomechanical testing. Results All animals except those in the control group survived the experiment. The PDO group showed no wound dehiscence, herniation or infection, whereas the animals in the Marlex group exhibited marked foreign body reactions. The PDO group had less intraabdominal adhesion than the Marlex group. As shown by radiography, histology and biomechanical testing, PDO mesh exhibited complete degradation and favorable biochemical strength at 24 weeks postsurgery. Conclusions PDO mesh implantation is an effective, safe treatment modality for reconstructing large-size AWDs. PMID:24625138

  16. The preferential contraction ratios of transversus abdominis on the variations of knee angles during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in wall support standing

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-In; Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Du-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine appropriate knee angles for the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) through evaluation of changes in contraction ratios of the abdominal muscles and activity of quadriceps muscle in relation to changes in knee angles occurring while the ADIM is performed in the wall support standing (WSS). 20 subjects performed the ADIM at different knee angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°) in random order, standing at a point 6 inches away from the wall with the spine maintained in the neutral position. The WSS with knee flexion at 20° showed significantly higher preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of transversus abdominis (TrA) compared to other positions (0°, 40°, 60°). Therefore, performing the ADIM in the WSS with knee flexion at 20° appears to be the most appropriate position for TrA PCR. PMID:24877045

  17. [Influence of mydocalm on the degree of intra-abdominal hypertension and local blood circulation in the intestinal wall in experiment].

    PubMed

    Sapegin, V I; Sapegin, I D; Il'chenko, F N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mydocalm (tolperison, 5 mg/kg single dose) on the dynamics of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), blood circulation regulation, and oxygen balance in the tissues of intestinal wall were studied in acute experiments on rabbits. Using a special stand of original design, the initial IAH level was modeled at 200 mm H2O with the subsequent stopping of further receipt of liquid during 3 hours in an elastic container in the abdominal cavity. During 3-h observation without drug administration, no changes in IAH due to the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall takes place, but there is progressive deceleration of local blood flow (-35.33 + 0.99%, p < 0.01), suppressed dilation (-20.02 + 0.54%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-60.45 + 1.17%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and decreased oxygen tension (-47.18 + 0.75%, p < 0.01) in the intestinal wall at the end of experiment. The introduction of mydocalm reduces the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall, which leads to a decrease in IAH (maximum effect after 1.5 hours, -20.81 + 0.84%, p < 0.01) and prevents decrease in the local blood flow (-26.77 + 0.41%, p < 0.01), suppression of dilation (-16.51 + 0.34%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-37.85 + 0.61%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and reduction in oxygen tension (-36.60 + 1.18%, p < 0.01) at the end of experiment. The administration of mydocalm can extend the limits of application of a conservative therapy for patients with IAH and to improve the results. PMID:25033566

  18. Collagen foil (TissuFoil E) reduces the formation of adhesions when using polypropylene mesh for the repair of experimental abdominal wall defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Schönleben; Thomas Reck; Andrea Tannapfel; Werner Hohenberger; Ignaz Schneider

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims  Polypropylene meshes (PPMs) are routinely used in the treatment of incisional hernias to achieve a tension-free closure of the abdominal wall. Severe adhesions are a common cause of intestinal obstruction, or even intestinal fistulas. Using a porcine model, we investigated whether applying a collagen foil (CF) to the undersurface of a PPM will reduce adhesion formation.Methods  In ten domestic

  19. SMAD3 deficiency promotes vessel wall remodeling, collagen fiber reorganization and leukocyte infiltration in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianbin; Priyanka Annam, Neeraja; Jiang, Hong; Levi, Edi; Schworer, Charles M.; Tromp, Gerard; Arora, Anandita; Higgins, Mary; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Yang, Maozhou; Li, Hui J.; Zhang, Kezhong; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    TGF-? signaling plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of aneurysms; however, it is still unclear whether its role is protective or destructive. In this study, we investigate the role of SMAD3 in the pathogenesis of calcium chloride (CaCl2)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Smad3?/?, Smad3+/? and Smad3+/+ mice. We find that loss of SMAD3 drastically increases wall thickening of the abdominal aorta. Histological analyses show significant vessel wall remodeling with elastic fiber fragmentation. Remarkably, under polarized light, collagen fibers in the hyperplastic adventitia of Smad3?/? mice show extensive reorganization accompanied by loosely packed thin and radial collagen fibers. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases including MMP2, MMP9, and MMP12 and infiltration of macrophage/T cells are drastically enhanced in the vascular wall of Smad3?/? mice. We also observe marked increase of NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling as well as the expression of nuclear Smad2, Smad4 and TGF-?1 in the vessel wall of Smad3?/? mice. In addition, we find that SMAD3 expression is reduced in the dedifferentiated medial smooth muscle-like cells of human AAA patients. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence to support the essential roles of SMAD3 in protecting vessel wall integrity and suppressing inflammation in the pathogenesis of AAAs. PMID:25985281

  20. Observation of cerebral aneurysm wall thickness using intraoperative microscopy: clinical and morphological analysis of translucent aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihye; Park, Jung Eon; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Shin, Yong Sam

    2015-06-01

    Intracranial aneurysms suffer various interactions between hemodynamics and pathobiology, and rupture when this balance disrupted. Aneurysm wall morphology is a result of these interactions and reflects the quality of the maturation. However, it is a poorly documented in previous studies. The purpose of this study is to observe aneurysm wall thickness and describe the characteristics of translucent aneurysm by analyzing clinical and morphological parameters. 253 consecutive patients who underwent clipping surgery in a single institute were retrospectively analyzed. Only middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCA) which exposed most part of the dome during surgery were included. Aneurysms were categorized based on intraoperative video findings. Aneurysms more than 90 % of super-thin dome and any aneurysms with entirely super-thin-walled daughter sac were defined as translucent aneurysm. A total of 110 consecutive patients with 116 unruptured MCA aneurysms were included. Ninety-two aneurysms (79.3 %) were assigned to the not-translucent group and 24 (20.7 %) to the translucent group. The relative proportion of translucent aneurysm in each age group was highest at ages 50-59 years and absent at ages 30-39 and 70-79 years. There was a trend that translucent aneurysms were smaller in size (p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that translucent aneurysm was strongly correlated with height <3 mm (p = 0.003). We demonstrated that the translucent aneurysms were smaller in size and the aneurysm height <3 mm was related. These results may provide information in determining treatment strategies in patients with small size aneurysm. PMID:25652435

  1. Binary diffusion and heat transfer in laminar mixed convection channel flows with uniform wall heat flux: extremely thin film thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Tsay; W. M. Yan

    1991-01-01

    A detailed numerical study has been performed to investigate the combined heat and mass transfer in laminar mixed convection channel flows with uniform wall heat flux. In an initial effort the liquid film on the channel wall is assumed to be extremely thin in thickness. Major dimensionless groups governing the present problem areGrT,GrMx,Pr,Sc, f andRe. Results are specifically presented for

  2. Muscle Thickness in Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis: Sonographic Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D. Blumhagen; H. George; S. Noble

    Abdominal sonography was performed in 169 infants with vomiting. The hypertro- phied circular muscle of the pylorus and distal antrum could be seen as a thick, hypoechoic cylinder in all cases of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The thickness of each wall of this cylinder was 4 mm or more in 86 of 93 patients subsequently shown to have hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

  3. Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

  4. A new possibility of melt cooling in extrusion dies to prevent sagging-effects in thick-walled pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    te Heesen, O.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    One challenge in the extrusion process of thick-walled pipes is the cooling of the product. Besides the output of the extruder, the line speed is also limited by the efficiency of the cooling line. The cooling time increases according to the wall thickness of the pipe under otherwise equal process conditions. State of the art is the cooling of the outer surface in water tanks or spray-cool-tanks. In addition to that, it is possible to cool the inner surface by air that is sucked through the pipe. Despite these technologies it is problematic to cool down thick walled-products with the right speed. Especially thick-walled pipes show problems by cooling the layers in the middle of the wall. On the one hand an intensive cooling of the outer and inner surface of the pipe entail the formation of shrink holes in the middle of the pipe wall. On the other hand without a quick cooling the melt flow in circumferential direction because of the gravity takes place (sagging-effect). Because of this reason in the presented paper new possibilities of melt cooling in extrusion dies to prevent sagging-effects are given. An aimed cooling of the inbound melt layers inside the extrusion die could prevent the effect of melt flow in circumferential direction after the extrusion die, allows the specification of a specific temperature profile over the radius of the pipe wall and helps to reduce the melt temperature for rising mass throughputs and screw driving speeds of the extruder. It is also thinkable to influence the crystallization process and thereby the mechanical properties of the end-product by an aimed cooling of the inner pipe layers.

  5. A state of the art review on intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement and wall segmentation techniques for carotid ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Molinari; Guang Zeng; Jasjit S. Suri

    2010-01-01

    Last 10 years have witnessed the growth of many computer applications for the segmentation of the vessel wall in ultrasound imaging. Epidemiological studies showed that the thickness of the major arteries is an early and effective marker of onset of cardiovascular diseases. Ultrasound imaging, being real-time, economic, reliable, safe, and now seems to become a standard in vascular assessment methodology.This

  6. Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G.H. Farrahi a

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G stress Extended variable material properties method Optimum autofrettage pressure a b s t r a c t In this study, residual stress distributions in autofrettaged homogenous spherical pressure vessels sub- jected

  7. Using differential mold temperatures to improve the residual wall thickness uniformity around curved sections of fluid assisted injection molded tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-Yeh Lin; Fu-An Chang; Shih-Jung Liu

    2009-01-01

    Fluid assisted injection molding technology, including gas assisted injection molding and water assisted injection molding, has been used to manufacture plastic tubes in recent years, due to the light weight of molded parts, relatively lower resin cost per part and faster cycle time. However, the non-uniform residual wall thickness distribution usually occurs around curved sections and can significantly affect the

  8. Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

    2007-06-06

    It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended service. This involved determining the room-temperature tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness properties of the bobbin-tool friction-stir welds after a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging heat-treatment. These mechanical properties were used to conduct fracture-mechanics analyses to determine critical flaw sizes. Phased-array and conventional ultrasonic non-destructive examination was used to demonstrate that no flaws that match or exceed the calculated critical flaw-sizes exist in or near the friction-stir welds.

  9. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abdominal tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... develop abdominal adhesions. 1 Surgery in the lower abdomen and pelvis, including bowel and gynecological operations, carries ...

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus. Shortly after the onset of the disease, patients become colonized with their own aerobic and anaerobic microflora from the gastrointestinal and/or urogenital tracts. Early diagnosis with aggressive multidisciplinary treatment is mandatory. We describe three clinical cases with NF. The first is a 69 years old man with diabetes mellitus type II, who presented with NF on the posterior chest wall, shoulder and arm. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical picture of severe sepsis. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 3 hours after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The second case is of a 63 years old paraplegic man with diabetes mellitus type I. Pressure sores and perineal abscesses progressed to Fournier's gangrene of the perineum and scrotum. He had NF of the anterior abdominal wall and the right thigh. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 6 hour after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The third patient was a 56 year old man who had NF of the anterior abdominal wall, flank and retroperitoneal space. He had an operation of the direct inguinal hernia, which was complicated with a bowel perforation and secondary peritonitis. After establishing the diagnosis of NF of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneal space (RS), he was transferred to the ICU. There he first received intensive care therapy, after which emergency surgical debridement of the abdominal wall, left colectomy, and extensive debridement of the RS were done (72 hours after operation of inquinal hernia). On average, 4 serial debridements were performed in each patient. The median of serial debridement in all three cases was four times. Other intensive care therapy with a combination of antibiotics and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was applied during the treatment. After stabilization of soft tissue wounds and the formation of fresh granulation tissue, soft tissue defect were reconstructed using simple to complex reconstructive methods. PMID:22196774

  11. The interaction of moderately strong shock waves with thick perforated walls of low porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical prediction is given of the flow through thick perforated walls of low porosity resulting from the impingement of a moderately strong traveling shock wave. The model was a flat plate positioned normal to the direction of the flow. Holes bored in the plate parallel to the direction of the flow provided nominal hole length-to-diameter ratios of 10:1 and an axial porosity of 25 percent of the flow channel cross section. The flow field behind the reflected shock wave was assumed to behave as a reservoir producing a quasi-steady duct flow through the model. Rayleigh and Fanno duct flow theoretical computations for each of three possible auxiliary wave patterns that can be associated with the transmitted shock (to satisfy contact surface compatibility) were used to provide bounding solutions as an alternative to the more complex influence coefficients method. Qualitative and quantitative behavior was verified in a 1.5- by 2.0-in. helium shock tube. High speed Schlieren photography, piezoelectric pressure-time histories, and electronic-counter wave speed measurements were used to assess the extent of correlation with the theoretical flow models. Reduced data indicated the adequacy of the bounding theory approach to predict wave phenomena and quantitative response.

  12. Buckling analysis of thick-walled composite pipes under external pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zhao, Y.; Pang, S.S. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Buckling of fiber-reinforced composite pipes under external pressure has been analytically investigated in this study. During the development of the analytical model, governing equations from anisotropic laminated plate theory were first derived. Together with suitable boundary conditions and Ritz Method, the buckling mode and the buckling load were determined. In the developed model the transverse shear deformation, which is important to materials with a small transverse modulus compared to the in-plane moduli, is included so the model can be applied to both thick- and thin-walled pipes. Extensive ASTM standard D 2924 experiment results provided by Fibercast Company, Sand Springs, Oklahoma, on five different types of centrifugally cast fiber-reinforced composite pipe samples were used to validate the analytical model. The diameters of the pipe samples range from 1.5 inches to 12 inches with specimen lengths of 52 inches and 220 inches. It has been found that the developed model correlates to the experimental results well.

  13. Stability of a microvessel subject to structural adaptation of diameter and wall thickness.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Ilari; Nancollas, Rachel; Boes, Morgan; Sieminski, Alisha L; Geddes, John B

    2011-09-01

    Vascular adaptation--or structural changes of microvessels in response to physical and metabolic stresses--can influence physiological processes like angiogenesis and hypertension. To better understand the influence of these stresses on adaptation, Pries et al. (1998, 2001a,b, 2005) have developed a computational model for microvascular adaptation. Here, we reformulate this model in a way that is conducive to a dynamical systems analysis. Using th ese analytic methods, we determine the equilibrium geometries of a single vessel under different conditions and classify its type of stability. We demonstrate that our closed-form solution for vessel geometry exhibits the same regions of stability as the numerical predictions of Pries et al. (2005, Remodeling of blood vessels: responses of diameter and wall thickness to hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli. Hypertension, 46, 725-731). Our analytic approach allows us to predict the existence of limit-cycle oscillations and to extend the model to consider a fixed pressure across the vessel in addition to a fixed flow. Under these fixed pressure conditions, we show that the vessel stability is affected and that the multiple equilibria can exist. PMID:20870949

  14. Growth and trends in publications about abdominal wall hernias and the impact of a specific journal on herniology: a bibliometric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kulacoglu; D. Oztuna

    Purpose  The aim of this systematic review was to determine the exact volume and growth pattern of articles on abdominal wall hernias,\\u000a in particular the effect of the journal Hernia on publications about hernias.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PubMed search was performed for every year between 1965 and 2010, using the title words “inguinal hernia,” “incisional hernia,”\\u000a and “umbilical hernia.” Then, two consecutive 10-year

  15. CT of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts: Wall Thickness and Contrast Enhancement in Normal and Abnormal Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Schulte; Richard L. Baron; Sharlene A. Teefey; Charles A. Rohrmann; Patrick C. Freeny; William P. Shuman; Michael A. Foster

    duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated pro- spectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%.

  16. Pressure-induced wall thickness variations in multi-layered wall of a pollen tube and Fourier decomposition of growth oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, Mariusz; Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The augmented growth equation introduced by Ortega is solved for the apical portion of the pollen tube as an oscillating volume, which we approach in the framework of a two-fluid model in which the two fluids represent the constant pressure and the fluctuating features of the system. Based on routine Fourier analysis, we calculate the energy spectrum of the oscillating pollen tube, and discuss the resonant frequency problem of growth rate oscillations. We also outline a descriptive model for cell wall thickness fluctuations associated with small, yet regular variations (~ 0.01 MPa) observed in turgor pressure. We propose that pressure changes must lead to the sliding of wall layers, indirectly resulting in a wave of polarization of interlayer bonds. We conclude that pollen tube wall thickness may oscillate due to local variations in cell wall properties and relaxation processes. These oscillations become evident because of low amplitude/high frequency pressure fluctuations ?P being superimposed on turgor pressure P. We also show that experimentally determined turgor pressure oscillates in a strict periodical manner. A solitary frequency f0 ? 0.066 Hz of these (~ 0.01 MPa in magnitude) oscillations for lily pollen tubes was established by the discrete Fourier transform and Lorentz fit. PMID:25675387

  17. The mechanism of instability and localized reaction in the explosively driven collapse of thick walled Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, P. H.; Olney, K. L.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    Thick-walled cylinders constructed from alternating concentric layers of Ni and Al foils were explosively collapsed. The prevalent mode of the high strain, high strain rate plastic deformation was the cooperative buckling of the foils originating in the interior layers. This phenomenon was reproduced in numerical simulations. Its mechanism is qualitatively different than that of shear localization seen in all previously investigated homogeneous solid and granular materials and from the independent buckling of single thin-walled cylinders. Localized chemical reactions were observed in the apex areas of the Ni foils, consistent with the localization of temperature due to high strain plastic deformation.

  18. Contralateral Component Separation Technique for Abdominal Wall Closure in Patients Undergoing Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Transposition for Pelvic Exenteration Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Antonio; Arista-de la Torre, Lilian; Vergara-Fernandez, Omar; Salgado-Nesme, Noel

    2014-09-01

    Pelvic floor reconstruction with pedicled vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has been popularized in patients undergoing pelvic exenteration due to locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Abdominal wall fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia may occur as a result of large skin and fascia islands as well as muscle required to close these large defects. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel technique, consisting of VRAM flap donor-site closure with component separation technique, performed on the contralateral side as the flap harvest, allowing for a lower tension closure between ipsilateral external oblique/internal oblique/transverse abdominis muscles complex and contralateral rectus abdominis muscle. In 10 patients undergoing this technique, no abdominal fascial dehiscence, incisional hernia, or parastomal hernia occurred during a mean follow-up of 15 months. Overall 3-year patient survival rate was 80% with abdominal hernia free-survival rate of 100%. The addition of this technique represents an advance in overall patient care to provide a more successful outcomes in this complex scenario. PMID:25188251

  19. Recommendations for protecting against failure by brittle fracture: Category II and III ferritic steel shipping containers with wall thickness greater than four inches

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report provides criteria for selecting ferritic steels that would prevent brittle fracture in Category II and III shipping containers with wall thickness greater than 4 inches. These methods are extensions of those previously used for Category II and III containers less than 4 inches thick and Category I containers more than 4 inches thick.

  20. The thickness and the lengths of the anterior wall of adult maxilla of the West Anatolian Turkish people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candan Arman; Ipek Ergür; Atay Atabey; Mustafa Güvencer; Amac Kiray; Esin Korman; Suleyman Tetik

    2006-01-01

    The maxilla is the key structure on facial formation and stability. The knowledge about maxillary thickness and dimensions\\u000a is crucial during facial reconstruction including this bone. In this study, anthropometric measurements of anterior wall of\\u000a the maxilla on the dry human skulls were aimed. Sixty maxillae of 30 adult dry skulls of West Anatolian people were evaluated.\\u000a Four vertical lines

  1. Preoperative treatment with doxycycline reduces aortic wall expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A Curci; Dongli Mao; Diane G Bohner; Brent T Allen; Brian G Rubin; Jeffrey M Reilly; Gregorio A Sicard; Robert W Thompson

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Doxycycline (Dox) has direct MMP-inhibiting properties in vitro, and it effectively suppresses the development of elastase-induced AAAs in rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with Dox suppresses AMPS within human aneurysm tissue and to elucidate the

  2. Dimensionless analysis of valveless pumping in a thick-wall elastic tube: Application to the tubular embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Kozlovsky, Pavel; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Jaffa, Ariel J; Elad, David

    2015-06-25

    The physical mechanism that drives blood flow in the valveless tubular embryonic heart is still debatable whether it is peristaltic flow or valveless dynamic suction. Previous studies of valveless pumping were concerned with either the role of the excitation parameters or the mechanisms that generate the unidirectional outflow. In this study, a dimensionless one-dimensional (1D) analysis of the valveless pumping due to local excitation at an asymmetric longitudinal location was performed for non-uniform thick-wall elastic tubes, including tubes with local bulging and tapering. A general tube law that accounts for wall thicknesses was implemented for describing the physically realistic dynamics of the tube and the two-step MacCormack algorithm was utilized for the numerical analysis. A comprehensive analysis was conducted to explore the affecting roles of the system (e.g., tube geometry) and the working (e.g., Strouhal number and flow friction parameter) parameters on the net outflow of the pump. The maximal positive net outflow in all the tested cases always occurred when the natural Strouhal number was about ?. Flow reversals were observed only for relatively low friction parameters. A local bulging at the site of excitation and thick walls contributed to larger outflows, while tube tapering reduced the net outflow. PMID:25835790

  3. Thicknesses of domain walls in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films evaluated by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Hironori; Seto, Shota; Nakashima, Seiji; Shimizu, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the thicknesses of domain walls (DWs) in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films epitaxially grown on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (100), (110), and (111) single crystals by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM). The SNDM phase signal revealed an abrupt change in the sign of polarization components normal to the surface at DWs within one or two unit cells. On the other hand, the SNDM amplitude signals gradually changed across DWs, corresponding to the change in the electrostatic potential. The minimum thicknesses estimated from the SNDM amplitude signals are 4, 1, and 2 nm for 71, 109, and 180° DWs, respectively. The relationship between these DW thicknesses and the nature and situation of DWs is discussed taking account of the polarization configuration in adjacent domains.

  4. Riser Difference Evaluation from Ultrasonic Wall Thickness Inspection of Thirteen Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2010-03-15

    PNNL has performed an analysis of ultrasonic thickness measurements taken on Hanford's double-shell tanks (DSTs) approximately eight years apart. The analysis was performed to determine whether significant differences exist between ultrasonic thickness measurements made in two opposite risers in Hanford DSTs that have been examined twice.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of primary abdominal wall hernia repair in a 364-bed provincial hospital of Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. de Miguel Ibañez; S. A. Nahban Al Saied; J. Alonso Vallejo; J. M. Rodríguez Canales; C. Blanco Prieto; F. Escribano Sotos

    Purpose  Primary abdominal hernia is a prevalent condition that weighs heavily on human and financial health-care resources (e.g.,\\u000a 1.12% of the total budget of our hospital in 2008). Tension-free hernioplasty is the standard repair procedure, but the anesthetic\\u000a technique varies, including local anesthesia with sedation (Lsed), regional (Reg), and general (Gen) anesthesia. As the cost–outcome\\u000a relation of different anesthetic options has

  6. In Vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Christopher P. Cheng; Leandro A. Espinosa; Beverly T. Tang; David Parker; Robert J. Herfkens

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and a custom MR-compatible exercise bicycle were used to measure, in vivo, the effects of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta of eleven young, healthy subjects. Heart rate increased from 73±6.2 beats\\/min at rest to 110±8.8 beats\\/min during exercise (p p p p 2 at rest to 6.2±0.5 dyn\\/cm2 during exercise (p 2

  7. Thermoacoustic Oscillations (He4 Taconis Modes) inside a Thick-Walled Tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Williamson; S. Toshida; R. V. Ravikumar; T. H. K. Frederking

    1999-01-01

    The equations describing thermoacoustic (Taconis) oscillations inside a liquid-level finder do not have a gravitational dependence term. Therefore, examining these oscillatory modes has potential applications for low boiling cryoliquids in micro-gravity environments, particularly in covered, wall-adjacent domains, like cryoliquids in storage containers aboard spacecraft. Because of capillary action, these liquids tend to cling to the walls of the container. We

  8. [Application study of optical method in measuring wall thickness of dental impression].

    PubMed

    Mi, Honglin; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Dental impressions are widely used in the field of oral restoration. The materials are used for making impression in oral cavity. In order to measure the thickness of impression for reference in clinic, the real impressions are taken as the object for studying. Through optical method, charge-coupled device (CCD) is used for collecting the grey image of cutting section of the impressions which are located in the same plane with steel dividing ruler. According to convert relationship between dividing ruler and pixels collecting grey image, the thickness of impression specimens can be obtained. The results show that the optical method used for measuring thickness is feasible to the task and the precision can reach micro dimension. The experiment method and technique can also be provided for measuring thickness of similar tissue engineering materials. PMID:25868235

  9. Association between Plasma Angiopoietin-Like Protein 3 and Arterial Wall Thickness in Healthy Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawako Hatsuda; Tetsuo Shoji; Kayo Shinohara; Eiji Kimoto; Katsuhito Mori; Shinya Fukumoto; Hidenori Koyama; Masanori Emoto; Yoshiki Nishizawa

    2007-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is a liver-derived plasma protein that modulates plasma triglyceride clearance, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis in experimental models. So far, no study has examined its role in atherosclerosis in human subjects. We evaluated the possible association between plasma ANGPTL3 level and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT) and femoral artery intima-media thickness (FA-IMT) in healthy human subjects. Methods:

  10. Fracture resistance of welded thick-walled high-pressure vessels in power plants. Report No. 2. Approach to evaluating static strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Gorynin; V. M. Filatov; V. A. Ignatov; B. T. Timofeev; Yu. I. Zvezdin

    1986-01-01

    The authors examine data on the effect of defects on the fracture resistance of high-pressure vessels and their models obtained within the framework of the HSST program. Results of internal-pressure tests of two types of vessels with a wall thickness of 152 mm made from forgings of steels SA508 and SA533, as well as small vessels with a wall thickness

  11. Ureteral wall thickness at the impacted ureteral stone site: a critical predictor for success rates after SWL.

    PubMed

    Sarica, Kemal; Kafkasli, Alper; Yazici, Özgür; Çetinel, Ali Cihangir; Demirkol, Mehmet Kutlu; Tuncer, Murat; ?ahin, Cahit; Eryildirim, Bilal

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the possible predictive value of certain patient- and stone-related factors on the stone-free rates and auxiliary procedures after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with impacted proximal ureteral calculi. A total of 111 patients (86 male, 25 females M/F: 3.44/1) with impacted proximal ureteral stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy were evaluated. Cases were retrieved from a departmental shock wave lithotripsy database. Variables analyzed included BMI of the case, diameter of proximal ureter and renal pelvis, stone size and Hounsfield unit, ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site. Stone-free status on follow-up imaging at 3 months was considered a successful outcome. All patients had a single impacted proximal ureteral stone. While the mean age of the cases was 46 ± 13 years (range 26-79 years), mean stone size was 8.95 mm (5.3-15.1 mm). Following shock wave lithotripsy although 87 patients (78.4%) were completely stone-free at 3-month follow-up visit, 24 (21.6%) cases had residual fragments requiring further repeat procedures. Prediction of the final outcome of SWL in patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones is a challenging issue and our data did clearly indicate a highly significant relationship between ureteral wall thickness and the success rates of shock wave lithotripsy particularly in cases requiring additional procedures. Of all the evaluated stone- and patient-related factors, only ureteral wall thickness at the impacted stone site independently predicted shock wave lithotripsy success. PMID:25417717

  12. Safety Analysis Using Lebesgue Strain Measure of Thick-Walled Cylinder for Functionally Graded Material under Internal and External Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

  13. ON THE COUPLING OF GUIDED CYLINDRICAL WAVES IN THICK-WALLED STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and dead loads of carriages, they are prone to fatigue cracks, leading to catastrophic failure of the whole however, that time between crack occurrence and failure of axle to be longer than the inspections period for damage detection in thin walled pipes, as they allow inspection of the whole circumference of the tube

  14. Collapse Pressure Analysis of Transversely Isotropic Thick-Walled Cylinder Using Lebesgue Strain Measure and Transition Theory

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for the design of the thick-walled cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material so that collapse of cylinder due to influence of internal and external pressure can be avoided. The concept of transition theory based on Lebesgue strain measure has been used to simplify the constitutive equations. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From this analysis, it has been concluded that, under the influence of internal and external pressure, circular cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material (beryl) is on the safer side of the design as compared to the cylinders made up of isotropic material (steel). This is because of the reason that percentage increase in effective pressure required for initial yielding to become fully plastic is high for beryl as compared to steel which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that reduces the possibility of collapse of thick-walled cylinder due to internal and external pressure. PMID:24523632

  15. Instrumented thick-walled tube method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the thermal pressure coefficient and cure-induced and thermally induced stresses based on an instrumented thick-walled tube vessel. The device has been demonstrated at pressures up to 330 MPa and temperatures to 300 °C. The method uses a sealed stainless steel thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The tube is instrumented with strain gauges in hoop and in axial directions and can be used in open or closed configurations. By making measurements of the isotropic stresses as a function of temperature, the method allows determination of the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. The method also can be used to measure isotropic stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, di-2-ethylhexylsebacate, and an epoxy resin. The current report shows that the method provides reliable estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient. The thermal pressure coefficient is determined with resolution on the order of 10kPa/K. Among advantages of the method is that the tubes are reusable, even when measurements are made for cure response of thermosetting resins.

  16. Instability of the two-layered thick-walled esophageal model under the external pressure and circular outer boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Fung, T C; Chian, K S; Chong, C K

    2007-01-01

    The mucosal folding is a phenomenon observed for some biological tissues, including the pulmonary airway and gastrointestinal tract. In order to understand the mechanism of the formation of mucosal folding, a thick-walled two-layered cylindrical mathematical model was developed to investigate the buckling behavior under the external pressure and circular outer boundary condition. With the finite element method, the validity and accuracy of the proposed model was verified. The results showed that the fold number was in the range of 4-6, which was agreed with the experimental observation for the mucosal folding of a porcine esophagus. The fold number was found to decrease with the increase in the ratio of the inner to outer material stiffness. The increase in the thickness of inner layer also caused a slight declination of the fold number. Since the effects of both the material and geometrical nonlinearities have been accounted for, this model is more general to be used for the prediction of the buckling behavior of the layered structure with a wide range of thickness ratios and/or stiffness ratios. PMID:16677658

  17. Viscoelastic fluid flow in a 2D channel bounded above by a deformable finite thickness elastic wall

    E-print Network

    Debadi Chakraborty; J. Ravi Prakash

    2015-02-11

    The steady flow of three viscoelastic fluids (Oldroyd-B, FENE-P, and Owens model for blood) in a two-dimensional channel, partly bound by a deformable, finite thickness neo-Hookean solid, is computed. The limiting Weissenberg number beyond which computations fail to converge is found to increase with increasing dimensionless solid elasticity parameter {\\Gamma}, following the trend Owens > FENE- P > Oldroyd-B. The highly shear thinning nature of Owens model leads to the elastic solid always collapsing into the channel, for the wide range of values of {\\Gamma} considered here. In the case of the FENE-P and Oldroyd-B models, however, the fluid-solid interface can be either within the channel, or bulge outwards, depending on the value of {\\Gamma}. This behaviour differs considerably from predictions of earlier models that treat the deformable solid as a zero-thickness membrane, in which case the membrane always lies within the channel. The capacity of the solid wall to support both pressure and shear stress, in contrast to the zero-thickness membrane that only responds to pressure, is responsible for the observed difference. Compar- ison of the stress and velocity fields in the channel for the three viscoelastic fluids, with the predictions for a Newtonian fluid, reveals that shear thinning rather than elasticity is the key source of the observed differences in behaviour.

  18. Evaluation of discontinuity stresses in thick walled cylindrical shells by means of an embedded polariscope 

    E-print Network

    Cano, Narciso Ortiz

    1968-01-01

    section of a thick cylindrical shell. Each polarizing sheet consists of a film of Polaroid mated to a quarter-wave plate. The outer surfaces are coated with a thin film of acetate. If the sheets are arranged with the quarter-wave plates facing each... of the specimens were milled smooth to approximate conditions that would be found on the actual models. In preparing the plastic surfaces, the procedure used was as follows: 1. Lap the surface with a strip of silicon carbide (280 grit). Remove residue and wipe...

  19. Remodeling characteristics and collagen distribution in synthetic mesh materials explanted from human subjects after abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of remodeling characteristics by patient risk factors and surgical site classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of synthetic meshes biopsied from their abdominal wall repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. Methods Biopsies of the synthetic meshes were obtained from the abdominal wall repair sites of 51 patients during a subsequent abdominal re-exploration. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics (cell infiltration, cell types, extracellular matrix deposition, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and neovascularization) and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were also stained with Sirius Red and Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a threshold p value of ?0.200. Results The model selection process for the extracellular matrix score yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation, and mesh classification (c-statistic = 0.842). For CR score, the model selection process yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2 = 0.464). The model selection process for the collagen III area yielded a model with two variables: subject body mass index at time of mesh explantation and pack-year history (r2 = 0.244). Conclusion Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict degree of remodeling for synthetic meshes used to reinforce abdominal wall repair sites. These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances for which non-constructive remodeling of an abdominal wall repair site with synthetic mesh reinforcement is most likely to occur. PMID:24442681

  20. The impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on left ventricular performance and wall thickness – single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Szyma?ski, Piotr; D?browski, Maciej; Zakrzewski, Dariusz; Micha?ek, Piotr; Or?owska-Baranowska, Ewa; El-Hassan, Kamal; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Adam; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a treatment alternative for the elderly population with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Aim To assess the impact of TAVI on echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) performance and wall thickness in patients subjected to the procedure in a single-centre between 2009 and 2013. Material and methods The initial group consisted of 170 consecutive patients with severe AS unsuitable for SAVR. Logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was 21.73 ±12.42% and mean age was 79.9 ±7.5 years. Results The TAVI was performed in 167 (98.2%) patients. Mean aortic gradient decreased significantly more rapidly after the procedure (from 58.6 ±16.7 mm Hg to 11.9 ±4.9 mm Hg, p < 0.001). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly increased in both short-term and long-term follow-up (57 ±14% vs. 59 ±13%, p < 0.001 and 56 ±14% vs. 60 ±12%, p < 0.001, respectively). Significant regression of interventricular septum diameter at end-diastole (IVSDD) and end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (EDPWth) was noted in early (15.0 ±2.4 mm vs. 14.5 ±2.3 mm, p < 0.001 and 12.7 ±2.1 mm vs. 12.4 ±1.9 mm, p < 0.028, respectively) and late post-TAVI period (15.1 ±2.5 mm to 14.3 ±2.5 mm, p < 0.001 and 12.8 ±2.0 mm to 12.4 ±1.9 mm, p < 0.007, respectively). Significant paravalvular leak (PL) was noted in 21 (13.1%) patients immediately after TAVI and in 13 (9.6%) patients in follow-up (p < 0.001). Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (msMR) was seen in 24 (14.9%) patients from the initial group and in 19 (11.8%) patients after TAVI (p < 0.001). Conclusions The TAVI had an immediate beneficial effect on LVEF, LV walls thickness, and the incidence of msMR. The results of the procedure are comparable with those described in other centres. PMID:25848369

  1. Uncertainty induced by chest wall thickness assessment methods on lung activity estimation for plutonium and americium: a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Franck, D

    2015-03-01

    In vivo lung counting aims at assessing the retained activity in the lungs. The calibration factor relating the measured counts to the worker's specific retained lung activity can be obtained by several means and strongly depends on the chest wall thickness. Here we compare, for 374 male nuclear workers, the activity assessed with a reference protocol, where the material equivalent chest wall thickness is known from ultrasound measurements, with two other protocols. The counting system is an array of four germanium detectors.It is found that non site-specific equations for the assessment of the chest wall thickness induce large biases in the assessment of activity. For plutonium isotopes or (241)Am the proportion of workers for whom the retained activity is within ± 10% of the reference one is smaller than 10%.The use of site-specific equations raises this proportion to 20% and 58% for plutonium and (241)Am, respectively.Finally, for the studied population, when site-specific equations are used for the chest wall thickness, the standard uncertainties for the lung activity are 42% and 12.5%, for plutonium and (241)Am, respectively. Due to the relatively large size of the studied population, these values are a relatively robust estimate of the uncertainties due to the assessment of the chest wall thickness for the current practice at this site. PMID:25517347

  2. Thermoacoustic Oscillations (He-4 Taconis Modes) inside a Thick-Walled Tube.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J. J.; Toshida, S.; Ravikumar, R. V.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    The equations describing thermoacoustic (Taconis) oscillations inside a liquid-level finder do not have a gravitational dependence term. Therefore, examining these oscillatory modes has potential applications for low boiling cryoliquids in micro-gravity environments, particularly in covered, wall-adjacent domains, like cryoliquids in storage containers aboard spacecraft. Because of capillary action, these liquids tend to cling to the walls of the container. We have continued proceeding work (ICEC 16) using a heavy-walled liquid-level finder for cryogenic helium-4 in 1-g experiments. The apparatus used to observe Taconis oscillations is described by Gaffney and Clement, where a long, hollow tube is immersed, open end down, into a tank of liquid helium-4. The oscillations were measured by fitting the closed end of the tube with a rubber membrane having a small permanent magnet attached. Acoustic oscillations in the tube cause vibrations in the membrane-magnet system which were sensed by a pick-up coil, converting the oscillations into an electrical voltage. The oscillations were measured as a function of voltage (i.e., magnet displacement) versus time, i.e., a time series. The immersion length of the Taconis tube in liquid helium was varied from a finite length to "zero" (tube end touching liquid) and beyond "zero" in the gas phase. The purpose was to characterize the dynamics of the Taconis oscillations and examine usage of the Taconis tube as a liquid-level finder for liquid helium in storage tanks in microgravity environments. In order to characterize the underlying dynamics causing the oscillations, Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis (i.e., "Chaos" analysis) of the oscillations was performed. "Chaotic" behavior is summarized as: an erratic-looking system is in fact deterministic and governed by a set of nonlinear differential equations which are highly sensitive to the system's initial conditions. From the time series, a number of characterizations of the underlying dynamic behavior are made, i.e., the power spectrum, phase portrait, information dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent. Inspection of the time series, power spectra, and phase portraits as a function of warm-to-cold dipstick length ratios indicate the Taconis oscillations are aperiodic and become increasingly complex with increasing ratio. Calculations of the information dimension and largest Lyapunov exponents suggest the presence of deterministic chaos. From the information dimensions it appears that the minimum number of ordinary differential equations needed to characterize the system increased from 2 to 4 with increasing dipstick warm-to-cold length ratio. In addition, distinct differences were observed in the phase portrait, information dimension. Lyapunov exponents show noticeable changes from the Taconis tube immersion value to the tube-at-liquid level. These distinctions permit accurate determination of the liquid-level even when heavy-walls of the tube generate noisy signals.

  3. Viscoelastic fluid flow in a 2D channel bounded above by a deformable finite thickness elastic wall

    E-print Network

    Chakraborty, Debadi

    2015-01-01

    The steady flow of three viscoelastic fluids (Oldroyd-B, FENE-P, and Owens model for blood) in a two-dimensional channel, partly bound by a deformable, finite thickness neo-Hookean solid, is computed. The limiting Weissenberg number beyond which computations fail to converge is found to increase with increasing dimensionless solid elasticity parameter {\\Gamma}, following the trend Owens > FENE- P > Oldroyd-B. The highly shear thinning nature of Owens model leads to the elastic solid always collapsing into the channel, for the wide range of values of {\\Gamma} considered here. In the case of the FENE-P and Oldroyd-B models, however, the fluid-solid interface can be either within the channel, or bulge outwards, depending on the value of {\\Gamma}. This behaviour differs considerably from predictions of earlier models that treat the deformable solid as a zero-thickness membrane, in which case the membrane always lies within the channel. The capacity of the solid wall to support both pressure and shear stress, in c...

  4. Growth of intraperitoneally transplanted ascites hepatoma, AH39 cells, in the area of gelatin sponge inoculation into the abdominal wall of Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Nakamura, K

    1979-04-01

    A piece of gelatin sponge was inoculated submesothelialy in the abdominal wall of female Donryu rats, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, or 21 days later, 1 x 10(5) cells of ascites hepatoma AH39 were intraperitoneally transplanted. Tumor cells were detected in the area of gelatin sponge inoculation in each group 2 to 5 days after the transplantation. Generally, the number of rats in which tumor cells were detected was larger in those transplanted with tumor cells within a short period after the gelatin sponge inoculation. Changes in the area of gelatin sponge inoculation and nontreated area in the rats which received intraperitoneal transplantation of the tumor cells on the 1st day after gelatin sponge inoculation were studied. Tumor cells were detected in the area of gelatin sponge inoculation as early as 2 days after the tumor transplantation, whereas they were detected on the 14th day in nontreated areas. Tumor detection was preceded by inflammatory reaction in both cases. PMID:157308

  5. The stress intensity factors for an infinitely long transversely isotropic, thick-walled cylinder which contains a ring-shaped crack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Altinel; H. Fildi?; O. S. Yah?i

    1996-01-01

    In this study the elastostatic axisymmetric problem for a long thick-walled transversely anisotropic cylinder containing a ring-shaped internal crack is analyzed. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation which has a simple Cauchy kernel as the dominant part by using Hankel and Fourier transform techniques. These equations are then solved numerically and the stress intensity factors are calculated.

  6. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Fourth quarter technical progress report for period ending September 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research aimed at optimizing an automated welding process for the field fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels and for evaluating the welded joints. Information is included on the welding equipment, mechanical control of the process, joint design, filler wire optimization, in-process nondestructive testing of welds, and repair techniques. (LCL)

  7. January 12, 2005 Bone Thickness Name Part I. In general, bones with thicker walls are stronger and heavier, and bones with thinner

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    thickness of the limb bones in 5 animals: alligators, chickens, cows, humans, and the giant dinosaur to the K values you expect to find. The five animals are: alligator, chicken, cow, human, Stegosaurus bones with thin walls." Alligator Chicken Cow Human Stegosaurus Part II. Measure the bones and calculate

  8. Welding for testability: An approach aimed at improving the ultrasonic testing of thick-walled austenitic and dissimilar metal welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sabine; Dugan, Sandra; Barth, Martin; Schubert, Frank; Köhler, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Austenitic and dissimilar welds in thick walled components show a coarse grained, dendritic microstructure. Therefore, ultrasonic testing has to deal with beam refraction, scattering and mode conversion effects. As a result, the testing techniques typically applied for isotropic materials yield dissatisfying results. Most approaches for improvement of ultrasonic testing have been based on modeling and improved knowledge of the complex wave propagation phenomena. In this paper, we discuss an alternative approach: is it possible to use a modified welding technology which eliminates the cause of the UT complications, i.e. the large-grained structure of the weld seams? Various modification parameters were tested, including: TIG current pulsing, additional DC and AC magnetic fields, and also additional external vibrations during welding. For all welds produced under different conditions, the grain structure of the weld seam was characterized by optical and GIUM microstructure visualizations on cross sections, wave field propagation measurements, and ultrasonic tests of correct detectability of flaws. The mechanical properties of the welds were also tested.

  9. Failure Analysis of Weld Cracking in a Thick-Walled 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiaowei; Niu, Jing; Zhang, Jianxun; Fu, Anqing; Feng, Yaorong

    2014-04-01

    A crack in thick-walled 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessel girth weld was found during manufacturing. To investigate the cause of failure, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness tester were used in this study. According to test results, the fracture is classified as reheat cracking with multiple origins. The cracking occurred during surfacing or final post-weld heat treatment process. Coarse-grains in the weld and bulk-carbides precipitated along grain boundaries induced by multiple heating are main causes of the fracture from material aspect, while high level of the hoop stress component and excess localized deformation in stress relief procedure are mechanical aspect causes of the cracking. The fracture surfaces present major intergranular feature with a small fraction of transgranular morphologies. Large numbers of M3C and M23C6 carbides particles were found on the fracture surface, these carbides mainly precipitated on prior austenite-grain boundaries, columnar-grain boundaries, and sub-grain boundaries. Additionally, several proposals were also offered to reduce weld cracking of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessels.

  10. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  11. Fracture resistance of welded thick-walled high-pressure vessels in power plants. Report No. 2. Approach to evaluating static strength

    SciTech Connect

    Gorynin, I.V.; Filatov, V.M.; Ignatov, V.A.; Timofeev, B.T.; Zvezdin, Yu. I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors examine data on the effect of defects on the fracture resistance of high-pressure vessels and their models obtained within the framework of the HSST program. Results of internal-pressure tests of two types of vessels with a wall thickness of 152 mm made from forgings of steels SA508 and SA533, as well as small vessels with a wall thickness of 11.5 and 23mm made of steel SA533 are shown. The authors state that testing thick-walled welded high-pressure vessels and thin-walled vessels with surface defects of different sizes has demonstrated that there are substantial static-strength reserves in structures designed by existing domestic and foreign standards on the strength of power-plant equipment. A correction was proposed for the presently used method of calculating the resistance of highpressure vessels to brittle fracture that allows for the dimensions of the defects in relation to the type of vessel, the manufacturing technology, and the method of inspection.

  12. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to change position for additional pictures. • A lower GI series is an x-ray exam that is ... ultrasound. However, abdominal x rays, a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series, and computerized tomography (CT) scans can diagnose ...

  13. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  14. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-11-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  15. Precise Measurement of Pipe Wall Thickness in Noncontact Manner Using a Circumferential Lamb Wave Generated and Detected by a Pair of Air-Coupled Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hideo; Asano, Tadashi; Taniguchi, Yuta; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ogura, Yukio

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of accurately estimating pipe wall thickness by detecting the minute difference in the angular wave number of a circumferential (C-) Lamb wave. A C-Lamb wave circling along a circumference of a pipe is transmitted and received by a pair of noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. For the accurate detection of the angular wave number, a large number of tone-burst cycles are used so as to superpose the C-Lamb wave on itself along its circumferential orbit. In this setting, the amplitude of the superposed region changes considerably with the angular wave number, from which the wall thickness can be estimated. This method is very useful to monitor the integrity of piping in high-temperature environments because of its noncontact nature. The principle of the method and experimental verification are shown.

  16. Effects of Mechanical Vibration and Wall Thickness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Processed by Expendable Pattern Shell Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian; Chen, Xu; Wang, Benjing; Wu, Hebao

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical vibration was introduced into the solidification process of AZ91D magnesium alloy during the expendable pattern shell casting process, and the combined effects of mechanical vibration and wall thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicate that with the increase of wall thickness, the morphologies in ?-Mg phase and ?-Mg17Al12 phase of the samples obtained without vibration evolved from a fine dendrite to a coarse dendrite and from a fine continuous network structure to a coarse continuous network structure, respectively, and the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy continuously decreased. With the application of mechanical vibration, the coarser dendrites transformed into fine equiaxed grains, and the previous coarse continuous network structure of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase was changed to a discontinuous granular morphology. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy greatly increased. The effect of mechanical vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties increased with increasing vibration frequency and wall thickness. The fractographs of the tensile samples show a change in fracture surface from brittle to that of a tough fracture with the addition of vibration.

  17. An experimental investigation of lead zirconate titanate--epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube bulk and flexible thick film composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sankha

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are needed for a wide range of applications from physiological measurement to industrial monitoring systems. Sensors that can be easily integrated with the host, while maintaining high sensitivity and reliability over a wide range of frequencies are not readily feasible and economical with homogenous piezoelectric materials. It is well known that two-phase piezoelectric-epoxy composites offer several benefits over their single phase counterparts, as the properties of the constituent phases combine to improve the range of applicability. However, the piezoelectric properties of these materials suffer from the electrically insulating properties of the epoxy matrix. The electrical properties of the matrix may be enhanced by including electrically conducting inclusions however, less is known about the mechanisms that drive the changes in these properties. Hence, this experimental investigation of sensor materials builds on the previous work in two-phase piezoelectric composites, where the aims are to understand the roles that specific fabrication parameters and inclusion composition play in determining the piezoelectric and dielectric performance the aforementioned composites. The materials under investigation will be comprised of Lead Zirconate Titanate, Epofix Cold-Setting Embedding Resin and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, i.e. the piezoelectric, epoxy and electrical inclusions respectively. Our work suggests that inclusion of MWCNTs enhances the piezoelectric and dielectric properties with increasing volume fraction below the percolation threshold. This work seeks to understand how the processing parameters: poling temperature, poling type and particle distribution influence the contact resistance, space charge double layer at the piezoelectric and conductor interfaces and electric field intensity at the piezoelectric boundary, which all ultimately dictate the piezoelectric and dielectric performance of the composite materials. Conventional solid oxide mixing, spin coating and deposition techniques will be used to fabricate the bulk and thick films. The piezoelectric and dielectric performance will be determined from the measurement of the piezoelectric strain coefficients, d33 and d31, dielectric constant, impedance and dielectric spectrum, dielectric loss tangent, and capacitance. These measurements will be correlated with inclusion size, shape, distribution, and surface morphology observations obtained from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: from clinical imaging to realistic replicas.

    PubMed

    de Galarreta, Sergio Ruiz; Aitor, Cazón; Antón, Raúl; Finol, Ender A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a framework for manufacturing nonuniform wall thickness replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The methodology was based on the use of computed tomography (CT) images for virtual modeling, additive manufacturing for the initial physical replica, and a vacuum casting process and range of polyurethane resins for the final rubberlike phantom. The average wall thickness of the resulting AAA phantom was compared with the average thickness of the corresponding patient-specific virtual model, obtaining an average dimensional mismatch of 180??m (11.14%). The material characterization of the artery was determined from uniaxial tensile tests as various combinations of polyurethane resins were chosen due to their similarity with ex vivo AAA mechanical behavior in the physiological stress configuration. The proposed methodology yields AAA phantoms with nonuniform wall thickness using a fast and low-cost process. These replicas may be used in benchtop experiments to validate deformations obtained with numerical simulations using finite element analysis, or to validate optical methods developed to image ex vivo arterial deformations during pressure-inflation testing. PMID:24190650

  19. Allowable local thickness of wall-thinned straight pipes in ASME Code Case N-597-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Hak Park; Kyu In Shin; Chi Yong Park; Sung Ho Lee

    2008-01-01

    The wall-thinning problem has become a hot issue in the assessment of the structural integrity of pipes and pipe items. A criterion is necessary to determine the possibility of continuing use for the wall-thinned pipes detected by non-destructive inspection. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler & Pressure (B&PV) Vessel Section XI, Div. 1, Code Case N-597-2 [Requirements for

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  1. Single flap with three pedicles, bone paté and split-thickness skin graft for immediate mastoid obliteration after canal wall down mastoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Khaled M; Khafagy, Yasser W

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate single flap with three pedicles, bone paté and split-thickness skin graft for mastoid cavity obliteration after canal wall down mastoidectomy done for chronic suppurative otitis media and its efficacy in producing a small and dry mastoid cavity. Over a period of 7 years (2003-2010), 100 consecutive procedures in 100 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were performed at the Mansoura University Hospital (Egypt) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months (range 12-72 months). All patients had canal wall down mastoidectomy with simultaneous tympanoplasty. Anteriorly, inferiorly and superiorly pedicled periosteal flap, which was covered by split-thickness skin graft, was used in conjunction with autologous bone paté to obliterate the mastoid cavity. Postoperative evaluation was done based on certain criteria and grading system from 0 to 3. Grade 0 is considered perfect, grade 3 represents failure and grade 1 and 2 are adequate but not perfect. The summation of grade "0" (perfect dry) and grade "1" (adequate dry) was 88, 95, 97.23 and 98.44% after follow-up periods of 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, and 100% after 60 and 72 months. Periosteal flap based on three pedicles (anterior, inferior and superior) covering the bone paté is simple, perfect and adequate for obliteration of mastoid cavity after canal wall down mastoidectomy. Split-thickness skin graft is important to hasten the epithelialization that helps to obtain a dry cavity. The use of local tissues saves costs and avoids complications from the synthetic materials. PMID:22127570

  2. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  3. Physiology in Medicine: physiological basis of diaphragmatic dysfunction with abdominal hernias-implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Koo, Patrick; Gartman, Eric J; Sethi, Jigme M; McCool, F Dennis

    2015-01-15

    An incisional hernia is a common complication after abdominal surgery. Complaints of dyspnea in this population may be attributed to cardiopulmonary dysfunction or deconditioning. Large abdominal incisional hernias, however, may cause diaphragm dysfunction and result in dyspnea, which is more pronounced when standing (platypnea). The use of an abdominal binder may alleviate platypnea in this population. We discuss the link between diaphragm dysfunction and the lack of abdominal wall integrity and how abdominal wall support partially restores diaphragm function. PMID:25377882

  4. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  5. Maternal Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Increased Inner Airway Wall Thickness in Children Who Die from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN ELLIOT; PETER VULLERMIN; PHILIP ROBINSON

    1998-01-01

    The harmful effects of passive cigarette smoke exposure to infants include an increased frequency of asthma exacerbations, lower respiratory viral infections, and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Because of a difficulty in obtaining airway tissue from infants, little information is available on the effects of passive cigarette smoke exposure on the structure of the infant airway wall. We exam-

  6. Analysis of transient heat flow to thick-walled plates and cylinders. [to determine gas heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.

  7. Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs that were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall was measured before and after the application of topical negative pressures of ?50, ?75 and ?125mmHg using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 64·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of ?50mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3±9·6% (P <0·05) after the application of ?50mmHg using the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 39·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of ?125mmHg using VAC and to 40·5±6·2% (P <0·05) after the application of ?125mmHg using ABThera. No significant difference in reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system afforded significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound, better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing. PMID:23517436

  8. Effects of a high-cholesterol diet on arterial wall thickness and vascular reactivity in young rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ludwig; K. O. Stumpe; A. Sauer; R. Kolloch; U. Goertz; H. Vetter

    1992-01-01

    Cholesterol enrichment of arteries may induce biochemical and structural abnormalities in vascular smooth muscle resulting in increased arterial contractile sensitivity. We studied the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on arterial structural properties and vascular reactivity in young rabbits. In vivo measurements of aortic intimal-plus-medial thickness using high resolution ultrasound imaging were obtained before and after 3 weeks of a high-cholesterol

  9. Estimation of PSD Shifts for High-Resolution Metrology of Thickness Micro-Changes with Possible Applications in Vessel Walls and Biological Membrane Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Antonio; Bazán, Ivonne; Negreira, Carlos; Brum, Javier; Gómez, Tomás; Calás, Héctor; Ruiz, Abelardo; de la Rosa, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Achieving accurate measurements of inflammation levels in tissues or thickness changes in biological membranes (e.g., amniotic sac, parietal pleura) and thin biological walls (e.g., blood vessels) from outside the human body, is a promising research line in the medical area. It would provide a technical basis to study the options for early diagnosis of some serious diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis or tuberculosis. Nevertheless, achieving the aim of non-invasive measurement of those scarcely-accessible parameters on patient internal tissues, currently presents many difficulties. The use of high-frequency ultrasonic transducer systems appears to offer a possible solution. Previous studies using conventional ultrasonic imaging have shown this, but the spatial resolution was not sufficient so as to permit a thickness evaluation with clinical significance, which requires an accuracy of a few microns. In this paper a broadband ultrasonic technique, that was recently developed by the authors to address other non-invasive medical detection problems (by integrating a piezoelectric transducer into a spectral measuring system), is extended to our new objective; the aim is its application to the thickness measurement of sub-millimeter membranes or layers made of materials similar to some biological tissues (phantoms). The modeling and design rules of such a transducer system are described, and various methods of estimating overtones location in the power spectral density (PSD) are quantitatively assessed with transducer signals acquired using piezoelectric systems and also generated from a multi-echo model. Their effects on the potential resolution of the proposed thickness measuring tool, and their capability to provide accuracies around the micron are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with typical tools for extracting spatial parameters in laminar samples from echo-waveforms acquired with ultrasonic transducers. Results of this advanced measurement spectral tool are found to improve the performance of typical cross-correlation methods and provide reliable and high-resolution estimations. PMID:23202216

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of abdominal distension in 52 camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal distension in 52 camels (Camelus dromedarius). The conditions included trypanosomiasis (n=35), intestinal obstruction (n=12) and ruptured urinary bladder (n=5). Fifteen clinically normal camels were included as controls. Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonography was carried out on all camels. In animals with trypanosomiasis, ultrasonographic findings included accumulation of massive amounts of hypoechoic abdominal fluids where liver, intestine, kidney, spleen and urinary bladder were imaged floating. Except in two cases of bile duct calcification and one of hepatic abscessation, no detectable abnormal sonographic lesions were detected while imaging the hepatic and renal parenchyma, and the heart and its valves and major blood vessels. In camels with intestinal obstruction, ultrasonographic findings included distended intestinal loops with markedly reduced or absent motility. In one camel, the intestinal lumen contained localised hyperechoic material that was consistent with a foreign body. Hypoechoic fluid with or without fibrin was seen between intestinal loops. In camels with ruptured urinary bladder, ultrasonographic findings included collapsed and perforated bladder, echogenic blood clots within the urinary bladder and peritoneal cavity, increased thickness of the bladder wall, floating intestines in hypoechogenic fluid and echogenic calculi within the urethra. Ultrasonography was considered a useful tool for the evaluation of dromedary camels with abdominal distension. PMID:21840025

  11. A new multichannel time reversal focusing method for circumferential Lamb waves and its applications for defect detection in thick-walled pipe with large-diameter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zenghua; Xu, Qinglong; Gong, Yu; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a new multichannel time reversal focusing (MTRF) method for circumferential Lamb waves which is based on modified time reversal algorithm and applies this method for detecting different kinds of defects in thick-walled pipe with large-diameter. The principle of time reversal of circumferential Lamb waves in pipe is presented along with the influence from multiple guided wave modes and propagation paths. Experimental study is carried out in a thick-walled and large-diameter pipe with three artificial defects, namely two axial notches on its inner and outer surface respectively, and a corrosion-like defect on its outer surface. By using the proposed MTRF method, the multichannel signals focus at the defects, leading to the amplitude improvement of the defect scattered signal. Besides, another energy focus arises in the direct signal due to the partial compensation of dispersion and multimode of circumferential Lamb waves, alongside the multichannel focusing, during MTRF process. By taking the direct focus as a time base, accurate defect localization is implemented. Secondly, a new phenomenon is exhibited in this paper that defect scattered wave packet appears just before the right boundary of truncation window after time reversal, and to which two feasible explanations are given. Moreover, this phenomenon can be used as the theoretical basis in the determination of defect scattered waves in time reversal response signal. At last, in order to detect defects without prior knowing their exact position, a large-range truncation window is used in the proposed method. As a result, the experimental operation of MTRF method is simplified and defect detection and localization are well accomplished. PMID:24877582

  12. Automated airway evaluation system for multi-slice computed tomography using airway lumen diameter, airway wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2006-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases such as bronchiectasis, asthma, and emphysema are characterized by abnormalities in airway dimensions. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has become one of the primary means to depict these abnormalities, as the availability of high-resolution near-isotropic data makes it possible to evaluate airways at oblique angles to the scanner plane. However, currently, clinical evaluation of airways is typically limited to subjective visual inspection only: systematic evaluation of the airways to take advantage of high-resolution data has not proved practical without automation. We present an automated method to quantitatively evaluate airway lumen diameter, wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratios. In addition, our method provides 3D visualization of these values, graphically illustrating the location and extent of disease. Our algorithm begins by automatic airway segmentation to extract paths to the distal airways, and to create a map of airway diameters. Normally, airway diameters decrease as paths progress distally; failure to taper indicates abnormal dilatation. Our approach monitors airway lumen diameters along each airway path in order to detect abnormal profiles, allowing even subtle degrees of pathologic dilatation to be identified. Our method also systematically computes the broncho-arterial ratio at every terminal branch of the tree model, as a ratio above 1 indicates potentially abnormal bronchial dilatation. Finally, the airway wall thickness is computed at corresponding locations. These measurements are used to highlight abnormal branches for closer inspection, and can be summed to compute a quantitative global score for the entire airway tree, allowing reproducible longitudinal assessment of disease severity. Preliminary tests on patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis demonstrated rapid identification of lack of tapering, which also was confirmed by corresponding demonstration of elevated broncho-arterial ratios.

  13. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  14. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  15. Metaplastic bone formation in the abdominal wall--an incidental finding in a patient with gastric cancer. Case report and hypothesis about its histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Jung, Ioan

    2013-12-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized showing symptoms suggesting gastric cancer. The gastroscopy showed a 70 × 30-mm tumor. The intraoperatory findings indicated an inoperable gastric tumor located in the antrum and gastric body, which invaded the spleen and pancreas. The abdominal incision was closed without performing gastrectomy. Considering his general condition, after 1 month, he was transferred to our hospital. We decided to perform a total gastrectomy of necessity, spleno-pancreatectomy, and dissection of regional lymph nodes. The surgical incision was performed along to the previous one. At palpation, a well-defined nodule with hard consistency was observed in the surgical scar, which microscopically was composed by osteoblasts-lining mature lamellar bone intermingled with osteoid and cartilage in the intermediary layer and fibroblasts in the central area, without atypia. The final diagnosis was localized metaplastic bone formation. This is a rare condition which can be related to trauma or surgery and should be differentiated by foreign-body granuloma and osteosarcoma. PMID:24257191

  16. The biomechanical behavior and host response to porcine-derived small intestine submucosa, pericardium and dermal matrix acellular grafts in a rat abdominal defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Guan Yu; Xiao, Yi Pin; Fan, Lie Ying; Wang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Several porcine-derived acellular biologic grafts are increasingly used in abdominal wall reconstruction due to the limitations of synthetic meshes in many clinical situations. However, relatively little is known so far about their comparative mechanical characteristics and performance after defect repair. We therefore investigated three most commonly used porcine-derived acellular biomaterials, small intestine submucosa (P-SIS), pericardium (P-PC) and acellular dermal matrix (P-ADM) immediately after prepared, and their effectiveness, biomechanical and histological characteristics in repairing full-thickness abdominal defect in a rat model. P-PC had the best native performance in the burst strength, tensile strength and ball burst among the three porcine-derived scaffolds. P-SIS showed a significantly higher water vapor transmission in comparison with P-PC or P-ADM. Abdominal wall defects in rats were all satisfied repaired with P-SIS, P-PC or P-ADM. No laxity or fistula was observed in the repaired abdominal wall in the P-SIS group up to 8 weeks after surgery. However, there was a tendency for high postoperative abdominal eventration in the P-ADM and P-PC groups as compared with the P-SIS group. With regard to overall aspects of the postoperative laxity, intra-abdominal adhesion formation, tensile stress, stretchability, and degree of tissue ingrowth in terms of collagen deposition and neovascularization, P-SIS exhibits clear advantages over P-PC as well as P-ADM after large abdominal wall defect reconstruction. PMID:21741703

  17. The short-term effects of growth hormone therapy on height velocity and cardiac ventricular wall thickness in children with Noonan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, A M; McKenna, W J; Brady, A F; Sharland, M; Elsawi, M; Yamada, M; Camacho-Hübner, C; Kelnar, C J; Dunger, D B; Patton, M A; Savage, M O

    1996-06-01

    Noonan's syndrome (NS) is associated with short stature and cardiac defects. Small studies reported linear growth increases with recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy, but also raised concerns related to the anabolic effects of rhGH and the possible progression of ventricular hypertrophy. We report a multicenter study examining the efficacy and safety of rhGH (4 IU/m2.day, sc) in children with NS. Entry criteria were: NS confirmed by single observer, height SD score less than -2(UK Height Standards 1990), prepubertal, and normal maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness less than 1 cm by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Thirty subjects were recruited (19 males and 11 females), aged 8.9 +/- 0.5 yr (range, 4.8-13.7 yr). Growth was monitored for 12 months before and at 3-month intervals during therapy. Measurements of maximal LV wall thickness were taken at 0 and 12 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I(IGF-I), IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Ten subjects with NS (4 females and 6 males), aged 8.8 +/- 0.7 yr (range, 6.3-11.8 yr), were monitored over the same period as a comparison group. In the treatment group, 27 subjects completed 12 months of therapy. Height SD score increased from -3.01 +/- 0.10 to -2.36 +/- 0.10 (P < 0.0001) after 12 months; height velocity (HV) increased from 4.9 +/- 0.2 to 8.9 +/- 0.3 cm/yr at 6 months and 8.1 +/- 0.4 cm/yr (P < 0.0001) from 6-12 months. The HV SD score increased from -0.7 +/- 0.15 to +2.42 +/- 0.32 over 12 months (P < 0.0001). The increase in HV was more than 2 cm/yr in 24 patients. IGF-I increased from 121 +/- 13 to 240 +/- 22 micrograms/L at 12 months (P < 0.0001), and IGF-binding protein-3 increased from 2.65 +/- 0.20 to 4.01 +/- 0.42 mg/L at 12 months (P = 0.0009). In the comparison group, there was no change in height SD score (-2.03 +/- 0.19), HV (4.4 +/- 0.24 CM/yr), or HV SD score (- 1.08 +/- 0.21). There was no increase in mean maximal LV wall thickness during the study in either the treatment group (12 month values were 0.63 +/- 0.02 cm at the mitral valve level and 0.66 +/- 0.02 cm at the papillary muscle level) or in the comparison group (0.63 +/- 0.04 cm at the mitral valve level and 0.61 +/- 0.03 cm at the papillary muscle level). In conclusion, rhGH was effective in 24 of the treated patients; these subjects achieved a significant increase in height SD score and HV over 1 yr. Abnormal anabolic effects of rhGH on myocardial thickness were not confirmed, and no patient developed features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:8964866

  18. Teriparatide Therapy Reduces Serum Phosphate and Intima-Media Thickness at the Carotid Wall Artery in Patients with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Maki; Imanishi, Yasuo; Nagata, Yuki; Ohara, Masaya; Yoda, Koichiro; Yamada, Shinsuke; Mori, Katsuhito; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Although cross-sectional and longitudinal studies report a relationship between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disorders (known as the bone-cardiovascular axis), the benefits of osteoporosis treatment on atherosclerosis are largely unclear. Teriparatide is a bone-forming agent that increases urinary phosphate excretion. Because elevated serum phosphate is associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the purpose of our study was to examine the relationship among lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD), intima-media thickness at the carotid artery (CA-IMT), and phosphate metabolism in response to daily teriparatide therapy. Osteoporotic patients (n = 28) with low LS-BMD (T-score < -2.5) and/or at least one vertebral fracture were treated with teriparatide (20 ?g/day) for 12 months. Metabolic bone markers, LS-BMD, and CA-IMT were measured over the course of treatment. The LS-BMD significantly increased by 0.046 ± 0.038 g/cm(2) over the 12-month period (P < 0.001). CA-IMT decreased from 0.701 mm (interquartile range: 0.655-0.774 mm) at baseline to 0.525 mm (0.477-0.670 mm) at 12 months (P < 0.05); however, CA-IMT change was not significantly associated with LS-BMD change. Serum phosphate decreased after 1 month of teriparatide administration, and the change in serum phosphate at 1 months was associated with the change in CA-IMT at 12 months (? = 0.431, P = 0.025). Teriparatide improved LS-BMD and CA-IMT, suggesting the existence of the bone-cardiovascular axis. The association between serum phosphate and CA-IMT suggests that the teriparatide decreased CA-IMT in part by reducing serum phosphate, a well-known vascular toxin, in addition to the improvement of bone-cardiovascular axis. PMID:25926047

  19. Computational analysis of oxygen transport in a patient-specific model of abdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus.

    PubMed

    Sun, N; Leung, J H; Wood, N B; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A; Cheshire, N J; Xu, X Y

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease in which the afflicted person suffers from a localised dilatation of the abdominal aorta. Intraluminal thrombus (ILT), which is present in approximately 75% of all AAAs, plays an important role in the progression of the disease. It has been suggested that ILT may attenuate oxygen diffusion to the aortic wall, resulting in further degeneration and weakening of the wall. Previous numerical studies using idealised AAA models have shown the effect of ILT thickness on oxygen diffusion, but patient-specific studies of oxygen transport incorporating convection, diffusion and reaction from the lumen to AAA wall are lacking. In the present study, a coupled fluid-thrombus-wall model was developed to simulate oxygen transport in a patient-specific AAA containing ILT. Blood flow in the lumen was governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and oxygen transfer was described by the convection-diffusion equation in the lumen, diffusion equation in the thrombus, and diffusion-reaction equation in the wall. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of numerical predictions to oxygen diffusivity in ILT and adventitial oxygen concentration. The results not only provide further support to previous findings that the presence of ILT may significantly impair oxygen transfer from blood to the aortic wall, but also demonstrate that adventitial oxygen concentration has a profound effect on oxygen concentration in the wall, and that the oxygen supply from the lumen to the wall can be reduced by 80% if the ILT thickness is greater than 5 mm. PMID:20348531

  20. Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Damiano, B.; Bingham, P.R.; Gee, T.F.; Tucker, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Hileman, M.; Emery, M.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Hardy, J.E.; Weaver, K.; Crutcher, R.; Kolarik, R.V., II; Vandervaart, R.H.

    2002-04-24

    Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube wall and therefore provide a more precisely dimensioned product for their customers. The resulting process energy savings are substantial, as is lowered environmental burden. The expected savings are $85.8 million per year in seamless mechanical tube piercing alone. Applied across the industry, this measurement has a potential of reducing energy consumption by 6 x 10{sup 12} BTU per year, greenhouse gas emissions by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year, and toxic waste by 0.255 million pounds per year. The principal technical contributors to the project were the Timken Company, Industrial Materials Institute (IMI, a contractor to Timken), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Timken provided mill access as well as process and metallurgical understanding. Timken researchers had previously developed fundamental ultrasonic analysis methods on which this project is based. IMI developed and fabricated the laser ultrasonic generation and receiver systems. ORNL developed Bayesian and wavelet based real-time signal processing, spread-spectrum wireless communication, and explored feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. The resulting instrument has successfully measured production tubes at one of Timken's piercing mills. This report concentrates on ORNL's contribution through the CRADA mechanism. The three components of ORNL's contribution were met with mixed success. The real-time signal-processing task accomplished its goal of improvement in detecting time of flight information with a minimum of false data. The signal processing algorithm development resulted in a combination of processing steps that can be set to generate no spoofs from noise, while simultaneously missing fewer than 10% of good trials. The algorithm leads to a 95% probability that the estimate of time of flight is good to within 4 time bins or fewer for laser excitations above 30 mJ for the first two echoes of the signal. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for the algorithm indicate that the algorithm is very robust against errors for excitations above at 35 mJ and above, tolerable at 30 mJ and unacceptable below 30 mJ.

  1. Individuals, grasses, and forests of single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown by supported Co catalysts of different nominal thicknesses

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Individuals, grasses, and forests of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown by supported (`grasses'), and vertically-aligned forests of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown by only in CNT morphologies from individuals to grasses and grasses to forests. Keywords: single-walled carbon

  2. Drought-induced increase in water-use efficiency reduces secondary tree growth and tracheid wall thickness in a Mediterranean conifer.

    PubMed

    Olano, José Miguel; Linares, Juan Carlos; García-Cervigón, Ana I; Arzac, Alberto; Delgado, Antonio; Rozas, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    In order to understand the impact of drought and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) on tree growth, we evaluated the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of water availability on secondary growth and xylem anatomy of Juniperus thurifera, a Mediterranean anisohydric conifer. Dendrochronological techniques, quantitative xylem anatomy, and (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio were combined to develop standardized chronologies for iWUE, BAI (basal area increment), and anatomical variables on a 40-year-long annually resolved series for 20 trees. We tested the relationship between iWUE and secondary growth at short-term (annual) and long-term (decadal) temporal scales to evaluate whether gains in iWUE may lead to increases in secondary growth. We obtained a positive long-term correlation between iWUE and BAI, simultaneously with a negative short-term correlation between them. Furthermore, BAI and iWUE were correlated with anatomical traits related to carbon sink or storage (tracheid wall thickness and ray parenchyma amount), but no significant correlation with conductive traits (tracheid lumen) was found. Water availability during the growing season significantly modulated tree growth at the xylem level, where growth rates and wood anatomical traits were affected by June precipitation. Our results are consistent with a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2, despite the trend of rising iWUE being maintained. We also remark the usefulness of exploring this relationship at different temporal scales to fully understand the actual links between iWUE and secondary growth dynamics. PMID:24958369

  3. Effect of the Body Wall on Lithotripter Shock Waves

    PubMed Central

    McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.; Berwick, Zachary C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Determine the influence of passage through the body wall on the properties of lithotripter shock waves (SWs) and the characteristics of the acoustic field of an electromagnetic lithotripter. Methods: Full-thickness ex vivo segments of pig abdominal wall were secured against the acoustic window of a test tank coupled to the lithotripter. A fiber-optic probe hydrophone was used to measure SW pressures, determine shock rise time, and map the acoustic field in the focal plane. Results: Peak positive pressure on axis was attenuated roughly proportional to tissue thickness—approximately 6% per cm. Irregularities in the tissue path affected the symmetry of SW focusing, shifting the maximum peak positive pressure laterally by as much as ?2?mm. Within the time resolution of the hydrophone (7–15 ns), shock rise time was unchanged, measuring ?17–21 ns with and without tissue present. Mapping of the field showed no effect of the body wall on focal width, regardless of thickness of the body wall. Conclusions: Passage through the body wall has minimal effect on the characteristics of lithotripter SWs. Other than reducing pulse amplitude and having the potential to affect the symmetry of the focused wave, the body wall has little influence on the acoustic field. These findings help to validate laboratory assessment of lithotripter acoustic field and suggest that the properties of SWs in the body are much the same as have been measured in vitro. PMID:24308532

  4. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Tempo, Jose David [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Centro de Estudios Cientificos CECS, Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  5. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... umbilical cord meets the abdomen. Organs (typically the intestines, stomach, and liver) protrude through the opening into ... umbilical cord, through which the large and small intestines protrude (although other organs may sometimes bulge out). ...

  7. A case of abdominal wall scar endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Saha, K; Shahida, S M; Mostafa, G; Ahmed, M

    2014-04-01

    Endometriosis is presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting a case of scar endometriosis following caesarean section, which was being treated as stitch granuloma for long time. Medical treatment was not helpful. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. Now the patient is under regular follow up, because there is chance of recurrence. PMID:24858173

  8. Ultrasound measurement of abdominal muscles activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing in women with and without stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Chehrehrazi, Mahshid

    2011-12-01

    Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been reported in the literature. Considering that PFM dysfunction is present in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), altered abdominal muscle activation may also occur in incontinent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in women with and without SUI using ultrasound. Convenience sample of 20 non-pregnant female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: continent females (N = 10) and females with SUI (N = 10). The percentage of change in thickness of right transverse abdominals (TrA) and internal obliques (IO) was measured during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in both groups. The result of two-way mixed-design ANOVA revealed no significant health status by maneuver interaction effect for ultrasound measurement of the percentage of change in thickness of TrA (P = 0.66) and IO (P = 0.36). The main effect of health status on the percentage of the change in thickness of TrA (P = 0.52) or IO (P = 0.84) was not statistically significant. In overall, no significant difference was found in the percentage of changes in thickness of TrA and IO muscles during abdominal hollowing or bracing maneuver between women with and without SUI. PMID:21802342

  9. Abdominal trauma in war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Rignault

    1992-01-01

    In war, the percentage of casualties with abdominal wounds on battle-fields is near 20%. Roughly half of these casualties die almost immediately from bleeding. Wounding agents are most often either bullets or fragments from various detonating devices. Severity of pathology induced by these agents and prolonged lag time between injury and treatment constitute major differences between peace and war abdominal

  10. Bone development following transplants of urinary bladder wall: a quantitative histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Callis, P D

    1982-01-01

    Bone formation occurred ten days after transplantation of guinea-pig urinary bladder wall to the anterior abdominal wall. A quantitative analysis showed that the bone which formed in the tissues of the transplant site grew rapidly during the following week. Thereafter, bone growth slowed and remodelling became evident histologically. The bone continued to enlarge for up to six months but growth was mainly confined to an increase in thickness. Matrix vesicles were observed in the early bone formation, but later, when bone growth slowed, these structures could not be observed on the bone surfaces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6215390

  11. Thickness of the pinned layer as a controlling factor in domain wall formation during training in IrMn-based spin valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Park; Shannon M. Watson; C. M. Furjanic; D. K. Draganova; S. D. Eisenberg; D. J. Tighe; P. A. Kienzle; M. J. Carey; J. A. Borchers; P. D. Sparks; J. C. Eckert

    2008-01-01

    Studies of CoFe-based spin valves with antiferromagnetic IrMn layers as thin as 1.6 nm have demonstrated that a domain wall parallel to the surface develops in the pinned layer after training at the magnetoresistance (MR) maximum. To investigate the effects of domain wall formation on the MR, we have studied the depth profile of the vector magnetization in comparable spin

  12. Critical Oxide Thickness for Efficient Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth on Silicon Using Thin SiO2 Diffusion Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Simmons; B. M. Nichols; Matthew S. Marcus; O. M. Castellini; R. J. Hamers; M. A. Eriksson

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand the range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultra-thin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a non-catalytic silicide. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we

  13. Critical oxide thickness for efficient single-walled carbon nanotube growth on silicon using thin SiO2 diffusion barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Hamers

    2006-01-01

    The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand their range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultrathin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a noncatalytic silicide. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we

  14. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

    2001-01-01

    Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

  15. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  16. Segmental abdominal zoster paresis.

    PubMed

    Jandolo, B; Biolcati, G; Montanari, U; Pietrangeli, A; Fazio, M

    1987-01-01

    A case of uncommon feature of herpes zoster, a segmental abdominal paresis, is described. The importance of searching a motor defect in the thoracoabdominal segments and the utility of the electromyographic examination are stressed. PMID:2961042

  17. Normal Abdominal CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  18. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

  19. Critical Oxide Thickness for Efficient Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth on Silicon Using Thin SiO2 Diffusion Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Simmons; Beth M. Nichols; Matthew S. Marcus; O. M. Castellini; R. J. Hamers; M. A. Eriksson

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon\\u000ananotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand the range of applications\\u000aconsiderably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the\\u000asimplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon\\u000aand on ultra-thin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a\\u000anon-catalytic silicide. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we

  20. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA.

    PubMed

    Kootte, Ruud S; Smits, Loek P; van der Valk, Fleur M; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F; Santos, Raul D; van Dijk, Theo H; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M; Nederveen, Aart J; Mulder, Willem J M; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Groen, Albert K; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-03-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8-29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9-59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm(2) (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. PMID:25561459

  1. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  2. Visceral coverage with absorbable mesh followed by split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of ruptured giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Junko; Ishimaru, Yuki; Takayasu, Hajime; Otani, Yushi; Tahara, Kazunori; Hatanaka, Masahiro; Hamajima, Akito; Hasumi, Akira; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of ruptured giant omphalocele in whom herniated organs were successfully covered by an absorbable mesh and a subsequent skin graft. A 2,200 g male baby was born at 35 weeks of gestation. An abdominal wall abnormality was detected by prenatal ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation. At birth, the entire liver, stomach, and small and large bowel had herniated from the defect of the abdominal wall. The thorax and abdomen were highly underdeveloped, and attempts to reduce the organs into the abdomen were unsuccessful due to the extremely small abdominal cavity and associated pulmonary hypoplasia. To protect the herniated organs and prevent abdominal infections, the organs were covered by a polyglycan mesh and subsequently a meshed split-thickness skin graft. Ten weeks later, it was confirmed that the organs were completely covered by epithelialized tissue. However, the patient suffered from frequent respiratory infections and finally died of respiratory insufficiency. Based on the experience of the patient, we conclude that coverage of the herniated organs with an absorbable mesh and a skin graft is a recommendable treatment in ruptured giant omphalocele. PMID:17043872

  3. Association of Coronary Heart Disease Incidence with Carotid Arterial Wall Thickness and Major Risk Factors: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd E. Chambless; Gerardo Heiss; Aaron R. Folsom; Wayne Rosamond; Moyses Szklo; A. Richey Sharrett; Limin X. Clegg

    Few studies have determined whether greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic individuals is associated prospectively with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the Atheroscle- rosis Risk in Communities Study, carotid IMT, an index of generalized atherosclerosis, was defined as the mean of IMT measurements at six sites of the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound. The authors

  4. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  5. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  6. Development of automated welding processes for field fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels: electron beam method. Second quarterly report, 1 January31 March 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    A project to develop and demonstrate an electron beam welding procedure for welding 8'' thick SA387 Grade 22 Class 2 (2¹\\/â Cr--1 Mo) steel is reported. The progress made during the period January-March 1978 is summarized. The steel ordered for use in the project has not yet been received, which has resulted in a delay of the scheduled work. A

  7. Damage control in trauma and abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Brett H; Rotondo, Michael F

    2010-09-01

    Damage control surgery, initially formalized <20 yrs ago, was developed to overcome the poor outcomes in exsanguinating abdominal trauma with traditional surgical approaches. The core concepts for damage control of hemorrhage and contamination control with abbreviated laparotomy followed by resuscitation before definitive repair, although simple in nature, have led to an alteration in which emergent surgery is handled among a multitude of problems, including abdominal sepsis and battlefield surgery. With the aggressive resuscitation associated with damage control surgery, understanding of abdominal compartment syndrome has expanded. It is probably through avoiding this clinical entity that the greatest improvement in surgical outcomes for various emergent surgical problems has occurred in the past two decades. However, with its success, new problems have emerged, including increases in enterocutaneous fistulas and open abdomens. But as with any crisis, innovative strategies are being developed. New approaches to control of the open abdomen and reconstruction of the abdominal wall are being developed from negative pressure dressing therapies to acellular allograft meshes. With further understanding of new resuscitative strategies, the need for damage control surgery may decline, along with its concomitant complications, at the same time retaining the success that damage control surgery has brought to the critically ill trauma and general surgery patient in the past few years. PMID:20724875

  8. LATERAL ABDOMINAL MUSCLE SYMMETRY IN COLLEGIATE SINGLE-SIDED ROWERS

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Norman W.; Mason, Beth E.; Gerber, J. Parry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Although side to side symmetry of lateral abdominal muscle thickness has been established in healthy individuals, it is unknown whether abdominal muscle symmetry exists in athletes with asymmetrical physiological demands, such as those of single-sided rowers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oarside versus the non-oarside lateral abdominal musculature thickness in collegiate single-sided rowers, as measured by ultrasound imaging (USI). Methods: The study was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational design. Thirty collegiate crew team members (17 males, 13 females, age 19.8±1.2 years) characterized as single-sided rowers participated. Resting muscle thickness measurements of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles were obtained via USI. Comparisons of absolute and relative muscle thickness between oarside and non-oarside were performed using paired t-tests. Potential differences based on gender, rowing experience, and history of low back pain were investigated using mixed model analysis of variance. Results: There were no clinically significant differences in absolute or relative thickness of the TrA, IO or EO on the oarside versus the non-oarside. There were no significant side to side differences in the relative muscle thickness of the TrA, IO or EO based on gender, rowing experience, or history of low back pain. Conclusions: In this sample of single-sided rowing athletes, no clinically significant side to side differences in lateral abdominal muscle thickness were observed. Despite the asymmetrical functional demands of single-sided rowers in this study, thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles was symmetric. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:22319677

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  10. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  11. Periodic abdominal pumping supports leg development during metamorphosis in tenebrionid beetle Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio

    2008-05-01

    Rhythmic abdominal pumping movements in a pupa of giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus caused large hemolymph pressure pulses of approximately 20 mmHg. The abdominal pumping movements were completely blocked by transecting the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the first and second abdominal ganglia. Transection of the VNC until 2 days after pupation caused a developmental defect of adult legs: morphogenesis of the tibial and tarsal segments was severely retarded, and the segments remained covered with a thick pupal cuticle. The developmental defect was rescued by artificially inducing rhythmic abdominal bending for 3 days after transection of VNC. Blocking of the abdominal pump did not increase the amount of water loss during the pupal period. The transplanted tibial segments lacking active tracheal ventilation could form a thick adult cuticle. The results suggest that abdominal pumping movements during the pupal period support the development of adult legs by facilitating hemolymph circulation. PMID:18372202

  12. Great Wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A vast sheet-like aggregation of galaxies that is about 800 million light-years long, 280 million light-years `high', but only about 15-20 million light-years `thick'. One of the largest known structures in the universe, it lies at a distance of about 300 million light-years. The coma cluster, one of the nearest great clusters of galaxies, forms part of the `wall'....

  13. 3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images Anthony Adam Duquettea , Pierre of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both from multi-slice MR and CT-scan examinations. It is a semi interface and aortic wall of AAAs. Our segmentation method works independently on MRI and CT-scan volumes

  14. A longitudinal comparison of hemodynamics and intraluminal thrombus deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Suh, Ga-Young; Dalman, Ronald L; Shadden, Shawn C

    2014-12-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is often accompanied by in traluminal thrombus (ILT), which complicates AAA progression and risk of rupture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling of 10 small human AAA was performed to investigate relations between hemodynamics and ILT progression. The patients were imaged using magnetic resonance twice in a 2- to 3-yr interval. Wall content data were obtained by a planar T1-weighted fast spin echo black-blood scan, which enabled quantification of thrombus thickness at midaneurysm location during baseline and followup. Computational simulations with patient-specific geometry and boundary conditions were performed to quantify the hemodynamic parameters of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and mean exposure time at baseline. Spatially resolved quantifications of the change in ILT thickness were compared with the different hemodynamic parameters. Regions of low OSI had the strongest correlation with ILT growth and demonstrated a statistically significant correlation coefficient. Prominent regions of high OSI (>0.4) and low TAWSS (<1 dyn/cm(2)) did not appear to coincide with locations of thrombus deposition. PMID:25326533

  15. Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

  16. Rectus abdominal muscle endometriosis in a patient with cesarian scar: case report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, L; Dinçel, O; Türk, B Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue out of the intrauterine cavity. Abdominal wall endometrioma is a well-defined mass composed of endometrial glands and stroma that may develop after gynecologic and obstetrical surgeries. A cyclic painful mass at the site of a cesarean section scar is most likely due to an endometrioma, and wide local excision is the advisable treatment. The authors present a case of endometrioma in the abdominal wall, which was treated with local excision. PMID:24597267

  17. Effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins; Calif Stanford

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardio- vascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative information on flow patterns in the abdominal aorta

  18. Prediction of Residual Stress Distributions in Welded Sections of P92 Pipes with Small Diameter and Thick Wall based on 3D Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Jianming; Zhao, Yanping; Wang, Yanfei

    2015-05-01

    This study used ABAQUS finite element (FE) software to investigate the residual stress distributions of P92 welded pipes in both the as-weld and post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Sequential coupling quasi-static thermo-mechanical in conjunction with moving double ellipsoidal heat source and an element add/remove technique to simulate deposition of new weld material, are combined in the 3D FE analysis. To validate the simulation results, the residual stresses in axial direction at the surface of pipe were measured by X-ray diffraction technique and compared with the results of FE analysis. Detailed characteristic distributions of the residual stresses are discussed. Results show that the FE model can predict the residual stress distributions satisfactorily. Highest residual stresses on the outer surface are found in the last weld bead to be deposited. And the highest tensile residual stress for the full welded section take place in heat affected zone (HAZ) near the middle thickness. Larger residual sstress can be found around the welding start point along the pipe circumference. Comparison of heat treated specimen and untreated specimen illustrates that PWHT has a strong effect on the residual stress field.

  19. Radiology of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    David, V

    1999-01-01

    Radiology plays an integral role in the evaluation of patients with significant abdominal pain. The cross-sectional modalities (computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) are widely used, but there is sometimes confusion about how to use each test appropriately. We review how each test is done, consider the strengths and weaknesses of each modality, and discuss how to use them in an intelligent, cost-effective manner. PMID:10795217

  20. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  1. Abdominal Superficial Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf; Gepner, Yftach; Shemesh, Elad; Chassidim, Yoash; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Ben Avraham, Sivan; Witkow, Shula; Liberty, Idit F.; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sarusi, Benjamin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Unlike visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the association between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and obesity-related morbidity is controversial. In patients with type 2 diabetes, we assessed whether this variability can be explained by a putative favorable, distinct association between abdominal superficial SAT (SSAT) (absolute amount or its proportion) and cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 73 patients with diabetes (mean age 58 years, 83% were men) and cross-sectionally analyzed fat distribution at S1-L5, L5-L4, and L3-L2 levels. Patients completed food frequency questionnaires, and subgroups had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. RESULTS Women had higher %SSAT (37 vs. 23% in men; P < 0.001) despite a similar mean waist circumference. Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.046) and HbA1c (P = 0.006) were both lower with increased tertile of absolute SSAT. In regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, and classes of medical treatments used in this patient population, increased %SSAT was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c (? = ?0.317; P = 0.013), decreased daytime ambulatory blood pressure (? = ?0.426; P = 0.008), and increased HDL cholesterol (? = 0.257; P = 0.042). In contrast, increased percent of deep SAT (DSAT) was associated with increased HbA1c (? = 0.266; P = 0.040) and poorer heart rate variability parameters (P = 0.030). Although total fat and energy intake were not correlated with fat tissue distribution, increased intake of trans fat tended to be associated with total SAT (r = 0.228; P = 0.05) and DSAT (r = 0.20; P = 0.093), but not with SSAT. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal SAT is composed of two subdepots that associate differently with cardiometabolic parameters. Higher absolute and relative distribution of fat in abdominal SSAT may signify beneficial cardiometabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22344612

  2. Intra-abdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Shirah, Gina R; O'Neill, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial, but all require prompt identification, diagnosis, and treatment. Resuscitation, early antibiotic administration, and source control are crucial. Antibiotic administration should initially be broad spectrum and target the most likely pathogens. When cultures are available, antibiotics should be narrowed and limited in duration. The method of source control depends on the anatomic site, site accessibility, and the patient's clinical condition. Patient-specific factors (advanced age and chronic medical conditions) as well as disease-specific factors (health care-associated infections and inability to obtain source control) combine to affect patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:25440126

  3. A multidisciplinary approach to desmoid tumors. When intra-abdominal fibromatosis degenerates into an abscess, which is the right treatment??

    PubMed Central

    Alemanno, Giovanni; Zambonin, Daniela; Sturiale, Alessandro; Cavalli, Tiziana; Bellucci, Francesco; Pesi, Benedetta; Di Martino, Carmela; Giudici, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Desmoid tumors are rare benign tumors that originates in the fibrous sheath or musculo-aponeurotic structure. Histologically benign, they tends to invade locally and to be recurrent. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor in a patient affected by familial adenomatous polyposis, which degenerated into abscess. Male, 38 years, was hospitalized for abdominal pain, bowel obstruction and fever. The computed tomography showed a big dishomogeneous mass occupying the whole mesentery with internal massive liquefaction. The mass extended from the epigastrium for 13 cm up to L3. On the right mesogastric side a solid, thick mass of about 2 cm, with a length of 4.5 cm, was identified; it was not cleavable from the wall and from some of the loops. We decided to perform a computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage. Two hundred ml of purulent necrotic material was aspirated, and washing with antibiotic solution was carried out. Cytological examination of fluid drainage showed histiocytes and neutrophils. At follow-up, the patient's clinical condition had improved. An abdominal ultrasound showed a substantial reduction in the diameter of the mass. DISCUSSION Diagnosis and treatment of desmoids tumor in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis may be difficult, especially when desmoids are located intra-abdominally and in the mesentery. Seldom will desmoid tumors be complicated by abscess formation. CONCLUSION The management of desmoids tumors is not easy and the choice of the best treatment may be difficult due to the different possible anatomical presentations. PMID:23856253

  4. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

  5. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad U Butt; Nikolaos Zacharias; George C Velmahos

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe

  6. Acquired Abdominal Intercostal Hernia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is a rare disease phenomenon where intra-abdominal contents reach the intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. We discuss a case of a 51-year-old obese female who arrived to the emergency room with a painful swelling between her left 10th rib and 11th rib. She gave a history of a stab wound to the area 15 years earlier. A CT scan revealed a fat containing intercostal hernia with no diaphragmatic defect. An open operative approach with a hernia patch was used to repair this hernia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose, so a high clinical suspicion and thorough history and physical exam are important. This review discusses pathogenesis, clinical presentation, complications, and appropriate treatment strategies of AAIH. PMID:25197605

  7. Thick-walled carbon composite multifunctional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haake, John M.; Jacobs, Jack H.; McIlroy, Bruce E.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite programs are moving in the direction of smaller and lighter structures. Technological advances have permitted more sophisticated equipment to be consolidated into compact spaces. Micro-satellites, between 10 and 100 kg, will incorporate micro-electric devices into the lay-up of the satellite structure. These structures will be designed to carry load, provide thermal control, enhance damping, and include integrated passive electronics. These multifunctional structures offer lighter weight, reduced volume, and a 'smarter' overall package for incorporation of sensors, electronics, fiber optics, powered appendages or active components. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has applied technology from the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES) and independent research and development (IRAD) programs to the modular instrument support system (MISS) for multifunctional space structures and micro-satellites. The SPICES program was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop affordable manufacturing processes for smart materials to be used in vibration control, and the MISS program was funded by NASA-Langley. The MISS program was conceived to develop concepts and techniques to make connections between different multifunctional structures. MDA fabricated a trapezoidal carbon composite structure out of IM7/977-3 tape prepreg. Flex circuits, thermal and optical conduits were embedded to realize a utility modular connector. These provide electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical connections between micro- satellite components. A quick disconnect mount was also developed to accommodate a variety of devices such as solar arrays, power sources, thermal transfer and vibration control modules.

  8. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Li, Bing; Chow, Tommy W. S.

    2013-09-01

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment efficacy.

  9. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice. PMID:21775962

  10. Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    C?pîlna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility could not be preserved in 3 of them. Eleven women had stage IA2 disease (42.3%), 14 (53.8%) women had stage IB1 disease, and 1 (3.8%) woman had stage IB2 disease. Histologic subtypes were 15 (57.6%) squamous, 8 (30.7%) adenocarcinoma, and 3 (11.5%) adenosquamous. There were no major intraoperative complications in both hospitals. Early postoperative complications were mainly related to the type C parametrectomy—bladder dysfunction for more than 7 days (8 [30.7%] women) and prolonged constipation (6 [23.0%] women). Other complications consisted in symptomatic lymphocele in 2 (7.6%) patients, which were drained. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 4–43 months). Up to the present time, there has been 1 (3.8%) recurrence in our series. Most patients did not experience late postoperative complications. Three (11.5%) women are amenorrheic, and 1 (3.8%) woman developed a cervical stenosis. Of the 23 women who have normal menstruation and maintained their fertility, a total of 7 (30.4%) women have attempted pregnancy, and 3 (42.8%) of them achieved pregnancy spontaneously. These pregnancies ended in 2 first trimester miscarriages and 1 live birth at term by cesarean delivery. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ART preserves fertility and maintains excellent oncological outcomes with low complication rates. PMID:24445820

  11. Ultrasound estimates of visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adipose tissues in infancy.

    PubMed

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Modi, Neena; Uthaya, Sabita; Hughes, Ieuan A; Dunger, David B; Acerini, Carlo; Stolk, Ronald P; Ong, Ken K

    2013-01-01

    Other imaging techniques to quantify internal-abdominal adiposity (IA-AT) and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposity (SCA-AT) are frequently impractical in infants. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to validate ultrasound (US) visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths in assessing IA-AT and SCA-AT from MRI as the reference method in infants and (b) to analyze the association between US abdominal adiposity and anthropometric measures at ages 3 months and 12 months. Twenty-two infants underwent MRI and US measures of abdominal adiposity. Abdominal US parameters and anthropometric variables were assessed in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), n = 487 infants (23 girls) at age 3 months and n = 495 infants (237 girls) at 12 months. US visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths correlated with MRI quantified IA-AT (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and SCA-AT (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) volumes, respectively. In CBGS, mean US-visceral depths increased by ~20 % between ages 3 and 12 months (P < 0.0001) and at both ages were lower in infants breast-fed at 3 months than in other infants. US-visceral depths at both 3 and 12 months were inversely related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 at 3 and 12 months, resp.; adjusted for current skinfold thickness). In contrast, US-subcutaneous-abdominal depth at 3 months was positively related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.004). US measures can rank infants with higher or lower IA-AT and SCA-AT. Contrasting patterns of association with visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposities indicate that they may be differentially regulated in infancy. PMID:23710350

  12. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and hip flexion during the performance of the sit-up is discussed. The sit-up performed with foot fixation, and the bilateral straight leg raise can compound hip muscle imbalance, and both hyperextend and hyperflex the lumbar spine and are therefore not recommended. The importance of muscular control of pelvic tilt is considered with reference to muscle imbalance around the pelvis. It is recommended that a musculoskeletal assessment should be performed before prescribing abdominal exercises. Exercise therapy to re-educate control of pelvic tilt is described. Intra-abdominal pressure, and the effects of abdominal exercise on this mechanism, and lumbar stabilization are examined. The importance of training specificity is stressed. PMID:8457806

  13. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models. PMID:21547783

  14. MIR wall surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    1998-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

  15. Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges. PMID:23526186

  16. Scrub typhus associated hepatic dysfunction and abdominal CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man Je; Lee, Hyoun Soo; Shim, Sang Goon; Kim, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective study investigated abnormal hepatic dysfunction and abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings in scrub typhus. Methods: Three hundred forty nine adult patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Ninety four underwent abdominal CT. The CT images were reviewed by the attending radiologist. Patient data of history, symptoms, signs, and results of laboratory tests were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: In 349 patients with scrub typhus, elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (78.5%) and alanine aminotransferase (63.0%) were dominant compared to alkaline phosphatase (27.2%) and total bilirubin (16.1%). Abdominal CT findings of 94 patients were, in descending order of frequency, enlarged lymph node (53.2%), inhomogeneous enhancement of liver (47.9%), splenomegaly (46.8%), ascites (28.7%), low attenuation of periportal areas (27.7%), gallbladder wall thickening (17.0%), and splenic infarct (6.4%). Also, the level of aspartate aminotransferase tended to be elevated according to the number of CT findings (P= 0.028) Conclusions: We found that abdominal CT manifestations of scrub typhus with elevated aminotransferases were varied and not specific. However, knowledge of these findings may evoke the recognition of scrub typhus by clinicians in endemic areas. PMID:26101478

  17. Pericardiectomy causing abdominal hernia incarceration.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Taufiek Konrad; Maurice, Musoni; Munyana, Jackline; Robinson, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    A 26-year-old Rwandan male presented with constrictive pericarditis, massive ascites and a giant umbilical hernia that had been asymptomatic for over a decade. Successful pericardiectomy was complicated by prompt incarceration of the abdominal hernia. This unexpected complication was caused by rapid resolution of the ascites due to autodiuresis and subsequent collapse of the hernial orifice. Patients with constrictive pericarditis and massive ascites who are evaluated for pericardiectomy should be carefully examined for the presence of abdominal hernias. If any such hernias are found, perioperative hernia repair should be considered and postoperative diuresis should be undertaken under close observation. PMID:21930673

  18. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  20. Abdominal imaging in child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Raissaki; Corinne Veyrac; Eleonore Blondiaux; Christiana Hadjigeorgi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Abdominal injuries in abused children are less common than musculoskeletal and craniocerebral injuries; however they carry\\u000a high mortality and morbidity rates. In every case of trauma, regardless of aetiology, radiologists are responsible for the\\u000a documentation and evaluation of injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Injuries  Any abdominal injury pattern maybe observed following physical abuse and none is specific for abuse. However, a high index\\u000a of suspicion

  1. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

  2. Abdominal Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dutta, Shyamoli

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common form of extra-pulmonary site of infection after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal TB with a rising incidence in recent years. TB can affect any part of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract including anus, peritoneum and hepato-biliary system. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis are non-specific and mimic various GI disorders and cause delay in diagnosis and management. Aim To evaluate the various clinical, radiological and microbiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis and to define the role of histopathological examination in establishing the diagnosis in resource poor settings and to analyze the compliance and response to anti-tubercular treatment. Materials and Methods A five year retrospective study (January 2010 to December 2014) was done in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern India and all the cases diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis during the study period, were included. The relevant clinical informations, laboratory results, microbiological and radiological investigations were recorded. Histopathological examination of all the resected / excised specimens was done and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining to detect the tubercular bacilli and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain to rule out fungal infection was done in all the cases. Results Out of 48 cases with abdominal tuberculosis, the average age of presentation was 27.4 years with a slight male predominance (Male:Female=1.4:1). Abdominal pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom followed by anorexia (98%), fever (88%) and intestinal obstruction (88%). The ileum was the most common site of involvement. All the 45 resected / excised tissue specimens (34 cases of intestinal resection and 11 cases of intesinal, omental and lymph nodes biopsies) showed epithelioid granulomas along with necrosis (in 38 cases) and Langhans giant cells (in 42 cases). Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) positivity was seen in 5 tissue specimens only. All patients were put on anti-tubercular treatment and majority showed good response to therapy. Conclusion Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with vague GI symptoms. Study of histopathological findings can aid in the diagnosis in the settings where advanced molecular methods of diagnosis are not available, leading to early diagnosis and management.

  3. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  4. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  5. Sterile abdominal abscess resulting from remnant laparoscopic clips after sigmoidectomy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Komori, Koji; Kimura, Kenya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuichi; Uemura, Norihisa; Kawai, Ryosuke; Osawa, Takaaki; Kawakami, Jiro; Asano, Tomonari; Iwata, Yoshinori; Kurahashi, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2014-08-01

    The occurrence of intra-abdominal sterile abscesses due to remnant clips after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy is rare. Here, we report one such case in a 74-year-old woman. Two years after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, abdominal CT indicated an area of fluid accumulation approximately 5?cm in diameter and located in the middle of the abdominal cavity that contained a cluster of clips. Fine-needle aspiration of the fluid was performed through the wall of the sigmoid colon. The luminal fluid was found not to contain cancer cells on histological examination. After 1 year, abdominal surgery was performed. The abscess was located in the mesorectum at the anastomosis site; it was incised and a significant quantity of ivory-white viscous solution containing a cluster of clips was extracted. This case emphasizes the importance of reducing the number of clips used in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25131325

  6. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  7. De Sitter and double irregular domain walls

    E-print Network

    Rommel Guerrero; R. Omar Rodriguez; R. Ortiz; Rafael Torrealba

    2007-03-15

    A new method to obtain thick domain wall solutions to the coupled Einstein scalar field system is presented. The procedure allows the construction of irregular walls from well known ones, such that the spacetime associated to them are physically different. As consequence of the approach, we obtain two irregular geometries corresponding to thick domain walls with $dS$ expansion and topological double kink embedded in $AdS$ spacetime. In particular, the double brane can be derived from a fake superpotential.

  8. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early through measurements of IAP. Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 15 mm Hg, especially if pressures reach above 20 mm Hg with new onset organ failure. Although non-operative measures come first, surgical decompression must not be delayed if these fail. Percutaneous drainage of ascites is a simple and potentially effective tool to reduce IAP if organ dysfunction develops, especially in burn patients. Escharotomy may also dramatically reduce IAP in the case of abdominal burns. PMID:25973659

  9. Impact of transrenal aortic endograft placement on endovascular graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Marin; Richard E. Parsons; Larry H. Hollier; Harold A. Mitty; Jiyong Ahn; Rosaleen E. Parsons; Thamrongraj Temudom; Marcus D'Ayala; Maryann McLaughlin; Louis DePalo; Ronald Kahn

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Successful endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires the creation of a hemostatic seal between the endograft and the underlying aortic wall. A short infrarenal aortic neck may be responsible for incomplete aneurysm exclusion and procedural failure. Sixteen patients who had an endograft positioned completely below the lowest renal artery and 37 patients in whom a porous

  10. Relação entre lordose lombar e desempenho da musculatura abdominal em alunos de fisioterapia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Ramos Pinto; S. Guerino; Daniela Bittencourt Consolin; Ana Cláudia; Violino da Cunha

    SUMMARY Knowing that the middle of the corporal weight is in stable balance on lumbar spine, all muscles that estebilize this place are important, in special abdominals muscles. This muscles attire lateral, anterior and posterior walls of trunk, they work that on band that contains all visceras, they help in balance and work directement in the static and dynamic of

  11. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Surface Geometry of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Sacks; David A. Vorp; M. L. Raghavan; Michael P. Federle; Marshall W. Webster

    1999-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local, progressive dilation of the distal aorta that risks rupture until treated. Using the law of Laplace, in vivo assessment of AAA surface geometry could identify regions of high wall tensions as well as provide critical dimensional and shape data for customized endoluminal stent grafts. In this study, six patients with AAA underwent spiral

  12. Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins

    1998-01-01

    The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

  13. Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy – Standardized Surgical Technique, Perioperative Management and Outcome in Women with Posthysterectomy Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Huebner; Marc Krzonkalla; Ralf Tunn

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To provide a detailed description of abdominal sacrocolpopexy and to present a retrospective evaluation of the outcomes. Methods: 78 patients underwent sacrocolpopexy between January 2004 and July 2006; 72% had concomitant procedures; 53 patients participated in the follow-up. Anatomical success was defined as any leading point of the vaginal wall remaining >1 cm above the hymen. Failures were split

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  15. Constitutive modelling of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Miller, K

    2000-03-01

    Abdominal organs are very susceptible to trauma. In order to protect them properly against car crash and other impact consequences, we need to be able to simulate the abdominal organ deformation. Such simulation should account for proper stress-strain relation as well as stress dependence on strain rate. As the step in this direction, this paper presents three-dimensional, non-linear, viscoelastic constitutive models for liver and kidney tissue. The models have been constructed basing on in vivo experiments conducted in Highway Safety Research Institute and the Medical Centre of The University of Michigan (Melvin et al., 1973). The proposed models are valid for compressive nominal strains up to 35% and fast (impact) strain rates between 0.2 and 22.5 s(-1). Similar models can find applications in computer and robot assisted surgery, e.g. the realistic simulation of surgical procedures (including virtual reality) and non-rigid registration. PMID:10673121

  16. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bartolozzi; R. Lencioni; F. Donati; D. Cioni

    1999-01-01

    .   Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents,\\u000a the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status\\u000a of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical\\u000a applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal

  17. Multiple pseudoaneurysms of the aortic arch, right subclavian artery, and abdominal aorta in a patient with Behçet's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Okita; Motomi Ando; Kenji Minatoya; Soichiro Kitamura; Hiroshi Matsuo

    1998-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with 2 months' history of a hoarseness and aphthous stomatitis. Image diagnosis showed that he had saccular-type aneurysms of the aortic arch, right subclavian artery, and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Simultaneous total arch replacement, including reconstruction of the right subclavian artery and replacement of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, was performed. Pathologic specimen of each aneurysmal wall revealed

  18. Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Uranues, Selman; Popa, Dorin Eugen; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Schrittwieser, Rudolph

    2015-06-01

    If morbidity and mortality are to be reduced in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, first priority goes to prompt and accurate determination of peritoneal penetration and identification of the need for surgery. In this setting, laparoscopy may have an important impact on the rate of negative or non-therapeutic laparotomies. We analyzed indications and patient selection criteria for laparoscopy in penetrating trauma along with outcomes. The analysis focused on identification of peritoneal penetration and injuries to the diaphragm, small intestine, and mesentery. Results from the early phase of laparoscopy were compared with those from recent decades with more advanced laparoscopic equipment and instruments and more experienced surgeons. A systematic review of the role of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma shows a sensitivity ranging from 66.7 to 100 %, specificity from 33.3 to 100 % and accuracy from 50 to 100 %. Publications from the 1990s found trauma laparoscopy to be inadequate for detecting intestinal injuries and so to lead to missed injuries. Twenty-three of the 50 studies including the most recent ones report sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100 %. Laparoscopy is more cost effective than negative laparotomy. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively on stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of morbidity, accuracy in detecting diaphragmatic and intestinal injuries, and elimination of prolonged hospitalization for observation, so reducing the length of stay and increasing cost effectiveness. PMID:25446491

  19. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  20. Cannulation needle-induced anterior wall tenting of internal jugular vein causing posterior wall penetration.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Yaguchi, Shinya; Itaya, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kazuo; Hatanaka, Ryo; Nakai, Kishiko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Unintentional posterior venous wall penetration during internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation may cause critical arterial injuries in spite of ultrasound guidance. We aimed to evaluate whether small venous diameter and anterior venous wall tenting by a needle would be associated with posterior venous wall penetration, and to seek factors related to the venous wall tenting. We conducted a retrospective review in patients who underwent IJV cannulation. Using an ultrasound view obtained when puncturing, venous diameter, venous wall thickness, anterior venous wall tenting length, and needle angle were measured, and posterior venous wall penetration was determined. Eleven cannulations in 56 patients were assigned to posterior venous wall penetration. Small venous diameter (p = 0.004), and long anterior venous wall tenting (p = 0.007) were associated with posterior venous wall penetration. The longer anterior venous tenting would be expected with reducing needle angle (p = 0.004) or increasing anterior venous wall thickness (p = 0.006). In conclusion, small IJV and anterior venous wall tenting lead to posterior venous wall penetration. Anterior venous wall tenting is longer with reducing needle angle, or increasing the anterior venous wall thickness. PMID:25365942

  1. Abdominal cocoon: an unusual presentation of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Naniwadekar, R G; Kulkarni, S R; Bane, P; Agrarwal, S; Garje, A

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition. It presents as a thick whitish membrane which covers bowel loops. Because of this presentation, it is also called as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is usually diagnosed intra operatively. Treatment of this condition involves resection of the membrane and release of adhesions. Pre-operatively, patient is investigated for recurrent episodes of small bowel obstructions. However, preoperative diagnosis does not change the treatment and management. Investigations done preoperatively help in expediting the treatment with planned laparotomy. PMID:24701524

  2. Embryonal carcinoma in the abdominal cavity of a male calf.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takagi, Takayo; Une, Yumi

    2011-05-01

    An embryonal carcinoma was diagnosed in the abdominal cavity of a 55-day-old male calf. Macroscopically, a large volume of ascitic fluid was observed along with white to yellowish-white masses of various sizes densely located on the abdominal wall and the surface of abdominal organs. There was an absence of testes in the scrotum. Histologically, the tumor cells were polygonal, and the tumor was mostly composed of sheets of densely packed solid patterns with occasional papillary and tubular structures. Cell nuclei were variable in size, and cellular mitotic rate was high. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for alpha-fetoprotein, placental alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells had large nuclei, extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, and small numbers of mitochondria. Microvillus-like structures and desmosomes were occasionally observed. From lectin histochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, Griffonia simplicifolia I, and Bauhinia purpurea, and negative for Ulex europaeus agglutinin I. Results of histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examinations of the tumor were similar to those obtained for human embryonal carcinoma. PMID:21908299

  3. Elastic coupling between nonferroelastic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, K; Yudin, P V; Tagantsev, A K; Eliseev, E A; Morozovska, A N; Setter, N

    2014-11-14

    We reveal a strong elastic interaction between nonferroelastic domain walls in ferroelectric thin films. This interaction, having no analogue in bulk materials, is governed by elastic fields that are associated with the domain walls and extends to distances comparable to the film thickness. Such elastic widening of the nonferroelastic domain walls is shown to be particularly strong in common ferroelectric perovskites. The results are especially relevant for the control of domain wall propagation and the understanding of polarization dynamics. PMID:25432054

  4. Giant omphaloceles with a small abdominal defect: prenatal diagnosis and neonatal management.

    PubMed

    Pelizzo, G; Maso, G; Dell'Oste, C; D'Ottavio, G; Bussani, R; Uxa, F; Conoscenti, G; Schleef, J

    2005-12-01

    A giant omphalocele is a liver-containing protrusion through an abdominal defect wider than 5 cm in diameter. The giant form with a small abdominal wall defect is a rare condition which, to our knowledge, has not been described previously. We describe three cases with the typical features of elongated vascular liver pedicle and angiomatosis of the hepatic portal system. The abnormal liver organogenesis, due to extra-abdominal development, represented a significant risk factor for hepatic thrombosis after visceral reduction and liver rotation. All the neonates underwent surgery on the first day of postnatal life. One died because of a postoperative liver infarction, and the survivors needed prolonged respiratory support. Prenatal sonographic features, timing, delivery, type of surgical repair, and postnatal outcome are reviewed. A prenatal sonographic diagnosis could be useful to evaluate the abdominal ring and serial ultrasound examinations are recommended to detect promptly ominous signs of hepatic and bowel damage. Color Doppler may be useful to assess the anatomy of the abdominal vessels and their relationships with the herniated organs, although it was not used in any of the cases reported here. This congenital malformation might be considered as a pathological entity separate from giant omphalocele with large abdominal defect, with a severe prognosis due possibly to its different embryological development. PMID:16308903

  5. Abdominal catastrophes and other unusual events in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Steiner, R W; Halasz, N A

    1990-01-01

    Primary bacterial peritonitis and catheter-associated infections compose the large majority of abdominal events in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Yet occasionally primary pathology involving the abdominal viscera develops, and surgery is frequently considered. The early manifestations of intraabdominal inflammation or bleeding in patients undergoing CAPD depend on the pathological process, its access to the peritoneal cavity, and whether generalized bacterial peritonitis supervenes to obscure helpful physical findings. Clear dialysate is not a reliable sign that major pathology is absent, nor does initial stabilization of the clinical course with antibiotic therapy uniformly indicate that surgery will not be necessary. Polymicrobial peritonitis may develop in cholecystitis, pancreatitis, or from a colonic source, the latter featuring more bacterial species and more gram-negative and anaerobic organisms. A history directed at progression of symptoms and sites of abdominal discomfort and an examination for deep local tenderness and bowel incarcerated in an abdominal wall hernia are essential. Measurement of dialysate amylase and Gram stain of dialysate for food fibers may be helpful. Imaging techniques such as abdominal radiographs for dilated bowel or free subdiaphragmatic air, ultrasonography of the gallbladder or pancreas, computed tomographic (CT) scanning of the lower abdomen, and water-soluble contrast colonic studies may help identify the pathologic process. Special studies such as these should be considered early in the course of suspected unusual abdominal events in patients on CAPD. PMID:2403751

  6. Domain Walls and Flux Tubes

    E-print Network

    Stefano Bolognesi

    2005-07-27

    We present a new vortex solution made of a domain wall compactified into a cylinder and stabilized by the magnetic flux within. When the thickness of the wall is much less than the radius of the vortex some precise results can be obtained, such as the tension spectrum and profile functions. This vortex can naturally end on the wall that has created it, making the simplest junction between a wall and a vortex. We then classify every kind of junction between a flux tube and domain wall. The criteria for classification are as follows: a flux can or can not end on the wall, and when it ends, the flux must go somewhere. Various examples are discussed, including abelian and non-ablelian theories, as well as supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric theories.

  7. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls 

    E-print Network

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    Hazard volatilization emitted from walls enters into airflow in the room, making the indoor air quality worse. An exterior wall of some thickness is affected on its surface by the outdoor air environment. In this paper, conjugated double diffusive...

  8. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls

    E-print Network

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    -10), are considered. Other governing parameters are maintained constant (Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Lewis number and width ratio of massive wall to enclosure). The conjugate heat transfer of the thick wall and indoor airflow and the enhanced heat transfer...

  9. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Sartelli

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  11. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens. PMID:19028661

  12. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  13. [Abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Lialiukova, E A; Orlova, N I; Aksenov, S I

    2012-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound study records decreased volume blood flow in patients with connective tissue dysplasia. Their hemodynamic features are more marked during food testing. Dysplasia-dependent structural changes in the vascular system, such as vascular hypoplasia, wall-occluding lesions, different types of deformities, are one of the causes of lower volumetric blood flow in the abdominal vessels. The found abdominal vascular structural and functional features in patients with connective tissue dysplasia can serve as the basis for blood flow disproportion in different stages of digestion. PMID:23214026

  14. Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

  15. On fluid/wall slippage

    E-print Network

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

    2001-12-20

    Certain (non polymeric) fluids show an anomalously low friction when flowing against well chosen solid walls. We discuss here one possible explanation, postulating that a gaseous film of small thickness h is present between fluid and wall. When h is smaller than the mean free path l of the gas (Knudsen regime) the Navier length b is expected to be independent of h and very large (microns).

  16. On Fluid\\/Wall Slippage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

    2002-01-01

    Certain (non polymeric) fluids show an anomalously low friction when flowing\\u000aagainst well chosen solid walls. We discuss here one possible explanation,\\u000apostulating that a gaseous film of small thickness h is present between fluid\\u000aand wall. When h is smaller than the mean free path l of the gas (Knudsen\\u000aregime) the Navier length b is expected to be

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: Distribution of elastin, collagen I and III, and intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin—A comparison of familial and nonfamilial aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars-Eric Thornell; Örjan Norrgård; Anders Eriksson; Mark Vanderwee; Karl-Axel Ängqvist

    1986-01-01

    Summary The aortic walls of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and of healthy controls were examined for elastin, collagen I and III, and the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin by immunohistochemical, enzyme histochemical, and routine histological techniques. The morphology of the aneurysmatic walls varied considerably from case to case, but many pathological changes were seen in all cases,

  18. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monill; J. Pernas; E. Montserrat; C. Pérez; J. Clavero; A. Martinez-Noguera; R. Guerrero; S. Torrubia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus

  19. Conductive silver thick films filled with carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Sloma; Malgorzata Jakubowska; Anna Mlozniak; Ryszard Jezior

    Search of new, better materials for conductive paste for thick film compositions deposited by screen printing was the main\\u000a aim of this work as well as influence investigations of carbon nanotubes addition to functional phase of thick film paste.\\u000a Different types of carbon nanotubes such as single-walled nanotubes (SWCNT), multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT) and non purified\\u000a non segregated nanotube clusters were

  20. Recognising and assessing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Anthony; Whiting, Dean

    2015-03-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is common following major traumatic injury but may not be recognised quickly enough and is therefore a cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Emergency department nurses have a major role to play in reducing the incidence of unrecognised abdominal trauma by enhancing their knowledge and skills. They can do this by attending trauma-related courses, taking on more expanded roles, carrying out full and comprehensive physical assessments, and ensuring that members of the multidisciplinary team use the wide range of diagnostic adjuncts available to them. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal cavity, explains abdominal trauma, gives an overview of advanced abdominal assessment techniques and diagnostic adjuncts, and reviews some management strategies for uncontrolled haemorrhage that have been adopted in the UK. PMID:25746888

  1. Breakup of finite thickness viscous shell microbubbles by ultrasound: A simplified zero-thickness shell model

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified three-dimensional (3-D) zero-thickness shell model was developed to recover the non-spherical response of thick-shelled encapsulated microbubbles subjected to ultrasound excitation. The model was validated by comparison with previously developed models and was then used to study the mechanism of bubble break-up during non-spherical deformations resulting from the presence of a nearby rigid boundary. The effects of the shell thickness and the bubble standoff distance from the solid wall on the bubble break-up were studied parametrically for a fixed insonification frequency and amplitude. A diagram of bubble shapes versus the normalized shell thickness and wall standoff was derived, and the potential bubble shapes at break-up from reentrant jets were categorized resulting in four distinct zones. PMID:23556560

  2. Prophylactic cholecystectomy during abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabarrou, P; Portier, G; Chalret Du Rieu, M

    2013-09-01

    The presence of asymptomatic gallstones is no longer an indication for elective prophylactic cholecystectomy (PC) according to the recommendations of the 1991 French Consensus Conference on cholelithiasis. However, there may be potential benefits of performing prophylactic cholecystectomy during certain abdominal procedures for non-biliary disease; this remains a subject of debate. This debate has become livelier with the recent increase in bariatric surgery. Gastrectomy for cancer, small bowel resection, colonic resection, and splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis as well as all bariatric surgical interventions can all alter the physiology of gallstone disease raising the question of the value of PC, but the specific morbidity of cholecystectomy must be kept in mind. The purpose of this study was to report epidemiological and pathophysiological data and the results from literature reports in order to assess the value of concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy during various common surgical situations. PMID:23916848

  3. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  4. Superluminal neutrinos and domain walls

    E-print Network

    Peng Wang; Houwen Wu; Haitang Yang

    2011-10-08

    In this letter, we propose that the recent measurement of superluminal neutrinos in OPERA could be explained by the existence of a domain wall which is left behind after the phase transition of some scalar field in the universe. The scalar field couples to the neutrino and photon field with different effective couplings. It causes different effective metrics and the emergence of superluminal neutrinos. Moreover, if the supernova and the earth are in the same plane parallel to the wall, or the thickness of the wall is much smaller than the distance from the supernova to the earth, the contradiction between OPERA and SN1987a can be reconciled.

  5. Active enlargement of the abdominal cavity--a new method for earlier closure of giant omphalocele and gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Patkowski, D; Czernik, J; Baglaj, S M

    2005-02-01

    The authors present their own modification of surgical staged repair of large abdominal wall defects (AWD). 21 newborns with gastroschisis (GSCH) and 8 with omphalocele (OC) are presented. In all patients the protruding viscera were placed in a prosthetic sac with a semi-permeable lining. The sac was suspended using a system with active external traction with a force amounting to 30 - 40 % of the baby's weight. All babies tolerated the applied method well. A progressive stretching of the abdominal wall and enlargement of the abdominal cavity enabled the defect to be closed between the second and sixth postoperative day. In comparison to the classic method, the presented modification of staged repair of AWD makes an earlier reduction of the viscera into the abdomen possible and does not seem to be associated with a higher risk of mechanical or infectious complications. PMID:15795823

  6. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology. PMID:25993295

  7. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  8. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  9. ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY IN A SERVAL (LEPTAILURUS SERVAL) SECONDARY TO UTERINE RUPTURE.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Blue-McLendon, Alice; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    A 14-yr-old female serval ( Leptailurus serval ) died unexpectedly after 2 wk of inappetence and lethargy. Necropsy revealed a pyoabdomen with a full-term, well-developed fetus in the caudal abdomen covered by a mesenteric sac. The mesenteric sac communicated with a tear in the wall of the right uterine horn, supporting a diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy. The uterine wall had evidence of adenomyosis at the rupture site with no evidence of pyometra. The fetus, supporting mesentery, and peritoneum were coated with mixed bacteria, which may have ascended through an open cervix to the site of uterine rupture. This is the first case of abdominal pregnancy related to uterine rupture reported in a large felid species. PMID:26056905

  10. Abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy: A new approach for correction of posterior compartment defects and perineal descent associated with vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Robert L. Harris; Kimberly Coates; Vincent H. S. Low; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess a modification of abdominal sacral colpopexy in 19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: The rectovaginal space was dissected to the superior aspect of the posterior vaginal fascia still contiguous with the perineal body. Mersilene (Ethicon, Somerville, N.J.) mesh was sutured to this fascia and along the entire posterior vaginal wall. Patients with vault prolapse, perineal descent,

  11. Suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms in the rat by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shixiong Liao; Manuel Miralles; Brian J. Kelley; John A. Curci; Martin Borhani; Robert W. Thompson

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Pathologic remodeling of the extracellular matrix is a critical mechanism in the development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Although angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are known to alter vascular wall remodeling in other conditions, their effects on AAAs are unknown. In this study we assessed the effect of ACE inhibitors in a rodent model of aneurysm development. Methods:

  12. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  13. Microsurgical Chest Wall Reconstruction After Oncologic Resections

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbier, Michael; Dittler, S.; Kreutzer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Defect reconstruction after radical oncologic resection of malignant chest wall tumors requires adequate soft tissue reconstruction with function, stability, integrity, and an aesthetically acceptable result of the chest wall. The purpose of this article is to describe possible reconstructive microsurgical pathways after full-thickness oncologic resections of the chest wall. Several reliable free flaps are described, and morbidity and mortality rates of patients are discussed. PMID:22294944

  14. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  15. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  16. Recurrence of Pelvic Chondrosarcoma through Fascial Defect into Abdominal Cavity.

    PubMed

    Gökku?, Kemal; Akin, Tolgay; Sagtas, Ergin; Saylik, Murat; Ayd?n, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Our patient was a 76-year-old female who has been operated on 2 times in 8 years for pelvic chondrosarcoma. The patient came to our clinic with a large mass in left iliac region which extended into the paravertebral area. Physical examination and preoperative imagining studies revealed a mass at the left iliac area that infiltrated sciatic notch and extended from posterior iliac region towards the anterior side of iliac bone through the sciatic notch and an incisional hernia including descending colon. The mass was also penetrating the abdominal cavity through the hernia. Surgical intervention was planned. Since the tumor infiltrated the sciatic nerve, hemipelvectomy was indicated. Patient refused hemipelvectomy. Therefore, palliative debulking surgery was considered. We treated the case with marginal excision and abdominal wall reconstruction employing prolene and vicryl suture materials in order to prevent a postoperative visceral herniation and local invasion. At the latest follow-up appointment in 2 years, the patient still had no signs of tumor recurrence. This case showed us that an incisional hernia can serve as a pathway for the recurrence invasion of the chondrosarcoma. PMID:25478264

  17. Recurrence of Pelvic Chondrosarcoma through Fascial Defect into Abdominal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gökku?, Kemal; Akin, Tolgay; Sagtas, Ergin; Saylik, Murat; Ayd?n, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Our patient was a 76-year-old female who has been operated on 2 times in 8 years for pelvic chondrosarcoma. The patient came to our clinic with a large mass in left iliac region which extended into the paravertebral area. Physical examination and preoperative imagining studies revealed a mass at the left iliac area that infiltrated sciatic notch and extended from posterior iliac region towards the anterior side of iliac bone through the sciatic notch and an incisional hernia including descending colon. The mass was also penetrating the abdominal cavity through the hernia. Surgical intervention was planned. Since the tumor infiltrated the sciatic nerve, hemipelvectomy was indicated. Patient refused hemipelvectomy. Therefore, palliative debulking surgery was considered. We treated the case with marginal excision and abdominal wall reconstruction employing prolene and vicryl suture materials in order to prevent a postoperative visceral herniation and local invasion. At the latest follow-up appointment in 2 years, the patient still had no signs of tumor recurrence. This case showed us that an incisional hernia can serve as a pathway for the recurrence invasion of the chondrosarcoma. PMID:25478264

  18. Optimum Thickness of MnBi Films for Magnetooptical Memory.

    PubMed

    Esho, S; Noguchi, S; Ono, Y; Nagao, M

    1974-04-01

    Magnetic behavior of thermomagnetically written domains in MnBi films (400 A to 1200 A thick) has been studied. The written domains were circular in shape but became deformed and irregular with increasing film thickness. The circular domains of 1.5 microm in diameter were stable only in the films thinner than 700 A for writing and erasing processes. The stability of written domains can be explained by introducing measured wall coercivity values into a domain theory. The film wall coercivity was varied from 250 Oe to 800 Oe in inverse proportion to the film thickness. PMID:20126080

  19. ABDOMINAL INCISIONS IN GENERAL SURGERY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    There is this wrong notion that the only standard abdominal incision is the midline incision. Cases have been seen in which an abdominal incision extends from the xyphoid process to the symphysis pubis just to remove a perforated appendix! It is also not unusual to see a groin incision together with a lower abdominal incision for an obstructed inguinal hernia repair that “slipped” back into the abdominal cavity during preparation for surgery. Even though the trend nowadays in surgery is to opt for laparoscopic and mini-incision surgery, the basic rule in surgery is to have an incision that will be comfortable for the surgeon and provide adequate access to the area of pathology. PMID:25161434

  20. A stress-strain relation for a rat abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Demiray, H; Weizsäcker, H W; Pascale, K; Erbay, H A

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the arterial wall is homogeneous, incompressible, isotropic and elastic, a stress-strain relation has been presented for a rat's abdominal aorta. As an illustrating example, the problem of simultaneous inflation and the axial stretch of a cylindrical artery under physiological loading has been solved and then the material coefficients are determined by comparing theoretical results with the existing experiments. The result indicates that the maximum deviation between the theory and experiment for various pressure levels is 3.7% which seems to be a good approximation of theory to the experiments. The variation of circumferential stress and the incremental pressure modulus with inner pressure are also depicted in the work. PMID:3417689

  1. The abdominal compartment syndrome: review, experience report and description of an innovative biological mesh application.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Domenico; Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Atelli, Pietro Francesco; Avenia, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) is defined as an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) >12 mmHg. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction/failure. The real incidence of the ACS is not clear, because there are few perspective studies. The origin of ACS can be divided into retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal, parietal and intestinal, and the diagnostic algorithm includes base and toxicological laboratory examinations, thorax X-ray, abdomen X-ray, abdomen TC, peritoneal washing, abdomen ultrasonography, diagnostic laparoscopy, and measurement of IAP. To allow a suitable decompression and avoid the damages to the abdominal organs, abdominal wall normally is not sutured primarily but secondarily and there are many methods of temporary closing: absorbable net, non-absorbable nets, 'Bogota bag', 'vacuum pack ice', gradual approximation of side cutaneous edges on the half-way line with permanence of an ample ventral hernia that could be subsequently repaired, and the use of 'skin expanders'. Since January 2000, until December 2008, eight patients were submitted to laparostomy, four of them for re-laparotomy, with mortality incidence of 37.5%. The defective size to fill was on the average 300 cm as reported by Bradley and Bradley (J Clin Invest 26:1010-1015, 1947). The abdominal wall reconstruction was performed using ample muscle edges derived from the slip in medial sense of the rectus muscle of the abdomen 'unmoored' through an incision 1 cm distant from semi-lunar line, and using absorbable prosthesis to cover the solution of continuity, thus allowing the closing of defects over 30 cm. We have found median post surgical hernia in one patient corrected in accordance with the time using polypropylene prosthesis. In one patient with parietal disaster and multiple traumatic splanchnic ruptures, we have used a pure pork-derived acellular collagen mesh (Permacol(®)) to close the wound, leaving enough space between fascia extremities, to solve the IAP. The employment of ample muscle edges represents the ideal solution in the reconstruction of the abdominal walls after laparotomic operations, offering a valid dynamic support preferable in comparison with the employment of alloplastic material. In consideration of the limits of this technique in the enormous parietal disaster-ACS treatment, we describe a new kind of innovative mesh application (Permacol(®)), most often used for parietal disaster or enormous incisional hernias, which can easily be preferred to dual mesh prosthesis, having a better biological profile and no capacity to produce intestinal adherences. PMID:21710331

  2. Abdominal Hernias Complicating Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. O’Connor; Russell J. Rigby; Ian R. Hardie; Darryl R. Wall; Russell W. Strong; Peter W. H. Woodruff; James J. B. Petrie

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of all CAPD patients reviewed in this study developed abdominal hernias. Eleven hernias (32.4%) occurred at the catheter insertion site, 17.6% were inguinal, 26.5% were epigastric and umbilical and 23.5 % occurred at the site of previous abdominal incisions. The risk of developing a hernia was significantly greater in patients over 40 years of age, women of parity

  3. Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

    2012-01-20

    INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

  4. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  5. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  6. Ultrasound measurement of abdominal muscles activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing in women with and without stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Massoud Arab; Mahshid Chehrehrazi

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been reported in the literature. Considering that PFM dysfunction is present in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), altered abdominal muscle activation may also occur in incontinent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in women with

  7. Stability of winding cosmic wall lattices with X type junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon Carter

    2008-01-01

    This work confirms the stability of a class of domain wall lattice models that can produce accelerated cosmological expansion, with pressure to density ratio w = -1\\/3 at early times, and with w = -2\\/3 at late times when the lattice scale becomes large compared to the wall thickness. For walls of tension TI, the relevant X type junctions could

  8. Macular Thickness and Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Moghadasifar, Hossein; Feizi, Mohadese; Haftabadi, Narges; Hadavand, Reza; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sheibani, Kourosh; Norouzi, Ghazal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare macular thickness in children with functional amblyopia and those without amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 93 children aged 3–10 years including 44 cases with unilateral amblyopia and 49 subjects without amblyopia. Amblyopic eyes were considered as the case group and their fellow eyes as internal controls; eyes of non-amblyopic children served as the external control. Macular thickness of all eyes were measured by optical coherence tomography in the center (foveola), 1 mm ring (fovea), and 3 and 6 mm rings and compared. Results: Although macular thickness was generally not different between the study groups, there was a significant difference in central macular thickness between eyes with moderate to severe amblyopia and the external controls (P = 0.037). Foveal thickness difference exceeding 10 microns between fellow eyes was detected in a larger number of amblyopic children as compared to non-amblyopic controls (P = 0.002). Mean foveal thickness was greater in boys (P = 0.037) but there was no significant difference in foveal thickness among various types of refractive errors. Conclusion: Although there was no significant relationship between macular thickness and amblyopia, foveolar thickness in eyes with moderate to severe amblyopia was significantly greater than the external controls. Further studies with more cases of moderate to severe amblyopia are recommended. PMID:25709774

  9. Adaptive optics assisted visualization of thickened retinal arterial wall in a patient with controlled malignant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to visualize the retinal arterial wall thickness, assisted by noninvasive adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). Methods The arterial wall thickness was measured and compared between one normal subject and one patient suffering from malignant hypertensive retinopathy. Results Increased arterial wall thickness was revealed with a newly developed AO-SLO system, in a retinal artery of 1-papilla diameter temporal inferior to the optic disc. The average wall thickness, with hypertension, was 18.7 ?m, and the wall-to-lumen ratio was 0.44, both bigger than normal. Conclusion AO-SLO enabled us to evaluate the retinal wall thickness in the hypertensive patient. The arterial walls were thickened compared with normal. AO-SLO may facilitate future noninvasive study of arterial walls in human medicine. PMID:25336903

  10. Limb Body Wall Complex with Sacrococcygeal Mass and Agenesis of External Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Prabahita

    2013-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare clinicopathological entity, characterized by the presence of an abdominal wall defect associated with variable spectrum of limb and visceral anomalies. A stillborn baby of LBWC with placentoabdominal phenotype is reported here. Kyphoscoliosis, sacrococcygeal mass and agenesis of external genitalia are the associated features. PMID:23970900

  11. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  12. A multicenter randomized comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy in abdominal hysterectomy candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Summitt; Thomas G Stovall; John F Steege; Gary H Lipscomb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy among patients who are not eligible for vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Study subjects were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or standard abdominal hysterectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative management was similar for each group. Surgical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay, charges, and convalescence were analyzed.Results:

  13. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  14. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  15. Domain walls in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Olav; Berger, Andreas; Fullerton, Eric E

    2003-11-01

    We report experimentally observed magnetic domain-wall structures in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer films with perpendicular anisotropy. Our studies reveal a first-order phase transition from domain walls with no net moment to domain walls with ferromagnetic cores. The transition originates from the competition between dipolar and exchange energies, which we tune by means of layer thickness. Although observed in a synthetic antiferromagnetic system, such domain-wall structures may be expected to occur in A-type antiferromagnets with anisotropic exchange coupling. PMID:14611609

  16. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  17. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  18. Hadrian's Wall

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Hadrian's Wall is an historical monument built by the Romans in Britain and spans more than 2,000 years of history. Standing as a "reminder of past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations," the Wall is equipped with museums, forts, and events that bring Roman history to life. Designed by the World Heritage Site, this Web site offers tourist information (such as travel and hotel arrangements) for anyone interested in visiting this historical landmark that ranks along with the great wonders of the world.

  19. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  20. Mechanical platelet activation potential in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirk B; Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2015-04-01

    Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) has potential implications to aneurysm growth and rupture risk; yet, the mechanisms underlying its development remain poorly understood. Some researchers have proposed that ILT development may be driven by biomechanical platelet activation within the AAA, followed by adhesion in regions of low wall shear stress. Studies have investigated wall shear stress levels within AAA, but platelet activation potential (AP) has not been quantified. In this study, patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models were used to analyze stress-induced AP within AAA under rest and exercise flow conditions. The analysis was conducted using Lagrangian particle-based and Eulerian continuum-based approaches, and the results were compared. Results indicated that biomechanical platelet activation is unlikely to play a significant role for the conditions considered. No consistent trend was observed in comparing rest and exercise conditions, but the functional dependence of AP on stress magnitude and exposure time can have a large impact on absolute levels of anticipated platelet AP. The Lagrangian method obtained higher peak AP values, although this difference was limited to a small percentage of particles that falls below reported levels of physiologic background platelet activation. PMID:25588057

  1. Simultaneous operation of ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayoshi; Takagi, Hisato; Mori, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Takuya; Umeda, Yukio; Fukumoto, Yukiomi; Hirose, Hajime

    2005-07-01

    A 68-year-old man with ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and rectal cancer was referred. Coronary angiography indicated triple-vessel disease with jeopardized collaterals, and dipyridamole myocardial scintigraphy disclosed no viability in the inferior, posterior, and lateral walls. Abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, 65 mm in diameter, with an expanding rate of 8 mm/year. Barium enema revealed stenosis 4 cm in length 5 cm inward from the anal verge, and an endoscopic finding was ulcerated type tumor with a clear margin and circumferential stenosis. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma, and the clinical stage in the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma was II according to other examinations. Simultaneous operations were scheduled because of the jeopardized collaterals of the coronary arteries, rapid expansion of the aneurysm, and subileus due to the cancer. The patient underwent simultaneous off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting to the left anterior descending artery with the in situ internal thoracic artery through a median sternotomy, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a tube graft through a median laparotomy, and the Miles' operation with total mesorectal excision. Although infection of the perineal wound was postoperatively recognized, it remained local and was healed with irrigation only. The patient is doing well 12 months after the operation, without myocardial ischemic symptoms or recurrence of the cancer. PMID:16025367

  2. An Animal-Specific FSI Model of the Abdominal Aorta in Anesthetized Mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  3. Successful emergency resection of a massive intra-abdominal hemophilic pseudotumor.

    PubMed

    Frezin, Julie; Marique, Lancelot; Coubeau, Laurent; Hubert, Catherine; Lambert, Catherine; Hermans, Cédric; Jabbour, Nicolas

    2015-03-27

    An intra-abdominal pseudotumor is a rare complication of hemophilia. Surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates and reported cases are scarce. We present a 66-year-old Caucasian male suffering from severe hemophilia type A treated for 10 years with Factor VIII. Major complications from the disease were chronic hepatitis B and C, cerebral hemorrhage and disabling arthropathy. Twenty-three years ago, retro-peritoneal bleeding led to the development of a large intra-abdominal pseudotumor, which was followed-up clinically due to the high surgical risk and the lack of clinical indication. The patient presented to the emergency department with severe sepsis and umbilical discharge that had appeared over the past two days. Abdominal computed tomography images were highly suggestive of a bowel fistula. The patient was taken to the operating room under continuous infusion of factor VIII. Surgical exploration revealed a large infected pseudotumor with severe intra-abdominal adhesions and a left colonic fistula. The pseudotumor was partially resected en bloc with the left colon leaving the posterior wall intact. The postoperative period was complicated by septic shock and a small bowel fistula that required reoperation. He was discharged on the 73(rd) hospital day and is well 8 mo after surgery. No bleeding complications were encountered and we consider surgery safe under factor VIII replacement therapy. PMID:25848492

  4. Successful emergency resection of a massive intra-abdominal hemophilic pseudotumor

    PubMed Central

    Frezin, Julie; Marique, Lancelot; Coubeau, Laurent; Hubert, Catherine; Lambert, Catherine; Hermans, Cédric; Jabbour, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An intra-abdominal pseudotumor is a rare complication of hemophilia. Surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates and reported cases are scarce. We present a 66-year-old Caucasian male suffering from severe hemophilia type A treated for 10 years with Factor VIII. Major complications from the disease were chronic hepatitis B and C, cerebral hemorrhage and disabling arthropathy. Twenty-three years ago, retro-peritoneal bleeding led to the development of a large intra-abdominal pseudotumor, which was followed-up clinically due to the high surgical risk and the lack of clinical indication. The patient presented to the emergency department with severe sepsis and umbilical discharge that had appeared over the past two days. Abdominal computed tomography images were highly suggestive of a bowel fistula. The patient was taken to the operating room under continuous infusion of factor VIII. Surgical exploration revealed a large infected pseudotumor with severe intra-abdominal adhesions and a left colonic fistula. The pseudotumor was partially resected en bloc with the left colon leaving the posterior wall intact. The postoperative period was complicated by septic shock and a small bowel fistula that required reoperation. He was discharged on the 73rd hospital day and is well 8 mo after surgery. No bleeding complications were encountered and we consider surgery safe under factor VIII replacement therapy. PMID:25848492

  5. Combined myocardial revascularization and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Hinkamp, T J; Pifarre, R; Bakhos, M; Blakeman, B

    1991-03-01

    Myocardial infarction remains the leading cause of early and late deaths after abdominal aortic reconstruction in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our approach for the past 4 years has been combined myocardial revascularization with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with good left ventricle performance. From July 1984 through June 1989, 128 patients underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Seventeen patients underwent combined abdominal aortic reconstruction with coronary artery bypass grafting. One patient died (5.9%). The remaining patients are all well at current follow-up. Our experience shows that patients with coronary artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm may have both lesions safely repaired as a single operative procedure. PMID:1998428

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 026327 (2011) Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    E-print Network

    Beresnev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 026327 (2011) Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob

  7. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Thomas, Kristen B; Harned, Roger K; Wu, Sarah R; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. PMID:16151789

  8. Recurrent abdominal pain: a psychogenic disorder?

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, P J; Goodman, J T; Firestone, P; Shipman, R; Peters, S

    1983-01-01

    A controlled study of 30 children with recurrent abdominal pain and 30 pain free children failed to show any statistically significant differences between the groups on a variety of psychological variables thought to be associated with psychogenicity. A psychogenic basis has often been assumed as the cause in diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain when clinical examination and laboratory tests show no organic or medical reason. We emphasise that establishing a psychogenic cause is only indicated where there is positive evidence for psychological factors such as family or school stress, extreme personality characteristics, or modelling of family pain behaviour. PMID:6651325

  9. Fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given study. PMID:22611869

  10. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  11. Abdominal and pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without long lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    PubMed

    Stuge, Britt; Mørkved, Siv; Dahl, Haldis Haug; Vøllestad, Nina

    2006-11-01

    Approximately 5-20% of postpartum women suffer from long-lasting pelvic girdle pain (PGP). The etiology and pathogenesis of PGP are still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether subjects with and without persisting PGP and disability differed with respect to their ability to voluntarily contract the deep abdominals (TrA and IO) and to the strength of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). Twenty subjects (12 with persisting PGP, 8 recovered from PGP) were examined. Contractions of the deep abdominal muscles (TrA and IO) were imaged by real-time ultrasound. Vaginal palpation and observation were used to assess the women's ability to perform correct a PFM contraction. PFM strength was measured by a vaginal balloon catheter connected to a pressure transducer. The active straight leg raise test was used to assess the ability of load transfer. The results showed no statistical significant difference between the groups in increase of muscle thickness of the deep abdominal muscles (TrA; P = 0.87 and IO; P = 0.51) or regarding PFM strength (P = 0.94). The ability to voluntarily contract the deep abdominal muscles and the strength of the PFMs are apparently not associated to PGP. However, the results are based on a small sample and additional studies are needed. PMID:16386450

  12. Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Junginger; Kaven Baessler; Ruth Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  Although the bladder neck is elevated during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction, it descends during straining. This study\\u000a aimed to investigate the relationship between bladder neck displacement, electromyography (EMG) activity of the pelvic floor\\u000a and abdominal muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during different pelvic floor and abdominal contractions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine women without PFM dysfunction performed maximal, gentle and

  13. Dynamics of the ectoplasmic walls during pulsation of plasmodial veins of Physarum polycephalum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gr?becki; M. Cie?lawska

    1978-01-01

    Summary The thickness of ectoplasmic walls decreases at the contraction phase and increases at the expansion phase of each pulsation cycle. In average, 29% of material forming the walls of expanded veins is evacuated during contraction with the endoplasm streaming.

  14. Fractographic study of a thick wall pressure vessel failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Canonico; R. S. Crouse; T. J. Henson

    1979-01-01

    The pressure vessel described in this paper is identified as Intermediate Test Vessel 1 (ITV-1) and was fabricated of SA508, Class 2 Steel. It was tested to failure at 54°C (130°F). The gross failure appeared to be a brittle fracture although accompanied by a measured strain of 0.9%. Seven regions of the fracture were examined in detail and the observed

  15. 49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of any specimen taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in...pressure permitted to be marked on the tank shall be made by the formula...the lower tensile strength of the two specimens taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in §...

  16. 49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of any specimen taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in...pressure permitted to be marked on the tank shall be made by the formula...the lower tensile strength of the two specimens taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in §...

  17. 49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of any specimen taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in...pressure permitted to be marked on the tank shall be made by the formula...the lower tensile strength of the two specimens taken from the tank and tested as prescribed in §...

  18. 49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4...D = d + 2t. Calculate the value of (D 2 ?d2 )/(D 2 + d2 ) (1) Make similar measurements and...

  19. 49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4...D = d + 2t. Calculate the value of (D 2 ?d2 )/(D 2 + d2 ) (1) Make similar measurements and...

  20. Modelling volumetric growth in a thick walled fibre reinforced artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, T. S. E.; Watton, P. N.; Luo, X. Y.; Ventikos, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A novel framework for simulating growth and remodelling (G&R) of a fibre-reinforced artery, including volumetric adaption, is proposed. We show how to implement this model into a finite element framework and propose and examine two underlying assumptions for modelling growth, namely constant individual density (CID) or adaptive individual density (AID). Moreover, we formulate a novel approach which utilises a combination of both AID and CID to simulate volumetric G&R for a tissue composed of several different constituents. We consider a special case of the G&R of an artery subjected to prescribed elastin degradation and we theorise on the assumptions and suitability of CID, AID and the mixed approach for modelling arterial biology. For simulating the volumetric changes that occur during aneurysm enlargement, we observe that it is advantageous to describe the growth of collagen using CID whilst it is preferable to model the atrophy of elastin using AID.