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1

Effects of Wall Thickness on Stress Distribution in Patient-Specific Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the wall stress distribution in an intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is required for assessing its risk of rupture. By simulation three dimensional (3D) models of AAA are usually generated in order to estimate the stress distribution. To evaluate the effects of wall thickness on AAA model reconstruction and stress distribution, herein we created and compared two

Jiang Xiong; Wei Guo; Juan Wang; Wei Zhou

2009-01-01

2

Abdominal wall surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

3

The Effects of Modified Wall Squat Exercises on Average Adults' Deep Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Lumbar Stability  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bridge exercises applying the abdominal drawing-in method and modified wall squat exercises on deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability. [Subjects] A total of 30 subjects were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] The experimental group completed modified wall squat exercises, and the control group performed bridge exercises. Both did so for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Both groups’ transversus abdominis (Tra), internal oblique (IO), and multifidus muscle thickness were measured using ultrasonography, while their static lumbar stability and dynamic lumbar stability were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] A comparison of the pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of the experimental group and the control group was made; the Tra and IO thicknesses were significantly different in both groups. [Conclusion] The modified wall squat exercise and bridge exercise affected the thicknesses of the Tra and the IO muscles. While the bridge exercise requirs space and a mattress to lie on, the modified wall squat exercise can be conveniently performed anytime. PMID:24259831

Cho, Misuk

2013-01-01

4

The effects of modified wall squat exercises on average adults' deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bridge exercises applying the abdominal drawing-in method and modified wall squat exercises on deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability. [Subjects] A total of 30 subjects were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] The experimental group completed modified wall squat exercises, and the control group performed bridge exercises. Both did so for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Both groups' transversus abdominis (Tra), internal oblique (IO), and multifidus muscle thickness were measured using ultrasonography, while their static lumbar stability and dynamic lumbar stability were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] A comparison of the pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of the experimental group and the control group was made; the Tra and IO thicknesses were significantly different in both groups. [Conclusion] The modified wall squat exercise and bridge exercise affected the thicknesses of the Tra and the IO muscles. While the bridge exercise requirs space and a mattress to lie on, the modified wall squat exercise can be conveniently performed anytime. PMID:24259831

Cho, Misuk

2013-06-01

5

Abdominal Wall Endometriomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometriosis is a condition in which uterine mucosal tissue is located outside the uterus. Endometriosis may be pelvic or extrapelvic. The term endometrioma is used when endometriosis appears as a circumscribed mass. Abdominal wall endometriomas are usually a secondary process in scars after surgical procedures. A retrospective study of abdominal wall endometrioma, from March 1992 through April 1999 at our

Amit J. Dwivedi; Sunita N. Agrawal; Yvan J. Silva

2002-01-01

6

Dynamic reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects using free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with free anterolateral thigh flap.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability. PMID:22214798

Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi

2013-03-01

7

The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.  

PubMed

Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

2014-05-01

8

Behaviour of a New Composite Mesh for the Repair of Full-Thickness Abdominal Wall Defects in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Composite biomaterials designed for the repair of abdominal wall defects are composed of a mesh component and a laminar barrier in contact with the visceral peritoneum. This study assesses the behaviour of a new composite mesh by comparing it with two latest-generation composites currently used in clinical practice. Methods Defects (7x5cm) created in the anterior abdominal wall of New Zealand White rabbits were repaired using a polypropylene mesh and the composites: PhysiomeshTM; VentralightTM and a new composite mesh with a three-dimensional macroporous polyester structure and an oxidized collagen/chitosan barrier. Animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 90 postimplant. Specimens were processed to determine host tissue incorporation, gene/protein expression of neo-collagens (RT-PCR/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (RAM-11-immunolabelling) and biomechanical resistance. On postoperative days 7/14, each animal was examined laparoscopically to quantify adhesions between the visceral peritoneum and implant. Results The new composite mesh showed the lowest incidence of seroma in the short term. At each time point, the mesh surface covered with adhesions was greater in controls than composites. By day 14, the implants were fully infiltrated by a loose connective tissue that became denser over time. At 90 days, the peritoneal mesh surface was lined with a stable mesothelium. The new composite mesh induced more rapid tissue maturation than PhysiomeshTM, giving rise to a neoformed tissue containing more type I collagen. In VentralightTM the macrophage reaction was intense and significantly greater than the other composites at both follow-up times. Tensile strengths were similar for each biomaterial. Conclusions All composites showed optimal peritoneal behaviour, inducing good peritoneal regeneration and scarce postoperative adhesion formation. A greater foreign body reaction was observed for VentralightTM. All composites induced good collagen deposition accompanied by optimal tensile strength. The three-dimensional macroporous structure of the new composite mesh may promote rapid tissue regeneration within the mesh. PMID:24236192

Pascual, Gemma; Sotomayor, Sandra; Rodriguez, Marta; Bayon, Yves; Bellon, Juan M.

2013-01-01

9

[Hypogastric abdominal wall reconstruction with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap].  

PubMed

Looking at a full-thickness abdominal wall defect, it is necessary to use reconstructive surgery techniques. The authors present an original case of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) harvested with vascularised fascia lata. We describe the advantages of this technique, which has rarely been used for this indication. An 80-year-old woman presenting a full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 15×18cm was reconstructed by a pedicled ALT flap. Skin wound healing was obtained within 15 days, with no complication. There was no donor site sequela. The pedicled ALT flap appears to be a good solution for hypogastric abdominal wall defect in a one step procedure. Vacularised fascia lata bring with the cutaneous flap is useful to reconstruct the abdominal fascia. PMID:23182334

Moullot, P; Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Casanova, D

2014-10-01

10

A New Rat Model for Orthotopic Abdominal Wall Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Background: Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation. Methods: Full-thickness hemiabdominal wall flap was procured from Brown Norway (BN) rats and transplanted to an orthotopic defect on Lewis rats. Three groups were studied: group 1: Lewis to Lewis syngeneic; group 2: BN to Lewis control; and group 3: BN to Lewis with postoperative cyclosporine. Vascular imaging and cross vessel section were performed along with full-thickness abdominal wall. Immune cell profiling with flow cytometry at different time points was studied in all groups. Results: Syngeneic group had no rejection. Control group consistently showed rejection around postoperative day 6. With cyclosporine treatment, however, transplant and recipient tissue integration was observed. Flow cytometry revealed that innate immunity is responsible for the initial inflammatory events following abdominal wall engraftment. Adaptive immunity cells, specifically interferon-?-producing T helper (Th) 1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, dramatically and positively correlate with rejection progression of abdominal wall transplants. Conclusions: Technical, histological, and immunological aspects of a new rat model are described. These results give clues to what occurs in human abdominal wall transplantation. In addition, Th1, a proinflammatory cell, was found to be a potential biomarker for allograft rejection.

Lao, William W.; Wang, Yen-Ling; Ramirez, Alejandro E.; Cheng, Hui-Yun

2014-01-01

11

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right\\u000a lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time.\\u000a A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia\\u000a defect was

M. Castillo-Sang; B. Gociman; B. Almaroof; J. Fath; F. Cason

2009-01-01

12

Intestine Submucosa and Polypropylene Mesh for Abdominal Wall Repair in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing investigations of abdominal body wall reconstruction materials suggest that unacceptable implant complications continue and that the ideal material has not yet been found. This pilot study compared xenogeneic (porcine) small intestine submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene mesh (PPM) for repair of created partial-thickness (six dogs) and full-thickness (six dogs) abdominal wall defects. Postoperative clinical evaluation of all dogs showed no

Kevin M. Clarke; Gary C. Lantz; S. Kathleen Salisbury; Stephen F. Badylak; Michael C. Hiles; Sherry L. Voytik

1996-01-01

13

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

14

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, P.R.

1985-06-21

15

Anesthetic Considerations for Abdominal Wall Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Anesthesia considerations for abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) are numerous and depend upon the medical status of the patient and the projected procedure. Obesity, sleep apnea, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are not uncommon in patients with abdominal wall defects; pulmonary functions and cardiac output can be affected by the surgical procedure. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also at a higher risk of coughing during the postoperative awakening process, which can compromise the reconstruction of the fascia. Given the increased complexity of the patients presenting for AWR, and the importance of the anesthesia for these specific procedures, it is important that surgeons are aware of the challenges that anesthesiologists face when treating these patients. Some of these challenges and their resolution are reviewed here. PMID:23372453

Slabach, Rachel; Suyderhoud, Johan P.

2012-01-01

16

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

17

Creating universes with thick walls  

E-print Network

We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

Andrew Ulvestad; Andreas Albrecht

2012-02-27

18

Normal colon wall thickness on CT  

SciTech Connect

The thickness of the normal colon wall was measured by computed tomography in 84 patients. No special preparation was done, nor intentional intraluminal distension by air or contrast material. The thickness of the wall never exceeded 3 mm, facilitating differentiation from abnormal bowel on the basis of wall thickness.

Fisher, J.K.

1982-11-01

19

Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

2013-08-06

20

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.

Simoes, Jorge; Goncalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

21

Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction.

Peled, I.J.; Kaplan, H.Y.; Herson, M.; Wexler, M.R.

1983-08-01

22

[Abdominal wall injury - risk of seat belt use].  

PubMed

Abdominal seat belt marks can be an indication of abdominal wall rupture. The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and computed tomography (CT) scanning are the diagnostic tools of choice in hemodynamically stable patients. The typical mechanism of trauma frequently leads to additional intra-abdominal injuries, spinal injuries and in some cases aortic rupture. Abdominal wall injuries of grade IV according to Dennis should be surgically treated. The increasing numbers of obese vehicle occupants and the resulting special risk of injury warrant optimization of technical restraint systems. PMID:23896762

Bachmann, S; Schrem, H; Mommsen, P; Gaulke, R; Klempnauer, J; Bektas, H; Krettek, C; Zeckey, C

2014-10-01

23

Correlation between Peak Expiratory Flow and Abdominal Muscle Thickness  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration.

Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ito, Tomotaka; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

2014-01-01

24

Teratogens inducing congenital abdominal wall defects in animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abdominal wall defects are common anomalies which include gastroschisis, omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia.\\u000a Recent reports indicate that gastroschisis is increasing in prevalence, whereas omphalocele has remained steady, suggesting\\u000a that environmental factors may play a part in their pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to review animal teratogen studies\\u000a resulting in abdominal wall defects to investigate their possible

Dennis R. Van Dorp; John M. Malleis; Brian P. Sullivan; Michael D. Klein

2010-01-01

25

Pedicled omental and split skin graft in the reconstruction of the anterior abdominal wall?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The POSSG is a pedicled graft based on either the right or left gastro-epiploic arteries. It is used with a dual mesh in reconstruction of full thickness defects of anterior abdominal wall and covered by skin grafts. PRESENTATION OF CASE A recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the anterior abdominal wall was excised leaving a large defect. The POSSG was used for reconstruction. A large dual mesh was placed to close the defect in the abdominal wall by suturing it to the remnant rim of abdominal muscles. The omental pedicle was brought through a keyhole in the mesh, spread out over the mesh, sutured and covered by split skin grafts. The final graft take was 90 percent. DISCUSSION The POSSG can be used to reconstruct any size of anterior abdominal wall defects due to the malleable nature of omentum. Its prerequisite however is a dual mesh like PROCEED. The POSSG helps keep the more complex musculofasciocutaneous flaps as lifeboats. It can be used singly where multiple musculofasciocutaneous flaps would otherwise have been required. It can be used in patients with poor prognosis of underlying malignancy. It may be used by general surgeons due to familiarity with anatomy of the relevant structures and lack of need for microsurgical skill. CONCLUSION The POSSG can be used in reconstruction of abdominal wall defects of any size by general surgeons. PMID:24566428

Manay, Priyadarshini; Khajanchi, Monty; Prajapati, Ram; Satoskar, Rajeev

2014-01-01

26

Giant Abdominal Wall Hernia in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common problems found in patients with cirrhosis because of persistently high intra-abdominal pressure. When abdominal hernias are neglected in such patients, they may become larger and could result in cosmetic problems and pressure effects that are also difficult to treat. We found a voluminous mass in the anterior abdominal wall of a 40-year-old patient with cirrhosis. The patient was operated on for acute cholecystitis 12 years earlier. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an epigastric hernia presenting as a grossly distended hernia sac filled with serous fluid and intestinal loops. The patient was not operated on and was discharged with sodium-restricted diet and diuretics PMID:25093066

Sadeghi, Anahita; Ali Asgari, Ali

2014-01-01

27

[Abdominal wall closure by incisional hernia and herniation after laparostoma].  

PubMed

As hernias and abdominal wall defects have a variety of etiologies each with its own complications and comorbidities in various constellations, efficient treatment requires patient-oriented management. There is no recommended standard treatment and the very different clinical pictures demand an individualized interdisciplinary approach. Particularly in the case of complicated hernias, the planning of the operation should focus on the problems posed by the individual patient. Treatment mainly depends on the etiology of the hernia, immediate or long-term complications and the efficiency of individual repair techniques. Abdominal wall repair for recurrent herniation requires direct closure of the fascia generally using the sublay technique with a lightweight mesh. It is still unclear whether persistent inflammation, mesh dislocation, fistula formation or other long-term complications are due to certain materials or to the surgical technique. With mesh infections it has been shown to be advantageous to remove a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh, while the combination of systemic and local treatment appears to suffice for a polypropylene or polyester mesh. Heavier meshes in the sublay position or plastic reconstruction with autologous tissue are indicated as substitutes for the abdominal wall for giant hernias, repeated recurrences and large abdominal wall defects. A laparostoma is increasingly more often created to treat septic intra-abdominal processes but is very often responsible for a complicated hernia. If primary repair of the abdominal wall is not an option, resorbable material or split skin is used for coverage under the auspices of a planned hernia repair. PMID:20145901

Mischinger, H-J; Kornprat, P; Werkgartner, G; El Shabrawi, A; Spendel, S

2010-03-01

28

Bronchial wall thickness in toll collectors.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of diesel exhaust particulates on human health. In a diesel exposed occupational group composed of 120 toll collectors, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chest radiographs and 40 toll collectors were selected for computed tomography examination according to hyperinflation and linear markings. The wall thicknesses and luminal diameters of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi of right apical and posterior basal segments were measured with manual tracing method. The walls of right upper bronchus in exsmoker toll collectors were significantly thicker than those of nonsmokers (p=0.011). A positive correlation was observed between age and the right upper bronchus wall thickness (r=0.577, p=0.000). An inverse correlation was found between the working duration and the diameter of right main bronchus (r=-0.366, p=0.020). A positive correlation was seen between smoking and the right upper bronchus wall thickness (r=0.457, p=0.005). Diesel exposure might have a role in increase of thickness of large airways wall and a decrease in the diameters of large airways. Studies in this area are needed to protect the population under the diesel exposure risk. PMID:20562507

Safak, Alp Alper; Arbak, Peri; Yazici, Burhan; Bilgin, Cahit; Erdogmus, Besir; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ozsahin, Sefa Levent

2010-01-01

29

A Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair: A Laparoscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias from blunt trauma usually occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions where the force is tangential, sudden, and severe. Although rare, these hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Open repairs can be challenging and unsuccessful due to avulsion of muscle directly from the iliac crest, with or without bone loss. A laparoscopic approach to traumatic abdominal wall hernia can aid in the delineation of the hernia and allow for a safe and effective repair. Case Description: A 36-year-old female was admitted to our Level 1 trauma center with a traumatic abdominal wall hernia located in the right flank near the iliac crest after being involved in a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the presence of an abdominal wall defect that was unapparent on physical examination. The traumatic abdominal wall hernia in the right flank was successfully repaired laparoscopically. One-year follow-up has shown no sign of recurrence. Discussion: A traumatic abdominal wall hernia rarely presents following blunt trauma, but should be suspected following a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Frequently, repair is complicated by the need to have fixation of mesh to bony landmarks (eg, iliac crest). In spite of this challenge, the laparoscopic approach with tension-free mesh repair of a traumatic abdominal wall hernia can be accomplished successfully using an approach similar to that taken for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:23477181

Wilson, Kenneth L.; Rosser, James C.

2012-01-01

30

Personalized identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes on computed tomography.  

PubMed

An abdominal wall hernia is a protrusion of the intestine through an opening or area of weakness in the abdominal wall. Correct pre-operative identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes could help surgeons adjust the surgical plan to meet the expected difficulty and morbidity of operating through or removing the previous mesh. First, we present herein for the first time the application of image analysis for automated identification of hernia meshes. Second, we discuss the novel development of a new entropy-based image texture feature using geostatistics and indicator kriging. Third, we seek to enhance the hernia mesh identification by combining the new texture feature with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix feature of the image. The two features can characterize complementary information of anatomic details of the abdominal hernia wall and its mesh on computed tomography. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed study. The new computational tool has potential for personalized mesh identification which can assist surgeons in the diagnosis and repair of complex abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24184112

Pham, Tuan D; Le, Dinh T P; Xu, Jinwei; Nguyen, Duc T; Martindale, Robert G; Deveney, Clifford W

2014-01-01

31

Prediction of Regulatory Networks in Mouse Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Sequence specific transcription factors are essential for pattern formation and cell differentiation processes in mammals. The formation of the abdominal wall depends on a flawless merge of several developmental fields in time and space. Absence of Pitx2 leads to open abdominal wall in mice, while mutations in humans result in umbilical defects, suggesting that a single homeobox transcription factor coordinates the formation and patterning of this anatomical structure. Gene expression analysis from abdominal tissue including the abdominal wall after removal of the major organs, of wild type, Pitx2 heterozygote and mutant mice, at embryonic day 10.5, identified 275 genes with altered expression levels. Pitx2 target genes were clustered using the “David Bioinformatics Functional Annotation Tool” web application, which bins genes according to gene ontology (GO) key word enrichment. This provided a way to both narrow the target gene list and to start identifying potential gene families regulated by Pitx2. Target genes in the most enriched bins were further analyzed for the presence and the evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 consensus binding sequence, TAATCY, on the ?20kb, intronic and coding gene sequences. Twenty Pitx2 target genes that passed all the above criteria were classified as genes involved in cell transport and growth. Data from these studies suggest that Pitx2 acts as an inhibitor of protein transport and cell apoptosis contributing to the open body wall phenotype. This work provides the framework to which the developmental network leading to abdominal wall syndromes can be built. PMID:20797427

Eng, Diana; Campbell, Adam; Hilton, Traci; Leid, Mark; Gross, Michael K.; Kioussi, Chrissa

2010-01-01

32

Traumatic breast transposal to the abdominal wall: A case report  

PubMed Central

Although abdominal wall masses are commonly observed in clinical practice, traumatic breast transposal appearing as an abdominal wall mass is a rare event. The unique phenomenon of a post-traumatic breast growing healthily in the abdominal wall has never previously been reported. The current study presents the case of a 40-year-old female who developed an unusually transposed, but healthy mammary gland in the right upper abdominal wall following a severe pedestrian traffic accident. In that accident, the powerful impact of the car caused multiple right-sided rib fractures, lung injuries and a protruding mass on the right abdominal wall. This sudden onset protruding mass was indicated to be breast tissue by computed tomography imaging and ultrasound scanning. The transposed mammary gland was resected and a pathological examination confirmed that it consisted of normal breast tissue. In this case, the force of the car caused no significant damage or necrosis to the right breast, but instead was sufficient to shift the mammary gland to the abdomen, where it grew healthily 6 months in its new location. This case highlights the capability of the mammary gland to withstand a powerful impact and survive. Moreover, it advances our knowledge of how mammary tissues respond to severe blunt-force impacts. PMID:25120698

YANG, MEI; XU, ZHE; LIAO, QIULIN; WANG, HONG

2014-01-01

33

Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

2014-01-01

34

WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias  

PubMed Central

Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

2013-01-01

35

Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction.  

PubMed

This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

2011-01-01

36

Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

2011-01-01

37

High accuracy wall thickness loss monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic inspection of wall thickness in pipes is a standard technique applied widely in the petrochemical industry. The potential precision of repeat measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors however significantly surpasses that of handheld sensors as uncertainties associated with coupling fluids and positional offsets are eliminated. With permanently installed sensors the precise evaluation of very small wall loss rates becomes feasible in a matter of hours. The improved accuracy and speed of wall loss rate measurements can be used to evaluate and develop more effective mitigation strategies. This paper presents an overview of factors causing variability in the ultrasonic measurements which are then systematically addressed and an experimental setup with the best achievable stability based on these considerations is presented. In the experimental setup galvanic corrosion is used to induce predictable and very small wall thickness loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental measurements can be used to assess the effect of reduced wall loss that is produced by the injection of corrosion inhibitor. The measurements show an estimated standard deviation of about 20nm, which in turn allows us to evaluate the effect and behaviour of corrosion inhibitors within less than an hour.

Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

2014-02-01

38

Aeration of the abdominal wall for treatment of necrotising fasciitis.  

PubMed

A patient diagnosed with extensive abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis from a perianal abscess was managed with a novel aeration technique using adapted 36-French tubes. A total of 14 drains were placed in the plane of the transversalis fascia after surgical debridement. The drains were left open to allow drainage of liquefactive contents and aeration of the abdominal wall tissues. An extended course of intravenous antibiotics were administered and the patient was ventilated in the intensive therapy unit. The patient was reoperated after 2 weeks, at which time the drains were removed. The patient made a full recovery, and was discharged with follow-up. PMID:25199200

Koris, Jacob; Arshad, Ali; Dennison, Ashley

2014-01-01

39

Ruptured femoral pseudoaneurysm presenting as a lateral abdominal wall hematoma.  

PubMed

Lateral abdominal wall hematomas are rare. We describe a patient with a delayed rupture of a femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, who presented with such a hematoma. In contrast to other types of abdominal wall hematomas, which are often managed conservatively, a ruptured femoral artery pseudoaneurysm frequently requires emergent surgical intervention. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm can be catastrophic. Due to the rising incidence of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and shorter hospital stays, it is useful for the emergency physician to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and their potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:16029823

Ma, Marek; Snook, Curtis P

2005-08-01

40

Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction  

PubMed Central

We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably result in the identification of more cases. Combination antibiotic therapy with surgical drainage in more extensive diseases is essential for cure. PMID:19753203

Al Soub, Hussam; Al-Maslamani, Eman; Al-Maslamani, Mona

2008-01-01

41

Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control  

DOEpatents

A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01

42

Abdominal wall abscess secondary to subcapsular tubercular liver abscess.  

PubMed

We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall lump in the right upper quadrant 15 days after starting antitubercular treatment for right pleural effusion. CT scan revealed a right liver lobe subcapsular abscess communicating vith subcutaneous tissue. Aspiration of pus revealed acid-fast bacilli. She responded to 9 months of antitubercular treatment. PMID:14658538

Desai, Nutan; Patil, Shivanand; Thakur, Bhagwan Singh; Das, Haribhakti Seba; Manjunath, S M; Sawant, Prabha

2003-01-01

43

Musculature tissue engineering to repair abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

Hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in surgical clinics. Tissue engineering provides insights for the treatment of abdominal wall hernias and other disorders involving deficiencies in the musculature. The present review summarizes the mechanisms of muscle development and regeneration and provides an overview of tissue engineering strategies for the construction of muscles. PMID:22188638

Zhang, Lu; Li, Qiong; Qin, Jian; Gu, Yan

2012-04-01

44

Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4

Frederick Wang; Samuel Buonocore; Deepak Narayan

2011-01-01

45

Malignant Schwannoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

Malignant schwannoma of the anterior abdominal wall nerves is extremely rare. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and it is found in 4% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1. We present a case of malignant schwannoma in a 28-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis 1. She presented with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. The tumor location was in the abdominal wall in explorative laparatomy and malignant schwannoma was diagnosed in pathologic assessment. The tumor recurred in 3 months and computed tomography showed two masses in the right side of abdominopelvic cavity. Thereafter, second complete surgical resection was performed and pathologic finding was the same. In spite of administering chemotherapy after second surgery,the tumor recurred and magnetic resonance imaging finding showed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass with adhesion to the inner side of the abdominal wall. The patient died because of acute respiratory failure due to multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases. Tumor location and rapid recurrence was unique in our patient. Keywords Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Malignant schwannoma; Abdominal wall PMID:22461875

Khorgami, Zhamak; Nasiri, Shirzad; Rezakhanlu, Freshteh; Sodagari, Nassim

2009-01-01

46

The ratio between anterior abdominal wall surface\\/wall defect surface: a new parameter to classify abdominal incisional hernias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current classifications of incisional hernias are often not suitable. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that it is important\\u000a to consider not only the wall defect surface (WDS) but also the total surface of the anterior abdominal wall (SAW) and the\\u000a ratio between SAW\\/WDS). Twenty-three patients affected by >10 cm size incisional hernias were examined for anthropometric\\u000a analyses. The

C. Ammaturo; G. Bassi

2005-01-01

47

[Clostridial myonecrosis of the abdominal wall - case report].  

PubMed

The authors present a case report of a forty-five-year-old patient operated on for acute appendicitis who developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall within 48 hours after an appendectomy and subsequently also clostridial sepsis. Due to early diagnosis and intensive care, the patient survived. Clostridial myonecrosis is a rare complication after abdominal surgery and may be fatal in many cases. In our literature, there are only a few publications describing cases of patients who survived this rare postoperative complication. PMID:25047974

Látrová, S; Cáp, R; Subrt, Z

2014-06-01

48

49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thickness of wall. 179.500-4 Section 179.500-4 Transportation...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4 Thickness of wall. (a) Minimum thickness of wall of each finished tank shall be such that at a...

2012-10-01

49

49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thickness of wall. 179.500-4 Section 179.500-4 Transportation...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4 Thickness of wall. (a) Minimum thickness of wall of each finished tank shall be such that at a...

2013-10-01

50

49 CFR 178.33-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33-7 Section 178.33-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007...

2010-10-01

51

49 CFR 178.33a-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33a-7 Section 178.33a-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008...

2013-10-01

52

49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thickness of wall. 179.500-4 Section 179.500-4 Transportation...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4 Thickness of wall. (a) Minimum thickness of wall of each finished tank shall be such that at a...

2010-10-01

53

49 CFR 178.33-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33-7 Section 178.33-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007...

2012-10-01

54

49 CFR 179.500-4 - Thickness of wall.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thickness of wall. 179.500-4 Section 179.500-4 Transportation...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-4 Thickness of wall. (a) Minimum thickness of wall of each finished tank shall be such that at a...

2011-10-01

55

49 CFR 178.33a-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33a-7 Section 178.33a-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008...

2011-10-01

56

49 CFR 178.33a-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33a-7 Section 178.33a-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008...

2010-10-01

57

49 CFR 178.33-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33-7 Section 178.33-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007...

2011-10-01

58

49 CFR 178.33-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33-7 Section 178.33-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007...

2013-10-01

59

49 CFR 178.33a-7 - Wall thickness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wall thickness. 178.33a-7 Section 178.33a-7...Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-7 Wall thickness. (a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008...

2012-10-01

60

Complex abdominal wall repair using a porcine dermal matrix.  

PubMed

Management of complex abdominal defects remains a significant challenge for many surgeons, especially in contaminated fields. Currently, available biosynthetic grafts include human cadaveric dermis (AlloDerm), porcine dermal (Permacol and Strattice), and submucosal (Surgisis) sources. All these grafts are composed of an acellular collagen scaffold to provide a bridge for tissue incorporation and neovascularization. The authors describe a case report of a woman who required dual mesh explantation and successive reparative surgery using a porcine dermal matrix for a complex and infected abdominal wound. Twelve months postdischarge the patient remains well, she is pain free, and she returned home to full activities with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual or recurrent hernia. The patient was satisfied with her cosmetic results. In conclusion, the authors' experience shows that the use of Permacol, a porcine dermal matrix, has been successful in treating an infected abdomen and a vast abdominal wall defect. PMID:22006210

Gentile, Pietro; Colicchia, Gianfranco Marcello; Nicoli, Fabio; Cervelli, Giulio; Curcio, Cristiano Beniamino; Brinci, Lorenzo; Cervelli, Valerio

2013-12-01

61

Quantitative Anatomical Labeling of the Anterior Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Ventral hernias (VHs) are abnormal openings in the anterior abdominal wall that are common side effects of surgical intervention. Repair of VHs is the most commonly performed procedure by general surgeons worldwide, but VH repair outcomes are not particularly encouraging (with recurrence rates up to 43%). A variety of open and laparoscopic techniques are available for hernia repair, and the specific technique used is ultimately driven by surgeon preference and experience. Despite routine acquisition of computed tomography (CT) for VH patients, little quantitative information is available on which to guide selection of a particular approach and/or optimize patient-specific treatment. From anecdotal interviews, the success of VH repair procedures correlates with hernia size, location, and involvement of secondary structures. Herein, we propose an image labeling protocol to segment the anterior abdominal area to provide a geometric basis with which to derive biomarkers and evaluate treatment efficacy. Based on routine clinical CT data, we are able to identify inner and outer surfaces of the abdominal walls and the herniated volume. This is the first formal presentation of a protocol to quantify these structures on abdominal CT. The intra- and inter rater reproducibilities of this protocol are evaluated on 4 patients with suspected VH (3 patients were ultimately diagnosed with VH while 1 was not). Mean surfaces distances of less than 2mm were achieved for all structures. PMID:24478827

Allen, Wade M.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

2013-01-01

62

Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated. PMID:19266089

Achach, Thouraya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ltaief, Rached; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

2008-01-01

63

Report of Three Cases of Unusual Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects in Fallujah General Hospital During the Year 2010  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall defects occur when the normal sequence of the gastro intestinal tract development is interrupted. Gastroschisis represents a herniation of abdominal contents through a paramedian full-thickness abdominal wall fusion defect without involving the umbilical cord. Evisceration usually only contains intestinal loops and has no surrounding membrane unlike omphalocoele. It is unusual for a newborn with gastroschisis to have other serious birth defects. Neonates with gastroschisis have better prognosis than those with omphalocele. Very rarely is gastroschisis associated with herniation of other organs, and their presence makes the prognosis worse. I report three cases of unusual anterior abdominal wall defects during the year 2010, each having specific associated abnormalities. One was stillborn, and the other two died shortly after delivery. PMID:23864990

Alaani, Samira

2012-01-01

64

“Acute postoperative open abdominal wall”: Nosological concept and treatment implications  

PubMed Central

The so-called “burst abdomen” has been described for many years and is a well-known clinical condition, whereas the concept of the “open abdomen” is relatively new. In clinical practice, both nosological entities are characterized by a complex spectrum of symptoms apparently disconnected, which in many cases poses a great challenge for surgical repair. In order to assess the management of these disorders in a more comprehensive and integral fashion, the concept of “acute postoperative open abdominal wall” (acute POAW) is presented, which in turn can be divided into “intentional” or planned acute POAW and “unintentional” or unplanned POAW. The understanding of the acute POAW as a single clinical process not only allows a better optimization of the therapeutic approach in the surgical repair of abdominal wall-related disorders, but also the stratification and collection of data in different patient subsets, favoring a better knowledge of the wide spectrum of conditions involved in the surgical reconstruction of the abdominal wall. PMID:24392182

López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José A; Armengol-Carrasco, Manuel

2013-01-01

65

New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

Pascente, Joseph E.

1998-03-01

66

Bioprosthetic Tissue Matrices in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Complex abdominal defects are difficult problems encountered by surgeons in multiple specialties. Although current evidence supports the primary repair of these defects with mesh reinforcement, it is unclear which mesh is superior for any given clinical scenario. The purpose of this review was to explore the characteristics of and clinical relevance behind bioprosthetic tissue matrices in an effort to better clarify their role in abdominal wall reconstruction. Methods: We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature on the use of bioprosthetic mesh in human subjects. Basic science articles and large retrospective and prospective reviews were included in author’s analysis. The clinical performance and characteristics of 13 bioprosthetic tissue matrices were evaluated. Results: The majority of the products evaluated perform well in contaminated fields, where the risk of wound-healing difficulties is high. Clinical outcomes, which included infection, reherniation, and bulge formation, were variable, and the majority of the studies had a mean follow-up of less than 24 months. Conclusions: Although bioprosthetic matrix has a multitude of indications within the growing field of abdominal wall reconstruction, the functionality, regenerative capacity, and long-term fate of these products have yet to be fully established. Furthermore, the clinical performance, indications, and contraindications for each type of matrix need to be fully evaluated in long-term outcome studies. PMID:25289285

Broyles, Justin M.; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sacks, Justin M.

2013-01-01

67

Acute acalculous cholecystitis after abdominal wall repair (Rives-Stoppa).  

PubMed

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare condition normally occurring in critically ill patients. Compared to acute calculous cholecystitis, AAC is associated with complications and has a worse outcome. Hence, knowledge of this condition is very important. We describe a case of a 31-year-old man who developed AAC after abdominal wall repair with mesh (Rives-Stoppa procedure) 1 day after discharge from the hospital. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to report AAC after abdominal incisional hernia repair. Although it is known to be more common in critically ill patients, AAC can also occur postoperatively in outpatients. Early recognition and treatment of AAC may improve outcome. PMID:24739656

Reurings, Jurrian C; Diaz, Ruben P D; Penninga, Luit; Nellensteijn, David R

2014-01-01

68

The relationship between wall shear stress distributions and intimal thickening in the human abdominal aorta  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this work was to determine wall shear stress (WSS) patterns in the human abdominal aorta and to compare these patterns to measurements of intimal thickness (IT) from autopsy samples. Methods The WSS was experimentally measured using the laser photochromic dye tracer technique in an anatomically faithful in vitro model based on CT scans of the abdominal aorta in a healthy 35-year-old subject. IT was quantified as a function of circumferential and axial position using light microscopy in ten human autopsy specimens. Results The histomorphometric analysis suggests that IT increases with age and that the distribution of intimal thickening changes with age. The lowest WSS in the flow model was found on the posterior wall inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery, and coincided with the region of most prominent IT in the autopsy samples. Local geometrical features in the flow model, such as the expansion at the inferior mesenteric artery (common in younger individuals), strongly influenced WSS patterns. The WSS was found to correlate negatively with IT (r2 = 0.3099; P = 0.0047). Conclusion Low WSS in the abdominal aorta is co-localized with IT and may be related to atherogenesis. Also, rates of IT in the abdominal aorta are possibly influenced by age-related geometrical changes. PMID:14641919

Bonert, Michael; Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Ethier, C Ross; Myers, Jerry G; Johnston, K Wayne; Ojha, Matadial

2003-01-01

69

Numerical Simulation of Jumbo Jet Impacting on Thick Concrete Walls —— Effects of Reinforcement and Wall Thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional computer simulation of the impact of a Boeing 747 passenger jet has been conducted using the AUTODYN®-3D computer program. The targets are reinforced or non-reinforced concrete wall with three different thicknesses. The fuselage, the wings and the engines of the airplane are modeled by shell elements. The stringers are represented by beam elements, and the jet fuel by

Masahide KATAYAMA; Masaharu ITOH; Robert RAINSBERGER

70

Abdominal Wall Hydatid Cyst: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old woman presented with a swelling in right paraumbilical region of one-year duration. Examination revealed a painless cystic swelling 15 × 10?cm with cough impulse. Ultrasound and CECT abdomen showed a subcutaneous cystic swelling with intramuscular extension. No other intraabdominal cystic lesions were found. Surgical exploration showed a cystic lesion adherent to peritoneum without any intraperitoneal extension. Cyst was carefully excised without any spillage. Gross specimen on opening showed multiple daughter cysts consistent with hydatid cyst, confirming the diagnosis of solitary abdominal wall hydatid cyst. PMID:22953153

Abhishek, V.; Patil, Vijayraj S.; Mohan, Ullikashi; Shivswamy, B. S.

2012-01-01

71

Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of females  

SciTech Connect

Optimal use of whole-body counting data to estimate pulmonary deposition of many of the actinides is dependent upon accurate measurement of the thickness of the chest wall because of severe attenuation of low-energy x rays and photons associated with the decay of these radionuclides. An algorithm for estimation of female chest wall thicknesses, verified by real-time ultrasonic measurements, has been derived based on the correlation of measured chest wall thickness and other common biometric quantities. Use of this algorithm will reduce the error generally associated with estimation of internal actinide deposition previously resulting from assuming an average chest wall thickness for all female subjects.

Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

1985-09-01

72

Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of females.  

PubMed

Optimal use of whole-body counting data to estimate pulmonary deposition of many of the actinides is dependent upon accurate measurement of the thickness of the chest wall because of severe attenuation of low-energy x rays and photons associated with the decay of these radionuclides. An algorithm for estimation of female chest wall thicknesses, verified by real-time ultrasonic measurements, has been derived based on the correlation of measured chest wall thickness and other common biometric quantities. Use of this algorithm will reduce the error generally associated with estimation of internal actinide deposition previously resulting from assuming an average chest wall thickness for all female subjects. PMID:2993197

Berger, C D; Lane, B H

1985-09-01

73

The ratio between anterior abdominal wall surface/wall defect surface: a new parameter to classify abdominal incisional hernias.  

PubMed

Current classifications of incisional hernias are often not suitable. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that it is important to consider not only the wall defect surface (WDS) but also the total surface of the anterior abdominal wall (SAW) and the ratio between SAW/WDS). Twenty-three patients affected by > 10 cm size incisional hernias were examined for anthropometric analyses. The SAW, the WDS and the ratio SAW/WDS were calculated. All of the 23 patients were operated on 13 patients were treated with the Rives technique using a polypropylene mesh while the remaning ten patients had an intraperitoneal Parietex Composite mesh (PC). The two groups were compared for post-operative pain (with VAS) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) 48 h after the operation: bladder pressure, length of the procedure, average hospital stay and return to work were calculated. In the Rives group, WDS being equal, the higher IAP values were, the lower was the ratio SAW/WDS; furthermore, SAW/WDS ratio being equal, IAP values were low in cases where intraperitoneal mesh was used. Post-operative pain, measured with VAS, was critical when there was a low SAW/WDS ratio and a high IAP. In our experience, it is possible to predict a strong abdominal wall tension if the SAW/WDA ratio is below 15 mmHg. In these cases it is advisable to use a technique requiring the use of an intraperitoneal mesh. Our experience with PC was so positive that it is used in our department for all cases where an intraperitoneal mesh is required. At present, our proposal is that the SAW/WDS ratio is to be considered as a new parameter in current classifications of incisional hernias. PMID:16172802

Ammaturo, C; Bassi, G

2005-12-01

74

Abdominoplasty and abdominal wall rehabilitation: a comprehensive approach.  

PubMed

Standard abdominoplasty techniques involve a low horizontal or W skin excision, muscle plication, and umbilical transposition. Newer techniques include suction-assisted lipectomy, the use of high lateral tension with fascial suspension, and external oblique muscle advancement. The author has modified these traditional procedures and added new techniques to improve the aesthetic and functional results of the abdominoplasty procedure. This modification provides a comprehensive approach to abdominal wall aesthetic improvement and rehabilitation. The comprehensive approach described includes four components: the "U-M dermolipectomy," "V umbilicoplasty," the rectus abdominis "myofascial release," and suction-assisted lipectomy. The patient is marked while standing for areas of suction lipectomy and undermining. The lower incision is designed as an open U with the lateral limbs placed inside the bikini line. The upper incision is a lazy M with the higher peaks located at the level of the flanks. Subcutaneous hydration is achieved to perform suction along the flanks, waistline, and iliac areas. Gentle suction of the flaps is also performed. The umbilicus is cored out in a heart shape. The flaps within the U-M marks are excised, and the undermining is performed to the xiphoid and costal margins. The rectus diastasis is marked, and the anterior rectus fascia is incised at the junction of the medial third with the central third of the width of the rectus sheath. Horizontal figure-eight plication sutures by using the lateral fascial edge enable easier infolding of the central tissue. The new recipient of the umbilicus is made by an incision in a V shape on the abdominal flap. The umbilicus is telescoped, and the triangular flap of the abdomen is sutured to the triangular defect of the umbilicus. Skin flap fixation to the umbilicus relieves tension in the lower portion of the flap. The upper skin flap, which is cut in an M manner, provides lateral tension and matches the length of the lower flap. A standard fascial suspension is used and closure is performed in layers. The techniques described here are intertwined procedures. Each facilitates the accomplishment of the other procedure, and they complement each other. They all attain the 12 objectives of the abdominoplasty described. These combined techniques have been used in 104 patients in a period of 11 years. Complications were minimal and easily manageable, except for one patient who required excision of a pseudobursa and retightening of the lower quadrants of the abdominal wall musculature to correct extreme lordosis. A comprehensive approach for the treatment of complex abdominal wall aesthetic and functional defects is presented. These require thoughtful integration of the four components mentioned. This approach has allowed predictable, reproducible, and aesthetically pleasing results. PMID:10627012

Ramirez, O M

2000-01-01

75

Novel Technique for Innervated Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: A Separation of Components Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective: Applications for Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation may expand if a functional graft with decreased immunosuppressive requirements can be designed. We hypothesize that it is anatomically feasible to prepare a functional, innervated, and vascularized abdominal composite graft using a multilayered component separation technique. Including vascularized bone in the graft design may decrease the immunosuppressive requirements by inducing immunologic chimerism. Methods: Two cadaver torsos were used. Adipocutaneous flaps were elevated from the midaxillary lines, preserving deep inferior epigastric artery perforators. A 2-layered component separation through the external and internal oblique fasciae was carried out, exposing segmental intercostal thoracolumbar nerves. Superiorly directed muscle release over the subcostal margin provided for a 3-rib segment with attached rectus abdominis muscle. The remainder of the full-thickness allograft was harvested with its vasculature. Flap inset into the recipient cadaver abdomen, with osteosynthesis fixation between donor and recipient ribs, was achieved. Results: The harvested grafts had an average size of 845 ± 205 cm2 with a total procurement time of 110 minutes. On one cadaver, 4 thoracolumbar nerves were isolated bilaterally, while the other cadaver yielded 3 nerves. The nerves were transected with an average length of 5.7 ± 1.2 cm. The graft vasculature was transected with a length of 4.40 ± 0.10 cm. Conclusion: Using the principles of component separation technique, we demonstrated a novel approach to harvest and transfer a neurotized osteomyofasciocutaneous abdominal wall allotransplant as a multipedicled, single functional unit. PMID:25328567

Mavrophilipos, Vasilios D.; Zapora, Jeffrey A.; Berli, Jens; Broyles, Justin; Chopra, Karan; Sabino, Jennifer; Matthews, Jamil; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Maddox, John S.; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Silverman, Ronald P.

2014-01-01

76

Abdominal wall endometrioma mimicking an incarcerated hernia: a case report  

PubMed Central

The case of a tender, isolated abdominal wall tumor within a Pfannenstiel incision due to a seeding deposit of endometrial tissue secondary to a previous obstetric operation (caesarean section) in a 39-year-old female without previously reported pelvic endometriosis is presented. The lesion clinically mimicked the appearance of an incarcerated incisional hernia at the outer corner of the healed Pfannenstiel incision. The preoperative differential diagnosis also included that of a locally forming post-operative tender granuloma and the remote possibility of an incisional endometrioma (although no link to menstruation could be made). Local malignancy was not taken as a serious possibility. Definitive diagnosis of the excised lesion was made at histology. The pre-operative diagnostic dilemma is presented, along with a short review of the literature. PMID:22807645

Simoglou, Christos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Simoglou, Lambros; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Esebidis, Agisilaos; Sarika, Eirini; Kouklakis, George; Iordanidis, Alkis; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

77

A comparison of posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and relative wall thickness of left ventricle of heart in male athletes (badminton and karate) and non-athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to study a comparison of posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and relative wall thickness of left ventricle of heart in male athlete and non–athlete, and to investigate the effect of selected submaximal tests for estimating of VO2max (because of frequently use of them), as submaximal short duration activities, on ST segment changes in

Hasan Abdi; Alireza Hajighasemi; Seyed Mostafa Tayebisany

2010-01-01

78

Influence of Temporary Abdominal Wall Repair on the Intestinal Integrity: An Experimental Study in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze intestinal integrity after temporary abdominal wall repair with absorbable mesh. Methods: Rats underwent abdominal wall repair with absorbable mesh or sham operation. Myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the intestinal muscularis were histochemically quantified. Intestinal transit was visualized 48 h after surgery. Local and systemic inflammatory response was measured with TNF-? and

M. Overhaus; N. Schaefer; A. Hirner; J. C. Kalff; R. H. Tolba

2008-01-01

79

Functional and morphological evaluation of different polypropylene-mesh modifications for abdominal wall repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern surgical hernia repair depends increasingly on synthetic meshes for the reconstruction of the abdominal wall. Despite the undisputed advantages of the polypropylene (PP) meshes currently available (Marlex®, Prolene®), reports of complications after implantation are increasing. Although, serious complications such as perforation and fistula formation are rare, minor and local complaints such as seromas, misfeelings and a decreased abdominal wall

B. Klosterhalfen; U. Klinge; V. Schumpelick

1998-01-01

80

Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are useful for reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus, preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue is important. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT) and analyzed the correlation with the patients' age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body mass index (BMI). Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzed to determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue was significantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI. Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right) and 9.73 mm (left) at the xiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right) and 10.26 mm (left) at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneous fat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right) and 23.39 mm (left). Rectus abdominismuscle thickness decreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlation with rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy. Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominis muscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results are clinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap. PMID:23094250

Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Hyoseob; Lee, Se Il

2012-01-01

81

Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal use of whole-body counting data to estimate pulmonary deposition of many of the actinides is dependent upon accurate measurement of the thickness of the chest wall because of severe attenuation of low-energy x rays and photons associated with the decay of these radionuclides. An algorithm for estimation of female chest wall thicknesses, verified by real-time ultrasonic measurements, has been

C. D. Berger

1985-01-01

82

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of a traumatic abdominal wall hematoma in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Abdominal wall hematoma is due to trauma, coagulation disorders or anticoagulation therapy complications. METHODS: In this report we present a case of a 44-year-old female who suffered from blunt abdominal trauma and presented to the emergency department with sharp abdominal pain and ecchymosis. FAST and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) revealed an abdominal wall hematoma. Treatment with an ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage was performed successfully. RESULTS: The patient remained under observation for six hours with serial ultrasound scans, and no signs of hematoma recurrence were present. She was discharged the same day with clinical improvement. CONCLUSION: Complete history investigation and clinical examination help to make a correct diagnosis of abdominal wall hematoma, select a prompt treatment, and reduce complications. PMID:25215083

Trujillo, Laura; Naranjo, Sara; Cardozo, Alejandro; Alvarez, Bryan

2012-01-01

83

An analytic description of thick-wall bubbles  

SciTech Connect

A new approximation scheme to the false-vacuum decay is suggested. In this scheme the bounce solutions can be obtained in an explicit and analytic way even for thick-wall bubbles. The result is compared with Coleman`s thin-wall description, which shows that is nicely comprises the result of the latter prescription. Some applications are also discussed.

Hong, Jooyoo

1992-08-01

84

An analytic description of thick-wall bubbles  

SciTech Connect

A new approximation scheme to the false-vacuum decay is suggested. In this scheme the bounce solutions can be obtained in an explicit and analytic way even for thick-wall bubbles. The result is compared with Coleman's thin-wall description, which shows that is nicely comprises the result of the latter prescription. Some applications are also discussed.

Hong, Jooyoo.

1992-01-01

85

Immediate reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one patients had full-thickness chest wall defects reconstructed at the New York University Medical Center in the last ten years. Marlex mesh provided chest wall stability in 5 patients. In 9 patients with radiation ulcers Marlex mesh was not required; a severe fibrotic reaction had obliterated the pleural space and prevented paradoxical motion. Partial sternal resections did not require Marlex

Arthur D. Boyd; William W. Shaw; Joseph G. McCarthy; Daniel C. Baker; Naresh K. Trehan; Anthony J. Acinapura; Frank C. Spencer

1981-01-01

86

Influence of wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode in tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The influence of finite wall thickness on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in a tokamak is determined using a simple cylindrical plasma model in which the dissipation required to stabilize the mode is provided by neoclassical parallel ion viscosity. For present-day tokamaks, which possess relatively thin walls, finite wall thickness effects are found to have relatively little influence on the RWM stability boundaries, which are almost the same as those calculated in the thin-wall limit. On the other hand, for next-step devices, which are likely to possess much thicker walls than present-day tokamaks, finite wall thickness effects are found to significantly impede the ability of plasma rotation to stabilize the RWM all the way to the perfect-wall stability limit.

Fitzpatrick, Richard [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-01-15

87

Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Musculofascial Defects with Small Intestinal Submucosa Scaffolds Seeded with Tenocytes in Rats  

PubMed Central

The repair of abdominal wall defects following surgery remains a difficult challenge. Although multiple methods have been described to restore the integrity of the abdominal wall, there is no clear consensus on the ideal material for reconstruction. This study explored the feasibility of in vivo reconstruction of a rat model of an abdominal wall defect with a composite scaffold of tenocytes and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). In the current study, we created a 2×1.5?cm abdominal wall defect in the anterolateral abdominal wall of Sprague-Dawley rats, which were assigned into three groups: the cell-SIS construct group, the cell-free SIS scaffold group, and the abdominal wall defect group. Tenocytes were obtained from the tendons of rat limbs. After isolation and expansion, cells (2×107/mL) were seeded onto the three-layer SIS scaffolds and cultured in vitro for 5 days. Cell-SIS constructs or cell-free constructs were implanted to repair the abdominal wall defects. The results showed that the tenocytes could grow on the SIS scaffold and secreted corresponding matrices. In addition, both scaffolds could repair the abdominal wall defects with no hernia recurrence. In comparison to the cell-free SIS scaffold, the composite scaffold exhibited increased vascular regeneration and mechanical strength. Furthermore, following increased time in vivo, the mechanical strength of the composite scaffold became stronger. The results indicate that the composite scaffold can provide increased mechanical strength that may be suitable for repairing abdominal wall defects. PMID:23402600

Song, Zhicheng; Peng, Zhiyou; Liu, Zhengni; Yang, Jianjun; Tang, Rui

2013-01-01

88

Reconstruction of abdominal wall musculofascial defects with small intestinal submucosa scaffolds seeded with tenocytes in rats.  

PubMed

The repair of abdominal wall defects following surgery remains a difficult challenge. Although multiple methods have been described to restore the integrity of the abdominal wall, there is no clear consensus on the ideal material for reconstruction. This study explored the feasibility of in vivo reconstruction of a rat model of an abdominal wall defect with a composite scaffold of tenocytes and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). In the current study, we created a 2×1.5?cm abdominal wall defect in the anterolateral abdominal wall of Sprague-Dawley rats, which were assigned into three groups: the cell-SIS construct group, the cell-free SIS scaffold group, and the abdominal wall defect group. Tenocytes were obtained from the tendons of rat limbs. After isolation and expansion, cells (2×10(7)/mL) were seeded onto the three-layer SIS scaffolds and cultured in vitro for 5 days. Cell-SIS constructs or cell-free constructs were implanted to repair the abdominal wall defects. The results showed that the tenocytes could grow on the SIS scaffold and secreted corresponding matrices. In addition, both scaffolds could repair the abdominal wall defects with no hernia recurrence. In comparison to the cell-free SIS scaffold, the composite scaffold exhibited increased vascular regeneration and mechanical strength. Furthermore, following increased time in vivo, the mechanical strength of the composite scaffold became stronger. The results indicate that the composite scaffold can provide increased mechanical strength that may be suitable for repairing abdominal wall defects. PMID:23402600

Song, Zhicheng; Peng, Zhiyou; Liu, Zhengni; Yang, Jianjun; Tang, Rui; Gu, Yan

2013-07-01

89

Giant seminoma in an undescended testis presenting as an abdominal wall mass  

PubMed Central

Seminomas in undescended testes may present as abdominal wall tumours. A unilateral testis tumour in a 29 year old man with ipsilateral undescended testis is presented and relevant literature is reviewed. A 29 year old man presenting with a tender left lower abdominal mass was admitted to our clinic and initial diagnostic tests followed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) were performed. Abdominal CT clearly demonstrated the tumour location between the lower left abdominal subcutaneous layer and the external oblique fascia. He underwent surgery and the tumour was resected via en-bloc excision. Pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was consistent with classical seminoma and no distant metastasis was detected with PET/CT. He was referred to oncology clinic after discharge. Tumours of undescended testis can present as an abdominal wall mass and clinicians must be aware of their existence. PMID:24971840

Y?lmaz, A; Bayraktar, B; Sagiroglu, J; Gucluer, B

2011-01-01

90

Traumatic hernia of the abdominal wall after pelvic and acetabular fracture: a case report.  

PubMed

Traumatic hernia of the abdominal wall is a rare and easily missed injury in the presence of major pelvic and abdominal lesions. We present a radiographically documented case of combined pelvic and acetabular fracture with a major contralateral traumatic hernia with avulsion of the internal oblique, the external oblique and the transverse abdominal muscles diagnosed four months after the initial trauma. To our knowledge no similar case has been described in the current literature. PMID:12584987

Borens, O; Fischer, J F; Bettschart, V; Mouhsine, E

2002-12-01

91

The pedicled 'propeller' deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for a large abdominal wall defect.  

PubMed

The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has become a popular free flap for use in breast reconstruction, providing a versatile volume of tissue with low donor site morbidity and in particular its ease of direct donor site closure. While its use in free tissue transfer has been widely reported, its use as a local pedicled flap has been more scarcely described. Limited reports include its use for hip and groin defects and in penile reconstruction. A long and robust vascular pedicle is ideal for islanded local advancement or so-called 'propeller' rotation to adjacent abdominal wall defects, with Seyhan and Borman (2008) describing such a technique for coverage of the lower abdominal wall, and we have described such a technique to aid closure of the lower abdominal wall during contralateral DIEP flap harvest. Having been presented with a large central-lower anterior abdominal wall defect, we describe a further application of the pedicled 'propeller' DIEP flap. PMID:20359974

Ang, G Gleda; Rozen, Warren M; Chauhan, Ajay; Acosta, Rafael

2011-01-01

92

Regeneration of Abdominal Wall Aponeurosis: New Dimension in Marlex Peritoneal Sandwich Repair of Incisional Hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Loss of abdominal wall substance is a major cause of incisional hernia formation. It makes repair of this iatrogenic human\\u000a ailment a difficult surgical problem. The abdominal wall substance loss has compelled the world's surgical community dealing\\u000a with this condition to substantiate the repair with extra material such as skin, fascia, wire mesh, and lately biocompatible\\u000a synthetic mesh. Even

B. G. Matapurkar; A. Bhargave; Leelawathi Dawson; B. Sonal

1999-01-01

93

Evaluation of scoring accuracy for airway wall thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bronchial wall thickening is commonly observed in airway diseases. One method often used to quantitatively evaluate wall thickening in CT images is to estimate the ratio of the bronchial wall to the accompanying artery, or BWA ratio, and then assign a severity score based on the ratio. Assessment by visual inspection is unfortunately limited to airways perpendicular or parallel to the scanning plane. With high-resolution images from multi-detector CT scanners, it becomes possible to assess airways in any orientation. We selected CT scans from 20 patients with mild to severe COPD. A computer system automatically segmented each bronchial tree and measured the bronchial wall thicknesses. Next, neighboring arteries were detected and measured to determine BWA ratios. A score characterizing the extent and severity of wall thickening within each lobe was computed according to recommendations by Sheehan et al [1]. Two experienced radiologists independently scored wall thickening using visual assessment. Spearman's rank correlation showed a non-significant negative correlation (r=-0.1) between the computer and the reader average (p=0.4), while the correlation between readers was significant at r=0.65 (p=0.001). We subsequently identified 24 lobes with high discrepancies between visual and automated scoring. The readers re-examined those lobes and measured wall thickness using electronic calipers on perpendicular cross sections, rather than visual assessment. Using this more objective standard of wall thickness, the reader estimates of wall thickening increased to reach a significant positive correlation with automated scoring of r=0.65 (p=0.001). These results indicate that subjectivity is an important problem with visual evaluation, and that visual inspection may frequently underestimate disease extent and severity. Given that a manual evaluation of all airways is infeasible in routine clinical practice, we argue that automated methods should be developed and utilized.

Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Ko, Jane P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.

2009-02-01

94

Early results on the use of biomaterials as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure following cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic chemotherapy applies thermal energy to both abdominal wall as well as the intra-abdominal viscera. The combination of the hyperthemia, chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is associated with a defined risk of abdominal wall and intestinal morbidity reported to be as high as 15%, respectively to date, no studies have evaluated the use of biomaterial mesh as adjuvant to

Cherif Boutros; Ponandai Somasundar; N Joseph Espat

2010-01-01

95

Effects of myocardial wall thickness on SPECT quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of changing myocardial wall thickness in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are characterized, and a method which may be used to compensate for these effects is presented. The underlying principle is that the phenomena of attenuation, Compton scatter, and finite resolution can be separated and treated independently. Only finite resolution and its effects, along with a

J. R. Galt; E. V. Garcia; W. L. Robbins

1990-01-01

96

Changes in myocardial wall thickness (MWT) in open chest dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in left ventricular myocardial wall thickness (MWT) were studied in open-chest dogs using a specially designed strain gauge device. The total systolic increase in MWT was 10%, of which about 30% occurred during the isovolumic phase of contraction. These values are lower than those obtained with cineradiographic techniques. A possible explanation for this divergency is discussed. Calculation of MWT

J. J. van der Meer; A. H. M. Jageneau; G. Elzinga; R. Grondelle; R. S. Reneman

1973-01-01

97

Ultrasound determination of chest wall thickness: implications for needle thoracostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveComputed tomography measurements of chest wall thickness (CWT) suggest that standard-length angiocatheters (4.5 cm) may fail to decompress tension pneumothoraces. We used an alternative modality, ultrasound, to measure CWT. We correlated CWT with body mass index (BMI) and used national data to estimate the percentage of patients with CWT greater than 4.5 cm.

A. Robb McLean; Michael E. Richards; Cameron S. Crandall; Jonathan L. Marinaro

2011-01-01

98

Chest wall thickness measurements for enriched uranium: An alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Monitoring Laboratory has developed a technique to determine the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using phoswich detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with lung sets containing homogeneously distributed 93% enriched uranium, 20% enriched uranium,

Gary H. Kramer; Mirela Puscalau

1994-01-01

99

Association of intraluminal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysm with local hypoxia and wall weakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Our previous computer models suggested that intraluminal thrombus (ILT) within an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) attenuates oxygen diffusion to the AAA wall, possibly causing localized hypoxia and contributing to wall weakening. The purpose of this work was to investigate this possibility. Methods: In one arm of this study, patients with AAA were placed in one of two groups: (1)

David A. Vorp; Paul C. Lee; David H. J. Wang; Michel S. Makaroun; Edwin M. Nemoto; Satoshi Ogawa; Marshall W. Webster

2001-01-01

100

Tissue engineering approach to repair abdominal wall defects using cell-seeded bovine tunica vaginalis in a rabbit model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to engineer skeletal muscle tissue for repair abdominal wall defects. Myoblast were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultivated in vitro for 5 days. Full thickness abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 male New Zealand white rabbits and randomly divided into two equal groups. The defects of the first group were repaired with myoblast-seeded-bovine tunica vaginalis whereas the second group repaired with non-seeded-bovine tunica vaginalis and function as a control. Three animals were sacrificed at 7th, 14th, and 30th days of post-implantation from each group and the explanted specimens were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. In every case, seeded scaffolds have better deposition of newly formed collagen with neo-vascularisation than control group. Interestingly, multinucleated myotubes and myofibers were only detected in cell-seeded group. This study demonstrated that myoblast-seeded-bovine tunica vaginalis can be used as an effective scaffold to repair severe and large abdominal wall defects with regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:20135201

Ayele, T; Zuki, A B Z; Noorjahan, B M A; Noordin, M M

2010-05-01

101

Fluid wall shear stress measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta: oscillatory behavior and relationship to atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Clinically significant atherosclerosis in the human aorta is most common in the infrarenal segment. This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that flowfield properties are closely related to the localization of plaques in this segment of the arterial system. Wall shear stress was calculated from magnetic resonance velocity measurements of pulsatile flow in an anatomically accurate model of the human abdominal aorta. The wall shear stress values were compared with intimal thickening from 15 post-mortem aortas measured by quantitative morphometry of histological cross sections obtained at standard locations. Wall shear stress oscillated in direction throughout most of the infrarenal aorta, most prominently in the distal region. The time-averaged mean wall shear stress (-1.7 to 1.4 dyn/cm2) was lowest near the posterior wall in this region. These hemodynamic parameters coincided with the locations of maximal intimal thickening. Statistical correlation between oscillatory shear and intimal thickness yielded r = 0.79, P < 0.00001. Low mean shear stresses correlated nearly as well (r = -0.75, P < 0.00005). Comparison of our data with surface maps of Sudan Red staining and early lesions as reported by others revealed similar conclusions. In contrast, pulse and maximum shear stresses did not correlate with plaque localization as has been shown for other sites of selective involvement by atherosclerosis (r < 0.345). Simulated exercise conditions markedly changed the magnitude and pattern of wall shear stress in the distal abdominal aorta. These results demonstrate that in the infrarenal aorta, regions of low mean and oscillating wall shear stresses are predisposed to the development of plaque while regions of relatively high wall shear stress tend to be spared. PMID:7848371

Moore, J E; Xu, C; Glagov, S; Zarins, C K; Ku, D N

1994-10-01

102

Multilayer injection moulding of thick-walled optical plastics parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical components are often thick-walled. The cycle time of precise polymer optics with a wall thickness of more than 20 mm exceeds several minutes. The multilayer injection moulding or compression moulding lowers the cycle time and increases the quality of the moulded parts. For the production of multilayer moulded lenses the mould design plays an important role. An innovative mould concept is presented with the possiblity to produce double or triple layer lenses. To ensure the quality and the endurance of multilayer moulded optical components in their applications, the cohesion in the interface is important. Tensile shear tests show the ability of multilayer moulded parts with high cohesion values for optical applications.

Hopmann, Ch.; Neuss, A.; Weber, M.; Walach, P.

2014-05-01

103

The Limb-Abdominal Wall Complex Defects, a form of Amniotic Band Sydrome: A Rare Case Report.  

PubMed

The limb-body wall complex defects a form of amniotic band syndrome which consists of a polymal formation with a thoracic and /or an abdominal-schisis, eventration of the internal organ and anomalies of the extremities. We are presenting a case of a limb-body wall complex defect with the phenotype of a placenta-abdominal attachment, anomalies of the abdominal wall defect, absence of the right lower limb and genitourinary defects. PMID:23634417

Das, Sudhanshu Ku; Maharana, Sidharth Sankar; Subudhi, Monalisa; Rao, P V Subha

2013-03-01

104

Lower abdominal wall pain and contusion in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

There is a surge in interest in single-incision laparoscopic surgery in the recent years. Due to entry of all the ports and instruments from the same incision and obliquity of the instruments, the lowermost port exerts repeated pressure on the infraumbilical abdominal wall. We are reporting 2 cases of single-incision laparoscopic surgery cholecystectomy who presented with lower abdominal pain and contusion in the post operative period. PMID:20874236

Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Jai Deep; Singh, Iqbal

2010-10-01

105

Immediate reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one patients had full-thickness chest wall defects reconstructed at the New York University Medical Center in the last ten years. Marlex mesh provided chest wall stability in 5 patients. In 9 patients with radiation ulcers Marlex mesh was not required; a severe fibrotic reaction had obliterated the pleural space and prevented paradoxical motion. Partial sternal resections did not require Marlex stabilization, while a total sternectomy resulted in marked ventilatory insufficiency in a patient who would have benefited from the use of a stabilizing material. Random pattern flaps were used initially; more recently, axial pattern, myocutaneous, and myocutaneous free flaps were employed. Necrosis developed in 4 (36%) of the 11 patients with random pattern flaps, but was not seen with the newer flap techniques. Myocutaneous free flaps provided uncomplicated coverage of and stability to three large, potentially contaminated defects. It seems that with the currently available flap techniques and the methods of chest wall stabilization, immediate repair of all full-thickness chest wall defects is possible.

Boyd, A.D.; Shaw, W.W.; McCarthy, J.G.; Baker, D.C.; Trehan, N.K.; Acinapura, A.J.; Spencer, F.C.

1981-10-01

106

Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture analysis can improve the level set segmentation around the abdominal region.

Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

2013-12-15

107

Use of biological meshes for abdominal wall reconstruction in highly contaminated fields  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall defects and incisional hernias represent a challenging problem. In particular, when a synthetic mesh is applied to contaminated wounds, its removal is required in 50%-90% of cases. Biosynthetic meshes are the newest tool available to surgeons and they could have a role in ventral hernia repair in a potentially contaminated field. We describe the use of a sheet of bovine pericardium graft in the reconstruction of abdominal wall defect in two patients. Bovine pericardium graft was placed in the retrorectus space and secured to the anterior abdominal wall using polypropylene sutures in a tension-free manner. We experienced no evidence of recurrence at 4 and 5 years follow-up. PMID:20397274

Cavallaro, Andrea; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Di Vita, Maria; Zanghi, Antonio; Cavallaro, Vincenzo; Veroux, Pier Francesco; Cappellani, Alessandro

2010-01-01

108

Isolated tuberculous liver abscess invading the abdominal wall: report of a case.  

PubMed

Isolated tuberculous liver parenchymal and subcapsular abscesses are unusual,^but an abdominal wall abscess secondary to a tubercular liver abscess is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there is only one reported case of an abdominal wall abscess occurring secondary to a subcapsular liver abscess. We report the first documented case of direct invasion of the abdominal wall from an isolated tuberculous liver parenchymal abscess, diagnosed by imaging, surgical, and pathological findings. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography showed nonspecific hypoechoic and hypodense findings with peripheral contrast enhancement, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a heterogeneous mass with characteristic hypointensity, suggesting the presence of free radicals produced by macrophages during active phagocytosis in tuberculosis. Although our case is extremely unusual, when hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI is seen, the possibility of tuberculosis should be considered and the results of polymerase chain reaction, culture, and histopathological diagnosis must be taken into account to avoid needless invasive surgery. PMID:21533955

Abe, Katsumi; Aizawa, Takuya; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Nakayama, Hisashi; Sugitani, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Yano, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Takahashi, Motoichiro

2011-05-01

109

Factors Affecting Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Emergency Operation for Incarcerated Abdominal Wall Hernia  

PubMed Central

Patients with incarcerated abdominal wall hernias (AWHs) are often encountered in emergency care units. Despite advances in anesthesia, antisepsis, antibiotic therapy, and fluid therapy, the morbidity and mortality rates for these patients remain high. Between 2006 and 2011, we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 131 patients who underwent emergency surgery for incarcerated abdominal wall hernias. Of these, there were 70 women (53.4%) and 61 men (46.6%) with an average age of 63.3 ± 17.4 years (range, 17–91 years). Morbidity was observed in 28 patients (21.4%), and the mortality rate was 2.3%. Intestinal resection, presence of concomitant disease, and general anesthesia were the independent variants that affected morbidity of patients with incarcerated abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23294070

Gul, Mesut; Aliosmanoglu, Ibrahim; Kapan, Murat; Onder, Akin; Taskesen, Fatih; Arikanoglu, Zulfu; Tacyildiz, Ibrahim

2012-01-01

110

Single-center 10-year experience in the management of anterior abdominal wall defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Anterior abdominal wall defects can be managed with various techniques, since no one technique can be applied to all types\\u000a of defects. The aim of this study is to present a single-center experience using biomaterials and evaluate the outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The clinical data obtained from 33 neonates (24 gastroschisis and 9 omphaloceles) managed for anterior abdominal wall defects\\u000a at a single

S. Rahn; M. Bahr; J. Schalamon; A. K. Saxena

2008-01-01

111

Laparoscopic Repair of Incisional and Other Complex Abdominal Wall Hernias  

PubMed Central

Incisional hernia is one of the most common complications of abdominal surgery, with a reported occurrence rate of up to 20% after laparotomy. The high incidence of hernia formation significantly contributes to both patient morbidity and health care costs. Although a variety of approaches have been described to repair these defects, historically the results have been disappointing. Recurrence rates after primary repair have been reported to range from 24% to 54%. The recent advent of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) has offered promising outcomes by combining tension-free repair using a prosthesis with minimally invasive techniques, lowering reported recurrence rates to <10%. This review discusses standardized, well-researched techniques that have contributed to the success of LVHR. We also discuss how these techniques have been modified for laparoscopic repair of suprapubic lumbar hernias, hernias near the iliac crest, and parastomal hernias. In addition, we review our own experience with LVHR in the context of the principles discussed. PMID:20740087

Craft, Randall O; Harold, Kristi L

2009-01-01

112

Morphological and mechanical characteristics of the reconstructed rat abdominal wall following use of a wet electrospun biodegradable polyurethane elastomer scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a variety of materials are currently used for abdominal wall repair, general complications encountered include herniation, infection, and mechanical mismatch with native tissue. An approach wherein a degradable synthetic material is ultimately replaced by tissue mechanically approximating the native state could obviate these complications. We report here on the generation of biodegradable scaffolds for abdominal wall replacement using a

Ryotaro Hashizume; Kazuro L. Fujimoto; Yi Hong; Nicholas J. Amoroso; Kimimasa Tobita; Toshio Miki; Bradley B. Keller; Michael S. Sacks; William R. Wagner

2010-01-01

113

Tissue response to polypropylene meshes used in the repair of abdominal wall defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SynopsisThe degree of integration of biomaterials used in the repair of abdominal wall defects seems to depend upon the structure of the prosthesis. Several polypropylene (PP) prostheses are currently available which differ in the number of PP filaments, the type of weave and the porosity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integration, adhesion formation and resistance to

J. M Bellón; L. A Contreras; J Buján; D Palomares; A Carrera-San Mart??n

1998-01-01

114

Integration of biomaterials implanted into abdominal wall: process of scar formation and macrophage response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of two biomaterials polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PL) has been studied, focussing especially on the macrophage response to the implant, as well as on certain aspects of the process of scar formation. A total of 24 animals (white New Zealand rabbits) received prostheses implanted into the anterior abdominal wall in such a way as to involve every layer

J. M. Bellón; J. Buján; L. Contreras; A. Hernando

1995-01-01

115

Biomaterials for abdominal wall hernia surgery and principles of their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses special attention on the porosity, cellular permeability and molecular permeability of biomaterials and their effect on infection, host tissue incorporation and seroma formation when mesh is used for the repair of abdominal wall hernias. Furthermore, the general principles of the application of biomaterials, regardless of the technique used for their employment, is discussed.

P. K. Amid; A. G. Shulman; I. L. Lichtenstein; M. Hakakha

1994-01-01

116

49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t ) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

2011-10-01

117

49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t ) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

2013-10-01

118

49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t ) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

2010-10-01

119

Abdominal fat thickness measurement using Focused Impedance Method (FIM) - phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abdominal fat thickness is a risk indicator of heart diseases, diabetes, etc., and its measurement is therefore important from the point of view of preventive care. Tetrapolar electrical impedance measurements (TPIM) could offer a simple and low cost alternative for such measurement compared to conventional techniques using CT scan and MRI, and has been tried by different groups. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) appears attractive as it can give localised information. An intuitive physical model was developed and experimental work was performed on a phantom designed to simulate abdominal subcutaneous fat layer in a body. TPIM measurements were performed with varying electrode separations. For small separations of current and potential electrodes, the measured impedance changed little, but started to decrease sharply beyond a certain separation, eventually diminishing gradually to negligible values. The finding could be explained using the intuitive physical model and gives an important practical information. TPIM and FIM may be useful for measurement of SFL thickness only if the electrode separations are within a certain specific range, and will fail to give reliable results if beyond this range. Further work, both analytical and experimental, are needed to establish this technique on a sound footing.

Haowlader, Salahuddin; Baig, Tanveer Noor; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

2010-04-01

120

The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise. PMID:24278873

Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

2013-01-01

121

Histological characteristics of the abdominal aortic wall in patients with vascular chronic Q fever.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe specific histological findings of the Coxiella burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Tissue samples of the aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall from seven patients with chronic Q fever and 15 patients without evidence of Q fever infection were analysed and compared. Chronic Q fever was diagnosed using serology and tissue PCR analysis. Histological sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemical staining for macrophages (CD68), T lymphocytes (CD3), T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 and CD8) and B lymphocytes (CD20). Samples were scored by one pathologist, blinded for Q fever status, using a standard score form. Seven tissue samples from patients with chronic Q fever and 15 tissue samples from patients without Q fever were collected. Four of seven chronic Q fever samples showed a necrotizing granulomatous response of the vascular wall, which was characterized by necrotic core of the arteriosclerotic plaque (P = 0.005) and a presence of high numbers of macrophages in the adventitia (P = 0.007) distributed in typical palisading formation (P = 0.005) and surrounded by the presence of high numbers of T lymphocytes located diffusely in media and adventitia. Necrotizing granulomas are a histological finding in the C. burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Chronic Q fever should be included in the list of infectious diseases with necrotizing granulomatous response, such as tuberculosis, cat scratch disease and syphilis. PMID:24953727

Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Koning, Olivier H J; van den Haak, Ronald F F; Verhoeven, Bart A N; Renders, Nicole H M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; van Suylen, Robert Jan

2014-08-01

122

Abdominal wall phlebitis due to Prevotella bivia following renal transplantation in a patient with an occluded inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

Pre-existing occlusion of the inferior vena cava may complicate renal transplantation. Suppurative abdominal wall phlebitis following renal transplantation was diagnosed in a patient with pre-existing thrombosis of the inferior vena cava of unknown cause. The phlebitis developed in the subcutaneous collateral veins of the abdominal wall contra-laterally to the renal transplant. Cultures from abdominal wall micro-abscesses yielded Prevotella bivia as the causative agent. This complication has not been described before in the context of renal transplantation. The pathogenesis and management of this serious complication are discussed in this paper. PMID:23001520

Janssen, S; van Donselaar-van der Pant, K A M I; van der Weerd, N C; Develter, W; Bemelman, F J; Grobusch, M P; Idu, M M; Ten Berge, I J M

2013-02-01

123

Use of bovine pericardium graft for abdominal wall reconstruction in contaminated fields  

PubMed Central

AIM: To employ, in such conditions, a biological graft such as bovine pericardium that offers resistance to infection. METHODS: In our surgical department, from January 2006 to June 2010, 48 patients underwent abdominal wall reconstruction using acellular bovine pericardium; of these 34 patients had a contaminated wound due to diffuse peritonitis (complicated diverticulitis, bowel perforation, intestinal infarction, strangled hernia, etc.) and 14 patients had hernia relapse on infected synthetic mesh. RESULTS: In our series, one patient died of multi-organ failure 3 d after surgery. After placement of the pericardium mesh four cases of hernia relapse occurred. CONCLUSION: Recurrence rate is similar to that of prosthetic mesh repair and the application of acellular bovine pericardium (Tutomesh®, Tutogen Medical Gmbh Germany) is moreover a safe and feasible option that can be employed to manage complicated abdominal wall defects where prosthetic mesh is unsuitable. PMID:22905285

D'Ambra, Luigi; Berti, Stefano; Feleppa, Cosimo; Magistrelli, Prospero; Bonfante, Pierfrancesco; Falco, Emilio

2012-01-01

124

49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t ) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall...

2012-10-01

125

Effects of inhalatory abdominal wall movement on vertical laryngeal position during phonation.  

PubMed

The configuration of the body resulting from inhalatory behavior is sometimes considered a factor of relevance to voice production in singing and speaking pedagogy and in clinical voice therapy. The present investigation compares two different inhalatory behaviors: (1) with a "paradoxical" inward movement of the abdominal wall, and (2) with an expansion of the abdominal wall, both with regard to the effect on vertical laryngeal position during the subsequent phonation. Seventeen male and 17 female healthy, vocally untrained subjects participated. No instructions were given regarding movements of the rib cage. Inhaled air volume as measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography, was controlled to reach 70% inspiratory capacity. Vertical laryngeal position was recorded by two-channel electroglottography during the subsequent vowel production. A significant effect was found; the abdomen-out condition was associated with a higher laryngeal position than the abdomen-in condition. This result apparently contradicted a hypothesis that an expansion of the abdominal wall would allow the diaphragm to descend deeper in the torso, thereby increasing the tracheal pull, which would result in a lower laryngeal position. In a post-hoc experiment including 6 of the subjects, body posture was studied by digital video recordings, revealing that the two inhalatory modes were clearly associated with postural changes affecting laryngeal position. The "paradoxical" inward movement of the abdominal wall was associated with a recession of the chin toward the neck, such that the larynx appeared in a lower position in the neck, for reasons of a postural change. The results suggest that the laryngeal position can be affected by the inhalatory behavior if no attention is paid to posture, implying that instructions from clinicians and pedagogues regarding breathing behavior must be carefully formulated and adjusted in order to ensure that the intended goals are reached. PMID:11575635

Iwarsson, J

2001-09-01

126

Use of fibrin glue (Tissucol ® ) in laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall defects: preliminary experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy and tolerability of human fibrin glue (Tissucol) for the nontraumatic fixation of a composite prosthesis (Parietex) in the laparoscopic repair of small to medium-sized incisional hernias and primary defects of the abdominal wall.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From October 2003 to October 2005, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic repair at the hands of

S. Olmi; A. Scaini; L. Erba; E. Croce

2007-01-01

127

Peritoneal Regeneration after Implant of a Composite Prosthesis in the Abdominal Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Prosthetic materials currently used to repair abdominal wall defects occasionally must be placed in direct contact with the\\u000a visceral peritoneum. The prosthesis–peritoneum interface is the site of several possible problems, including the formation\\u000a of adhesions and erosion of the intestinal loops, which may lead to the formation of fistulas. This investigation was designed\\u000a to compare the behavior of two

Juan M. Bellón; Alberto García-Carranza; Francisca Jurado; Natalio García-Honduvilla; Antonio Carrera-San Martin; Julia Buján

2001-01-01

128

Aesthetic and Functional Abdominal Wall Reconstruction After Multiple Bowel Perforations Secondary to Liposuction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a case of aesthetic and functional abdominal wall reconstruction performed to salvage a deformed, scarred,\\u000a and herniated anterior abdomen after severe peritonitis and partial rectus muscle necrosis secondary to multiple bowel perforations\\u000a sustained during liposuction performed in a cosmetic clinic. The diagnosis of intestinal perforation was missed intraoperatively\\u000a and in the immediate postoperative period. The patient was

Michele Di Candia; Charles M. Malata

2011-01-01

129

Abdominal wall abscess--an unusual primary presentation of a transverse colonic carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the transverse colon presenting as an abscess of the anterior abdominal wall is a rare occurrence. Such a case is presented, where all investigations failed to show the nature of the lesion. The literature has been reviewed and the pathology that characterizes such lesions, and their management in the light of their favourable prognosis, is discussed. Occult colonic carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such abscesses. Images Figure 1 PMID:8290422

Andaz, S.; Heald, R. J.

1993-01-01

130

Classification of biomaterials and their related complications in abdominal wall hernia surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The value of the use of biomaterials for the repair of abdominal wall hernias is gaining increasing recognition. The use of\\u000a synthetic mesh to achieve a tension-free repair has resulted in a significant reduction in postoperative pain, in length of\\u000a the recovery period, and in the number of recurrences. However, certain physical properties of biomaterials can lead to undesirable\\u000a consequences.

P. K. Amid

1997-01-01

131

The "sliding door" technique for closure of abdominal wall defects after rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap transposition.  

PubMed

Radical surgery is often necessary in patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer or in those with carcinoma associated with an anal fistula. The surgery may include extended excision of the perineal area and can create a large dead space in the pelvis and a large skin defect, often necessitating reconstruction of the pelvic floor using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (RAM) flap transposition. Wound dehiscence and incisional hernia are common complications of RAM flap transposition. We report herein our encounter with 3 patients in whom we used a "sliding door" technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall after the creation of a RAM flap. One patient underwent abdominoperineal resection with sacrectomy and RAM flap transposition; he experienced a postoperative surgical site infection and wound dehiscence, which we urgently repaired by reconstructing the abdominal wall using the sliding door technique. Two other patients underwent posterior pelvic exenteration with sacrectomy and RAM flap transposition. These patients underwent simultaneous abdominal wall reconstruction using the sliding door technique. No patient experienced postoperative pelvic sepsis, wound dehiscence, or incisional hernia. The sliding door technique might be useful for preventing wound dehiscence and incisional hernia in patients undergoing RAM flap transposition. PMID:24394135

Nakamoto, Takayuki; Koyama, Fumikazu; Kobata, Yasunori; Nagao, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ueda, Takeshi; Nishigori, Naoto; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijiro; Obara, Shinsaku; Fujii, Hisao; Kido, Akira; Koizumi, Munehisa; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

2013-11-01

132

Delayed abdominal wall reconstruction of giant ventral hernias using the anterolateral thigh free flap for skin coverage.  

PubMed

Delayed abdominal wall reconstruction for extremely large ventral hernias can be exceedingly difficult if there is a concomitant skin deficiency. In the past decade, six such patients after restoration of the integrity of the musculofascial layer required vascularized tissues to accomplish closure of huge mid-abdominal defects using in all cases the anterolateral thigh free flap. As with all perforator flaps, this ensures function preservation of the intrinsic abdominal muscles to provide a reliable solution to a difficult challenge. PMID:23026918

Hallock, Geoffrey G

2012-10-01

133

The quasi-static failure properties of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall estimated by a mixed experimental-numerical approach.  

PubMed

Assessing the risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is critical in the management of aneurysm patients and an individual assessment is possible with the biomechanical rupture risk assessment. Such an assessment could potentially be improved by a constitutive AAA wall model that accounts for irreversible damage-related deformations. Because of that the present study estimated the elastic and inelastic properties of the AAA wall through a mixed experimental-numerical approach. Specifically, finite element (FE) models of bone-shaped tensile specimens were used to merge data from failure testing of the AAA wall with their measured collagen orientation distribution. A histo-mechanical constitutive model for collagen fibers was employed, where plastic fibril sliding determined not only remaining deformations but also weakening of the fiber. The developed FE models were able to replicate the experimentally recorded load-displacement property of all 16 AAA wall specimens that were investigated in the study. Tensile testing in longitudinal direction of the AAA defined a Cauchy strength of 569(SD 411) kPa that was reached at a stretch of 1.436(SD 0.118). The stiffness and strength of specimens decreased with the wall thickness and were elevated (p = 0.018; p = 0.030) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking affected the tissue parameters that were related to the irreversible deformation response, and no correlation with gender and age was found. The observed effects on the biomechanical properties of the AAA wall could have long-term consequences for the management of aneurysm patients, i.e., specifically they might influence future AAA rupture risk assessments. However, in order to design appropriate clinical validation studies our findings should firstly be verified in a larger patient cohort. PMID:23263935

Forsell, Caroline; Swedenborg, Jesper; Roy, Joy; Gasser, T Christian

2013-07-01

134

Tissue Reaction to Polypropylene Mesh: A Study of Oedema, Blood Flow, and Inflammation in the Abdominal Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present work was to study the tissue reaction to polypropylene mesh (Marlex®) implanted in three different layers of the abdominal wall, comparable to common clinical practices. The reaction to mesh was compared in terms of tissue oedema, blood flow, and histological appearance in rats. When mesh was placed between muscle layers, blood flow in the abdominal

S. Dabrowiecki; K. Svanes; J. Lekven; K. Grong

1991-01-01

135

Aortic wall thickness assessed by multidetector computed tomography as a predictor of coronary atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this study was the evaluation of the thoracic aortic wall thickness as a potential identifier of patients at increased\\u000a risk for future cardiac events. Thoracic aortic wall thickness was measured with MDCT in 160 patients. The CT-scans were implemented\\u000a as non-invasive coronary angiography studies. Relationships between aortic wall thickness, sex, age, major risk factors and\\u000a atherosclerotic plaque burden

Martin Jeltsch; Oliver Klass; Stefan Klein; Sebastian Feuerlein; Andrik J. Aschoff; Hans-Jürgen Brambs; Martin H. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

136

Relation between abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue thickness and inflammatory markers during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness (SCFT) is important for predisposition to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to evaluate maternal SCFT and metabolic changes (such as insulin resistance and high inflammatory markers) during pregnancy. Material and methods A total of 92 pregnant women between 24–28 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. The SCFT was measured by ultrasonography and patients were divided into 2 groups according to thickness of maternal SCFT and body mass index (BMI). Groups were compared with each other for oral glucose loading test (OGL) results, and for haematological, biochemical and fetal biometric parameters. Results After analysis of frequency for SCFT, the most appropriate cut-off value for grouping patients was found to be 15 mm for SCFT. In 48 cases SCFT was over 15 mm. High C reactive protein (CRP) was found in 47.9% (23) of cases with SCFT over 15 mm. Serum haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was significantly correlated with SCFT thickness. The most important factors for determination of OGL level were found to be serum HbA1c level, BMI and SCFT. In obese subjects (BMI ? 25 kg/m2), levels of inflammatory markers and SCFT thickness were higher. The CRP and ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were significantly correlated with BMI and SCFT. Conclusions High SCFT during pregnancy is associated with elevated inflammatory marker levels and HbA1c. Pregnant women with thicker SCFT may be susceptible to the development of metabolic complications of pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertension, as well as risk of future metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

Kosus, Ayd?n; Turhan, Nilgun

2014-01-01

137

Abdominal Wall Abscess due to Acute Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Case Report with MDCT and US Findings  

PubMed Central

Perforation of the inflamed diverticula is a common diverticulitis complication. It usually leads to the formation of a local abscess. In some rare cases, the inflammatory process may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the anterior or posterior abdominal wall or the thigh and form an abscess in these sites. We present the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of pain at the lower left quadrant of the abdomen for 20 days and a visible mass in this site. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed this mass to be an abscess of the abdominal wall which had been formed by the spread of ruptured sigmoid diverticulitis by continuity of tissue through the lower left abdominal wall. Local drainage of the abscess was performed and the patient was discharged after alleviation of symptoms and an uneventful course. We also discuss causes of abdominal wall abscesses along with the possible pathways by which an intra-abdominal abscess could spread outside the abdominal cavity. PMID:24386584

Vasileios, Rafailidis; Anna, Gavriilidou; Christos, Liouliakis; Asimina, Tsimitri; Sofia, Paschaloudi; Vasiliki, Karadimou

2013-01-01

138

Spatial orientation of collagen fibers in the abdominal aortic aneurysm's wall and its relation to wall mechanics.  

PubMed

Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and provides the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall with mechanical strength, stiffness and toughness. Specifically, the spatial orientation of collagen fibers in the wall has a major impact on its mechanical properties. Apart from valuable microhistological information, this data can be integrated by histomechanical constitutive models thought to improve biomechanical simulations, i.e. to improve the biomechanical rupture risk assessment of AAAs. Tissue samples (n = 24) from the AAA wall were harvested during elective AAA repair, fixated, embedded, sectioned and investigated by polarized light microscopy. The birefringent properties of collagen were reinforced by picrosirius red staining and the three-dimensional collagen fiber orientations were identified with a universal rotary stage. Two constitutive models for collagen fibers were used to integrate the identified structural information in a macroscopic AAA wall model. The collagen fiber orientation in the AAA wall was widely dispersed and could be captured by a Bingham distribution function (?(1) = 11.6, ?(2) = 9.7). The dispersion was much larger in the tangential plane than in the cross-sectional plane, and no significant difference between the medial and adventitial layers could be identified. The layered directional organization of collagen in normal aortas was not evident in the AAA. The collagen organization identified, combined with constitutive descriptions of collagen fibers that depend on its orientation, explain the anisotropic (orthotropic) mechanical properties of the AAA wall. The mechanical properties of collagen fibers depend largely on their undulation, which is an important structural parameter that requires further experimental investigation. PMID:22579983

Gasser, T Christian; Gallinetti, Sara; Xing, Xiao; Forsell, Caroline; Swedenborg, Jesper; Roy, Joy

2012-08-01

139

Repair of Giant Midline Abdominal Wall Hernias: “Components Separation Technique” versus Prosthetic Repair  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstruction of giant midline abdominal wall hernias is difficult, and no data are available to decide which technique should be used. It was the aim of this study to compare the “components separation technique” (CST) versus prosthetic repair with e-PTFE patch (PR). Method Patients with giant midline abdominal wall hernias were randomized for CST or PR. Patients underwent operation following standard procedures. Postoperative morbidity was scored on a standard form, and patients were followed for 36 months after operation for recurrent hernia. Results Between November 1999 and June 2001, 39 patients were randomized for the study, 19 for CST and 18 for PR. Two patients were excluded perioperatively because of gross contamination of the operative field. No differences were found between the groups at baseline with respect to demographic details, co-morbidity, and size of the defect. There was no in-hospital mortality. Wound complications were found in 10 of 19 patients after CST and 13 of 18 patients after PR. Seroma was found more frequently after PR. In 7 of 18 patients after PR, the prosthesis had to be removed as a consequence of early or late infection. Reherniation occurred in 10 patients after CST and in 4 patients after PR. Conclusions Repair of abdominal wall hernias with the component separation technique compares favorably with prosthetic repair. Although the reherniation rate after CST is relatively high, the consequences of wound healing disturbances in the presence of e-PTFE patch are far-reaching, often resulting in loss of the prosthesis. PMID:17372669

van Goor, H.; Charbon, J. A.; Rosman, C.; Hesselink, E. J.; van der Wilt, G. J.; Bleichrodt, R. P.

2007-01-01

140

Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.

Bossi, Alberto [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: alberto.bossi@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; De Wever, Ivo [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Van Limbergen, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Vanstraelen, Bianca [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2007-01-01

141

Quantitative determination of the thickness of ferroelectric domain walls using weak beam transmission electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for the quantitative determination of the thickness of ferroelectric domain walls using transmission electron microscopy in combination with image simulation. When inclined domain walls are imaged using a weakly excited beam, we observe well resolved thickness fringes across the boundary. By simulating these fringes and fitting them to the experimental images, we can extract a

M. Foeth; P. Stadelmann; P.-A. Buffat

1999-01-01

142

Chest wall thickness measurements: The alternative approach extended for ²⁴¹Am  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has extended the technique of determining the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using germanium detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with a lung set containing homogeneously distributed ²⁴¹Am. Chest wall thicknesses

Gary H. Kramer; Linda C. Burns

1997-01-01

143

Increased left ventricular torsion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Increased left ventricular (LV) torsion has been observed in patients with manifest familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and is thought to be caused by subendocardial dysfunction. We hypothesize that increased LV torsion is already present in healthy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness. METHODS: Seventeen carriers with an LV wall thickness <10 mm, and seventeen age and gender matched controls

Iris K Rüssel; Wessel P Brouwer; Tjeerd Germans; Paul Knaapen; J Tim Marcus; Jolanda van der Velden; Marco JW Götte; Albert C van Rossum

2011-01-01

144

Hemodynamic and pulmonary changes during open, carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, and abdominal wall-lifting cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum effects are still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary changes in patients\\u000a subjected to different surgical procedures for cholecystectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, 15 patients were assigned randomly to three groups according to the surgical procedure to be used: open cholecystectomy\\u000a (OC), CO2 pneumoperitoneum cholecystectomy (PP), and laparoscopic gasless cholecystectomy (abdominal wall lifting

G. Galizia; G. Prizio; E. Lieto; P. Castellano; L. Pelosio; V. Imperatore; A. Ferrara; C. Pignatelli

2001-01-01

145

Necrotizing fasciitis involving the chest and abdominal wall caused by Raoultella planticola  

PubMed Central

Background Raoultella planticola was originally considered to be a member of environmental Klebsiella. The clinical significance of R. planticola is still not well known. Case presentation We describe the first case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the chest and abdominal wall caused by R. planticola. The identity of the organism was confirmed using 16S rRNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with the appropriate antibiotics combined with operative drainage and debridement. Conclusions R. planticola had been described as environmental species, but should be suspected in extensive necrotizing fasciitis after minor trauma in mild to moderate immunocompromised patients. PMID:22423899

2012-01-01

146

[Assessment of velocity of deformation of abdominal aorta wall with the help of the multivox working station].  

PubMed

Most frequent cause of abnormalities of elastic properties of walls of abdominal aorta is development of atherosclerosis resulting in replacement of elastin by simpler fibrillar proteins and collagen. This subsequently leads to dilation of the aorta and formation of aneurism. Increase of collagen content in the aortic wall correlates with growth of aneurism dimensions. Main method of treatment of aneurisms is implantation of abdominal aortic prosthesis. Detailed preoperative assessment of functional state of the aortic wall is necessary in preoperative period but none of modern imaging instrumental methods including ultrasound study allows to realize this assessment. In this article we present first experience of assessment of aortic wall deformation velocity analyzing results of ultrasound study with the help of the Multivox working station in 36 patients 16 of whom were operated because of aneurism of abdominal aorta. PMID:24654437

Sandrikov, V A; Fisenko, E P; Gavrilov, A V; Lozhkevich, A A; Platova, E N; Arkhipov, I V

2013-01-01

147

[Reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect with a superior epigastric perforator propeller flap: case report].  

PubMed

Perforators flaps take a special place in reconstructive surgery. These flaps can be dissected and turned as a propeller blade on its pedicule axis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting a recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma in the right hypochondrium. Tumor resection caused a large abdominal wall defect taking the anterior aponeurosis of the rectus abdominis. An angioscanner was realized in preoperative to locate the perforators of the deep superior epigastric artery. We realized a propeller flap based on a perforator of the left superior epigastric artery who allowed to cover the wall defect. We set up a patch of Vicryl® to reconstruct the aponeurosis plan at the same operative time. We didn't note any necrosis and complete healing occurred in 2 weeks. The margins were healthy. The cosmetic result and the low morbidity make this flap a good therapeutic option. This flap seems reliable, arteries perforators are constant with good diameter. PMID:24908629

Lepivert, J-C; Alet, J-M; Michot, A; Pélissier, P; Pinsolle, V

2014-10-01

148

The Pathology of full-thickness cadaver skin transplant for large abdominal defects: a proposed grading system for skin allograft acute rejection.  

PubMed

Closure of large abdominal defects after extensive abdominal surgery is a major technical surgical problem. Failure to close the abdomen leaves the patient at risk for grave complications. Full-thickness abdominal wall skin transplantation appears to solve this problem. This is the first time that detailed histopathologic features of skin abdominal wall transplantation from cadaver donors are described. Five adults and four children underwent 10 transplants because of large abdominal wall defects. Twenty-two posttransplantation skin specimens were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 23.5 weeks, and the findings were compared with the clinical appearance of the skin. Rejection was manifested as a maculopapular rash. The histologic features were categorized as perivascular infiltrates, epidermal changes, and stromal changes. A grading system is proposed based on the number of cases encountered: No rejection, grade 0 (n = 9): No perivascular infiltrates. Indeterminate for rejection, grade 1 (n = 2): Up to 10% of vessels show infiltrates of small lymphocytes. No eosinophils, large lymphocytes, spongiosis, epidermal, or stromal inflammation are seen. Mild rejection, grade 2 (n = 5): 11% to 50% of vessels are infiltrated by small lymphocytes. Eosinophils and mild spongiosis may or may not be present. No epidermal infiltrates, stromal infiltrates, or large lymphocytes are seen. Moderate rejection, grade 3 (n = 4): Greater than 50% of vessels show lymphocytic infiltrates that may be accompanied by epidermal and stromal inflammation. Spongiosis is absent or mild. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes may be seen. Severe rejection, grade 4 (n = 2): Greater than 50% of vessels show infiltrates, but different from moderate rejection, there is dyskeratosis and the epidermis shows heavier lymphocytic infiltrates and moderate to severe spongiosis. The stroma shows infiltrates extending into the base of the epidermis. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes are present. The mean number of weeks after transplantation for the development of clearcut rejection (grades 2-4) was 8.36. Among the 9 nonrejection cases, 4 specimens from 3 patients had thrombosis of the vessels feeding the graft. A grading system serves to better assess skin allograft rejection. PMID:15105657

Bejarano, Pablo A; Levi, David; Nassiri, Mehdi; Vincek, Vladimir; Garcia, Monica; Weppler, Deborah; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Kato, Tamoaki; Tzakis, Andreas

2004-05-01

149

Method of manufacturing hollow members having uniform wall thickness through use of ablation  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacturing a hollow structure of uniform wall thickness comprising the steps of selecting or forming a precursor having one wall surface of desired geometry, treating a portion of the precursor consisting of the one wall surface and a uniform depth of material beneath the wall surface to increase resistance to ablation, and then removing by ablation and discarding the remaining or untreated portion of the precursor.

Anderson, Paul R. (Toledo, OH); Downs, Raymond L. (Ann Arbor,, MI); Henderson, Timothy M. (Ann Arbor,, MI)

1982-01-01

150

Patient-specific left atrial wall-thickness measurement and visualization for radiofrequency ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: For radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of the left atrium, safe and effective dosing of RF energy requires transmural left atrium ablation without injury to extra-cardiac structures. The thickness of the left atrial wall may be a key parameter in determining the appropriate amount of energy to deliver. While left atrial wall-thickness is known to exhibit inter- and intra-patient variation, this is not taken into account in the current clinical workflow. Our goal is to develop a tool for presenting patient-specific left atrial thickness information to the clinician in order to assist in the determination of the proper RF energy dose. METHODS: We use an interactive segmentation method with manual correction to segment the left atrial blood pool and heart wall from contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. We then create a mesh from the segmented blood pool and determine the wall thickness, on a per-vertex basis, orthogonal to the mesh surface. The thickness measurement is visualized by assigning colors to the vertices of the blood pool mesh. We applied our method to 5 contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. RESULTS: Left atrial wall-thickness measurements were generally consistent with published thickness ranges. Variations were found to exist between patients, and between regions within each patient. CONCLUSION: It is possible to visually determine areas of thick vs. thin heart wall with high resolution in a patient-specific manner.

Inoue, Jiro; Skanes, Allan C.; White, James A.; Rajchl, Martin; Drangova, Maria

2014-03-01

151

Abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption treated by a free tissue flap with a help of temporary expandable metallic stent  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a 64-year-old man who had abdominal wall defect with large duodenal disruption after penetrating abdominal injury. The patient presented with intra-abdominal exsanguinating bleeding, duodenal disruption, and multiple small bowel perforation. The rarity of this complex injury and its initial presentation as a posttraumatic large duodenal disruption with abdominal wall defect warrant its description. The present case indicates that combining a free tissue flap with a covered expandable metallic stent can effectively and successfully repair an abdominal wall defect that is associated with a large duodenal disruption. PMID:24266016

Park, Jung-Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Kim, Eun Key; Lee, Sung Koo; Jung, Yooun Joong

2013-01-01

152

Variation in left atrial transmural wall thickness at sites commonly targeted for ablation of atrial fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The number of catheter ablations performed for atrial fibrillation (AF) has increased dramatically over the past several years.\\u000a Regional variation in left atrial (LA) wall thickness is known to exist but have not been described in detail. AF ablation\\u000a success and complication rates may be related to regional differences in LA wall thickness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To evaluate differences in transmural wall thickness

Burr Hall; Vinodh Jeevanantham; Rochelle Simon; John Filippone; Gabriel Vorobiof; James Daubert

2006-01-01

153

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, David A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1982-01-01

154

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, D.A.

1980-05-30

155

Axial conduction in a thick-wall matrix heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions are developed for temperature distributions and ineffectiveness for a high Ntu matrix heat exchanger having simultaneous axial conduction in the single phase (matrix\\/fluid) flow channels and separating wall. A scale analysis of the governing equations shows a large disparity in length scales for the conduction and convection effects, thus indicating a singular perturbation problem. Solutions for both balanced and

G. F. Jones

1995-01-01

156

The effects of horse riding simulation training on stroke patients' balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness changes.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of horse riding simulation training on changes in balance ability and abdominal muscle thicknesses of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited, and they were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. [Methods] The experimental group performed horse riding simulation training, whereas the control group performed trunk exercises for 8 weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue system. The thicknesses of subjects' external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasonic imaging. [Results] In the experimental group, balance ability was significantly improved after training. Similarly, the thickness of the abdominal muscles on the affected side changed after training in the experimental group, whereas the control group showed no statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] We suggest that horse riding simulation training is more effective than trunk exercises at reducing the center of pressure path length and travel speed and improving the asymmetry of the abdominal muscles of stroke patients. PMID:25202200

Baek, Il-Hun; Kim, Byeong Jo

2014-08-01

157

Gravity trapping on a finite thickness domain wall: An analytic study  

SciTech Connect

We construct an explicit model of the gravity trapping domain-wall potential, where for the first time we can study explicitly the graviton wave function fluctuations for any thickness of domain wall. A concrete form of the potential depends on one parameter 0{<=}x{<=}({pi}/2), which effectively parameterizes the thickness of the domain wall with specific limits x{yields}0 and x{yields}({pi}/2) corresponding to the thin and the thick wall, respectively. The analysis of continuum Kaluza-Klein fluctuations yields explicit expressions for both small and large Kaluza-Klein energy. We also derive specific explicit conditions in the regime x>1, for which the fluctuation modes exhibit a resonance behavior, and which could sizably affect the modifications of the four-dimensional Newton's law at distances that typically are by 4 orders of magnitude larger than those relevant for Newton's law modifications of thin walls.

Cvetic, Mirjam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); CAMTP - Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Robnik, Marko [CAMTP - Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

2008-06-15

158

Echinococcus multilocularis infection of the liver presenting as abdominal wall fistula.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis causes infection where the most commonly affected organ is the liver, followed by the lung, kidney, bone and the brain. Other sites such as the heart, spleen, pancreas and soft tissues are very rarely affected. Surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy using various technical approaches remains the main therapeutic modality for echinococcal liver disease. To the best of our knowledge there are less than five clinical cases of cutaneous presentation of liver alveolar echinococcosis described. We present a unique case of liver echinococcosis presenting as recurrent abdominal wall fistula and abscess in a 29-year-old man. Diagnosis was based on CT imaging, serological analysis and histological findings from the fistula. Medical treatment with albendazole was initiated and liver resection was performed. The patient has no symptoms and signs of recurrence 1 year after operation, while still on albendazole therapy. This case description highlights the importance of early suspicion and treatment of unusual echinococcosis clinical presentations. PMID:24810453

Juodeikis, Zygimantas; Poskus, Tomas; Seinin, Dmitrij; Strupas, Kestutis

2014-01-01

159

Thickness of 90° ferroelectric domain walls in (Ba,Pb)TiO3 single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

90° ferroelectric domain boundaries were observed by direct transmission electron microscopy in single crystals of pure BaTiO3 and (Ba,Pb)TiO3 solid solutions. Domain-wall thickness measurements were made from electron image plates by a densitometer-trace-curve-fitting technique. Boundary widths varied from 50 to 150 Å. These results are compared with theoretical estimates of 90° domain-wall thicknesses and correlated with the relative purity levels

M. D. Dennis; R. C. Bradt

1974-01-01

160

Deletion of Mesenchymal Glucocorticoid Receptor Attenuates Embryonic Lung Development and Abdominal Wall Closure  

PubMed Central

As a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for normal embryonic development. To date, the role of mesenchymal glucocorticoid signaling during development has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of the GR during embryogenesis specifically in mesenchymal tissues. To this aim, we crossed GRflox mice with Dermo1-Cre mice to generate GRDermo1 mice, where the GR gene was deleted within mesenchymal cells. Compared to their wild type littermates, GRDermo1 mice displayed severe pulmonary atelectasis, defects in abdominal wall formation resulting in intestinal herniation, abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis in connective tissues and high postnatal lethality. Lungs of GRDermo1 mice failed to progress from the canalicular to saccular stage, as evidenced by the presence of immature air sacs, thickened interstitial mesenchyme and an underdeveloped vascular network between E17.5 and E18.5. Furthermore, myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells, although present in normal numbers in GRDermo1 animals, were characterized by significantly reduced elastin synthesis, whilst epithelial lining cells of the immature saccules were poorly differentiated. A marked reduction in normal elastin and collagen deposits were also observed in connective tissues adjacent to the umbilical hernia. This study demonstrates that eliminating the GR in cells of the mesenchymal lineage results in marked effects on interstitial fibroblast function, including a significant decrease in elastin synthesis. This results in lung atelectasis and postnatal lethality, as well as additional and hitherto unrecognized developmental defects in abdominal wall formation. In addition, altered glucocorticoid signaling in the mesenchyme attenuates normal lung epithelial differentiation. PMID:23696835

Stoner, Shihani; Tuckermann, Jan; Seibel, Markus; Zhou, Hong

2013-01-01

161

Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall  

DOEpatents

A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

2002-01-01

162

Ultrasonographic measurement of the relative thickness of intestinal wall layers in clinically healthy cats.  

PubMed

The normal sonographic thickness of the individual layers (ie, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and subserosa-serosa) of the intestinal wall was evaluated in 20 clinically healthy cats. The mean thickness of the wall was 2.20, 2.22, 3.00 and 2.04 mm for duodenum, jejunum, ileum (fold) and ileum (between folds), respectively. The mean thickness of the mucosal layer was 1.27, 1.20, 0.46 and 0.49 mm for duodenum, jejunum, ileum (fold) and ileum (between folds), respectively, and its contribution to wall thickness was significantly greater than that of the other layers in the duodenum (57.7%) and jejunum (55.2%). The mean thickness of the submucosal layer was 0.36, 0.36, 1.49 and 0.53 mm for duodenum, jejunum, ileum (fold) and ileum (between folds), respectively, and its contribution to wall thickness was greater than that of the muscularis in the duodenum (16.3%), jejunum (16%) and ileum (fold) (49.8 %). The mean thickness of muscularis was 0.28, 0.35, 0.66 and 0.65 mm for duodenum, jejunum, ileum (fold) and ileum (between folds), respectively, with a corresponding contribution to wall thickness of 12.7 %, 14.4%, 22% and 31.6%. Finally, the mean thickness of serosa was 0.29, 0.31, 0.38 and 0.38 mm for duodenum, jejunum, ileum (fold) and ileum (between folds), respectively, with a corresponding contribution to wall thickness of 13.3%, 14.4%, 12.7 % and 18.7%. These values can provide baseline information that might be useful in evaluating intestinal disorders affecting preferentially some of the intestinal layers. PMID:24174500

Di Donato, Pamela; Penninck, Dominique; Pietra, Marco; Cipone, Mario; Diana, Alessia

2014-04-01

163

Full thickness chest wall reconstruction after tumor resection by myocutaneous flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full thickness chest wall defects result when a chest wall tumor resection is necessary. The feasibility of a reconstruction is sometimes unfamiliar to the oncologist or thoracic surgeon; this can be the reason for refusing the possibility of surgical resection or inappropriate coverage of the defect. Our experiences over the last 7 years in collaboration between plastic the thoracic surgical

J. Borges; E. M. Lang; Y. Renoulet; M. Voigt; E. Stoelben; J. Hasse; G. B. Stark

2003-01-01

164

Oesophageal shortening: in vivo validation of high-frequency ultrasound measurements of oesophageal muscle wall thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsAssessment of oesophageal muscle wall thickness with high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS) is proposed as a method to evaluate longitudinal muscle contraction and oesophageal shortening in patients with oesophageal symptoms. Studies using this technique suggested that prolonged oesophageal wall thickening can be associated with chest pain and heartburn. Validation studies comparing HFIUS measurements against fluoroscopic investigations of oesophageal shortening

Werend Boesmans; Pieter Vanden Berghe; Ricard Farre; Daniel Sifrim

2010-01-01

165

Full-thickness chest wall reconstruction using autologous tissue grafts after resection of recurrent desmoid tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with a recurrent desmoid tumor of the chest wall who successfully underwent a full-thickness\\u000a chest wall resection as well as skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction. In chest wall reconstruction, we used various kinds\\u000a of autologous tissue grafts, i.e. rib, fascia lata and the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. Judging from the\\u000a reconstructed

Katsuyuki Asai; Kazuya Suzuki; Hiroshi Shimota; Yasushi Ito; Kazutoshi Asano; Teruhisa Kazui

2004-01-01

166

Use of variable thickness bolus to control electron beam penetration in chest wall irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of a variable thickness bolus modifies the electron beam penetration to accommodate differences in target thickness. This technique reduces the integral dose to underlying sensitive normal tissues, and permits increased flexibility in dose delivery to the designated volume. The technique has been found useful in electron beam irradiation of large chest wall lesions in 18 patients with recurrent, residual

John O. Archambeau; Bruce Forell; Robert Doria; David O. Findley; Roland Jurisch; Rosalynd Jackson

1981-01-01

167

Assessment of the chest wall thickness of the lawrence livermore torso phantom using a voxel image.  

PubMed

This paper describes the methodology of measuring the chest wall thickness using the voxel image of the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) torso phantom. The LLNL phantom is used as a standard to calibrate a lung counter consisting of a 2 × 2 array of germanium detectors. In general, an average thickness estimated from four counting positions is used as the chest wall thickness for a given overlay plate. For a given overlay, the outer chest surface differs from that of inner one, and the chest wall thickness varies from one position to other. The LLNL phantom with chest plate and C4 overlay plate installed was scanned with a CT (computed tomography) scanner. The image data, collected in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication) format, were converted to the MCNP input file by using the Scan2Mcnp program. The MCNP file was visualized and analyzed with the Moritz visual editor. An analytic expression was formulated and solved to calculate the chest wall thickness by using the point detector responses (F 5 tally of MCNP). To map the chest thickness, the entire chest wall was meshed into virtual grids of 1 cm width. A source and detector pair was moved along the inner and outer surface of the chest wall from right to left at different heights from neck to abdomen. For each height (z(k)), (x(i), y(j)) coordinates for the detector source pair were calculated from the visual editor and were scaled on-screen. For each (x(i), y(j), z(k)) position, a mesh thickness was measured from on-screen measurement and by solving the detector responses. The chest wall thicknesses at different positions on the outer surface of the chest were compared and verified using two methods. PMID:22004927

Ahmed, A S M Sabbir; Capello, Kevin; Kramer, Gary H

2011-06-01

168

Impact of Demographic Factors on Prenatal Diagnosis and Elective Pregnancy Termination because of Abdominal Wall Defects, Hawaii, 1986–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The intent of this study was to investigate the impact of various demographic factors on the antenatal diagnosis and elective termination of abdominal wall defect pregnancies. Method: Data were obtained from a birth defects registry in Hawaii between 1986 and 1997. Results: The antenatal diagnosis rate was higher for gastroschisis than for omphalocele (76 vs. 60%). However, gastroschisis pregnancies

Mathias B. Forrester; Ruth D. Merz

1999-01-01

169

Aneurysm-Express: Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Expression in Relation to Heterogeneity and Vascular Events – Rationale and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elective repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Large amounts of AAA tissue are necessary to assess heterogeneity among AAA and to correct for potential confounders such as known risk factors. The Aneurysm-express study aims to identify different types of AAA using inflammatory markers in the aneurysm wall that predict postoperative cardiovascular adverse

R. Hurks; I. E. Hoefer; A. Vink; J.-P. P. M. de Vries; R. H. Heijmen; A. H. Schoneveld; M. Kerver; G. Pasterkamp; F. L. Moll

2010-01-01

170

Reconstruction of carotid bifurcation hemodynamics and wall thickness using computational fluid dynamics and MRI.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the relationship between local hemodynamics and plaque progression has been hindered by an inability to prospectively monitor these factors in vivo in humans. In this study a novel approach for noninvasively reconstructing artery wall thickness and local hemodynamics at the human carotid bifurcation is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the lumen and wall boundaries, from which wall thickness can be measured, were reconstructed from black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Along with time-varying inlet/outlet flow rates measured via phase contrast (PC) MRI, the lumen boundary was used as input for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of the subject-specific flow patterns and wall shear stresses (WSSs). Results from a 59-year-old subject with early, asymptomatic carotid artery disease show good agreement between simulated and measured velocities, and demonstrate a correspondence between wall thickening and low and oscillating shear at the carotid bulb. High shear at the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) was also colocalized with higher WSS; however, a quantitative general relationship between WSS and wall thickness was not found. Similar results were obtained from a 23-year-old normal subject. These findings represent the first direct comparison of hemodynamic variables and wall thickness at the carotid bifurcation of human subjects. The noninvasive nature of this image-based modeling approach makes it ideal for carrying out future prospective studies of hemodynamics and plaque development or progression in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:11754454

Steinman, David A; Thomas, Jonathan B; Ladak, Hanif M; Milner, Jaques S; Rutt, Brian K; Spence, J David

2002-01-01

171

Chest wall thickness measurements: The alternative approach extended for {sup 241}Am  

SciTech Connect

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has extended the technique of determining the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using germanium detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with a lung set containing homogeneously distributed {sup 241}Am. Chest wall thicknesses were varied by using a series of muscle equivalent overlay plates that gave a range of 1.6 cm to 3.9 cm thickness. It was found that a 3-cm chest wall thickness can be estimated to within 18%. Using a spectral addition technique 1 kBq was estimated to be the {open_quotes}practical{close_quotes} lower limit of activity for this method. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kramer, G.H.; Burns, L.C. [Human Monitoring Lab., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

172

Chest wall thickness measurements: the alternative approach extended for 241Am.  

PubMed

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has extended the technique of determining the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using germanium detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with a lung set containing homogeneously distributed 241Am. Chest wall thicknesses were varied by using a series of muscle equivalent overlay plates that gave a range of 1.6 cm to 3.9 cm thickness. It was found that a 3-cm chest wall thickness can be estimated to within 18%. Using a spectral addition technique 1 kBq was estimated to be the "practical" lower limit of activity for this method. PMID:9003718

Kramer, G H; Burns, L C

1997-02-01

173

Chest wall thickness measurements of the LLNL and JAERI torso phantoms for germanium detector counting  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute torso phantoms were developed to calibrate lung counting systems that are used to estimate plutonium and other radionuclides deposited in the lung. Originally, low energy photon counting systems consisted of phoswich detectors. The average chest wall thicknesses and individual measurement points of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom and its overlay plates in the regions covered by these detectors were provided by the manufacturer. Germanium detectors are of a different size and are placed in different locations on the phantom so that the manufacturer`s data are no longer applicable for the locations of the germanium detectors on the phantom. The Human Monitoring Laboratory has re-evaluated the chest wall thickness of both the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute phantoms and their overlay plates for its germanium lung counting system. The measurements were made in the upper right, lower right, upper left, and lower left positions on the phantom`s torso plate above the lungs. The effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso plate are 1.46 cm, 1.43 cm, 1.66 cm, 1.48 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average effective chest wall thickness for a pair of phoswich detectors is 1.63 cm. The measured effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the JAERI`s torso plate are 1.76 cm, 2.15 cm, 1.79 cm, 2.15 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average chest wall thickness for an unspecified region of the chest is 1.50 cm. This paper presents effective chest wall thickness data for the phantoms with and without their overlay plates at 17 keV, 60 keV, 200 keV and 1,500 keV. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M. [Human Monitoring Lab., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-11-01

174

Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

2003-01-01

175

Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT). This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT) and mean bladder volume (BV) were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls). Patients’ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT) was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT) was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI) was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. PMID:25250302

Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

2014-01-01

176

Quantitative in vivo assessment of the tissue response to dermal sheep collagen in abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

We quantified the tissue response, tissue organization and patency of biodegradable patches for the repair of abdominal wall defects. We used dermal sheep collagen, cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate in a model. The collagen patches were implanted either untreated or plasma polymerized with tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), to improve the properties of the patch for bowel adhesion and rate of degradation. The implants with surrounding tissue were retrieved after 3 d, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wk, then sectioned and stained specifically for macrophages, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes and endothelium. Only macrophages and neutrophils were observed in the implant and surrounding tissue, with different antigen expression in the macrophages. This was found to be dependent on whether the macrophages were found within the implant or in the surrounding tissue. The neutrophils and macrophages were assessed using image analysis techniques to quantify the tissue responses to treated and untreated collagen, enabling comparison of the respective tissue responses. No significant differences were found between the two forms of this collagen. Infection played a key role in the severity of the tissue response around both types of implants, resulting in large variations in cell counts at each time period. Treating the collagen with TFE did not significantly improve its performance in this application. PMID:8507782

Hunt, J A; van der Laan, J S; Schakenraad, J; Williams, D F

1993-04-01

177

Long-term anisotropic mechanical response of surgical meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

Routine hernia repair surgery involves the implant of synthetic mesh. However, this type of procedure may give rise to pain and bowel incarceration and strangulation, causing considerable patient disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term behaviour of three commercial meshes used to repair the partially herniated abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits: the heavyweight (HW) mesh, Surgipro(®) and lightweight (LW) mesh, Optilene(®), both made of polypropylene (PP), and a mediumweight (MW) mesh, Infinit(®), made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The implanted meshes were mechanical and histological assessed at 14, 90 and 180 days post-implant. This behaviour was compared to the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the unrepaired abdominal wall in control non-operated rabbits. Both uniaxial mechanical tests conducted in craneo-caudal and perpendicular directions and histological findings revealed substantial collagen growth over the repaired hernial defects causing stiffness in the repair zone, and thus a change in the original properties of the meshes. The mechanical behaviour of the healthy tissue in the craneo-caudal direction was not reproduced by any of the implanted meshes after 14 days or 90 days of implant, whereas in the perpendicular direction, SUR and OPT achieved similar behaviour. From a mechanical standpoint, the anisotropic PP-lightweight meshes may be considered a good choice in the long run, which correlates with the structure of the regenerated tissue. PMID:22100101

Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

2012-01-01

178

Gravity Trapping on a Finite Thickness Domain Wall: An Analytic Study  

E-print Network

We construct an explicit model of gravity trapping domain wall potential where for the first time we can study explicitly the graviton wave function fluctuations for any thickness of the domain wall. A concrete form of the potential depends on one parameter 0 0 and x -> pi/2 corresponding to the thin and the thick wall, respectively. The analysis of the continuum Kaluza Klein fluctuations yields explicit expressions for both the small and large Kaluza Klein energy. We also derive specific explicit conditions in the regime x > 1, for which the fluctuation modes exhibit a resonance behaviour, and which could sizably affect the modifications of the four-dimensional Newton's law at distances, which typically are by four orders of magnitude larger than those relevant for Newton's law modifications of thin walls.

Mirjam Cvetic; Marko Robnik

2008-01-07

179

Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an 8-wk period of bilateral handgrip training. Unilaterally, shear rate was attenuated by cuff inflation around the forearm to

D. H. J. Thijssen; E. A. Dawson; I. C. van den Munckhof; T. M. Tinken; E. den Drijver; N. Hopkins; N. T. Cable; D. J. Green

2011-01-01

180

Determination of the Relationship Between Gastric Wall Thickness and Body Mass Index with Endoscopic Ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gastric wall thickness and BMI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Bariatric surgery patients undergoing a pre-operative screening EGD and patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound for non-gastric\\u000a pathology were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound evaluation with measurements\\u000a of gastric wall thickness at six areas of the stomach. The primary outcome was the

Michael C. Larsen; Brian M. Yan; John Morton; Jacques Van Dam

2011-01-01

181

A Comparison of Vaginal Pressures and Abdominal Muscle Thickness According to Childbirth Delivery Method during the Valsalva Maneuver.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of childbirth delivery method on vaginal pressure and abdominal thickness during the Valsalva maneuver (VAL). [Subjects] Thirty healthy female volunteers (26-39?years of age) were selected for this research. Their delivery histories were: nulliparous 10, vaginal delivery 10, and Cesarean delivery 10. None of the participants had a history of incontinence. [Methods] In the crook-lying position, a perineometer probe was inserted into the vagina and the transducer was placed transversely on the right side of the body during the Valsalva maneuver. [Results] There were significant differences in the thickness of the transverses abdominis (TrA) between in all the groups rest and the Valsalva maneuver, and there were significant differences in the internus oblique (IO) in the nulliparous group. During the Valsalva maneuver, there were significant differences in the TrA between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and there were significant differences in the IO between the nulliparous delivery group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean section group. Delivery history changed vaginal pressure, and there were significant differences between the nulliparous group and the vaginal delivery group, and between the nulliparous group and the Cesarean delivery group. [Conclusion] Pregnancy and delivery method may affect pelvic floor and abdominal muscles during the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:24707104

Kim, Haroo; Kak, Hwang-Bo; Kim, Boin

2014-03-01

182

How to reconstruct an upper full-thickness abdomen wall defect in austere environment? Interests of the pedicled myofascial latissimis dorsi flap.  

PubMed

Upper abdominal wall defects secondary to trauma are not amenable to immediate closure in most cases. After a primary coverage, the definitive reconstruction can be done at a later date, using prosthetic mesh or flap. The majority of these complex procedures is, however, not available in the austere environment. The authors report a clinical case of upper full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall secondary to an explosion in Afghanistan. The patient was managed by a French Forward Surgical Team. The defect was immediately reconstructed in a one-stage surgery using a pedicled myofascial latissimus dorsi flap with good functional results. The pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is commonly used for coverage of both extrathoracic and intrathoracic defects. It is, therefore, possible to extend the harvesting of the muscle to the thoracolumbar fascia and the posterior third of the iliac crest. It provides a very large flap to cover an upper full-thickness abdomen wall defect. The harvest technique is simple, short, and largely accessible to a general surgeon. It provides immediate and definitive closure with a short hospital stay, what is clearly adapted in austere environment. PMID:25373074

Hornez, Emmanuel; Pellet, Nicolas; Roswadosky, Faye; Ponhan, Radek; Ollat, Didier; Ramiara, Patrice; Rongieras, Frederic

2014-11-01

183

An elastomeric patch electrospun from a blended solution of dermal extracellular matrix and biodegradable polyurethane for rat abdominal wall repair.  

PubMed

A biodegradable elastomeric scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixed solution of poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and porcine dermal extracellular matrix (dECM) digest, with PEUU included to provide elasticity, flexibility, and mechanical support and dECM used to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility. Micrographs and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated partial miscibility between PEUU and dECM. With greater dECM content, scaffolds were found to possess lower breaking strains and suture retention strength, although initial modulus was greater with higher dECM concentrations. The hybrid scaffolds containing 0% to 50% dECM had tensile strengths of 5 to 7 MPa, breaking strains of 138% to 611%, initial moduli of 3 to 11 Mpa, and suture retention strengths of 35 to 59 MPa. When hydrated, scaffolds were found to contract markedly with 50% dECM content. When used in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall replacement model, no herniation, infection, or tissue adhesion was observed after 4 and 8 weeks with a scaffold containing 25% dECM or a control 100% PEUU scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating dECM were significantly thicker at the time of explant, with greater numbers of associated smooth muscle actin-positive staining cells than in the control, but minimal cellular infiltration and remodeling of the scaffold were detected regardless of dECM addition. The processing of dECM and PEUU from a mixed solution thus provided a scaffold with evidence of better bioactivity and with mechanical properties not achievable with digested dECM alone. PMID:21933017

Hong, Yi; Takanari, Keisuke; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P; Freund, John M; Badylak, Stephen F; Wagner, William R

2012-02-01

184

An Elastomeric Patch Electrospun from a Blended Solution of Dermal Extracellular Matrix and Biodegradable Polyurethane for Rat Abdominal Wall Repair  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable elastomeric scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixed solution of poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and porcine dermal extracellular matrix (dECM) digest, with PEUU included to provide elasticity, flexibility, and mechanical support and dECM used to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility. Micrographs and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated partial miscibility between PEUU and dECM. With greater dECM content, scaffolds were found to possess lower breaking strains and suture retention strength, although initial modulus was greater with higher dECM concentrations. The hybrid scaffolds containing 0% to 50% dECM had tensile strengths of 5 to 7?MPa, breaking strains of 138% to 611%, initial moduli of 3 to 11 Mpa, and suture retention strengths of 35 to 59?MPa. When hydrated, scaffolds were found to contract markedly with 50% dECM content. When used in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall replacement model, no herniation, infection, or tissue adhesion was observed after 4 and 8 weeks with a scaffold containing 25% dECM or a control 100% PEUU scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating dECM were significantly thicker at the time of explant, with greater numbers of associated smooth muscle actin–positive staining cells than in the control, but minimal cellular infiltration and remodeling of the scaffold were detected regardless of dECM addition. The processing of dECM and PEUU from a mixed solution thus provided a scaffold with evidence of better bioactivity and with mechanical properties not achievable with digested dECM alone. PMID:21933017

Hong, Yi; Takanari, Keisuke; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P.; Freund, John M.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

185

Use of a pre-expanded "propeller" deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for a large abdominal wall defect.  

PubMed

Large abdominal wall soft tissue defects are traditionally reconstructed using loco-regional flaps and/or tissue expanders. Pedicled perforator flaps offer similar tissue coverage with minimal donor site morbidity and do not require microsurgical skills. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has become increasingly popular for breast reconstruction and offers abundant soft tissue while permitting primary donor site closure. To minimize operative sessions, recovery time, donor site morbidity, and avoid microsurgery, we combined tissue expansion with a "propeller" flap design and report this first case of a pre-expanded pedicled perforator flap based on the DIEP to address a large abdominal wall defect due to a burn injury. PMID:23031631

Cheng, Angela; Saint-Cyr, Michel

2013-06-01

186

The use of composite meshes in laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernias: are there differences in biocompatibily?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In recent years, laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernias has become increasingly established in routine clinical practice\\u000a thanks to the myriad advantages it confers. Apart from the risk of intestinal damage following adhesiolysis, to date no information\\u000a is available on the best way of preventing the formation of new adhesions in the vicinity of the implanted meshes. Numerous\\u000a experimental investigations,

Christine Schug-Pass; Florian Sommerer; Andrea Tannapfel; Hans Lippert; Ferdinand Köckerling

2009-01-01

187

The venous anatomy of the abdominal wall for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Despite improving outcomes, venous problems in the harvest of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps remain the more common vascular complications. However, it is apparent that the venous anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall has not been described to the same extent as the arterial anatomy. Cadaveric dissection studies of venous anatomy frequently lack the detail of their arterial counterparts. Venous valves complicate retrograde injection, resulting in poor quality studies with limited anatomical information. Methods The current manuscript comprises a review of the literature, highlighting key features of the anatomy of the venous drainage of the abdominal wall integument, with particular pertinence to DIEP flaps. Both cadaveric and clinical studies are included in this review. Our own cadaveric and in-vivo studies were undertaken and included in detail in this manuscript, with the cadaveric component utilizing direct catheter venography and the in-vivo studies were undertaken using preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA), mapping in-vivo venous flow. Results Several key features of the venous anatomy of the abdominal wall render it different to other regions, and are of particular importance to DIEP flap transfer. Conclusions The cause of venous compromise is multi-factorial, with perforator diameter, midline crossover, and deep-superficial venous communications all important. Venous cadaveric studies as well as clinical CTA preoperatively can identify these anomalies. PMID:25083432

Ashton, Mark W

2012-01-01

188

Reference values for valve circumferences and ventricular wall thicknesses of fetal and neonatal hearts.  

PubMed

To evaluate valvular stenosis, cardiac dilation, and/or cardiac hypertrophy, measurements of valve circumference and ventricular wall thickness are of importance. To establish reference values in fetuses and neonates, we reviewed pathology reports at Women and Infants Hospital from 1978 through 2002 and found measurements in 776 cases that were suitable for analysis. Gestational ages (GA) ranged from 15 to 42 wk. The tabulated data include the mean, standard deviation, and 10th and 90th percentile values for foot length, body weight, body length, heart weight, valve measurements, and ventricular wall thicknesses for each week of GA. In cases in which clinical dating is not reliable, we estimated the GA by the mean value nearest that of the observed foot length. All linear measurements increased in a linear fashion throughout the second and third trimesters of development. The circumferences of cardiac valves at all ages, in descending order of magnitude, are: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary, and aortic. Mean left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is greater than mean right ventricular (RV) wall thickness throughout gestation. The tables offer a means of determining valvular stenosis, or cardiac dilation and/or hypertrophy, based on various gestational ages. PMID:15547774

Oyer, Calvin E; Sung, C James; Friedman, Rebecca; Hansen, Katrine; Paepe, Monique De; Pinar, Halit; Singer, Don B

2004-01-01

189

Aerodynamic characteristics of the Nijdam voice prosthesis in relation to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness.  

PubMed

Tracheo-esophageal speech using various prostheses is currently the most successful form of voice and speech rehabilitation for laryngectomies. Main inter-device differences are durability and trans-device pressure loss during speech. The valveless indwelling Nijdam voice prosthesis is a new voice prosthesis. A barrier mechanism is created by a combination of the esophageal mucosa and the umbrella-like "hat" of the prosthesis that covers the esophageal side of the tracheo-esophageal fistula. The Nijdam prosthesis can be used clinically for longer periods of time when compared to such other indwelling voice prostheses as the Provox prosthesis and the low-resistance Groningen prosthesis. However, transdevice pressure loss during speech has been unknown. Adjustment of the shft length of the Nijdam voice prosthesis to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness was expected to affect trans-device pressure loss during speech. We report the results of in vitro tests to quantify the effect of tracheo-esophageal wall thickness on trans-device pressure loss. In the present study pressure loss was measured at different air flow rates in relation to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness. Findings demonstrated that when shaft length of the Nijdam prosthesis corresponded exactly to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness, trans-device pressure loss was comparable to that of the Provox prosthesis. If a relatively shorter Nijdam prosthesis was chosen to prevent aspiration from occurring, the pressure loss across the prosthesis increased to that of the low-resistance Groningen prosthesis. PMID:9115703

Veenstra, A; van den Hoogen, F J; Schutte, H K; Nijdam, H F; Manni, J J; Verkerke, G J

1997-01-01

190

Reduction in left ventricular wall thickness after deconditioning in highly trained Olympic athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Clinical distinction between athlete's heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a trained athlete is often difficult. In an effort to identify variables that may aid in this differential diagnosis, the effects of deconditioning on left ventricular wall thickness were assessed in six highly trained elite athletes who had competed in rowing or canoeing at the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. Each of

B J Maron; A Pelliccia; A Spataro; M Granata

1993-01-01

191

Chest wall thickness measurements of the LLNL and JAERI torso phantoms for germanium detector counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute torso phantoms were developed to calibrate lung counting systems that are used to estimate plutonium and other radionuclides deposited in the lung. Originally, low energy photon counting systems consisted of phoswich detectors. The average chest wall thicknesses and individual measurement points of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom and

Gary H. Kramer; Barry M. Hauck

1997-01-01

192

Characterization of PET partial volume corrections for variable myocardial wall thicknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited scanner resolution and cardiac motion contribute to partial volume (PV) averaging of positron emission tomography (PET) images. An extravascular (EV) density image, created from the subtraction of a blood pool (BP) from a transmission (TX) image can be used to estimate PV losses in the myocardium (MYO). A phantom emulating the left ventricle myocardium, with a variable wall thickness

Richard W. Wassenaar; Robert A. deKemp

2006-01-01

193

Characterization of PET partial volume corrections for variable myocardial wall thicknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited scanner resolution and cardiac motion contribute to partial volume (PV) averaging of PET images. An extravascular (EV) density image, created from the subtraction of a blood pool (BP) from a transmission (TX) image can be used to estimate PV losses in the myocardium (MYO). A phantom emulating the left ventricle myocardium, with a variable wall thickness (5 mm to

Richard W. Wassenaar; Robert A. deKemp

2004-01-01

194

Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick films  

E-print Network

Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick. The organosilicon films were then thermally treated under air and the influence of calcinations conditions remains coated and hidden despite visible but non penetrating cracks of the upper layer of the physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING.  

E-print Network

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING. Sylvie PRETOT, this study concerns the LCA of an environmentally friendly material used for building construction, hemp construction materials, hemp concrete has a low impact on environment. Moreover, hemp concrete contributes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Size dependence in hexagonal mesoporous germanium : pore wall thickness versus energy gap and photoluinescence.  

SciTech Connect

A series of hexagonal mesoporous germanium semiconductors with tunable wall thickness is reported. These nanostructures possess uniform pores of 3.1-3.2 nm, wall thicknesses from 1.3 to 2.2 nm, and large internal BET surface area in the range of 404-451 m{sup 2}/g. The porous Ge framework of these materials is assembled from the templated oxidative self-polymerization of (Ge{sub 9}){sup 4-} Zintl clusters. Total X-ray scattering analysis supports a model of interconnected deltahedral (Ge{sub 9})-cluster forming the framework and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates nearly zero-valence Ge atoms. We show the controllable tuning of the pore wall thickness and its impact on the energy band gap which increases systematically with diminishing wall thickness. Furthermore, there is room temperature photoluminescence emission which shifts correspondingly from 672 to 640 nm. The emission signal can be quenched via energy transfer with organic molecules such as pyridine diffusing into the pores.

Armatas, G. S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Crete

2010-08-10

197

Water hammer with fluidstructure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling *  

E-print Network

Water hammer with fluid­structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling * Department. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid­structure interaction (FSI 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Water hammer; Fluid transients; Fluid

Tijsseling, A.S.

198

Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling  

E-print Network

1 Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling Department. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid- structure interaction (FSI. Keywords: Water hammer; Fluid transients; Fluid-structure interaction (FSI); Pipe flow #12;2 1

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

199

Abdominal Wall Lift Versus Positive-Pressure Capnoperitoneum for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare intraoperative cardiac function, postoperative cognitive recovery, and surgical performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with abdominal wall lift (AWL) versus positive-pressure capnoperitoneum (PPCpn). Summary Background Data: AWL has been proposed as an alternative approach to PPCpn to avoid adverse cardio-respiratory changes. However, the workspace obtained with the AWL is less optimal than PPCpn and previous studies documenting delayed postoperative recovery of consciousness following PPCpn have not assessed mental alertness despite its importance. Methods: Forty operations were randomized into AWL and PPCpn. A standard anesthetic protocol was followed. Cardiac indices were measured with an esophageal Doppler machine. An auditory vigilance test was used to measure alertness level following extubation. All operations were videotaped and human reliability assessment techniques were used to identify surgical errors. Results: There was a significant reduction in cardiac output during the first 20 minutes following CO2 insufflation in the PPCpn group, whereas in the AWL group it did not exhibit any significant change. Patients in AWL arm had better vigilance scores at 90 and 180 minutes following extubation compared with the PPn group (P < 0.05). Significantly more surgical errors were observed during surgery with AWL than with PPCpn (7.1 ± 1.1; versus 2.9 ± 0.4; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The AWL approach avoids fall in cardiac output associated with PPCpn during laparoscopic surgery and is associated with a more rapid recovery of postoperative cognitive function compared with PPCpn. However, AWL increases the level of difficulty in the execution of the operation. PMID:15075657

Alijani, Afshin; Hanna, George B.; Cuschieri, Alfred

2004-01-01

200

The use of biological mesh to repair one large, contaminated abdominal wall defect due to neoplastic invasion. Report of a case.  

PubMed

We hereby report a case of use of biological mesh to repair one large, contaminated abdominal wall defect due to a sigmoid tumour presented as an abscess infiltrating the abdominal wall. Our patient was a 48-year-old woman. Her medical history was negative for any previous disease or surgical procedure. Because of the abscence of neoplastic secondarism an en-bloc resection of the interested sigmoid colon and of the infiltrated abdominal wall was performed, thus resulting a large wall defect in the left inguinal region. In order to close the wall defect a biological porcine collagen mesh was used. In our case we used a Permacol mesh made of porcine acellular dermal collagen. Reconstruction of complicated abdominal wall defects is a challenging surgical problem and primary repair is often difficult to achieve without excessive tension in the abdominal wall. The use of a syntethic mesh in this patient could have been inappropriate due to the possibility of creating adhesions with intra-abdominal viscera and fistula formation. We chose to use a biological mesh because of its safer properties in case of infected, inflamed or infiltrated surgical fields, as demonstrated in the literature. PMID:22462340

Galli, Davide; Goi, Gloria; Pariani, Dario; Moroni, Eliana; Danelli, Piergiorgio

2012-01-01

201

The effects of domain wall thickness on the nanoscale piezoresponse of ferroelectric domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of domain wall thickness on the nanoscale piezoresponse of ferroelectric domains, including typical 180°, uncharged 90°, and charged 90° domains, are investigated via treating the domain wall as a piezoelectric medium, which possesses distinct piezoelectric coefficients from the adjacent domains. It is found that increasing the domain thickness can result in enhanced lateral piezoresponse force microscopy response of uncharged 90° domains and vertical piezoresponse force microscopy (VPFM) response of charged 90° domains, while it would reduce VPFM response of uncharged 90° domains. Good agreements with experiments are observed. The different enhancement behaviors maybe result from the distinction of average polarization orientation of those domain walls. These insights point to a new pathway to enhance nanoscale piezoresponse in ferroelectric materials.

Chen, L. Q.; Pan, K.; Liu, Y. Y.

2014-08-01

202

Effect of wall thickness on measurement of dose for high energy neutrons.  

PubMed

Neutrons produced from the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and spacecraft materials are responsible for a very important portion of the dose received by astronauts. The neutron energy spectrum depends on the incident charged particle spectrum and the scattering environment but generally extends to beyond 100 MeV. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used to measure the dose during the space mission, but their weight and size are very important factors for their design and construction. To achieve ideal neutron dosimetry, the wall thickness should be at least the range of a proton having the maximum energy of the neutrons to be monitored. This proton range is 0.1 cm for 10 MeV neutrons and 7.6 cm for 100 MeV neutrons. A 7.6 cm wall thickness TEPC would provide charged particle equilibrium (CPE) for neutrons up to 100 MeV, but for space applications it would not be reasonable in terms of weight and size. In order to estimate the errors in measured dose due to absence of CPE, MCNPX simulations of energy deposited by 10 MeV and 100 MeV neutrons in sites with wall thickness between 0.1 cm and 8.5 cm were performed. The results for 100 MeV neutrons show that energy deposition per incident neutron approaches a plateau as the wall thickness approaches 7.6 cm. For the 10 MeV neutrons, energy deposition per incident neutron decreases as the wall thickness increases above 0.1 cm due to attenuation. PMID:19959949

Perez-Nunez, Delia; Braby, Leslie A

2010-01-01

203

Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects In Vitro and In Vivo Using VEGF Sustained-Release Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Objective Porcine acellular dermal matrices (ADM) have been widely used in experimental and clinical research for abdominal wall repair. Compared to porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), the effect of these matrices on the regenerative capacity of blood vessels is still not ideal. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can more effectively transport VEGF to cells or tissues because of their large specific surface area and interior cavity. In this study, we explored the safety and efficacy of implanted VEGF-loaded MWNT composite scaffolds in vitro and vivo to repair abdominal wall defects. Materials and Methods VEGF-loaded MWNTs were prepared by a modified plasma polymerization treatment. Four composite scaffolds were evaluated for cytotoxicity, proliferation, and release dynamics. We created 3 cm×4 cm abdominal wall defects in 43 Sprague-Dawley rats. After implantation times of 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the scaffolds and the surrounding tissues were collected and examined by gross inspection, biomechanical testing, and histological examination. Results A 5–10 nm poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was evenly distributed on MWNTs. The 3% MWNT composite group showed lower cytotoxicity and appropriate release performance, and it was thus tested in vivo. In rats with the 3% composite implanted, host cells were prevented from migrating to the ADM at 2 weeks, vascularization was established more rapidly at 12 weeks, and the values for both the maximum load and the elastic modulus were significantly lower than in the ADM-alone group (p<0.01). Histological staining revealed that the MWNT was still not completely eliminated 12 weeks after implantation. Conclusion MWNTs were able to carry VEGF to cells or tissues, and the 3% MWNT composite material showed lower cytotoxicity and had an appropriate release performance, which prompted faster vascularization of the ADM than other scaffolds. Nevertheless, the MWNTs induced harmful effects that should be carefully considered in biomedical studies. PMID:23717603

Yang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhengni; Peng, Zhiyou; Tang, Rui; Gu, Yan

2013-01-01

204

Left hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Herniation of the liver through an anterior abdominal wall hernia defect is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases have been described in the literature. Case presentation A 70-year-old Mexican woman presented with a one-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice to our Department of General Surgery. Her medical history included an open cholecystectomy from 20 years earlier and excessive weight. She presented with jaundice, abdominal distension with a midline surgical scar, right upper quadrant tenderness, and a large midline abdominal wall defect with dullness upon percussion and protrusion of a large, tender, and firm mass. The results of laboratory tests were suggestive of cholestasis. Ultrasound revealed choledocholithiasis. A computed tomography scan showed a protrusion of the left hepatic lobe through the anterior abdominal wall defect and a well-defined, soft tissue density lesion in the right adrenal topography. An endoscopic common bile duct stone extraction was unsuccessful. During surgery, the right adrenal tumor was resected first. The hernia was approached through a median supraumbilical incision; the totality of the left lobe was protruding through the abdominal wall defect, and once the lobe was reduced to its normal position, a common bile duct surgical exploration with multiple stone extraction was performed. Finally, the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Histopathology revealed an adrenal myelolipoma. Six months after the operation, our patient remains in good health. Conclusions The case of liver herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia in this report represents, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth such case reported in the literature. The rarity of this medical entity makes it almost impossible to specifically describe predisposing risk factors for liver herniation. Obesity, the right adrenal myelolipoma mass effect, and the previous abdominal surgery are likely to have contributed to incisional hernia formation. PMID:22234036

2012-01-01

205

A Case of Pediatric Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Components Separation within the Austere War Environment  

PubMed Central

Summary: Reconstructive surgeons supporting military operations are required to definitively treat severe pediatric abdominal injuries in austere environments. The safety and efficacy of using a components separation technique to treat large ventral hernias in pediatric patients in this setting remains understudied. Components separation technique was required to achieve definitive closure in a 12-month-old pediatric patient in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Her course was complicated by an anastomotic leak after small bowel resection. Her abdominal was successfully reopened, the leak repaired, and closed primarily without incident on postinjury day 9. Abdominal trauma with a large ventral hernia requiring components separation is extremely rare. A pediatric patient treated with components separation demonstrated minimal complications, avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome, and no mortality.

Sabino, Jennifer; Kumar, Anand

2014-01-01

206

Sturdivan's formula revisited: MRI assessment of anterior chest wall thickness for injury risk prediction of blunt ballistic impact trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe thickness and composition of the chest wall are important quantities in multiparametric trauma models for the assessment of injury severity due to blunt ballistic chest impact. While ballistic parameters of non-penetrating projectiles can routinely be measured with high accuracy, data on the thickness of the anterior chest wall is unreliable. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to

Matthias Frank; Volker Schorge; Katrin Hegenscheid; Anselm Angermaier; Axel Ekkernkamp; Norbert Hosten; Ralf Puls; Soenke Langner

2011-01-01

207

Differential impact of heart rate on arterial wall stiffness and thickness in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate, a hemodynamic parameter, is an important determinant of arterial wall stiffness. However, information on the relationship of heart rate to arterial wall thickness is inconsistent. This study examined the influence of heart rate on arterial stiffness and thickness in Black and White young adults. The study cohort consisted of 255 Black and 659 White adults age 25 to

Wei Chen; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Gerald S. Berenson

2008-01-01

208

Rectus sheath hooking: alternative method of abdominal wall lifting and fixing for laparoscopy: a pilot cadaver bio-mechanical study.  

PubMed

Four bio-mechanical tests were used to study properties of the rectus sheath for laparoscopic abdominal access procedure and to provide surgical exposure by the ChulaLift gasless retractor. The profile of forces and displacement showed how some patients were good candidates for the gasless operation. The lifting weight should not excess 10 kg for minimal harm and optimal exposure. The rectus hooking could be an alternative choice for abdominal wall fixing during the first trocar entry. One-cm width hooking, the rectus sheath could withstand 18-20 kg lifting force. The exposure provided by the gasless technique was narrow between the lateral ports compared to the conventional technique. The rectus sheath could be hooked to provide effective fixing of the area to be penetrated by the first trocar, and this fascial layer could be lifted to produce exposure in the gasless technique. PMID:12188429

Tansatit, Tanvaa; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach; Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Rodanant, Oralux; Jongsakul, Teerachote; Chamsuwan, Supoj; Tansrisawad, Nat; Hoonwijit, Udomsak

2002-06-01

209

Sensitivity of dual-wall structures under hypervelocity impact to multi-layer thermal insulation thickness and placement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an experimental study in which Al dual-wall structures were tested, under various high-speed impact conditions, with a view to the effect of multilayer insulation thickness and location on perforation resistance. Attention is given to comparisons of the damage sustained by dual-wall systems with multilayer insulation blankets of various thicknesses and at various locations within the dual-wall system, under comparable impact loading conditions. The placement of the insulation has a significant effect on the ballistic limit of the dual-wall structures considered, while reducing insulation thickness by as much as a third did not.

Schonberg, William P.

1993-01-01

210

Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The

E C Dalder; J W Pastrnak; J Engel; R S Forrest; E Kokko; K M Ternan; D Waldron

2007-01-01

211

Measurement of Fetal Abdominal and Subscapular Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness during Pregnancy to Predict Macrosomia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the growth trends and reference ranges of the ultrasound parameters, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness (ASTT) and subscapular subcutaneous tissue thickness (SSTT), in the last two trimesters of normal pregnancy in a Chinese population. We recruited 744 healthy women with singleton pregnancies. The ASTT and SSTT were evaluated at different times between 21 and 36 weeks of gestation. The correlations between these parameters and fetal gestational weeks were assessed using linear regression analysis. Both ASTT and SSTT increased with gestation, and both parameters showed a strong correlation with gestation (ASTT vs. GA, R2?=?0.792; P<0.0001; SSTT vs. GA, R2?=?0.302; P<0.0001). Time-specific reference ranges, including 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles and means ± SD, were constructed for ASTT and SSTT. These results provide a preliminary reference range to evaluate whether fetal development and maternal metabolic health is normal or not in a Chinese population. PMID:24675769

Chen, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Li; Wu, Yun; Zhu, Li-Jun; Lv, Kang-Tai; Ji, Chen-Bo; Guo, Xi-Rong

2014-01-01

212

Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

213

A thermoelastic transversely isotropic thick walled cylinder/disk application: An analytical solution and study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuum theory is utilized to represent the thermoelastic behavior of a thick walled composite cylinder that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. A multiaxial statement of the constitutive theory employed is presented, as well as the out of the plane of isotropy, plane stress, and plane strain reductions. The derived analytical solution presented is valid for a cylindrical tube or thin disk with a concentric hole, subjected to internal and/or external pressure and a general radial temperature distribution. A specific problem examined is that of a thick walled cylinder subjected to an internal and external pressure loading and a linear radial temperature distribution. The results are expressed in nondimensional form and the effects on the response behavior are examined for various material properties, fiber orientation and types of loadings.

Arnold, S. M.

1989-01-01

214

Wave propagation through a newtonian fluid contained within a thick-walled, viscoelastic tube.  

PubMed

The propagation of harmonic pressure waves through a Newtonian fluid contained within a thick-walled, viscoelastic tube is considered as a model of arterial blood flow. The fluid is assumed to be homogeneous and Newtonian, and its motion to be laminar and axisymmetric. The wall is assumed to be isotropic, incompressible, linear, and viscoelastic. It is also assumed that the motion is such that the convective acceleration is negligible. The motion of the fluid is described by the linearized form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the motion of the wall by classical elasticity theory. The frequency dependence of the wall mechanical properties are represented by a three parameter, relaxation-type model. Using boundary conditions describing the continuity of stress and velocity components in the fluid and the wall, explicit solutions for the system of equations of the model have been obtained. The longitudinal fluid impedance has been expressed in terms of frequency and the system parameters. The frequency equation has been solved and the propagation constant also expressed in terms of frequency and system parameters. The results indicate that the fluid impedance is smaller than predicted by the rigid tube model or by Womersley's constrained elastic tube model. Also, the velocity of propagation is generally slower and the transmission per wavelength less than predicted by Womersley's elastic tube model. The propagation constant is very sensitive to changes in the degree of wall viscoelasticity. PMID:5699803

Ox, R H

1968-06-01

215

Airway wall thickness in patients with near fatal asthma and control groups: assessment with high resolution computed tomographic scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAirway wall thickening has been observed in post mortem studies of patients with asthma. Assessment of airway wall thickening by high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning has been reported in experimental studies. We have used HRCT scanning to measure airway wall thickness at the segmental and subsegmental levels in 40 patients with asthma and 14 normal controls.METHODSThe subjects were prospectively

Nasser Awadh; Nestor L Müller; Chan S Park; Raja T Abboud; J Mark FitzGerald

1998-01-01

216

Abdominal muscle contraction thickness and function after specific and general exercises: a randomized controlled trial in chronic low back pain patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess changes in deep abdominal muscle function after 8 weeks of exercise in chronic low back pain patients. Patients (n = 109) were randomized to specific ultrasound guided, sling or general exercises. Contraction thickness ratio in transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI) and externus (OE), and TrA lateral slide were assessed during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver by b-mode ultrasound. Changes in abdominal muscle function were also regressed on changes in pain. Only modest effects in deep abdominal muscle function were observed, mainly due to reduced activation of OI (contraction thickness ratio: 1.42-1.22, p = 0.01) and reduced TrA lateral slide (1.26-1.01 cm, p = 0.02) in the ultrasound group on the left side. Reduced pain was associated with increased TrA and reduced OI contraction ratio (R(2) = 0.18). It is concluded that 6-8 treatments with specific or general exercises for chronic low back patients attained only marginal changes in contraction thickness and slide in deep abdominal muscles, and could only to a limited extent account for reductions in pain. PMID:20621545

Vasseljen, Ottar; Fladmark, Anne Margrethe

2010-10-01

217

Body Weight Change and Carotid Artery Wall Thickness The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of weight change in adulthood on cardiovascular disease is controversial. This study examined the association of change in body weight, from young adulthood to middle age, with average carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness by B-mode ultrasound measured in middle age. Participants were 13,282 men and women aged 45-64 years from the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in

June Stevens; H. A. Tyroler; Jianwen Cai; Catherine C. Paton; Aaron R. Folsom; Grethe S. Tell; Pamela J. Schreiner; LJoyd E. Chambless

218

Full-thickness chest-wall resection followed by thorax reconstruction for recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a 39-year-old woman with a giant recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor accompanied with bleeding and infection.\\u000a She underwent full-thickness chest-wall resection. Bony thorax reconstruction and stabilization was accomplished using a Composix\\u000a mesh™, and soft tissue reconstruction was performed with a musculocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient had\\u000a a good postoperative outcome, and the surgical

Tokiko ItoKen-ichi; Ken-ichi Ito; Toshihiro Okada; Koichi Murayama; Toru Hanamura; Toshiharu Kanai; Kazuma Maeno; Yasuhiro Mochizuki; Ryoichi Kondo; Jun Amano; Yoshiro Osada; Koji Asano

2011-01-01

219

Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived by the cross-sectional integration of axisymmetric two-dimensional basic equations. The resulting FSI four-equation model has small correction terms and factors accounting

A. S. Tijsseling

2007-01-01

220

Chest wall thickness measurements of the LLNL phantom for small area germanium detector counting.  

PubMed

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) phantom was developed to calibrate lung counting systems that are used to estimate plutonium and other low energy photon emitting radionuclides deposited in the lung. Originally, low energy photon counting systems consisted of sodium iodide or phoswich detectors, but they have been largely replaced by smaller germanium detector arrays. The average chest wall thicknesses of the LLNL phantom's torso plate and its overlay plates provided by the manufacturer refer to the regions covered by phoswich detectors; however, germanium detectors are of a different size and are placed in different locations on the phantom's torso plate. Previous work has shown that the manufacturer's data were not applicable for large area germanium detectors. The lung counting system at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) is a small area germanium detector array. Although the detectors are placed within the phoswich circles, only about 25% of the area is covered by the detectors. The LLNL phantom at KAERI has been examined to determine if the manufacturer's data are valid or if new chest wall thickness values must be determined. This paper presents chest wall thickness data for the LLNL phantom with and without its B-series overlay plates at 17 keV, 60 keV, 200 keV, and 1,500 keV and shows that these values are different from the manufacturer's values. PMID:10910393

Kramer, G H; Lee, T Y; Chang, S Y

2000-08-01

221

Increased left ventricular torsion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness  

PubMed Central

Background Increased left ventricular (LV) torsion has been observed in patients with manifest familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and is thought to be caused by subendocardial dysfunction. We hypothesize that increased LV torsion is already present in healthy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness. Methods Seventeen carriers with an LV wall thickness <10 mm, and seventeen age and gender matched controls had cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine imaging and tissue tagging. LV volumes and mass were calculated from the cine images. LV torsion, torsion rate, endocardial circumferential strain and torsion-to-endocardial-circumferential-shortening (TECS) ratio, which reflects the transmural distribution in contractile function, were determined using tissue tagging. Results LV volumes, mass and circumferential strain were comparable between groups, whereas LV ejection fraction, torsion and TECS-ratio were increased in carriers compared to controls (63 ± 3% vs. 60 ± 3%, p = 0.04, 10.1 ± 2.5° vs. 7.7 ± 1.2°, p = 0.001, and 0.52 ± 0.14°/% vs. 0.42 ± 0.10°/%, p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Carriers with normal wall thickness display increased LV torsion and TECS-ratio with respect to controls, which might be due to subendocardial myocardial dysfunction. As similar abnormalities are observed in patients with manifest HCM, the changes in healthy carriers may be target for clinical intervention to delay or prevent the onset of hypertrophy. PMID:21219655

2011-01-01

222

Collapsing of Thick-Walled Cylinders Using Electro-Magnetic Driving Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thick-Walled Cylinder technique, reported in the literature, uses explosive loading to enforce collapsing of the cylindrical sample. This experimental set-up has been established as a controlled and repeatable technique to create and study multiple adiabatic shear bands. Searching to establish a simpler experimental platform to perform large sets of experiments, we have designed an Electro-Magnetic (EM) set-up for the collapsing of thick walled cylinders. The EM set-up is based on a pulsed current generator using a capacitor bank system. The specimen is an assembly of coaxial cylinders, where the inner and outer cylinders, each attached to an opposite pole, are short-circuited. Upon discharge, a high current flows through the cylinders, in opposite directions, creating repulsive magnetic forces between them. This work presents the design procedure of the specimens using numerical simulations and some experimental results for SS304L thick-walled samples, using this set-up. The spatial distribution of the multiple adiabatic shear bands in these experiments is in good agreement with that reported in the literature for the explosive driven experiments with a similar material.

Lovinger, Zev; Rikanati, Avi; Rittel, Daniel; Rosenberg, Zvi

2009-06-01

223

Risk factors for popliteal and carotid wall thicknesses in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated risk factors potentially associated with the development of popliteal artery atherosclerosis in a population-based study and compared them with factors linked to carotid wall intimal-medial thickness. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is a longitudinal investigation of cardiovascular disease in 15,800 individuals. The present analyses are based on the baseline popliteal and carotid ultrasonography examination in 10,002 subjects conducted in 1987-1989. After adjustment for covariates, both carotid and popliteal intimal-medial thicknesses were strongly associated with male sex and age (p < 0.01), having a graded relation with increasing quartiles of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and with plasma triglycerides (women only for popliteal) (p < 0.01). An inverse correlation was noted between plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid (p < 0.01) and popliteal (women only) (p < 0.05) intimal-medial thicknesses. Cigarette use (p < 0.01), a history of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01), alcohol use, elevated systolic pressures (p < 0.01), and fibrinogen levels (p < 0.01) were directly associated with both popliteal and carotid intimal-medial thicknesses. Although menopause was associated with thickened carotid (p < 0.01) and popliteal (p < 0.05) intimal-medial thicknesses, hormone replacement therapy was associated with thinner carotid walls only (p < 0.05). Although there were some differences, many of the classical risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease were also related to early thickening of both the popliteal and the carotid artery walls. PMID:10568620

Dobs, A S; Nieto, F J; Szklo, M; Barnes, R; Sharrett, A R; Ko, W J

1999-11-15

224

Functional luminal imaging probe geometric and histomorphologic analysis of abdominal wall wound induced by different trocars in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed to investigate wound geometry and tissue damage caused by several different trocar types using a quantitative\\u000a functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) geometric profile and histomorphologic analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Four pigs were used in this study. After general anesthesia, six different trocars were randomly inserted at preselected locations\\u000a in the porcine abdominal wall. The hydration status of the animals was

Jingbo Zhao; Donghua Liao; Barry P. McMahon; Deidre O’Donovan; Rich Schiretz; Russell Heninrich; Hans Gregersen

2009-01-01

225

Entero-colocutaneous fistula: a late consequence of polypropylene mesh abdominal wall repair: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Background. The underlying risk associated with visceral mesh erosion is the close opposition of adjacent intestines to the prosthetic\\u000a graft. This highly morbid condition has been described with most types and techniques of abdominal wall mesh repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patient. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with an entero-colocutaneous fistula 10 years after prosthetic mesh\\u000a repair of an

J. E. Losanoff; B. W. Richman; J. W. Jones

2002-01-01

226

Automatic identification and validation of planar collagen organization in the aorta wall with application to abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Arterial physiology relies on a delicate three-dimensional (3D) organization of cells and extracellular matrix, which is remarkably altered by vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The ability to explore the micro-histology of the aorta wall is important in the study of vascular pathologies and in the development of vascular constitutive models, i.e., mathematical descriptions of biomechanical properties of the wall. The present study reports and validates a fast image processing sequence capable of quantifying collagen fiber organization from histological stains. Powering and re-normalizing the histogram of the classical fast Fourier transformation (FFT) is a key step in the proposed analysis sequence. This modification introduces a powering parameter w, which was calibrated to best fit the reference data obtained using classical FFT and polarized light microscopy (PLM) of stained histological slices of AAA wall samples. The values of w = 3 and 7 give the best correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient larger than 0.7, R 2 about 0.7) with the classical FFT approach and PLM measurements. A fast and operator independent method to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall was developed and validated. This overcomes severe limitations of currently applied methods like PLM to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall. PMID:24016340

Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian; Forsell, Caroline; Druckmüllerova, Hana; Tichy, Michal; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert; Bursa, Jiri

2013-12-01

227

Effect of the wall thickness on the gas-sensing properties of ZnO hollow fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO hollow fibers (HFs) with a range of wall thicknesses were synthesized by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition. The effects of the wall thickness of the HFs on their sensing properties were examined using CO as a representative reducing gas. The thin-walled HFs showed improved sensor responses to CO compared to thick-walled HFs. Most importantly, despite the polycrystalline nature of HFs, their sensing abilities were determined mainly by the wall thickness, not by the size of the nanograins or crystalline quality. In particular, the resistance modulation was attributed mainly to radial suppression/broadening of the underlying conducting channel during adsorption/desorption of gas species on both the inner and outer surface.

Katoch, Akash; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

2014-11-01

228

Temporary abdominal wall closure in trauma patients: Indications, technique, and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1988 to 1992 more than 5300 patients were admitted to a level I trauma center, with 36 of these patients requiring Silastic abdominal closure. Patients ages ranged from 13 to 75 years with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 30 (range 13–50). Nineteen patients (53%) suffered penetrating injuries, and 17 (47%) were victims of blunt trauma. Silastic closure

Thomas R. Howdieshell; Karen A. Yeh; Michael L. Hawkins; Jorge I. Cué

1995-01-01

229

Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Seroepidemiologic studies have indicated an association between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. The organism, which is a common respiratory pathogen, has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary arteries. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are frequently associated with atherosclerosis, and inflammation may actually be an important factor in aneurysmal dilatation. Hence it could be assumed

Jukka Juvonen; Tatu Juvonen; Aino Laurila; Hannu Alakärppä; Kari Lounatmaa; Heljä-Marja Surcel; Maija Leinonen; Matti I. Kairaluoma; Pekka Saikku

1997-01-01

230

A comparison of modelling techniques for computing wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aneurysms, in particular abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), form a significant portion of cardiovascular related deaths. There is much debate as to the most suitable tool for rupture prediction and interventional surgery of AAAs, and currently maximum diameter is used clinically as the determining factor for surgical intervention. Stress analysis techniques, such as finite element analysis (FEA) to compute the

Barry J Doyle; Anthony Callanan; Timothy M McGloughlin

2007-01-01

231

Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair  

PubMed Central

Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

2014-01-01

232

Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair.  

PubMed

Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF-MWNT-PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2-12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT-PSIS). PMID:24648727

Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

2014-01-01

233

[The surgical treatment of the diastasis recti abdominis: an original technique of prosthesis repair of the abdominal wall].  

PubMed

The Authors talk about on the surgical correction of the diastasis recti abdominis and underline its indications and aims. Firstly, they specify the possibilities and define the limits of the traditional surgical method. Secondly, they illustrate the rational of an innovating and original technique of prosthesis repair of the abdominal anterior wall setted up to treat the important diastasis recti abdominis. Particularly, this technique is the result of a kind of eclecticism and integration of some phases of the Quénu's self-plastic surgery and of the Welti-Eudel and Chevrel's technique. Thirdly, the authors describe the sequence of the times of the new technique and present the preliminary clinical experience carried out with it. Therefore, they determine gratifying and encouraging the findings of this method as regards the immediate and enduring curative efficacy (cosmetic and functional), the security and the compliance of the patient. Finally, in accordance with the outcomes, the authors decide to defend the undoubted reliability of the prosthesis repair of the abdominal wall to treat the big diastasis recti abdominis. Moreover, they intend to pass definitive judgement on the method after further clinical experiences on larger series of cases. PMID:17547784

Angiò, L G; Piazzese, E; Pacilè, V; Sfuncia, G; Costantino Scirocco Fana, A; Fiumara, F; Bonsignore, A; Biondo, A

2007-05-01

234

Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p < 0.0001). Also, the extracellular connective tissue matrix provided a stiffening effect and enhanced the resistance to lengthening at long muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness. PMID:22267257

Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2012-08-01

235

Inverse Transient Analysis for Classification of Wall Thickness Variations in Pipelines  

PubMed Central

Analysis of transient fluid pressure signals has been investigated as an alternative method of fault detection in pipeline systems and has shown promise in both laboratory and field trials. The advantage of the method is that it can potentially provide a fast and cost effective means of locating faults such as leaks, blockages and pipeline wall degradation within a pipeline while the system remains fully operational. The only requirement is that high speed pressure sensors are placed in contact with the fluid. Further development of the method requires detailed numerical models and enhanced understanding of transient flow within a pipeline where variations in pipeline condition and geometry occur. One such variation commonly encountered is the degradation or thinning of pipe walls, which can increase the susceptible of a pipeline to leak development. This paper aims to improve transient-based fault detection methods by investigating how changes in pipe wall thickness will affect the transient behaviour of a system; this is done through the analysis of laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments are carried out on a stainless steel pipeline of constant outside diameter, into which a pipe section of variable wall thickness is inserted. In order to detect the location and severity of these changes in wall conditions within the laboratory system an inverse transient analysis procedure is employed which considers independent variations in wavespeed and diameter. Inverse transient analyses are carried out using a genetic algorithm optimisation routine to match the response from a one-dimensional method of characteristics transient model to the experimental time domain pressure responses. The accuracy of the detection technique is evaluated and benefits associated with various simplifying assumptions and simulation run times are investigated. It is found that for the case investigated, changes in the wavespeed and nominal diameter of the pipeline are both important to the accuracy of the inverse analysis procedure and can be used to differentiate the observed transient behaviour caused by changes in wall thickness from that caused by other known faults such as leaks. Further application of the method to real pipelines is discussed.

Tuck, Jeffrey; Lee, Pedro

2013-01-01

236

Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)]. E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nomoto, Satoru [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toba, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Anai, Shigeo [Radiology Center, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Hiromi [Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2007-05-01

237

IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities  

SciTech Connect

For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.

2005-01-24

238

Estimation of Maximum Wall Thickness Loss of Five DSTs (AN-107, AP-102, AW-101, AZ-102, and SY-101)  

SciTech Connect

The DST Integrity Plan requires the ultrasonic wall thickness measurement of two vertical scans of the tank primary wall from a single riser. The resulting measurements are then used in an extreme value methodology to predict the minimum wall thickness expected for the entire tank. The methodology was developed in previous work by the authors of this report. A component of the methodology is to consider the possible impact of riser differences had multiple risers instead been used. The approach is based on previous analyses of Tank AY-101 which had measurements taken from multiple risers. This report presents estimated maximum wall thickness loss for five DST's with associated uncertainty estimation and confidence bounds. Several sources of variability are incorporated since the individual sources cannot be separated. These sources include original manufacturing plate thickness and the precision of the measurement process, as well as loss due to corrosion, the actual feature of interest.

Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

2005-09-17

239

Treatment of a chronic vesicocutaneous fistula and abdominal wall defect after resection of a soft tissue sarcoma using a bipedicled latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flap.  

PubMed

We present a surgical treatment for bladder reconstruction in a case of chronic vesicocutaneous radiation-induced fistula and reconstruction of the abdominal wall after resection of a liposarcoma in the rectus abdominis muscle. Fistulas are sequelae after radiotherapy. To regain bladder function and reconstitute abdominal wall stability, a microsurgical flap approach should be considered. A male patient underwent resection of a liposarcoma in the rectus abdominis muscle with adjuvant radiotherapy, suffering from a chronic vesicocutaneous fistula. A bipedicled combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior flap was carried out after resection of the fistula for reconstruction of the urine bladder and the abdominal wall. Ascending urethrography 4 weeks postoperatively showed no leakage. In the 4-month follow-up period, no signs of recurrence of the fistula or herniation occurred. A bipedicled flap allowed reconstruction of the urine bladder and the abdominal wall. Using non-irradiated, well-perfused intra-abdominal muscle tissue over the urine bladder prevented recurrence of the fistula. PMID:25040066

Ludolph, Ingo; Apel, Hendrik; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

2014-11-01

240

Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmental weakening of the artery. Although it is generally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Here we show that vessel-wall failure in growing aneurysms of patients who have aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA) or Marfan syndrome is not related to a collagen defect at the molecular level. On the contrary our findings indicate similar (Marfan) or even higher collagen concentrations (AAA) and increased collagen cross-linking in the aneurysms. Using 3D confocal imaging we show that the two conditions are associated with profound defects in collagen microarchitecture. Reconstructions of normal vessel wall show that adventitial collagen fibers are organized in a loose braiding of collagen ribbons. These ribbons encage the vessel, allowing the vessel to dilate easily but preventing overstretching. AAA and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome show dramatically altered collagen architectures with loss of the collagen knitting. Evaluations of the functional characteristics by atomic force microscopy showed that the wall has lost its ability to stretch easily and revealed a second defect: although vascular collagen in normal aortic wall behaves as a coherent network, in AAA and Marfan tissues it does not. As result, mechanical forces loaded on individual fibers are not distributed over the tissue. These studies demonstrate that the mechanical properties of tissue are strongly influenced by collagen microarchitecture and that perturbations in the collagen networks may lead to mechanical failure. PMID:20080766

Lindeman, Jan H N; Ashcroft, Brian A; Beenakker, Jan-Willem M; van Es, Maarten; Koekkoek, Nico B R; Prins, Frans A; Tielemans, Jarl F; Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Bank, Ruud A; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H

2010-01-12

241

Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results

Yoshihiro Miyamoto; Takao Hattori; Minoru Niimoto; Tetsuya Toge

1986-01-01

242

Institutional report - Thoracic oncologic Value of positron emission tomography in full-thickness chest wall resections for malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperative imaging for resection of chest wall malignancies is generally performed by computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the role of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in planning full-thickness chest wall resections for malignancies. 18 We retrospectively included 18 consecutive patients operated from 2004 to 2006 at our institution. Tumor extent was measured by CT and PET, using the two

David Petermann; Gilles Allenbach; Sabine Schmidt; Igor Letovanec; Michel Christodoulou; Angelika Bischof Delaloye; Hans-Beat Ris; John O. Prior

243

A single-institutional, multidisciplinary approach to primary sarcomas involving the chest wall requiring full-thickness resections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Primary sarcomas involving the chest wall requiring full-thickness excision are rare. We reviewed our experience with these lesions in a tertiary referral cancer center by using multidisciplinary approaches. Methods: A 10-year retrospective study identified 51 patients referred with primary sarcomas of the chest wall: 40 for initial treatment and 11 after previous unsuccessful surgical excisions elsewhere (secondary referral). Presenting

Garrett L. Walsh; Bryan M. Davis; Stephen G. Swisher; Ara A. Vaporciyan; W. Roy Smythe; Kelly Willis-Merriman; Jack A. Roth; Joe B. Putnam

2001-01-01

244

Changes in the frequencies of abdominal wall hernias and the preferences for their repair: a multicenter national study from Turkey.  

PubMed

Abstract Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem in the general population. A Western estimate reveals that the lifetime risk of developing a hernia is about 2%. (1 - 3) As a result, hernia repairs likely comprise the most frequent general surgery operations. More than 20 million hernias are estimated to be repaired every year around the world. (4) Numerous repair techniques have been described to date however tension-free mesh repairs are widely used today because of their low hernia recurrence rates. Nevertheless, there are some ongoing debates regarding the ideal approach (open or laparoscopic), (5 , 6) the ideal anesthesia (general, local, or regional), (7 , 8) and the ideal mesh (standard polypropylene or newer meshes). (9 , 10.) PMID:25216417

Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan; Oztuna, Derya; Topgül, Koray; Akyol, Cihangir; Cakmak, At?l; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdo?an, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Gürer, Ahmet; Zerbaliyev, Elbrus; Seker, Duray; Yorganc?, Kaya; Pergel, Ahmet; Ayd?n, Ibrahim; Ensari, Cemal; Bilecik, Tuna; Kahraman, Izzettin; Reis, Erhan; Kalayc?, Murat; Canda, Aras Emre; Demira?, Alp; Kesicio?lu, Tu?rul; Malazgirt, Zafer; Gündo?du, Haldun; Terzi, Cem

2014-01-01

245

A Relation Between Near-Wall Particle-Hemodynamics and Onset of Thrombus Formation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

A novel computational particle-hemodynamics analysis of key criteria for the onset of an intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. The focus is on enhanced platelet and white blood cell residence times as well as their elevated surface-shear loads in near-wall regions of the AAA sac. The generalized results support the hypothesis that a patient's AAA geometry and associated particle-hemodynamics have the potential to entrap activated blood particles, which will play a role in the onset of ILT. Although the ILT history of only a single patient was considered, the modeling and simulation methodology provided allow for the development of an efficient computational tool to predict the onset of ILT formation in complex patient-specific cases. PMID:21373952

Basciano, C.; Kleinstreuer, C.; Hyun, S.; Finol, E. A.

2014-01-01

246

Airway wall thickness is increased in COPD patients with bronchodilator responsiveness  

PubMed Central

Rationale Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) is a common but variable phenomenon in COPD. The CT characteristics of airway dimensions that differentiate COPD subjects with BDR from those without BDR have not been well described. We aimed to assess airway dimensions in COPD subjects with and without BDR. Methods We analyzed subjects with GOLD 1–4 disease in the COPDGene® study who had CT airway analysis. We divided patients into two groups: BDR?+?(post bronchodilator ?FEV1???10%) and BDR-(post bronchodilator ?FEV1?wall area percent (WA%) of six segmental bronchi in each subject was quantified using VIDA. Using 3D SLICER, airway wall thickness was also expressed as the square root wall area of an airway of 10 mm (Pi10) and 15 mm (Pi15) diameter. %Emphysema and %gas trapping were also calculated. Results 2355 subjects in the BDR-group and 1306 in the BDR?+?group formed our analysis. The BDR?+?group had a greater Pi10, Pi15, and mean segmental WA% compared to the BDR-group. In multivariate logistic regression using gender, race, current smoking, history of asthma, %emphysema, %gas trapping, %predicted FEV1, and %predicted FVC, airway wall measures remained independent predictors of BDR. Using a threshold change in FEV1???15% and FEV1???12% and 200 mL to divide patients into groups, the results were similar. Conclusion BDR in COPD is independently associated with CT evidence of airway pathology. This study provides us with greater evidence of changes in lung structure that correlate with physiologic manifestations of airflow obstruction in COPD. PMID:25248436

2014-01-01

247

The effect of abdominal wall morphology on ultrasonic pulse distortion. Part I. Measurements  

E-print Network

than for fat layers. © 1998 Acoustical Society of America. S0001-4966 98 05911-6 PACS numbers: 43.80.Cs is that poor ultrasonic image quality is primarily associated with obesity.1­3 Although this belief has some to obesity in general, that is, that image quality depends on the individual's body wall struc- ture

Mast, T. Douglas

248

Clinical characteristics of obese boys and girls in a high school: focused on abdominal fat indices, fatty liver and carotid intima-media thickness  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our study aimed to evaluated sex differences in clinical features of obese high school students. Methods One hundred three obese high school students (body mass index [BMI]?85th percentile) and 51 control students (BMI<85th percentile) were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein were measured. Abdominal fat thickness, degree of fatty liver, and carotid intima-media thickness were measured by ultrasound. Results In control and obese groups, waist circumference was significantly longer in boys but body fat mass was significantly higher in girls. In the control group, total cholesterol and LDL-C were higher in girls. In the obese group, however, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride were higher and HDL-C was lower in boys. Preperitoneal fat thickness was significantly higher in obese girls. In obese group, the degree of fatty liver was significantly higher in boys. Carotid intima-media thickness was not significantly different between boys and girls. Conclusion Obese adolescents had distinguishable sex differences in body measurements, metabolic abnormalities, abdominal fat thickness and fatty liver. We can infer that these characteristics may extend into adult obesity. PMID:22025922

Oh, Jung Eun; Jung, Jiyoung; Hong, Young Mi; Yoo, Jung Hyun; Song, Young Whan; Jung, Jo Won; Kim, Nam Su; Noh, Chung Il

2011-01-01

249

Haematogenous abdominal wall metastasis of differentiated, alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma after previous antiandrogen therapy within a site of lipoma manifestation since childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Cases with subcutaneous metastasis of differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma to the abdominal wall without prior seeding as a consequence of local interventions with a negative or normal alpha-fetoprotein level in the serum are extremely rare. Case report This is the first report of a case with AFP-negative, differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis to the abdominal wall within a pre-existing subcutaneous lipoma since childhood after antiandrogen therapy with leuprorelin and buserelin acetate for prostate cancer without seeding. Methods Clinical features including histology, immunohistochemistry, clinical course and surgical approach are presented. Results Histological examination revealed a hepatocellular carcinoma with a trabecular and pseudoglandular growth pattern with moderately atypical hepatocytes with multifocal bile formation within a lipoma. The postoperative course of abdominal wall reconstruction with a monocryl-prolene mesh and a local flap after potentially curative resection was uncomplicated. Discussion and conclusion It may be that previous antiandrogen treatment for prostate carcinoma contributed to the fact that our patient developed alpha-fetoprotein-negative and androgen receptor-negative subcutaneous abdominal wall metastasis within a pre-existing lipoma since childhood. PMID:22647077

2012-01-01

250

Residual stress effect on fatigue crack growth in thick wall cylinders  

SciTech Connect

Recently derived weight functions for a single, semi-elliptical, longitudinal crack in a thick wall cylinder with the diameter ratio D{sub 0}/D{sub i} = 2, have been used to analyze fatigue crack propagation in autofrettaged and non-autofrettaged, pressurized cylinders. Two levels of autofrettage, 30 and 60%, have been considered. The influences of the level of autofrettage, surface crack closure, and different sets of parameters of crack closure, and different sets of parameters of crack propagation relation have been investigated. The development of cracks has been compared to the experimental results. The results of analyses confirm beneficial influence of autofrettage. It has been shown that the discrepancies between the observed and calculated crack developments cannot be ascribed to the influence of surface crack closure. The comparison of the experiments and predictions unveils the need for an additional series of experiments.

Kiciak, A.; Glinka, G.; Burns, D.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01

251

Residual stress analysis in forming process of filament wound thick-walled CFRP pipes  

SciTech Connect

Residual stress analysis for the cracking phenomenon of filament would thick-walled CFRP pipes, which frequently occurs in the forming process of curing and thermal cycling through the course of the wet filament winding, was made from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. A simple analytical model to study the cracking in the CFRP pipes was proposed. The pipes are multilayered and reinforced in the axial and circumferential directions alternatively by carbon fibers. Taking account of the anisotropy of mechanical and thermal properties including the shrinkage strain, which depend considerably on the temperature, the residual stresses in the CFRP pipes were elucidated in the forming process, particularly, in cooling of the cure process.

Kondo, Toshimi [Nagaoka College of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Sekine, Hideki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautics and Space Engineering; Nakano, Kunio [Japan Space Utilization Center, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-01

252

[Local injection of BRM-activated killer cells into an abdominal wall tumor].  

PubMed

Based on the concept of living with cancer, wherein the goal is to help patients with highly advanced solid cancers maintain a high quality of life(QOL)without adverse events and drug resistance, we developed a new immunocyte therapy based on BRM-activated killer(BAK)cells, which are primarily CD56 positive lymphocytes. In a previous report, we documented the disappearance of liver metastases, as assessed by positron emission tomography-computed tomography(PET-CT), in patients with metastatic liver cancers into which BAK immunocytes had been administered via injection into the hepatic artery. Herein, upon the patient's request, we locally injected BAK lymphocytes into an abdominal tumor. In BAK therapy, 20 mL of peripheral blood are collected from a patient. Lymphocytes from this blood sample are subsequently activated and multiplied with immobilized anti-CD3 antibodies and IL-2 and are cultured for 2 weeks with E(bina)and serum-free ALys media to yield approximately 10 billion autologous lymphocytes. On the final day of incubation, the lymphocytes are treated with 1,000 units/mL of interferon(IFN)-a for 15 minutes to enhance their therapeutic killing effects. During the second week, approximately 10 billion isolated autologous lymphocytes are suspended in 200 mL of Ringer's solution and are then drip-infused into the patient over a period of 1 hour. We injected approximately 10 billion BAK lymphocytes suspended in 50 mL of Ringer's solution into a 2-cm abdominal tumor in a single 60-year-old woman under ultrasonography guidance. This procedure was repeated every 3 weeks. After the third administration, we collected a biopsy specimen and examined it using PAS staining and microscopy. The 3 separate local injections of approximately 10 billion activated autologous lymphocytes each, primarily CD56 positive cells, into the tumor led to tumor fragmentation, leaving approximately 10 lymphocytes surrounding each cancer cell. These results suggest that BAK therapy is efficacious and show that locally administered BAK lymphocytes can reach cancer tissues and effectively kill cancer cells. PMID:24231704

Ebina, Takusaburo

2013-11-01

253

Effects of chitosan coatings on polypropylene mesh for implantation in a rat abdominal wall model.  

PubMed

Hernia repair and pelvic floor reconstruction are usually accompanied with the implantation of a surgical mesh, which frequently results in a foreign body response with associated complications. An ideal surgical mesh that allows force generation of muscle tissues without significant granulation tissue and/or fibrosis is of significant clinical interest. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo responses of a chitosan coating on polypropylene mesh (Ch-PPM) in comparison with commercially available meshes. We found that application of a 0.5% (w/v) Ch-PPM elicited preferential attachment of myoblasts over fibroblast attachment in vitro. Therefore, we test the hypothesis that 0.5% Ch-PPM will encourage skeletal muscle tissue ingrowth and decrease fibrosis formation in vivo. We implanted 0.5% Ch-PPM, collagen-coated polypropylene mesh (Pelvitex™; C.R. Bard), and polypropylene (Avaulta Solo(®); C.R. Bard) alone using a rat abdominal defect model. Force generation capacity and inflammatory response of each mesh were evaluated 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. We found that chitosan coating is associated with the restoration of functional skeletal muscle with histomorphologic characteristics that resemble native muscle and an early macrophage phenotypic response that has previously been shown to lead to more functional outcomes. PMID:23859182

Udpa, Natasha; Iyer, Shama R; Rajoria, Rohit; Breyer, Kate E; Valentine, Helen; Singh, Bhupinder; McDonough, Sean P; Brown, Bryan N; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Gao, Yingxin

2013-12-01

254

Optical waveguiding and lasing action in porphyrin rectangular microtube with subwavelength wall thicknesses.  

PubMed

Lasing action by planar-, fiber-, or ring-type waveguide has been extensively investigated with different types of microcavities such as thin films, wires, cylindrical tubes, or ribbons. However, the lasing action by sharp bending waveguide, which promises efficient interconnection of amplified light in the photonic circuits, remains unexplored. Here, we report the first observation of microcavity effects in the organic rectangular microtubes (RMTs) with sharp bends (ca. 90°) and subwavelength nanoscale wall thicknesses, based on single crystalline and themostable tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H(2)TPyP)-RMTs synthesized by the VCR process. A bright tip emission is observed from the sharp bending edges of a single RMT upon laser excitation, demonstrating a clear waveguiding behavior in RMT. The appearance of a peak from the (0-1) band at a threshold tube length and the gradual decrease of its full width at half-maximum (fwhm) suggest that amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) is developed by stimulated emission along the walls of the RMTs. The ehancement of the ASE peak together with the narrowing of its fhwm over a threshold pump power and the tube size (width and length) dependence of the mode spacing strongly support vibronic lasing action in the RMTs. The stimulated emission by the subwavelength bending waveguide demonstrates that the organic RMTs can be applied as new building blocks for micromanipulation of optical path and amplification in the integrated circuits for efficient photonic devices. PMID:21391706

Yoon, Seok Min; Lee, Jooran; Je, Jung Ho; Choi, Hee Cheul; Yoon, Minjoong

2011-04-26

255

Time-dependent creep stress redistribution analysis of thick-walled functionally graded spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent creep stress redistribution analysis of thick-walled spheres made of functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to an internal pressure and a uniform temperature field is performed using the method of successive elastic solution. The material creep and mechanical properties through the radial graded direction are assumed to obey a simple power-law variation. Total strains are assumed to be the sum of elastic, thermal and creep strains. Creep strains are time, temperature and stress dependent. Using the equations of equilibrium, compatibility and stress-strain relations a differential equation, containing creep strains, for radial stress are obtained. Ignoring creep strains, a closed-form solution for initial thermoelastic stresses at zero time is presented. It has been found that the material in-homogeneity parameter ? has a substantial effect on thermoelastic stresses. From thermoelastic analysis the material identified by ?=2 in which a more uniform shear stress distribution occurs throughout the thickness of the FGM sphere is selected for time-dependent stress redistribution analysis. Using the Prandtl-Reuss relations and Norton's creep constitutive model, history of stresses and strains are obtained. It has been found that radial stress redistributions are not significant, however, major redistributions occur for circumferential and effective stresses. It has also been concluded that stresses and strains are changing with time at a decreasing rate so that there is a saturation condition beyond which not much change occurs. Indeed after 50 years the solution approaches the steady-state condition.

Loghman, A.; Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Aleayoub, S. M. A.

2011-11-01

256

The combined effects of conduction, natural convection and radiation on heat transfer through a thick wall exposed to the sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the problem of heat conduction in a thick wall exposed to a constant radiative flux density on one face with convective and radiative boundary conditions. The equation of heat conduction within the wall with the appropriate boundary conditions taking into account the three most common regimes of convective flow is solved numerically using a second-order implicit finite difference scheme and an alternating direction method. It is found that the effects of longitudinal convection remain constant for wall height/thickness ratios greater than 3, allowing the problem to be reduced one depending on five parameters. Results may be used in the optimization of vertical solar heat collection and storage walls.

Yguel, F.; Peube, J.-L.

1981-03-01

257

Large gaps of midline abdominal incisions and their management.  

PubMed

The operative management of midline full-thickness abdominal wall gaps is difficult, often requires several surgical procedures and is associated with significant short- and long-term complications. A rectus abdominis-posterior sheath (RAPS) flap with skin grafting provides a tension-free one-step repair which was used in three patients successfully with midline abdominal wall (including the skin) gaps who had multiple previous operations related to intra-abdominal malignancy. No complications occurred in these patients in relation to this procedure. PMID:19062668

Kulaylat, Mahmoud N; Karakousis, Constantine P

2008-11-01

258

Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases  

SciTech Connect

In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. (Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1986-02-01

259

Reconstruction of large-size abdominal wall defect using biodegradable poly-p-dioxanone mesh: an experimental canine study  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstruction of large-size abdominal wall defect (AWDs) is a huge challenge faced in current surgical practice. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of biodegradable poly-p-dioxanone (PDO) mesh for reconstructing large-size AWDs in an experimental canine model. Methods Eighteen experimental canines were randomly and equally divided into three groups, namely, a PDO group, a Marlex group and a control group (n = 6 each). Following the creation of a 6 cm × 5.5 cm AWD, PDO mesh and Marlex mesh were used to reconstruct the defect in the PDO and Marlex groups, respectively. The defect was closed using relaxation sutures alone in the control group. Animals were killed 24 weeks after surgery, and reconstruction outcomes were evaluated using radiography, histology and biomechanical testing. Results All animals except those in the control group survived the experiment. The PDO group showed no wound dehiscence, herniation or infection, whereas the animals in the Marlex group exhibited marked foreign body reactions. The PDO group had less intraabdominal adhesion than the Marlex group. As shown by radiography, histology and biomechanical testing, PDO mesh exhibited complete degradation and favorable biochemical strength at 24 weeks postsurgery. Conclusions PDO mesh implantation is an effective, safe treatment modality for reconstructing large-size AWDs. PMID:24625138

2014-01-01

260

Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect

It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended service. This involved determining the room-temperature tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness properties of the bobbin-tool friction-stir welds after a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging heat-treatment. These mechanical properties were used to conduct fracture-mechanics analyses to determine critical flaw sizes. Phased-array and conventional ultrasonic non-destructive examination was used to demonstrate that no flaws that match or exceed the calculated critical flaw-sizes exist in or near the friction-stir welds.

Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

2007-06-06

261

The interaction of moderately strong shock waves with thick perforated walls of low porosity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical prediction is given of the flow through thick perforated walls of low porosity resulting from the impingement of a moderately strong traveling shock wave. The model was a flat plate positioned normal to the direction of the flow. Holes bored in the plate parallel to the direction of the flow provided nominal hole length-to-diameter ratios of 10:1 and an axial porosity of 25 percent of the flow channel cross section. The flow field behind the reflected shock wave was assumed to behave as a reservoir producing a quasi-steady duct flow through the model. Rayleigh and Fanno duct flow theoretical computations for each of three possible auxiliary wave patterns that can be associated with the transmitted shock (to satisfy contact surface compatibility) were used to provide bounding solutions as an alternative to the more complex influence coefficients method. Qualitative and quantitative behavior was verified in a 1.5- by 2.0-in. helium shock tube. High speed Schlieren photography, piezoelectric pressure-time histories, and electronic-counter wave speed measurements were used to assess the extent of correlation with the theoretical flow models. Reduced data indicated the adequacy of the bounding theory approach to predict wave phenomena and quantitative response.

Grant, D. J.

1972-01-01

262

Prestressed concrete reactor vessels for nuclear power plants compared to thick-walled and multilayer steel vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2nd international congress for pressure vessel and piping ; technology; San Antonio, Texas, USA (1 Oct 1973). See CONF731003-P1. All types ; of power reactors began their development using steel pressure vessels. ; Increaslng pressures and core geometries of high power stations showed the ; technical limits of the thick-walled steel pressure vessels and induced the ; introduction of

W. Fuerste; G. Hohnerlein; H. G. Schafstall

1973-01-01

263

Measurement of three-dimensional normal vectors, principal curvatures, and wall thickness of the heart using cine-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a method for measuring the detailed in vivo three dimensional geometry of the left and right ventricles using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. From data in the form of digitized short axis outlines, the normal vectors, principal curvatures and directions, and wall thickness were computed. The method was evaluated on simulated ellipsoids and on human MRI data. Measurements of

Leslie Coghlan; H. R. Singleton; L. J. dell'Italia; C. E. Linderholm; G. M. Pohost

1995-01-01

264

Chest wall thickness measurements and the dosimetric implications for male workers in the south Korean uranium industry.  

PubMed

Using ultrasound techniques, the Human Monitoring Laboratory has measured chest wall thicknesses of a group of male workers at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A site-specific biometric equation has been developed for these workers, who are somewhat smaller than other workers reported in the literature. Chest wall thickness is an important modifier on lung counting efficiency. These data have been put into the perspective of the ICRP recommended dose limits for occupationally exposed workers: 100 mSv in a 5-year period with a maximum of 50 mSv in any one year. For measured chest wall thicknesses of 1.9 cm to 4.1 cm and a 30 min counting time, the achievable MDAs for natural uranium in the KAERI lung counter vary from 6.6 mg to 13.2 mg. These values are close to, or even exceed, the predicted amounts of natural uranium that will remain in the lung (absorption type M and S) after an intake equal to the Annual Limit on Intake corresponding to a committed dose of 20 mSv. This paper shows that the KAERI lung counter probably cannot detect an intake of Type S natural uranium in a worker with a chest wall thickness equal to the average value (2.7 cm) under routine counting conditions. PMID:11468802

Kramer, G H; Lee, T Y; Lee, J I; Chang, S Y

2001-01-01

265

Chest-wall thickness and percent thoracic fat estimation by B-mode ultrasound: system and procedure review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurement of chest wall thickness is necessary for estimation of lung burden of transuranic elements in humans. To achieve tis capability, the ORNL Whole Body Counter has acquired a B-mode ultrasonic imaging system for defining the structure within the thorax of the body. This report contains a review of the ultrasound system in use at the ORNL Whole Body

C. D. Berger; M. R. Dunsmore

1983-01-01

266

Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G.H. Farrahi a  

E-print Network

Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G stress Extended variable material properties method Optimum autofrettage pressure a b s t r a c t In this study, residual stress distributions in autofrettaged homogenous spherical pressure vessels sub- jected

Vaziri, Ashkan

267

[Influence of mydocalm on the degree of intra-abdominal hypertension and local blood circulation in the intestinal wall in experiment].  

PubMed

The effect of mydocalm (tolperison, 5 mg/kg single dose) on the dynamics of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), blood circulation regulation, and oxygen balance in the tissues of intestinal wall were studied in acute experiments on rabbits. Using a special stand of original design, the initial IAH level was modeled at 200 mm H2O with the subsequent stopping of further receipt of liquid during 3 hours in an elastic container in the abdominal cavity. During 3-h observation without drug administration, no changes in IAH due to the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall takes place, but there is progressive deceleration of local blood flow (-35.33 + 0.99%, p < 0.01), suppressed dilation (-20.02 + 0.54%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-60.45 + 1.17%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and decreased oxygen tension (-47.18 + 0.75%, p < 0.01) in the intestinal wall at the end of experiment. The introduction of mydocalm reduces the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall, which leads to a decrease in IAH (maximum effect after 1.5 hours, -20.81 + 0.84%, p < 0.01) and prevents decrease in the local blood flow (-26.77 + 0.41%, p < 0.01), suppression of dilation (-16.51 + 0.34%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-37.85 + 0.61%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and reduction in oxygen tension (-36.60 + 1.18%, p < 0.01) at the end of experiment. The administration of mydocalm can extend the limits of application of a conservative therapy for patients with IAH and to improve the results. PMID:25033566

Sapegin, V I; Sapegin, I D; Il'chenko, F N

2014-01-01

268

A variant form of median defect syndrome. Syndrome of combined congenital defects involving the supraumbilical abdominal wall, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium, and heart.  

PubMed

An autopsy case with the syndrome of combined congenital defects involving the supraumbilical abdominal wall, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium, and heart is reported. In this case, abnormal arterial plexus including anastomosis of the left coronary artery and the left internal mammary artery is recognized at the hernial pericardial wall, in addition to the already reported anomaly complex, i.e. diastasis recti abdominis with pericardial hernia, ventral defect of the diaphragm, partial defect of the sternum, and tetralogy of Fallot. It is suggested that this newly revealed vascular anomaly also comes within a specific syndrome of combined congenital defects. PMID:150194

Okayasu, I; Kajita, A; Shimizu, K

1978-03-01

269

Low adiponectin serum level--reduced protective effect on the left ventricular wall thickness.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, secreted by fat tissue, is down - regulated in obesity and may be involved in obesity-related disorders. It has anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic and antidiabetic effect. Obesity is a strong predictor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies showed that adiponectin level has important role in metabolic disorders, arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease but its effect on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been fully clarified. The aim of this research is to determine whether the protective effect of adiponectin against development of left ventricular hypertrophy is decreased in hypertensive overweight patients. The study included 61 adult, overweight hypertensive patients, with body mass index in range 25-30 kg/m2. Patients had regular morning glucose serum values and regular creatinine level. They were divided into four groups, according to sex and the presence of LVH. There were 16 female and 15 male hypertensive patients with LVH and 15 female and 15 male hypertensive patients without LVH, who were a control group. Glucose profile, lipidogram, creatinine clearance and anthropometric measures were determined in all patients. Cardiovascular measurements were taken applying two-dimensional ultrasound. Adiponectin serum level was measured using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Results showed that adiponectin serum level was significantly lower in hypertensive, overweight females and males with LVH than in the control groups without LVH. Adiponectin serum level did not correlate significant with intraventricular or with posterior wall thickness of left ventricle. Hypoadiponectinemia presents part of neurohumoral, non-haemodynamic system who contributes to obesity-related hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy development. Low adiponectin level together with others adipokines, cytokines and chemokines secreted by fat tissue could contribute to pathophysiologic changes of the myocardium via unknown molecular mechanisms yet. PMID:22053557

Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Steiner, Robert; Vizjak, Vedrana; Sram, Miroslav; Tripolski, Marija; Kosovi?, Pasezada; Bosnjak, Ivica; Selthofer, Robert

2011-09-01

270

Abdominal wall defect repair with biological prosthesis in transplanted patients: single center retrospective analysis and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The risk of fascial dehiscence, wound infection and incisional hernias in organ recipients is higher. Retrospective analysis of our departments database, checking the last 12 years (2000-2012), and of the literature (1966-2012) were conducted. In our database we found seven patients: five liver (71.4 %), one kidney (14.3 %), one multivisceral (14.3 %); five males (71.4 %), two females (28.6 %). Five (71.4 %) were operated in urgency setting and two in ordinary setting (28.6 %). The mean/median number of laparotomies before the incisional hernia is of 2.1/1 (range 1-5). In five patients swine intestinal submucosa (71.4 %) have been used and in two porcine dermal collagen (28.6 %). The mean/median age was 48.3/52 years (range 18-61). The mean/median body mass index was 26.7/27 (range 19-34). The mean/median for follow-up after intervention was 40.1/33 months (range 50-21). Recurrence rate was 14.3 %. Complication rate was 28.6 %. Adding the present report, the literature reports 70 cases. 20 % of prosthesis have been implanted inlay, 25.7 % underlay, in 5.7 % intraperitoneal and in 48.6 % were not specified. The mean age ranges from 0.7 to 48.3 years. Kidney, liver, pancreas, bowel and multivisceral transplant are reported. Porcine dermal collagen has been implanted in 24.3 %, human dermal collagen in 51.4 % and swine intestinal submucosa in 24.3 %. The immunosuppression regimens comprehend variable associations of tacrolimus, steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, thymoglobulin, azathioprine/basiliximab and daclizumab. The mean follow-up is 16.2 months. The mean complication rate is 9.4 %. Biological prosthesis seems to be useful and safe in abdominal wall repair surgery in transplanted patients. PMID:23636834

Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Bertuzzo, Valentina R; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio; Ansaloni, Luca

2013-09-01

271

Measurement of three-dimensional normal vectors, principal curvatures, and wall thickness of the heart using cine-MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method for measuring the detailed in vivo three dimensional geometry of the left and right ventricles using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. From data in the form of digitized short axis outlines, the normal vectors, principal curvatures and directions, and wall thickness were computed. The method was evaluated on simulated ellipsoids and on human MRI data. Measurements of normal vectors and of wall thickness were very accurate in simulated data and appeared appropriate in patient data. On simulated data, measurements of the principal curvature k1 (corresponding approximately to the short axis direction of the left ventricle) and of principal directions were quite accurate, but measurements of the other principal curvature (k2) were less accurate. The reasons behind this are considered. We expect improvements in the accuracy with thinner slices and improved representation of the surface data. Gradient echo images were acquired from 8 dogs with a 1.5T system (Philips Gyroscan) at baseline and four months after closed chest experimentally produced mitral regurgitation (MR). The product (k1 + k2) X wall thickness averaged over all slices at end-diastole was significantly lower after surgery (n equals 8, p < 0.005). These geometry changes were consistent with the expected increase in wall stress after MR.

Coghlan, Leslie; Singleton, H. R.; Dell'Italia, L. J.; Linderholm, C. E.; Pohost, G. M.

1995-05-01

272

The mechanism of instability and localized reaction in the explosively driven collapse of thick walled Ni-Al laminate cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick-walled cylinders constructed from alternating concentric layers of Ni and Al foils were explosively collapsed. The prevalent mode of the high strain, high strain rate plastic deformation was the cooperative buckling of the foils originating in the interior layers. This phenomenon was reproduced in numerical simulations. Its mechanism is qualitatively different than that of shear localization seen in all previously investigated homogeneous solid and granular materials and from the independent buckling of single thin-walled cylinders. Localized chemical reactions were observed in the apex areas of the Ni foils, consistent with the localization of temperature due to high strain plastic deformation.

Chiu, P. H.; Olney, K. L.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

2013-06-01

273

Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of female radiation workers as an aid in in-vivo detection of the actinides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation was derived to estimate female chest wall thickness from a series of biometric measurements. This technique will result in improved performance for actinide detection in females by accounting for variations in chest wall thickness in derivation of calibration factors.

C. D. Berger

1983-01-01

274

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

Li, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Shixun; Shen, Changyu

2010-06-01

275

Weight functions for an external longitudinal semi-elliptical surface crack in a thick-walled cylinder  

SciTech Connect

Mode I weight functions were derived for the deepest and surface points of an external radial-longitudinal semi-elliptical surface crack in a thick-walled cylinder with the ratio of the internal radius to wall thickness, R{sub i}/t = 1.0. Coefficients of a general weight function were found using the method of two reference stress intensity factors for two independent stress distributions, and from properties of weight functions. Stress intensity factors calculated using the weight functions were compared to the finite element data for several different stress distributions and to the boundary element method results for the Lame hoop stress in an internally pressurized cylinder. A comparison to the ASME Pressure Vessel Code method for deriving stress intensity factors was also made. The derived weight functions enable simple calculations of stress intensity factors for complex stress distributions.

Kiciak, A.; Glinka, G.; Burns, D.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

276

Materials properties of thick-wall cold-rolled welded tube with a rectangular or square hollow section  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the behavior of thick-wall cold-rolled steel sections with square and rectangular hollow cross-section, experiments concerning materials properties of the flat coupons, corner coupons, parent plate coupons and stub columns were carried out. Effects of cold forming process on material properties were investigated. The stub column test strengths were compared with the compressive strengths determined by the

Sheng-De Hu; Ben Ye; Li-Xin Li

2011-01-01

277

An automated detection method of mammographic masses existing around thick-mammary-gland and near chest-wall regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing an automated detection algorithm for masses on mammograms. There were the cases of missed detections, in most of which the masses existed around thick-mammary-gland region or near chest-wall region. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting such masses based on a sector-shape mass-pattern model. After applying the new technique along with

Yuji Hatanaka; Takeshi Hara; Hiroshi Fujita; Satoshi Kasai; Tokiko Endo; Takuji Iwase

2001-01-01

278

A Novel Technique for the Reconstruction of Infected Full-Thickness Chest Wall Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chest wall resection and reconstruction can be performed with minimal mortality and excellent functional and cosmetic results using synthetic meshes, methylmethacrylate, or other substitutes. However, these techniques are less easily applicable if chest wall resec- tions have to be performed for infections. Methods. We report a novel technique for this purpose using a modified latissimus dorsi flap harvested in

Wassim Raffoul; Michael Dusmet; Michel Landry; Hans-Beat Ris

279

A novel technique for the reconstruction of infected full-thickness chest wall defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chest wall resection and reconstruction can be performed with minimal mortality and excellent functional and cosmetic results using synthetic meshes, methylmethacrylate, or other substitutes. However, these techniques are less easily applicable if chest wall resections have to be performed for infections.Methods. We report a novel technique for this purpose using a modified latissimus dorsi flap harvested in continuity with

Wassim Raffoul; Michael Dusmet; Michel Landry; Hans-Beat Ris

2001-01-01

280

Evaluation of a canine small intestinal submucosal xenograft and polypropylene mesh as bioscaffolds in an abdominal full-thickness resection model of growing rats  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the biological scaffold properties of canine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) compared to a those of polypropylene mesh in growing rats with full-thickness abdominal defects. SIS is used to repair musculoskeletal tissue while promoting cell migration and supporting tissue regeneration. Polypropylene mesh is a non-resorbable synthetic material that can endure mechanical tension. Canine SIS was obtained from donor German shepherds, and its porous collagen fiber structure was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A 2.50-cm2 section of canine SIS (SIS group) or mesh (mesh group) was implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, the implants were histopathologically examined and tensile load was tested. One month after surgery, CD68+ macrophage numbers in the SIS group were increased, but the number of CD8+ T cells in this group declined more rapidly than that in rats treated with the mesh. In the SIS group, few adhesions and well-developed autologous abdominal muscle infiltration into the SIS collagen fibers were observed. No significant differences in the tensile load test results were found between the SIS and mesh groups at 24 weeks. Canine SIS may therefore be a suitable replacement for artificial biological scaffolds in small animals. PMID:23628657

Lee, A-Jin; Lee, Sung-Ho; Chung, Wook-Hun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chung, Dai-Jung; Do, Sun Hee

2013-01-01

281

Investigation of Adiabatic Shear Bands in Thick-Walled Cylinders Collapsed by Electro-Magnetic Driving Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thick-Walled Cylinder technique, reported in the literature, employs an explosive cylinder to create the driving force, collapsing the cylindrical sample. This experimental set-up has been established as a controlled and repeatable technique to create and study multiple adiabatic shear bands. Searching to establish a simpler experimental platform to perform large sets of experiments, we have designed an Electro-Magnetic (EM) set-up for the collapse of thick walled cylinders. The EM setup is based on a pulsed current generator using a capacitor bank system. The specimen is an assembly of coaxial cylinders, where the inner and outer cylinders, each attached to an opposite pole, are short-circuited. Upon discharge, a high current flows through the cylinders, in opposite directions, creating repulsive magnetic forces between them. This work presents the design procedure of the specimens using numerical simulations as well as some results for SS304L thick-walled specimens, using this setup. The spatial distribution of the multiple adiabatic shear bands in these experiments is in good agreement with that reported in the literature for the explosive driven experiments with SS304L specimens. Our numerical simulations show good agreement with the experimental results for both global behaviour and shear band distribution.

Lovinger, Z.; Rikanati, A.; Rittel, D.; Rosenberg, Z.

2009-12-01

282

Muscle Thickness in Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis: Sonographic Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal sonography was performed in 169 infants with vomiting. The hypertro- phied circular muscle of the pylorus and distal antrum could be seen as a thick, hypoechoic cylinder in all cases of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The thickness of each wall of this cylinder was 4 mm or more in 86 of 93 patients subsequently shown to have hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

Joel D. Blumhagen; H. George; S. Noble

283

Residual strain effects on the stress field in a thick wall finite element model of the human carotid bifurcation.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional finite element model of the carotid artery bifurcation was constructed in order to determine the stress field and assess the modification of the stress field when residual strain is taken into account. Residual strain in the carotid bifurcation was characterized by experimental observations. According to these observations, a geometrical model of the carotid artery was constructed to exhibit a state free of strain. Appropriate boundary conditions were applied to yield the correct geometry in the unloaded state, and physiological levels of pressure and axial stretching were applied. The model took into account the varying thickness of the arterial wall along the bifurcation. For modeling purposes, the material was considered to be hyperelastic, incompressible, homogenous and isotropic. For comparison, a similar model of the carotid artery which does not include the effects of residual strain was also created. The results demonstrate that in the model of the carotid artery bifurcation with residual strain, the distribution of maximum principal stress along the inner wall and the circumferential stress throughout the wall is much more uniform than in the model without residual strain. The ratio between the stress at the inner and the outer walls is highest at the lateral wall of the carotid sinus; this is the same location known to be a site of low and oscillatory fluid wall shear stress, and the principal location of early intimal thickening. These results suggest that the localization of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery may be due to local variations in both fluid wall shear stress and solid wall stress. PMID:9239562

Delfino, A; Stergiopulos, N; Moore, J E; Meister, J J

1997-08-01

284

[Economical and social effectiveness of one day surgical treatment in patients with hernial defects of anterior abdominal wall - results of 7 year study].  

PubMed

A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure or part of a organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Most frequently hernial deffect is seen in anterior abdominal wall. Usually contents of hernial sac are abdominal organs or portion of organs. Hernia is classified according to the operating methods combining with type and grading of hernia. Recent surgical treatment of hernia can be divided in to 3 major groups: 1) Hernioplasty with double breasting techniques ( Bassini, McVay, Schouldice, Halsted). 2) Hernioplasty using tension free techniques (Lichtenstein, Gilbert-Rutkow). 3) Laparoscopic hernioplasty. One day surgery is a diagnostic and operative procedure in hospitalized patients in a single day, without night stay in hospital. PMID:18461034

Iar?mov, N; Ko?chev, A; Angelov, K; Velev, G; Todorov, G; Ilinov, V; Sedloev, T; Toshev, S; Gribnev, P

2007-01-01

285

Thicknesses of domain walls in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films evaluated by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the thicknesses of domain walls (DWs) in rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films epitaxially grown on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (100), (110), and (111) single crystals by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM). The SNDM phase signal revealed an abrupt change in the sign of polarization components normal to the surface at DWs within one or two unit cells. On the other hand, the SNDM amplitude signals gradually changed across DWs, corresponding to the change in the electrostatic potential. The minimum thicknesses estimated from the SNDM amplitude signals are 4, 1, and 2 nm for 71, 109, and 180° DWs, respectively. The relationship between these DW thicknesses and the nature and situation of DWs is discussed taking account of the polarization configuration in adjacent domains.

Fujisawa, Hironori; Seto, Shota; Nakashima, Seiji; Shimizu, Masaru

2014-09-01

286

The effect of heated wall thickness and materials on nucleate boiling at high heat flux  

SciTech Connect

The nucleate boiling heat transfer at high heat flux is of significant importance in many applications. The present work is to numerically investigate the effect of heater side factors on the nucleate boiling at high heat flux, which is characterized by the existence of macrolayer. Two-region equations are proposed to study both thermo-capillary driven flow in the liquid layer and heat conduction in the solid wall. The numerical results indicate that the thermo-capillary driven flow in the macrolayer and evaporation at the vapor-liquid interface constitute a very efficient heat transfer mechanism to explain the high heat transfer coefficient of nucleate boiling heat transfer near CHF. For a very thin wall and/or wall with a poor thermal conductivity (heat side factors) are found to have significant effect on flow pattern in the liquid layer and the temperature distribution in the heated wall.

Ma, K.T.; Pan, C.

1999-11-01

287

A Case Report on a Full-Thickness Chest Wall Reconstruction with Polypropylene Mesh and Stainless Steel Mesh Concurrently Using a Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-thickness chest wall resection requires subsequent chest wall reconstruction. A chest wall resection and reconstruction was performed using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, together with polypropylene mesh (Marlex mesh) and stainless steel mesh (SSM). A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as having recurrent lung cancer in the chest wall, and under- went surgical resection. Marlex mesh was sutured

Naoyuki Yoshino; Shigeo Yamauchi; Masataka Akimoto; Takao Hisayoshi; Kiyoshi Koizumi; Kazuo Shimizu

2006-01-01

288

A Review of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams—Effect of Hollow Particle Wall Thickness and Volume Fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow-particle-filled composites called syntactic foams are lightweight particulate composites that are useful in weight-sensitive applications such as aerospace and marine structures. Extensive literature is now available on the mechanical properties of syntactic foams. The upcoming applications for syntactic foams in aerospace structures require understanding of their thermal properties, such as the thermal conductivity. The present review article summarizes the available experimental results and theoretical models related to the thermal conductivity of syntactic foams. Experimental results are available for only a few compositions of syntactic foams. Basic understating of the relationship between thermal conductivity of syntactic foams and the material parameters, such as hollow particle volume fraction and wall thickness, is not available through experimental results at this point. Four theoretical models are tested with the experimental data and found to provide close predictions. These models are used to conduct parametric studies. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of syntactic foams decreases as the volume fraction of thin-walled particles is increased. An inverse relationship is observed for thick-walled, hollow-particle-filled syntactic foams. These models can help in designing syntactic foams with required thermal conductivity.

Gupta, Nikhil; Pinisetty, Dinesh

2013-02-01

289

Weight functions and stress intensity factors for longitudinal semi-elliptical cracks in thick-wall cylinders  

SciTech Connect

Semi-elliptical surface cracks are occasionally found in pressure vessels and pipes during service or production. Subsequent fracture and fatigue analysis of such cracks is of great practical interest, and requires the determination of stress intensity factors. Here, weight functions for the surface and the deepest point of an internal longitudinal semi-elliptical crack in a thick-wall cylinder (R{sub i}/t = 1) were derived from a general weight function and two reference stress intensity factors. For several linear and nonlinear crack face stress fields, the weight functions were validated against finite element data. Stress intensity factors were also calculated for the Lame through the thickness stress distribution induced by internal pressure. The weight functions appear to be particularly suitable for fatigue and fracture analysis of surface semi-elliptical cracks in complex stress fields. All stress intensity factor expressions given in the paper are valid for cylinders with the inner-radius-to-wall-thickness ratio, R{sub i}/t = 1.

Zheng, X.J.; Glinka, G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01

290

Simulation Analysis on Backward Spinning of Extra thin-walled Shielding Can with High Ratio of Diameter/Thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new FEM simplified elastoplastic mechanical model is constructed for the backward spinning process of the extra thin-walled shielding can with high ratio of diameter/thickness. The feed mode of the roller adopts the pulsing schedule, which is closer to the actual working condition. Additionally, this new FEM simplified model is significant saving in computing time. In this paper, the metal plastic flow field and the distributions of stress and strain of the deformation zone are studied by the large-scale FEM analysis software MSC.Marc. The causes of the defects of the workpieces are interpreted and the dividing point of the flowing direction of the metal is obtained, accordingly. And the theoretical guidance for the actual processing of the extra thin-walled shield can with high ratio of diameter/thickness is provided. The C-276 shielding can with 0.42 mm thickness and 561.5 mm diameter is successfully trial-produced. It proves that above mentioned analysis is reasonable.

Li, Xinhe; He, Xiahui; Yang, Xinquan

2011-08-01

291

Abdominal hernias: Radiological features  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

2011-01-01

292

The gender-specific chest wall thickness prediction equations for routine measurements of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am within the lungs using HPGE detectors  

SciTech Connect

The current chest wall thickness prediction equation is not applicable to use in routine lung counting measurements for detection of low energy photons (17-60 keV) within the lungs of male and female subjects. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation was derived for the NaI-CsI {open_quotes}phoswich{close_quotes} detection system, which is not the routine detection system in use; the subject position was supine, which is not the routine position; the equation did not account for the intercostal tissue thicknesses of muscle and adipose which significantly attenuate low energy photons (17-60 keV); it was derived from male subjects only and is used to predict the chest wall thickness of female subjects for whom it is not applicable. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors in the HPGe detection efficiency calibration for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (17- and 59.5-keV photons, respectively) relative to the gender-specific HPGe chest wall thickness prediction equations of this paper (+284% to -73% for {sup 239}Pu; +42% to -39% for {sup 241}Am). As a result, use of the current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors (proportional in magnitude to the percent errors in the detection efficiency calibration) in the calculation of the minimum detectable activity (Bq) or in an initial assessment of a radioactive contamination exposure detected by a routine lung count measurement. 17 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

Vickers, L.R. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States)

1996-03-01

293

The gender-specific chest wall thickness prediction equations for routine measurements of 239Pu and 241Am within the lungs using HPGe detectors.  

PubMed

The current chest wall thickness prediction equation is not applicable to use in routine lung counting measurements for detection of low energy photons (17--60 keV) within the lungs of male and female subjects. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation was derived for the NaI-CsI "phoswich" detection system, which is not the routine detection system in use; the subject position was supine, which is not the routine position; the equation did not account for the intercostal tissue thicknesses of muscle and adipose which significantly attenuate low energy photons (17--60keV); it was derived from male subjects only and is used to predict the chest wall thickness of female subjects for whom it is not applicable. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors in the HPGe detection efficiency calibration for 239Pu and 241Am (17- and 59.5-keV photons, respectively) relative to the gender-specific HPGe chest wall thickness prediction equations of this paper (+284% to --73% for 239Pu; (+)42% to --39% for 241Am). As a result, use of the current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors (proportional in magnitude to the percent errors in the detection efficiency calibration) in the calculation of the minimum detectable activity (Bq) or in an initial assessment of a radioactive contamination exposure detected by a routine lung count measurement. PMID:8609026

Vickers, L R

1996-03-01

294

Airway Wall Thickness Assessed Using Computed Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to reliably measure the airway wall dimensions of medium to large airways. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new micron- scale resolution imaging technique that can image small airways 2 mm in diameter or less. Objectives: To correlate OCT measurements of airway dimensions with measurements assessed using CT scans and lung function.

Harvey O. Coxson; Brendan Quiney; Don D. Sin; Li Xing; Annette M. McWilliams; John R. Mayo

2008-01-01

295

A free fibula autologous transfer for a full-thickness anterior chest wall defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large defects of the anterior chest wall lead to gross chest instability which can result in paradoxical respiration. Skeletal stabilization is an essential requirement in such cases. The current methods for achieving total or near total sternal reconstructions involve the use of alloplastic implant materials: prosthetic mesh with methyl methacrylate. In our experience, this method of reconstruction is often complicated

D. Cunha-Gomes; H. M. Bhathena; N. M. Kavarana; R. Mistry; A. R. Fakih

2001-01-01

296

THICK LIQUID-WALLED, FIELD-REVERSED CONFIGURATION* R. W. Moira  

E-print Network

plant concept3 was an early FRC that proposed using liquid walls. This study is part of the (Advanced that they can last the life of the plant even with intense 14 MeV neutron bombardment from the D-T fusion field. Another method of current drive uses small spheromaks injected along the magnetic fields, which

California at Los Angeles, University of

297

Safety Analysis Using Lebesgue Strain Measure of Thick-Walled Cylinder for Functionally Graded Material under Internal and External Pressure  

PubMed Central

Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

298

Safety analysis using Lebesgue strain measure of thick-walled cylinder for functionally graded material under internal and external pressure.  

PubMed

Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of "stress saving" that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

Aggarwal, A K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

299

Successful percutaneous treatment for massive hemorrhage due to infectious pseudoaneurysm in the abdominal wall after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is often performed for alimentation and to prevent weight loss in patients with feeding problems due to central neurologic diseases such as cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage. Although infection at the skin site after PEG placement is a typical late complication of PEG, a ruptured infectious pseudoaneurysm caused massive bleeding adjacent to the tract is rare. Prompt treatment is required to avoid the hemorrhage shock, however surgical ligation is difficult to obtain the arrest of bleeding in damaged skin due to the infection. Case presentation A 70-year-old male was bedridden due a cerebral infarction suffered 1 year previously. APEG was placed because of feeding problems, and a push-type, 20-Fr gastrostomy tube was inserted through the anterior abdominal wall. On day 16 after PEG placement, the patient had massive bleeding from the PEG site due to the rupture of infectious pseudoaneurysm and developed a decreased level of consciousness and hypotension. Treatment by percutaneous direct injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol was performed and achieved good hemostasis is obtained. Conclusions A rare case of an infectious pseudoaneurysm that developed in the abdominal wall and caused massive bleeding at a PEG placement site was described. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol under ultrasound guidance is an effective treatment in this case. PMID:24915936

2014-01-01

300

Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications. PMID:23606857

Kohli, Ritesh; Argento, Vivian; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw

2013-01-01

301

Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

The following tasks are reported on: review of welding processes, adaptation of the GTAW-HW narrow-groove process to vertical and horizontal welds, 8-inch thick field demonstration/qualification welds, and welding procedure handbook. Procedure qualification records (TQ 339) are given for the gas tungsten arc-hot wire welding of 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel. (DLC)

Schneider, U.A.

1981-01-01

302

Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results review procedure development and qualification for narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding of SA 387 Grade 22 Class 2 steel (2 1/4% Cr-1% Mo) to 4 inch thickness. Welding was conducted in the horizontal (2G) and vertical (3G) position.

Stol, I.

1981-11-04

303

Critical silicon dioxide thickness for CVD growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has shown remarkable control over the efficient and directed assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, making CVD a primary growth method for device applications. Due to the high temperatures involved in CVD, the chemical compatibility between the substrate, feedstock, and catalyst must be understood. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the evolution of the chemical state of an iron nitrate catalyst during the initial temperature ramp of a standard CVD process. Heating the catalyst on clean silicon or on silicon with a native oxide leads to the formation of a silicide at 800 ^oC, inhibiting single-walled nanotube growth. By 900 ^oC, a typical growth temperature, all of the iron catalyst has been incorporated into the silicide. Thicker silicon oxide layers, on the order of 10 nm, effectively prevent silicide formation, enabling high yield growth.

Simmons, J. M.; Hamers, R. J.; Eriksson, M. A.

2005-03-01

304

Biomechanical characteristics of the abdominal aortic wall Charakterystyka w?a?ciwo?ci biomechanicznych ?cian aorty brzusznej  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Background. Background. Background. Background. The structure of the aorta wall is well adapted to withstand the mechanical loads caused by arterial blood pressure. The most important structural components of the aortic wall are elastin and collagen fibres. Elastin and collagen fibres allow reversible deformation of, and give mechanical strength to, the aorta. Alterations in composition cause changes in the

Wojciech Witkiewicz; Jan Gnus; Willy Hauzer; Magdalena Kobielarz; Sylwia Szotek; Monika Pfanhauser

305

Measurement of arterial wall thickness as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large observational studies and atherosclerosis regression trials of lipid-modifying pharmacotherapy have established that intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries, as measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasound, is a valid surrogate marker for the progression of atherosclerotic disease. To exploit fully the potential of ultrasound imaging in atherosclerosis research, standardized and strictly implemented imaging protocols should be used in both

Eric de Groot; G. Kees Hovingh; Albert Wiegman; Patrick Duriez; Andries J. Smit; Jean-Charles Fruchart; John J. P. Kastelein

2004-01-01

306

RADIATION NECROSIS OF THE CHEST WALL: FULL-THICKNESS RECONSTRUCTION WITH PEDICLE FLAP AND DICED HOMOLOGOUS CARTILAGE OVER THE PERICARDIUM COMPLICATED BY CARDIAC ARREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful repair by plastic surgery of nonhealing ulceration of the ; chest wall, induced by radiotherapy for breast cancer, is described. ; Reconstruction of the chest wali defect by pedicle flap coverage was carried out. ; Radiation injury extended through the entire thickness of the chest wall and ; osteoradionecrosis of the ribs was present. Reconstruction with thoracoabdominal ; tube

Rees

1961-01-01

307

Collapse pressure analysis of transversely isotropic thick-walled cylinder using Lebesgue strain measure and transition theory.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for the design of the thick-walled cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material so that collapse of cylinder due to influence of internal and external pressure can be avoided. The concept of transition theory based on Lebesgue strain measure has been used to simplify the constitutive equations. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From this analysis, it has been concluded that, under the influence of internal and external pressure, circular cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material (beryl) is on the safer side of the design as compared to the cylinders made up of isotropic material (steel). This is because of the reason that percentage increase in effective pressure required for initial yielding to become fully plastic is high for beryl as compared to steel which leads to the idea of "stress saving" that reduces the possibility of collapse of thick-walled cylinder due to internal and external pressure. PMID:24523632

Aggarwal, A K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

308

Collapse Pressure Analysis of Transversely Isotropic Thick-Walled Cylinder Using Lebesgue Strain Measure and Transition Theory  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for the design of the thick-walled cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material so that collapse of cylinder due to influence of internal and external pressure can be avoided. The concept of transition theory based on Lebesgue strain measure has been used to simplify the constitutive equations. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From this analysis, it has been concluded that, under the influence of internal and external pressure, circular cylinder made up of transversely isotropic material (beryl) is on the safer side of the design as compared to the cylinders made up of isotropic material (steel). This is because of the reason that percentage increase in effective pressure required for initial yielding to become fully plastic is high for beryl as compared to steel which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that reduces the possibility of collapse of thick-walled cylinder due to internal and external pressure. PMID:24523632

Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

309

Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The research discussed herein was conducted for the Tampa Plant as part of the Department of Energy Contract EF-77-C-01-2771. The report comprises the Final Report of the Research and Development Center participation in this contract. The results review procedure development and qualification for narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding of SA 387 Grade 22 Class 2 steel (2 1/4% Cr-1% Mo) to 4 inch thickness. Welding was conducted in the horizontal (2G) and vertical (3G) position.

Stol, I.

1981-09-01

310

Constitutive Activation of Ectodermal ?-Catenin Induces Ectopic Outgrowths at Various Positions in Mouse Embryo and Affects Abdominal Ventral Body Wall Closure  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate limbs originate from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) and the overlying ectoderm. While normal limb formation in defined regions has been well studied, the question of whether other positions retain limb-forming potential has not been fully investigated in mice. By ectopically activating ?-catenin in the ectoderm with Msx2-cre, we observed that local tissue outgrowths were induced, which either progressed into limb-like structure within the inter-limb flank or formed extra tissues in other parts of the mouse embryo. In the presumptive abdominal region of severely affected embryos, ectopic limb formation was coupled with impaired abdominal ventral body wall (AVBW) closure, which indicates the existence of a potential counterbalance of limb formation and AVBW closure. At the molecular level, constitutive ?-catenin activation was sufficient to trigger, but insufficient to maintain the ectopic expression of a putative limb-inducing factor, Fgf8, in the ectoderm. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of limb formation and AVBW closure, and the crosstalk between the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and Fgf signal. PMID:24647475

Zhu, Xuming; Huang, Sixia; Zhang, Lingling; Wu, Yumei; Chen, Yingwei; Tao, Yixin; Wang, Yushu; He, Shigang; Shen, Sanbing; Wu, Ji; Li, Baojie; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

2014-01-01

311

Numerical simulation of transient 3-D turbulent heated jet into crossflow in a thick-wall T-junction pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is to investigate the transient three-dimensional heated turbulent jet into crossflow in a thick-wall T-junction pipe using CFD package. Two cases with the jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 0.05 and 0.5 are computed, with a finite-volume method utilizing k-? turbulent model. Comparison of the steady-state computations with measured data shows good qualitative agreement. Transient process of injection is simulated to examine the thermal shock on the T-junction component. Temporal temperature of the component is acquired by thermal coupling with the fluid. Via analysis of the flow and thermal characteristics, factors causing the thermal shock are studied. Optimal flow rates are discussed to reduce the thermal shock.

Wu, Hailing; Chen, Tingkuan; Luo, Yushan; Wang, Haijun

2001-03-01

312

Fracture behavior of shallow cracks in full-thickness clad beams from an RPV wall section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in weld material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV's). The beam specimens are fabricated from an RPV shell segment that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients and material inhomogeneities in welded regions. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for in-plane loss of constraint for uniaxially tested beams, but cannot predict the observed effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on shallow-crack fracture toughness. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation (based on plastic zone width) performed acceptably when applied to the uniaxial and biaxial shallow-crack fracture toughness data.

Keeney, J. A.; Bass, B. R.; McAfee, W. J.

313

Endothelial wall thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it has been found in obese children and adolescents, but the risk factors associated with this population remain to be elucidated. Objective To compare and verify the relationship between c-IMT, metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Method Thirty-five obese subjects (19 boys) and 18 non-obese subjects (9 boys), aged 10-16 years, were included. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and basal metabolic rate were evaluated. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin were assessed. c-IMT was measured by ultrasound. Results The results showed that c-IMT, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP values were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), adiponectin, and VO2max values were significantly lower in the obese group than in the non-obese group. The c-IMT was directly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, % body fat, and HOMA-IR and inversely correlated with % free fat mass, HDL-c, and VO2max. Conclusions Our findings show that c-IMT correlates not only with body composition, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation but also with low VO2max values in children and adolescents. PMID:24675912

Silva, Larissa R.; Cavaglieri, Claudia; Lopes, Wendell A.; Pizzi, Juliana; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J. C.; Leite, Neiva

2014-01-01

314

Analysis of thermal residual stress in a thick-walled ring of duralcan-base Al-SiC functionally graded material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ring-cutting test and an elastic theory were applied to evaluate the macroscopic residual stress in a thick-walled ring\\u000a made of Al-SiC functionally graded material (FGM). The FGM ring specimens, with outer diameter 90 mm, radial thickness approximately\\u000a 8.4 to 10 mm, and width 30 mm, were fabricated by the centrifugal casting method from an ingot of Duralcan F3D.20S of

Yasuyoshi Fukui; Yoshimi Watanabe

1996-01-01

315

Association of wall thickness of the brachial artery measured with high-resolution ultrasound with risk factors and coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae. The brachial artery (BA) is widely used for the assessment of flow-mediated vasodilation. The aim of this study was to examine whether BA wall thickness (WT) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and risk factors. High-resolution ultrasound (13 MHz) examination of

Franz Weidinger; Matthias Frick; Hannes F Alber; Hanno Ulmer; Severin P Schwarzacher; Otmar Pachinger

2002-01-01

316

Lotus petal flaps for scrotal reconstruction combined with Integra resurfacing of the penis and anterior abdominal wall following necrotising fasciitis.  

PubMed

Necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia following routine circumcision is uncommon. We describe reconstruction of the scrotum with local perforator flaps and a dermal regeneration template (Integra) to cover the penile shaft after debridement. Lotus petal flaps were originally designed to cover vulvo-vaginal defects, but in this instance integrated well with the remaining scrotal sac to produce a good volume neoscrotum for testicular cover. Integra creates an acceptable neodermis usually to cover areas of debrided full thickness burns. In this case, Integra adequately replaced the mobile dermal layer over Bucks fascia over the penis to create a pliable and cosmetically acceptable result with erectile capability. PMID:17974514

Payne, Caroline E; Williams, Andrew M; Hart, Nicholas B

2009-03-01

317

Failure Analysis of Weld Cracking in a Thick-Walled 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel Pressure Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crack in thick-walled 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessel girth weld was found during manufacturing. To investigate the cause of failure, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness tester were used in this study. According to test results, the fracture is classified as reheat cracking with multiple origins. The cracking occurred during surfacing or final post-weld heat treatment process. Coarse-grains in the weld and bulk-carbides precipitated along grain boundaries induced by multiple heating are main causes of the fracture from material aspect, while high level of the hoop stress component and excess localized deformation in stress relief procedure are mechanical aspect causes of the cracking. The fracture surfaces present major intergranular feature with a small fraction of transgranular morphologies. Large numbers of M3C and M23C6 carbides particles were found on the fracture surface, these carbides mainly precipitated on prior austenite-grain boundaries, columnar-grain boundaries, and sub-grain boundaries. Additionally, several proposals were also offered to reduce weld cracking of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessels.

Lei, Xiaowei; Niu, Jing; Zhang, Jianxun; Fu, Anqing; Feng, Yaorong

2014-04-01

318

Experimental and numerical study of fatigue crack propagation in a thick-walled cylinder under cyclic hoop stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work, after finding the anisotropy resulting in dissimilar properties in different orientations of a thick-walled cylinder, experimental and numerical study was performed to reveal the fatigue crack growth behavior of the cylinder under cyclic hoop stress. Fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted on middle tension M(T) samples prepared in an orientation to simulate the hoop stress on the cylinder. The tests were conducted under constant amplitude loading at R ratio 0.1. The fatigue crack growth data was compiled and applied to simulate and predict the crack growth process using two dimensional parametric finite element technique. The fatigue crack propagation was simulated, based on linear elastic fracture mechanics and stress intensity factor determination. Both the experimental and numerical results of crack growth data, at stress levels of 10 to 40 per cent of the yield stress of the material, were found in close agreement. The disparity observed was concluded in the range of statistical scatter in the experimental data. The crack growth rate and the fatigue life of the samples obtained from the experiments and the simulation were also in good agreement at all the stress levels analyzed.

Salam, I.; Malik, M. A.; Abid, M.; Farooque, M.

2014-06-01

319

Mechanical Performance and Failure Mechanism of Thick-walled Composite Connecting Rods Fabricated by Resin Transfer Molding Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resin transfer molding technique was used to fabricate thick-walled composite connecting rods, and then the mechanical performance of the connecting rod was studied experimentally, at the same time the stress and failure index distributions were simulated numerically. The experimental results show that under a tensile load, the connecting rod first cracks near the vertex of the triangle areas at the two ends, and then the damage propagates along the interface between the main bearing beam and the triangle area as well as along the round angle of the triangle area. Whereas under a compressive load, the delamination primarily occurs at the corner of the U-shaped flange, and the final destruction is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam. The simulated results reveal that the tensile failure is originated from the delamination at the round angle transition areas of the T-joints, and the failure strength is determined by the interlaminar strength. Whereas the compressive failure is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam, and the failure strength of the structure is determined by the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite material. The simulated results are basically consistent with the experimental results. Hence the mechanical performance and failure mechanism of the complicated composite structure are revealed in great detail through the coupling of the two kinds of research methods, which is helpful for the optimal design of composite structures.

Liu, Gang; Luo, Chuyang; Zhang, Daijun; Li, Xueqin; Qu, Peng; Sun, Xiaochen; Jia, Yuxi; Yi, Xiaosu

2014-08-01

320

Reconstruction of a full-thickness defect of the chest wall caused by friction burn using a combined myocutaneous flap of teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the therapeutic course of a case of deep burns caused by friction heat generated over a long contact time by a rotating tractor wheel. The burn was accompanied by a full-thickness defect of the chest wall, which we treated with a combined myocutaneous flap of teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles with a large skin flap. Our

I Ono; T Tateshita

2001-01-01

321

A tale of two neglected systems--structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves  

PubMed Central

There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However, there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate, and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled) and late (thick-walled) sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes (TSTs) that lack companion cells. TSTs are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube (ST) -companion cell complexes, TSTs are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the STs. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5–7 million years old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer. PMID:23964280

Botha, C. E. J.

2013-01-01

322

[Mechanical adaptation of muscular arteries to acute increase of blood pressure in man. Contribution of the measurement of arterial wall thickness].  

PubMed

Although it was usually admitted that hypertension is associated with a reduction in conduit artery compliance and distensibility, recent experiments using newly developed high precision echo-tracking devices allowing simultaneous, non-invasive measurements of blood pressure and arterial diameter have suggested that compliance and distensibility, when calculated at equal transmural pressure, could indeed be maintained, or even increased, in hypertensive subjects. Such a maintained arterial compliance could be explained best by a decrease in wall stress despite the increase in arterial blood pressure, through either an increase in wall thickness or a decrease in arterial wall elastic modulus. Thus, the goal of the present study was to assess the role of the changes in these determinants of vessel compliance in the arterial response to an acute increase in arterial pressure in 7 healthy volunteers. Arterial pressure (AP, Finapress) as well as right radial artery internal diameter and wall thickness (Echo-Tracking, NIUS 2, Asulab) were measured continuously before and after a 2 min cold pressor test (CPT). The following parameters were then calculated at fixed (105 mmHg) pressure from the pressure/diameter curve: compliance (mm2/mmHg) and distensibility (mmHg-1) mid-wall stress (dynes/cm2) and incremental elastic modulus (dynes/cm2). During CPT, mean AP increased (from 83 +/- 4 to 106 +/- 8 mmHg; p < 0.01), compliance distensibility; and mean internal diameter (mm) decreased, mean wall thickness (mm) increased, whereas wall stress and elastic modulus remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8129530

Joannides, R; Moore, N; Richard, V; Godin, M; Thuillez, C

1993-08-01

323

Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors  

DOEpatents

A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

2002-01-01

324

Critical oxide thickness for efficient single-walled carbon nanotube growth on silicon using thin SiO2 diffusion barriers.  

PubMed

The ability to integrate carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes, seamlessly onto silicon would expand their range of applications considerably. Though direct integration using chemical vapor deposition is the simplest method, the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on bare silicon and on ultrathin oxides is greatly inhibited due to the formation of a noncatalytic silicide. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that silicide formation occurs on ultrathin oxides due to thermally activated metal diffusion through the oxide. Silicides affect the growth of single-walled nanotubes more than multi-walled nanotubes due to the increased kinetics at the higher single-walled nanotube growth temperature. We demonstrate that nickel and iron catalysts, when deposited on clean silicon or ultrathin silicon dioxide layers, begin to form silicides at relatively low temperatures, and that by 900 degrees C, all of the catalyst has been incorporated into the silicide, rendering it inactive for subsequent single-walled nanotube growth. We further show that a 4-nm silicon dioxide layer is the minimum diffusion barrier thickness that allows for efficient single-walled nanotube growth. PMID:17193143

Simmons, Jason M; Nichols, Beth M; Marcus, Matthew S; Castellini, Olivia M; Hamers, Robert J; Eriksson, Mark A

2006-07-01

325

Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... on your belly area. Numbing medicine may be applied on the area. A needle is placed through the skin and into the fat pad under the skin. A small piece of the fat pad is removed with the needle. It is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

326

Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.  

PubMed

Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the <10 kg, 10-19.9 kg, 20-29.9 kg and ?30 kg weight groups, respectively. Mean (±SD) esophageal wall thicknesses were: 4.1 mm (±0.6), 5.1 mm (±1.3), 5.6 mm (±1), and 6.4 mm (±1.1) for the same weight groups, respectively. Measurements of wall thickness were significantly correlated with dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. PMID:24629089

Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

2014-09-01

327

Analysis of Round Robin Test for Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement of Wall Thinned Pipe in Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well recognized that one of the most serious problems on the maintenance of piping system in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is the wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components. The objective of this research is to verify confidence of wall thinning measurement system by conducting Round Robin Test (RRT). 23 specimens with different size and shape of pipe were used according to standard practice in RRT. The gage R&R analysis was introduced for each sigma quality level, so that repeatability and reproducibility can be estimated from RRT results.

Lee, Dae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Ho

2008-02-01

328

Left Ventricular Wall Thickness and Regional Systolic Function in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. A Three-dimensional Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Regional performance of the hypertrophied left ventricle (LV) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still incompletely characterized with studies variably reporting that the hypertrophied myocardium is hypokinetic, akinetic, or has normal function. Different imaging modalities (M-mode or two-dimensional echocardiography) and methods of analysis (fixed or floating frame of reference for wall motion analysis) yield different results. We assessed regional function in terms of systolic wall thickening and shortening and related these parameters to end-diastolic thickness using tagged magnetic resonance imaging and the three-dimensional volume-element approach. Methods and Results In 17 patients with HCM and 6 healthy volunteers, four parallel short-axis images with 12 radial tags and two mutually orthogonal long-axis images with four parallel tags were obtained at end diastole and end systole. After the LV endocardial and epicardial borders were traced, three-dimensional volume elements were constructed by connecting two matched planar segments in two adjacent short-axis image planes, accounting for translation, twist, and long-axis shortening. A total of 72 such volume elements encompassed the entire LV. From each of these elements, end-diastolic thickness and systolic function (fractional thickening and circumferential shortening) were calculated. The average end-diastolic thickness was 15.8±4.2 mm in patients with HCM, which was significantly greater than that in healthy subjects (8.6±2.1 mm, P<.001). Fractional thickening was significantly less in patients with HCM than in healthy subjects (0.31±0.22 versus 0.56±0.23, P<.001). There was a highly significant inverse correlation between fractional thickening and end-diastolic thickness that was independent of the type of hypertrophy or age group. Similar inverse relations were observed between circumferential shortening and end-diastolic wall thickness. Conclusions The myocardium in patients with HCM is heterogeneously thickened and the fractional thickening and circumferential shortening of the abnormally thickened myocardium are reduced compared with healthy subjects. The decrease in fractional thickening and shortening is inversely related to the local thickness. PMID:8087929

Dong, Sheng-Jing; MacGregor, John H.; Crawley, Adrian P.; McVeigh, Elliot; Belenkie, Israel; Smith, Eldon R.; Tyberg, John V.; Beyar, Rafael

2007-01-01

329

Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who are obese.Design, setting, patients, interventions and resultsA prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Atherosclerosis Underlying Development assessed by Intima–media Thickness in patients

Daniel H OLeary; Anne Q Reuwer; Steven E Nissen; Jean-Pierre Després; John E Deanfield; Michael W Brown; Rong Zhou; Salvatore M Zabbatino; Bernard Job; John J P Kastelein; Frank L J Visseren

2011-01-01

330

Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes  

SciTech Connect

A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

Robert V. Kolarik II

2002-10-23

331

Determination of optimum insulation thickness for building walls with respect to various fuels and climate zones in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Turkey, heat loss from buildings is one of the primary sources of energy waste since no or little insulation is used in existing and new buildings. Therefore, considerable energy savings can be obtained by using proper thickness of insulation in buildings. Given the significant climatic variations that exist in different parts of Turkey, 16 cities from four climate zones

Ali Bolattürk

2006-01-01

332

The gender-specific chest wall thickness prediction equations for routine measurements of ²³⁹Pu and ²⁴¹Am within the lungs using HPGE detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current chest wall thickness prediction equation is not applicable to use in routine lung counting measurements for detection of low energy photons (17-60 keV) within the lungs of male and female subjects. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation was derived for the NaI-CsI {open_quotes}phoswich{close_quotes} detection system, which is not the routine detection system in use; the subject position

L. R. Vickers

1996-01-01

333

Analysis of transient heat flow to thick-walled plates and cylinders. [to determine gas heat transfer coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.

Powell, W. B.

1973-01-01

334

In situ morphometric analysis of left and right ventricles in fetal rats: changes in ventricular volume, mass, wall thickness, and valvular size.  

PubMed

We studied morphological changes in the left and right ventricles of fetal rats in late-gestation using rapid whole-body freezing technique. Pregnant Wistar rats (term, 21.5 day) were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen on 17-, 18-, 19-, 20-, and 21-day of gestation. The frozen fetal hearts were serially sectioned with a sliding microtome and photographed. The ventricular volume, mass, wall thickness, and area of valvular orifice were measured on the photographs. During the study period, the left and right ventricular volumes increased very rapidly (9.9-fold and 7.6-fold, respectively) compared with the increase in the body weight (4.0-fold); the volumes divided by body weight increased linearly. Left and right ventricular masses also rapidly increased (5.9-fold and 5.0-fold, respectively). Mass/volume ratios for the two ventricles rapidly decreased. The wall thicknesses divided by body weights rapidly decreased with the progression of the gestational age. The left and right ventricles at 17 day of gestation have relative hypertrophy and relatively large valvular orifices as compared with those in terminal gestation. The improvement of the relative hypertrophy of the ventricles may indicate the morphological and functional maturation of the fetal heart. PMID:11321049

Ito, T; Harada, K; Takada, G

2001-01-01

335

Survival of Phytophthora cinnamomi as oospores, stromata, and thick-walled chlamydospores in roots of symptomatic and asymptomatic annual and herbaceous perennial plant species.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine how Phytophthora cinnamomi survives during hot and dry Mediterranean summers in areas with limited surviving susceptible hosts. Two Western Australian herbaceous perennials Chamaescilla corymbosa and Stylidium diuroides and one Western Australian annual Trachymene pilosa were collected weekly from a naturally infested site from the Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) forest from winter to spring and less frequently during summer 2011/2012. Selfed oospores, thick-walled chlamydospores, and stromata of P. cinnamomi were observed in each species. Oospores and thick-walled chlamydospores germinated in planta confirming their viability. This is the first report of autogamy by P. cinnamomi in naturally infected plants. Stromata, reported for the first time for P. cinnamomi, were densely aggregated inside host cells, and germinated in planta with multiple germ tubes with hyphae capable of producing oospores and chlamydospores. Trachymene pilosa was completely asymptomatic, S. diuroides did not develop root lesions but some plants wilted, whilst C. corymbosa remained asymptomatic above ground but lesions developed on some tubers. The presence of haustoria suggests that P. cinnamomi grows biotrophically in some hosts. Asymptomatic, biotrophic growth of P. cinnamomi in some annual and herbaceous perennials and the production of a range of survival structures have implications for pathogen persistence over summer and its management. PMID:23452949

Crone, Michael; McComb, Jen A; O'Brien, Philip A; Hardy, Giles E St J

2013-02-01

336

Analysis of thermal residual stress in a thick-walled ring of Duralcan-base Al-SiC functionally graded material  

SciTech Connect

A ring-cutting test and an elastic theory were applied to evaluate the macroscopic residual stress in a thick-walled ring made of Al-SiC functionally graded material (FGM). The FGM ring specimens, with outer diameter 90 mm, radial thickness approximately 8.4 to 10 mm, and width 30 mm, were fabricated by the centrifugal casting method from an ingot of Duralcan F3D.20S of Al-20 vol pct SiC master composite. Because of a difference in centrifugal forces of SiC particles and of molten aluminum alloy, the rings had a graded composition of SiC particles in the radial direction. The volume fractions of SiC particles in each ring specimen varied in the range of 0 to 43 vol pct from the inner to the outer surface of the ring, depending on the applied mold spin speed. A ring diametral compression test was performed to validate an analytical formula based on the curved beam theory that can account for the graded properties of the material. Excellent agreement between the theory that can account for the graded properties of the material. Excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment was found. The residual stress was found to be generated by a cooling of {Delta}T = 140 K, which was from half the melting point corresponding stress-free condition to the ambient temperature. The hoop residual stresses in the FGM ring varied in the range of {minus}50 to +35 MPa and from tension at the inner surface to compression at the outer space because of the graded composition. With an increase in wall thickness and/or composition gradation, the residual stresses were found to increase.

Fukui, Yasuyoshi [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Watanabe, Yoshimi [Shinshu Univ., Ueda (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science and Technology

1996-12-01

337

The growth of low resistivity, heavily Al-doped 4H-SiC thick epilayers by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavily Al-doped 4H-SiC thick epilayers (?90 ?m) were grown on 3-in n+ 4H-SiC wafers by using the hot-wall CVD method. On the purpose of enhancing incorporated Al-dopant concentration, the growth condition dependence of the Al incorporation behavior in the heavy doping range near Al solubility limit in 4H-SiC was investigated by varying the growth parameters, i.e., growth rate, pressure, temperature and Al-dopant source flow rate. A series of thick epilayers possessing Al-dopant concentration from 9.6×1019 to 4.7×1020 cm-3 were obtained. Among them, the epilayer with Al-dopant concentration of 3.5×1020 cm-3 demonstrates a comparably low resistivity of 16.5 m? cm as that of commercial n+ 4H-SiC wafer. The incorporated Al-dopant concentration dependences on surface morphology, crystalline quality and crystal structures of the heavily Al-doped thick epilayers on n+ 4H-SiC substrates were characterized and discussed.

Ji, Shiyang; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Ishida, Yuuki; Saito, Shingo; Kato, Tomohisa; Tsuchida, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Sadafumi; Okumura, Hajime

2013-10-01

338

Fibrolipomas masquerading as abdominal hernias.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803

Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John

2013-01-01

339

Cranioplasty with subcutaneously preserved autologous bone grafts in abdominal wall--Experience with 75 cases in a post-war country Kosova  

PubMed Central

Background: The study is to show the advantages of preservation of a calvarial bone flap in the abdominal pocket after decompressive craniotomy. Decompressive craniectomy is an option in the surgical management of refractory hypertension when maximal medical treatment (sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, moderate cooling, etc) has failed to control refractory high intracranial pressure. Methods: We have prospectively analyzed 82 consecutively operated cases decompressive craniotomies done at the University Neurosurgical Clinic in Prishtina/KOSOVA over a period of eight years (June 1999 to Aug 2008). Of the 75 who had their grafts replaced (7 patient died before replacement of bone graft), 62 patients had hemicraniectomy (fronto-parieto-temporal) 7 of them were bilateral. Results In 66 out of 75 patients was achieved a satisfactory and cosmetically reconstruction, in 9 cases was required augmentation with methyl methacrylate to achieve cosmetic needs. Two patients had infection and the bone was removed; 6 months later these patients had cranioplasty with methyl methacrylate. The duration of storage of calvarial bone in abdominal pouch before reimplantation was 14 – 232 days (range 56 days). Conclusion: We think that storage of the patients own bone flap in the abdominal pocket is a safe, easy, cheap, sterile, histocompatible, and better cosmetic results. PMID:21697987

Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Dragusha, Shefki; Ahmeti, Feti; Morina, Dukagjin; Gashi, Kushtrim

2011-01-01

340

Estimation of PSD Shifts for High-Resolution Metrology of Thickness Micro-Changes with Possible Applications in Vessel Walls and Biological Membrane Characterization  

PubMed Central

Achieving accurate measurements of inflammation levels in tissues or thickness changes in biological membranes (e.g., amniotic sac, parietal pleura) and thin biological walls (e.g., blood vessels) from outside the human body, is a promising research line in the medical area. It would provide a technical basis to study the options for early diagnosis of some serious diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis or tuberculosis. Nevertheless, achieving the aim of non-invasive measurement of those scarcely-accessible parameters on patient internal tissues, currently presents many difficulties. The use of high-frequency ultrasonic transducer systems appears to offer a possible solution. Previous studies using conventional ultrasonic imaging have shown this, but the spatial resolution was not sufficient so as to permit a thickness evaluation with clinical significance, which requires an accuracy of a few microns. In this paper a broadband ultrasonic technique, that was recently developed by the authors to address other non-invasive medical detection problems (by integrating a piezoelectric transducer into a spectral measuring system), is extended to our new objective; the aim is its application to the thickness measurement of sub-millimeter membranes or layers made of materials similar to some biological tissues (phantoms). The modeling and design rules of such a transducer system are described, and various methods of estimating overtones location in the power spectral density (PSD) are quantitatively assessed with transducer signals acquired using piezoelectric systems and also generated from a multi-echo model. Their effects on the potential resolution of the proposed thickness measuring tool, and their capability to provide accuracies around the micron are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with typical tools for extracting spatial parameters in laminar samples from echo-waveforms acquired with ultrasonic transducers. Results of this advanced measurement spectral tool are found to improve the performance of typical cross-correlation methods and provide reliable and high-resolution estimations. PMID:23202216

Ramos, Antonio; Bazán, Ivonne; Negreira, Carlos; Brum, Javier; Gómez, Tomás; Calás, Héctor; Ruiz, Abelardo; de la Rosa, José Manuel

2012-01-01

341

Steam-assisted crystallization of TPA{sup +}-exchanged MCM-41 type mesoporous materials with thick pore walls  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Mesoporous Ti-containing silica with thicker pore walls was synthesized. ? Ion-exchange and steam-assisted crystallization led to MCM-41/MFI composite. ? The introduction of Ti inhibited the formation of separated MFI particles. ? Lower temperature favored retaining mesoporous characteristics and morphology. -- Abstract: Hierarchical MCM-41/MFI composites were synthesized through ion-exchange of as-made MCM-41 type mesoporous materials with tetrapropylammonium bromide and subsequent steam-assisted recrystallization. The obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C CP/MAS and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. The XRD patterns show that the MCM-41/MFI composite possesses both ordered MCM-41 phase and zeolite MFI phase. SEM and TEM images indicate that the recrystallized materials retained the mesoporous characteristics and the morphology of as-made mesoporous materials without the formation of bulky zeolite, quite different from the mechanical mixture of MCM-41 and MFI structured zeolite. Among others, lower recrystallization temperature and the introduction of the titanium to the parent materials are beneficial to preserve the mesoporous structure during the recrystallization process.

Chen, Hong Li; Zhang, Kun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)] [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Yi Meng, E-mail: ymwang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2012-07-15

342

Abdominal rectovaginopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We noted the combination of obstructed defecation or constipation and fecal incontinence, the poor results of abdominal rectopexy for constipation, and the well-known risk of postoperative induction of constipation after rectopexy. We developed a new operation to treat patients with constipation or fecal incontinence (with a concomitant rectocele, internal rectal intussusception, enterocele at dynamic defecography, or all three) or

R. Silvis; H. G. Gooszen; A. van Essen; A. Th. C. M. Kruif; L. W. M. Janssen

1999-01-01

343

Extremal states of energy of a double-layered thick-walled tube - application to residually stressed arteries.  

PubMed

Various biological tissues are designed to optimally support external loads for complex geometries and mechanobiological structures. This results in complex microstructures of such materials. The design of, for instance, (healthy) arteries, which are in the focus of this work, is characterised by a residually stressed fibre-reinforced multi-layered composite with highly non-linear elastic response. The complex interaction of material properties with the geometry and residual stress effects enables the optimal support under different blood pressures, respectively blood flow, within the vessel. The fibres reinforcing the arterial wall, as well as residual stresses present in the vessel, strongly influence its overall behaviour and performance. Turn-over and remodelling processes of the collagenous fibres occurring in the respective layers - either resulting from natural growth phenomena or from artificially induced changes in loading condition such as stent deployment - support the optimisation of the multi-layered composite structure of arteries for the particular loading conditions present in the artery. Within this contribution, the overall energetic properties of an artery are discussed by means of the inflation, bending and extension of a double-layered cylindrical tube. Different states of residual stresses and different fibre orientations are considered so that, for instance, representative fibre angles that result in extremal states of the total potential energy can be identified. In view of turn-over and remodelling processes, these orientations are considered to constitute preferred directions of fibre alignment. In summary, the main goal of this work is to calculate optimal material, structural and loading parameters by concepts of energy-minimisation. Several numerical studies show that the obtained values - such as the fibre orientations, the residual axial stretch and the opening angle - are in good agreement with respective physiological parameters reported in the literature. PMID:23845915

Waffenschmidt, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

2014-01-01

344

Abdominal aortic aneurysm: from clinical imaging to realistic replicas.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to develop a framework for manufacturing nonuniform wall thickness replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The methodology was based on the use of computed tomography (CT) images for virtual modeling, additive manufacturing for the initial physical replica, and a vacuum casting process and range of polyurethane resins for the final rubberlike phantom. The average wall thickness of the resulting AAA phantom was compared with the average thickness of the corresponding patient-specific virtual model, obtaining an average dimensional mismatch of 180??m (11.14%). The material characterization of the artery was determined from uniaxial tensile tests as various combinations of polyurethane resins were chosen due to their similarity with ex vivo AAA mechanical behavior in the physiological stress configuration. The proposed methodology yields AAA phantoms with nonuniform wall thickness using a fast and low-cost process. These replicas may be used in benchtop experiments to validate deformations obtained with numerical simulations using finite element analysis, or to validate optical methods developed to image ex vivo arterial deformations during pressure-inflation testing. PMID:24190650

de Galarreta, Sergio Ruiz; Aitor, Cazón; Antón, Raúl; Finol, Ender A

2014-01-01

345

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

346

Drought-induced increase in water-use efficiency reduces secondary tree growth and tracheid wall thickness in a Mediterranean conifer.  

PubMed

In order to understand the impact of drought and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) on tree growth, we evaluated the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of water availability on secondary growth and xylem anatomy of Juniperus thurifera, a Mediterranean anisohydric conifer. Dendrochronological techniques, quantitative xylem anatomy, and (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio were combined to develop standardized chronologies for iWUE, BAI (basal area increment), and anatomical variables on a 40-year-long annually resolved series for 20 trees. We tested the relationship between iWUE and secondary growth at short-term (annual) and long-term (decadal) temporal scales to evaluate whether gains in iWUE may lead to increases in secondary growth. We obtained a positive long-term correlation between iWUE and BAI, simultaneously with a negative short-term correlation between them. Furthermore, BAI and iWUE were correlated with anatomical traits related to carbon sink or storage (tracheid wall thickness and ray parenchyma amount), but no significant correlation with conductive traits (tracheid lumen) was found. Water availability during the growing season significantly modulated tree growth at the xylem level, where growth rates and wood anatomical traits were affected by June precipitation. Our results are consistent with a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2, despite the trend of rising iWUE being maintained. We also remark the usefulness of exploring this relationship at different temporal scales to fully understand the actual links between iWUE and secondary growth dynamics. PMID:24958369

Olano, José Miguel; Linares, Juan Carlos; García-Cervigón, Ana I; Arzac, Alberto; Delgado, Antonio; Rozas, Vicente

2014-09-01

347

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Introduction Aorta Common Iliac Arteries Ballooning of the aorta, also known as an "abdominal aortic aneurysm," can lead to life threatening bleeding. Doctors may ...

348

MIR wall surveyor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus

1998-01-01

349

Lower extremity peripheral vein bypass graft wall thickness changes demonstrated at 1 and 6 months after surgery with ultra-high spatial resolution black blood inner volume three-dimensional fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To demonstrate lower extremity peripheral vein bypass graft wall thickness changes over time in a patient using very high\\u000a spatial resolution cardiac gated, black blood inner volume three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE) magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI). Case report A 52-year-old diabetic man with a history of hyperlipidemia underwent uncomplicated bypass grafting for an asymptomatic 5.2 cm\\u000a popliteal artery aneurysm

Frank John Rybicki; Dimitrios Mitsouras; Christopher D. Owens; Amanda G. Whitmore; Hale Ersoy; Robert V. Mulkern; Mark A. Creager; Michael S. Conte

2008-01-01

350

A case report of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal complications caused by herpes zoster are extremely rare. Here, we described a case of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster. The patient was a 59-year-old female who suffered from unexplained paroxysmal and a burning pain on the right part of her waist and abdomen, accompanied by abdominal distention. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Distention of the right abdominal wall was still apparent after one month. In this report, we found that recovery from abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster is difficult and may require surgical intervention. PMID:22969239

Zhou, Su-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Yu

2012-09-01

351

Wall surveyor project report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is

D. J. Mullenhoff; B. C. Johnston; S. G. Azevedo

1996-01-01

352

Individuals, grasses, and forests of single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown by supported Co catalysts of different nominal thicknesses  

E-print Network

Co catalysts of different nominal thicknesses Kazunori Kakehi a , Suguru Noda a, , Shigeo Maruyama b among the nominal thickness of Co catalyst, the structure of the catalyst particles, and the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growing from the catalyst during chemical vapor deposition were investigated

Maruyama, Shigeo

353

A new process for the production of long glassy polymeric carbon hollow ware with uniform wall thickness using a spray technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glassy polymeric carbon is produced in the form of open- and closed-end tubes of uniform thickness up to 1 m long. Resol precursor is sprayed automatically to form a thin gelled coating on a rotating heated mandrel. The process is repeated to produce a sheath of thermoset phenolic resin of required thickness. This resin sheath is carbonized and heat-treated between

J. H. Fisher; L. R. Holland; G. M. Jenkins; H. Maleki

1996-01-01

354

Effect of ratio of wall boundary layer thickness to jet diameter on mixing of a normal hydrogen jet in a supersonic stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary experimental program was conducted to determine the effect of the ratio of the free-stream boundary-layer thickness to jet diameter on the secondary jet penetration and mixing rate. Tests were conducted on a flat plate in a Mach number 4.05 airflow with sonic injection of hydrogen normal to the free-stream direction from circular underexpanded injectors. The ratio of boundary-layer thickness to jet diameter ranged from 1.25 to 6.5. Previous correlations of mixing performance were modified to account for the effect of the ratio of boundary-layer thickness to jet diameter.

Mcclinton, C. R.

1974-01-01

355

Polypropylene mesh closure of the complicated abdominal wound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Closure of the abdominal wall in the face of fascial necrosis or massive intestinal edema remains a difficult problem with frequent complications. Prior studies have addressed both the utility and the pitfalls of placing polypropylene mesh in this setting.Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of our experience with polypropylene mesh in traumatic and nontraumatic difficult abdominal closures. Timing of

Richard F. Fansler; Paul Taheri; Carey Cullinane; Braulio Sabates; Lewis M. Flint

1995-01-01

356

Understanding noninguinal abdominal hernias in the athlete.  

PubMed

Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play. PMID:24614421

Cabry, Robert J; Thorell, Erik; Heck, Keith; Hong, Eugene; Berkson, David

2014-01-01

357

Relationship between preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings: aneurysm wall thickness on high-resolution T1-weighted imaging and contact with surrounding tissue on steady-state free precession imaging.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the aneurysm wall thickness by high-resolution T1-weighted imaging and the contact between the aneurysm and surrounding tissue by steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging. The surgical findings were prospectively compared with these preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in 35 consecutive patients with 37 unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs). The aneurysm wall was not visible in 13 UCAs, but was visible in 23. Subarachnoid space between the aneurysm and surrounding tissue was visible in 16 UCAs, a visible layer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the aneurysm and surrounding tissue in 12, and no visible layer in 7. MR imaging predicted the surgical findings in 29 UCAs (78%), showed different findings in six UCAs (16%), and two (5%) could not be evaluated due to insufficient quality of preoperative MR images. Among the UCAs with different findings, five UCAs had a partially thin wall even though high-resolution T1-weighted imaging had shown a visible wall, and one UCA showed less contact with the surrounding tissue even though the SSFP imaging had shown no visible CSF layer. In conclusion, high-resolution T1-weighted imaging and SSFP imaging provided significant additional preoperative information regarding UCAs and the surrounding tissue. PMID:23708226

Tenjin, Hiroshi; Tanigawa, Seisuke; Takadou, Michiko; Ogawa, Takahiro; Mandai, Ayako; Nanto, Masataka; Osaka, Yasuhiko; Nakahara, Yoshikazu; Umeda, Masahiro; Higuchi, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

358

Association of Coronary Heart Disease Incidence with Carotid Arterial Wall Thickness and Major Risk Factors: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have determined whether greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic individuals is associated prospectively with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the Atheroscle- rosis Risk in Communities Study, carotid IMT, an index of generalized atherosclerosis, was defined as the mean of IMT measurements at six sites of the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound. The authors

Lloyd E. Chambless; Gerardo Heiss; Aaron R. Folsom; Wayne Rosamond; Moyses Szklo; A. Richey Sharrett; Limin X. Clegg

359

Wall surveyor project report  

SciTech Connect

A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

1996-02-22

360

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24

361

Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.  

PubMed

Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

2014-01-01

362

Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions  

E-print Network

The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

2006-01-01

363

Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.  

PubMed

Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

Tjalma, W A A

2014-01-01

364

Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes after Abdominal Rectopexy and Delorme's Procedure for Rectal Prolapse: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Complete rectal prolapse is characterized by protrusion of full thickness rectal wall through the anal orifice. Despite its rarity more than 100 surgical procedures have been described and there are no good evidence based recommendations for selection of a surgical procedure. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of commonly used procedures for rectal prolapse at our hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven patients presenting with complete rectal prolapse between May 2011 to May 2013 were included in this prospective study. Patients underwent either Abdominal rectopexy or Delorme’s procedure after evaluation, based on clinical judgment of experienced surgeons. Patient characteristics, complications, post-operative length of hospitalization and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 14 months. Results: Seventeen patients underwent Abdominal rectopexy (Posterior mesh rectopexy), ten patients underwent Delorme’s procedure. No postoperative mortalities or major complications were noted. Post operative morbidity (minor) was 17% in Abdominal rectopexy group and 10% in Delormes group 0%. Incontinence improved in all six patients (100%) in rectopexy group, four patients (80%) in Delorme’s procedure group. Two patients (11%) in rectopexy group reported increase in constipation post operatively. There was one recurrence in Delorme’s procedure group with no recurrences in Abdominal rectopexy group. Conclusion: The treatment of rectal prolapse should be individualized to achieve best results. Abdominal rectopexy can be safely applied in most of patients with minimal post operative increase in constipation and recurrence by using posterior mesh rectopexy technique. Delorme’s procedure can be performed with minimal morbidity and shorter hospital stay and good functional results with acceptable recurrence rate. Delorme’s can be considered as an alternative to rectopexy not only in patients unfit for laparotomy but also in individuals with a short prolpase, avoiding a laparotomy. PMID:24995208

Makineni, Hemanth; Rai, B.K. Shivprasad

2014-01-01

365

Dividing wall studies. Period covered: July--September 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six small-scale shots involving foamed concrete and Ethafoam wall ; treatments were fired and analyzed. One shot involving normal density concrete ; slabs as wall treatment and one using a 6-inch thick wall with no treatment were ; fired and analyzed. These were fired for comparison with standard-size (3-inch ; thick) treated walls. As expected, the 6-inch thick wall yielded

Crutchmer

1973-01-01

366

A numerical implementation to predict residual strains from the homogeneous stress hypothesis with application to abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a promising method of identifying AAAs at high risk of rupture. However, neglecting residual strains (RS) in the load-free configuration of patient-specific finite element analysis models is a sever limitation that strongly affects the computed wall stresses. Although several methods for including RS have been proposed, they cannot be directly applied to patient-specific AAA simulations. RS in the AAA wall are predicted through volumetric tissue growth that aims at satisfying the homogeneous stress hypothesis at mean arterial pressure load. Tissue growth is interpolated linearly across the wall thickness and aneurysm tissues are described by isotropic constitutive formulations. The total deformation is multiplicatively split into elastic and growth contributions, and a staggered schema is used to solve the field variables. The algorithm is validated qualitatively at a cylindrical artery model and then applied to patient-specific AAAs (n = 5). The induced RS state is fully three-dimensional and in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, i.e., wall strips that were excised from the load-free wall showed stress-releasing-deformations that are typically seen in laboratory experiments. Compared to RS-free simulations, the proposed algorithm reduced the von Mises stress gradient across the wall by a tenfold. Accounting for RS leads to homogenized wall stresses, which apart from reducing the peak wall stress (PWS) also shifted its location in some cases. The present study demonstrated that the homogeneous stress hypothesis can be effectively used to predict RS in the load-free configuration of the vascular wall. The proposed algorithm leads to a fast and robust prediction of RS, which is fully capable for a patient-specific AAA rupture risk assessment. Neglecting RS leads to non-realistic wall stress values that severely overestimate the PWS. PMID:23386030

Polzer, Stanislav; Bursa, Jiri; Gasser, T Christian; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert

2013-07-01

367

Resolvin D1 and Lipoxin A4 Improve Alveolarization and Normalize Septal Wall Thickness in a Neonatal Murine Model of Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The critical fatty acids Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (AA) decline in preterm infants within the first postnatal week and are associated with neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). DHA and AA are precursors to downstream metabolites that terminate the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that treatment with Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 would prevent lung injury in a murine model of BPD. Objective To determine the effect of Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 on hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Methods C57/BL6 pups were randomized at birth to Room Air, Hyperoxia (>90% oxygen), Hyperoxia + Resolvin D1, Hyperoxia + Lipoxin A4, or Hyperoxia + Resolvin D1/Lipoxin A4. Resolvin D1 and/or Lipoxin A4 (2 ng/g) were given IP on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. On day 10, mice were sacrificed and lungs collected for morphometric analyses including Mean Linear Intercept (MLI), Radial Alveolar Count (RAC), and Septal Thickness (ST); RT-PCR analyses of biomarkers of lung development and inflammation; and ELISA for TGF?1 and TGF?2. Result The increased ST observed with hyperoxia exposure was normalized by both Resolvin D1 and Lipoxin A4; while, hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification was attenuated by Lipoxin A4. Relative to hyperoxia, Resolvin D1 reduced the gene expression of CXCL2 (2.9 fold), TIMP1 (6.7 fold), and PPAR? (4.8 fold). Treatment with Lipoxin A4 also led to a reduction of CXCL2 (2.4 fold) while selectively increasing TGF?2 (2.1 fold) and Smad3 (1.58 fold). Conclusion The histologic and biochemical changes seen in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in this murine model can be reversed by the addition of DHA and AA fatty acid downstream metabolites that terminate the inflammatory pathways and modulate growth factors. These fatty acids or their metabolites may be novel therapies to prevent or treat lung injury in preterm infants. PMID:24892762

Martin, Camilia R.; Zaman, Munir M.; Gilkey, Calvin; Salguero, Maria V.; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Freedman, Steven D.

2014-01-01

368

Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

1987-01-01

369

Vibration of the abdominal segment in pregnant sheep.  

PubMed

Mechanical vibration of the abdominal wall results in a frequency-related distribution of intra-abdominal sound pressure levels. A greater attenuation of applied signals of equal dynamic force occurs as frequency increases. A broad resonance peak exists between 6 and 18 Hz. Transducers fixed to the fetal head show clear increases in acceleration levels during stimulation of the abdominal surface with the artificial electronic larynx. Sine-wave stimulation results in a frequency-dependent increase in vibration levels of the abdominal wall of 4% to 140% of the input levels. At the fetal head, a broad peak in response was noted between 6 and 12 Hz, but the overall levels never exceeded 4% of the input level. PMID:8899912

Abrams, R M; Gerhardt, K J

1996-02-01

370

Abdominal Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... most helpful information that a doctor uses to determine the cause of abdominal pain. The characteristics of the pain (sharp, dull, cramping, burning, twisting, tearing, penetrating), its location and relation to eating or to having a bowel movement are important ...

371

Abdominal ultrasound (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

372

Abdominal CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider if you take the diabetes medication metformin(Glucophage). People taking this medicine may have to ... be used to look for: Cause of abdominal pain or swelling Hernia Cause of a fever Masses ...

373

Intra-abdominal abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... abscess requires antibiotics (given by an IV) and drainage. Drainage involves placing a needle through the skin in ... abscess and how bad the infection is. Generally, drainage is successful in treating intra-abdominal abscesses that ...

374

Visceral coverage with absorbable mesh followed by split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of ruptured giant omphalocele.  

PubMed

We report a case of ruptured giant omphalocele in whom herniated organs were successfully covered by an absorbable mesh and a subsequent skin graft. A 2,200 g male baby was born at 35 weeks of gestation. An abdominal wall abnormality was detected by prenatal ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation. At birth, the entire liver, stomach, and small and large bowel had herniated from the defect of the abdominal wall. The thorax and abdomen were highly underdeveloped, and attempts to reduce the organs into the abdomen were unsuccessful due to the extremely small abdominal cavity and associated pulmonary hypoplasia. To protect the herniated organs and prevent abdominal infections, the organs were covered by a polyglycan mesh and subsequently a meshed split-thickness skin graft. Ten weeks later, it was confirmed that the organs were completely covered by epithelialized tissue. However, the patient suffered from frequent respiratory infections and finally died of respiratory insufficiency. Based on the experience of the patient, we conclude that coverage of the herniated organs with an absorbable mesh and a skin graft is a recommendable treatment in ruptured giant omphalocele. PMID:17043872

Yamagishi, Junko; Ishimaru, Yuki; Takayasu, Hajime; Otani, Yushi; Tahara, Kazunori; Hatanaka, Masahiro; Hamajima, Akito; Hasumi, Akira; Ikeda, Hitoshi

2007-02-01

375

Postpartum Lower Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pains after labor can be as severe as those experienced during labor, particularly the commonly occurring lower abdominal\\u000a “after-pains” that are associated with prolonged uterine contractions during breast feeding. Other causes of lower abdominal\\u000a pain may not be physiologically based but are either direct complications of parturition, such as genital infection, or fortuitous,\\u000a such as appendicitis. Although the focus of

Anita Holdcroft

1999-01-01

376

Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation. PMID:19091294

Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

2008-11-01

377

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

378

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

379

The Relationship of Abdominal Muscles Balance and Body Balance  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data. PMID:24259848

Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

2013-01-01

380

Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of laparoscopy upon the outcome of total abdominal colectomy (TAC). Specifically, patients underwent standard laparotomy with TAC and ileoproctostomy (TAC + IP), TAC and ileoanal reservoir (TAC + IAR), laparoscopically assisted TAC + IP (L-TAC + IP), or laparoscopically assisted TAC + IAR (L-TAC + IAR). Parameters studied included

Steven D. Wexner; Olaf B. Johansen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

1992-01-01

381

Predictive factors of abdominal compartment syndrome in neonatal age.  

PubMed

In the pediatric population, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of abdominal wall defect repair. However, there are only few reports on ACS in newborns and only a proposal of critical intra-abdominal pressure value (IAP) in term newborns, absent in preterm newborns. Although the prevalent clinical sign is tense abdominal distension, it may be difficult to distinguish ACS from pathologies that will not require decompression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors for ACS and therefore morbidity or mortality indicators. We reviewed newborns presenting with tense abdominal distension and end organ failure. Anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigations were analyzed to extrapolate predictors. Outcomes were compared with a control group. The incidence of ACS in our neonatal intensive care unit was 5% in the overall population of babies, 16% in tracheal-ventilated newborns, and 57% in infants with abdominal wall defects. We found that, with onset of acidosis or high gastric residuals, the lactate values will be predictive for mortality. We can also suggest paying particular attention to high lactate values just at the onset of distension, in infants with more advanced gestational age, with previously surgical repair, to determine early surgical intervention independently of a specific IAP measurement. PMID:23456905

Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Giuffrè, Mario; Piro, Ettore; Ortolano, Rita; Siracusa, Fortunato; Pinello, Giuseppa; La Placa, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

2014-01-01

382

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

383

Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment efficacy.

Chiu, Bernard; Li, Bing; Chow, Tommy W. S.

2013-09-01

384

Paciente intervenido de aneurisma de aorta abdominal por técnica quirúrgica endovascular. Caso clínico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually

Ana Rosa Alconero-Camarero; José Luis Cobo-Sánchez; María Casaus-Pérez; María Elena García-Campo; María José Garcia-Zarrabeitia; Marta Calvo-Diez; Luz Elena Mirones-Valdeolivas

2008-01-01

385

Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

2014-01-01

386

Periodic abdominal pumping supports leg development during metamorphosis in tenebrionid beetle Zophobas atratus.  

PubMed

Rhythmic abdominal pumping movements in a pupa of giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus caused large hemolymph pressure pulses of approximately 20 mmHg. The abdominal pumping movements were completely blocked by transecting the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the first and second abdominal ganglia. Transection of the VNC until 2 days after pupation caused a developmental defect of adult legs: morphogenesis of the tibial and tarsal segments was severely retarded, and the segments remained covered with a thick pupal cuticle. The developmental defect was rescued by artificially inducing rhythmic abdominal bending for 3 days after transection of VNC. Blocking of the abdominal pump did not increase the amount of water loss during the pupal period. The transplanted tibial segments lacking active tracheal ventilation could form a thick adult cuticle. The results suggest that abdominal pumping movements during the pupal period support the development of adult legs by facilitating hemolymph circulation. PMID:18372202

Ichikawa, Toshio

2008-05-01

387

Thick Toenails  

MedlinePLUS

... be seen in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis, and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. and and or and or or, browse by ...

388

Abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, for which immune suppression is a predisposing factor. In unusual cases, this disease may present as an abdominal wall involvement simulating a soft tissue tumor as seen in the present case. The presented patient had no signs of trauma or surgical approach and the pathology was considered to be a primary abdominal wall actinomycosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the nonspecific nature of clinical presentation, radiographic and laboratory findings. Surgery combined with antibiotic treatment is a curative approach for this relatively rare infection. Surgeons must be aware of this disease in order to ensure correct diagnosis and to prevent performing any unnecessary procedures. The present study describes a case of abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma, together with a review of important points related to this disease.

ERCOLAK, VEHBI; PAYDAS, SEMRA; ERGIN, MELEK; ATES, BERNA T.; DUMAN, BERNA B.; GUNALDI, MERAL; AFSAR, CIGDEM U.

2014-01-01

389

Thoraco-abdominal Ectopia Cordis in Southwest Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect where the heart is completely displaced outside the chest wall. Cantrell's pentalogy is an embryologic anomaly with five classic midline deficiencies often associated with ectopia cordis. Here we present a case of thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, brief literature review, and possible implications for changes in antenatal care.

Chishugi, John B; Franke, Trixy J

2014-01-01

390

Preventing Intra-Abdominal Adhesions With Polylactic Acid Film: An Animal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an absorbable polylactic acid film (SurgiWrapTM) in preventing postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in an animal model.METHODS  Forty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy with subsequent cecal wall abrasion and abdominal wall injury. Rats were divided equally between untreated and treated groups. Treated rats had a polylactic acid film (SurgiWrapTM) placed between the

Shmuel Avital; Thomas J. Bollinger; James D. Wilkinson; Floriano Marchetti; Michael D. Hellinger; Laurence R. Sands

2005-01-01

391

[Blunt abdominal trauma].  

PubMed

Serious intraabdominal injury due to intraabdominal hemorrhage, gastro-intestinal laceration with peritonitis or incarceration of abdominal organs. The most important question in the management is to ascertain a laparotomy or the diagnostic of a specific organ injury is needed. The peritoneal lavage is a great help in making this decision. The x-ray examinations of thorax, abdomen and bones are required. Adjunctive diagnostic modalities for subtile examination of organs are ultrasound, computed tomography and angiography. These examinations have a limited application. Exploratory laparotomy should be done if there are signs of peritoneal irritation with an increased tendency. 168 patients with blunt abdominal trauma where treated in Charity-hospital of Berlin. The laparotomy was necessary in 78 patients. In 70 cases we found organ injuries. It was pointed to splenic repair, the management of liver injury especially the packing of the laceration and the treatment of the injuries of gastro-intestinal tract, pancreas- and diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:3281391

Wolff, H; Lippert, H

1988-01-01

392

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

393

[Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].  

PubMed

Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates. PMID:20731313

Vyhnánek, F

2010-07-01

394

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.  

PubMed

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

2014-10-01

395

Corrections to the thin wall approximation in general relativity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question is considered whether the thin wall formalism of Israel applies to the gravitating domain walls of a lambda phi(exp 4) theory. The coupled Einstein-scalar equations that describe the thick gravitating wall are expanded in powers of the thickness of the wall. The solutions of the zeroth order equations reproduce the results of the usual Israel thin wall approximation for domain walls. The solutions of the first order equations provide corrections to the expressions for the stress-energy of the wall and to the Israel thin wall equations. The modified thin wall equations are then used to treat the motion of spherical and planar domain walls.

Garfinkle, David; Gregory, Ruth

1989-01-01

396

Ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system and method  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system uses an ultrasonic fsed beam probe for measuring thickness of an object, such as a wall of a tube, a computer for controlling movement of the probe in a scanning pattern within the tube and processing an analog signal produced by the probe which is proportional to the tube wall thickness in the scanning pattern, and a line scan recorder for producing a record of the tube wall thicknesses measured by the probe in the scanning pattern. The probe is moved in the scanning pattern to sequentially scan circumferentially the interior tube wall at spaced apart adjacent axial locations. The computer processes the analog signal by converting it to a digital signal and then quantifies the digital signal into a multiplicity of thickness points with each falling in one of a plurality of thickness ranges corresponding to one of a plurality of shades of grey. From the multiplicity of quantified thickness points, a line scan recorder connected to the computer generates a pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses with each quantified thickness point thus being obtained from a minute area, e.g. 0.010 inch by 0.010 inch, of tube wall and representing one pixel of the pictorial map. In the pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses, the pixels represent different wall thicknesses having different shades of grey.

Bylenok, Paul J. (Clifton Park, NY); Patmos, William M. (Schenectady, NY); Wagner, Thomas A. (Bronswick, NY); Martin, Francis H. (Melrose, NY)

1992-01-01

397

Abdominal imaging: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

1986-01-01

398

Blunt abdominal aortic trauma.  

PubMed

Due to its well protected position within the abdomen, blunt injuries to the abdominal aorta are uncommon. A review of previous reports in the literature, together with four new cases, are presented here. Motor car accidents are the most common cause of this injury, especially if seat belts are worn. Associated gastrointestinal injuries did not lead to any increased mortality; however, delay in the diagnosis was a significant factor in the deaths of several patients. Prompt recognition and early surgical management are essential in the treatment of this problem. PMID:2334357

Frydenberg, M; Royle, J P; Hoare, M

1990-05-01

399

Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas: US and CT findings.  

PubMed

We retrospectively analyzed six cases of abdominal cystic lymphangiomas (CL), who had undergone surgical resection. These cases had been evaluated by several modalities: ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), angiography and fine needle aspiration. No age predilection was found. All patients were symptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (66%), palpable mass (66%), fever (50%) and vomiting (30%). US showed septations (85%) and unicameral mass (15%); in three cases (50%) echogenic material within the cyst was found, probably due to hemorrhage and infection. CT showed capsular enhancement in all cases. Capsular and septation thickness were slightly increased in cases of infection or bleeding. At CT the contents were usually of fluid attenuation (66%); in 33% the attenuation values were higher, probably because of internal bleeding and infection. US was superior to CT in the demonstration of septations and the internal nature of the cysts. The major role of imaging is to demonstrate the cystic nature of these abdominal masses, because they do not have specific signs or symptoms that could allow a clinical diagnosis. PMID:7601168

Vargas-Serrano, B; Alegre-Bernal, N; Cortina-Moreno, B; Rodriguez-Romero, R; Sanchez-Ortega, F

1995-03-01

400

Actinomycosis Presenting as an Abdominal Mass in a Child  

PubMed Central

Abdominal actinomycosis in childhood period is very rare and a relation to trauma is not well established. Herein we report a case that appeared subsequent to abdominal trauma. A 17 years old boy presented with left lower quadrant abdominal mass and signs of acute abdomen. The symptoms of abdominal discomfort began after a fall from height 3 months before admission. There were signs of acute abdomen at physical examination. Ultrasound of abdomen demonstrated a mass; CT scan findings pointed to a suspicious “internal hernia”. An emergency laparotomy was performed. During surgery, a mass located over sigmoid colon and infiltrating the lateral abdominal wall was found. It was removed en bloc with the adjacent omentum. Except for the thickened sigmoid colon, no other pathologies were present at laparotomy. The pathology specimen revealed the actinomyces infection. The patient was treated with oral penicillin after discharge and the follow-up was uneventful. We advocate, keeping the actinomyces infection in mind in cases presenting with abdominal mass of unknown origin in childhood period. PMID:22953271

Ozcan, Rahsan; Mammadov, Emil; Aydin, Emrah; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Esen, Tugce; Dervisoglu, Sergulen

2011-01-01

401

Temporary intravenous bag silo closure in severe abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Several temporary abdominal wall closure techniques have been described in the literature. We present our experience with an inexpensive and efficient method of temporary abdominal closure when bowel edema and distension preclude safe primary closure. Our technique is a variation of the silon (silo) closure used in the repair of gastroschisis and omphalocele, using a pre-gas-sterilized, soft 3-L plastic cystoscopy fluid irrigation bag cut to an oval shape and stapled or sutured to the skin edges of the wound. PMID:8637075

Fernandez, L; Norwood, S; Roettger, R; Wilkins, H E

1996-02-01

402

Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

Gottsegen, David

2011-07-01

403

MIR wall surveyor  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

Lehman, S K

1998-08-01

404

Abdominal pain in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abdominal pain in pregnancy is most commonly caused by complications of the pregnancy, e.g., abortion, ectopic pregnancy and abruptio placentae. A careful history and methodical physical examination and, if necessary, simple ultrasonographic investigations will reveal the cause in most of these conditions. In a few cases of abdominal pain in pregnancy a gynaecological condition, such as torsion of an ovarian cyst, or a nongynaecological (medical or surgical) one is the cause. Some of these conditions are serious, e.g., acute appendicitis, and unless the correct diagnosis is made and the appropriate management promptly instituted both the mother and her baby may suffer tragic consequences. Moreover, these conditions are more likely to be misdiagnosed during pregnancy. This is because the anatomical and physiological changes which occur in pregnancy tend to change and obtund the expected clinical features and laboratory data which are used to diagnose these conditions. Their early diagnosis therefore requires a high index of suspicion together with awareness of the ways in which they may present in pregnancy. PMID:7941766

Klufio, C A; Amoa, A B; Rageau, O

1993-12-01

405

Abdominal MR Elastography  

PubMed Central

MR Elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues, based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, offers a safer, and less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062

Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Ehman, Richard L.

2011-01-01

406

Abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Key Clinical Points Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms are usually asymptomatic until they rupture, with an ensuing mortality of 85 to 90%. Symptomatic patients require urgent repair. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations support screening in men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking and selective screening in men 65 to 75 years of age without a smoking history, although the optimal cohort to be screened remains controversial. The usual threshold for elective repair is an aortic diameter of 5.5 cm in men and 5.0 cm in women. Endovascular repair results in lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair, but the two methods are associated with similar mortality in the long term (8 to 10 years). Patients treated with endovascular repair require long-term surveillance owing to a small risk of aneurysm sac reperfusion and late rupture. Decisions regarding prophylactic repair - whether to pursue it and, if so, what type of repair to perform - must take into account anatomy (not all patients have anatomy amenable to endovascular repair), operative risk, and patient preference. PMID:25427112

Kent, K Craig

2014-11-27

407

A multidisciplinary approach to desmoid tumors. When intra-abdominal fibromatosis degenerates into an abscess, which is the right treatment??  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Desmoid tumors are rare benign tumors that originates in the fibrous sheath or musculo-aponeurotic structure. Histologically benign, they tends to invade locally and to be recurrent. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor in a patient affected by familial adenomatous polyposis, which degenerated into abscess. Male, 38 years, was hospitalized for abdominal pain, bowel obstruction and fever. The computed tomography showed a big dishomogeneous mass occupying the whole mesentery with internal massive liquefaction. The mass extended from the epigastrium for 13 cm up to L3. On the right mesogastric side a solid, thick mass of about 2 cm, with a length of 4.5 cm, was identified; it was not cleavable from the wall and from some of the loops. We decided to perform a computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage. Two hundred ml of purulent necrotic material was aspirated, and washing with antibiotic solution was carried out. Cytological examination of fluid drainage showed histiocytes and neutrophils. At follow-up, the patient's clinical condition had improved. An abdominal ultrasound showed a substantial reduction in the diameter of the mass. DISCUSSION Diagnosis and treatment of desmoids tumor in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis may be difficult, especially when desmoids are located intra-abdominally and in the mesentery. Seldom will desmoid tumors be complicated by abscess formation. CONCLUSION The management of desmoids tumors is not easy and the choice of the best treatment may be difficult due to the different possible anatomical presentations. PMID:23856253

Alemanno, Giovanni; Zambonin, Daniela; Sturiale, Alessandro; Cavalli, Tiziana; Bellucci, Francesco; Pesi, Benedetta; Di Martino, Carmela; Giudici, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

408

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

2002-01-01

409

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... movement • Cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infections • Previous abdominal surgery COMPLICATIONS A hernia may result in entrapment of other organs (such as the bladder or colon) or nerves, producing constipation or problems with ... of the abdominal cavity) needing surgical removal of part of the ...

410

Hypnosis for Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other

David Gottsegen

2011-01-01

411

Tissue Responses to Stent Grafts with Endo-Exo-Skeleton for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the effect of close contact between the stent and the graft on the induction of endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms were made with Dacron patch in eight dogs. The stent graft consisted of an inner stent, a expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and an outer stent. After sacrificing the animals, the aortas with an embedded stent graft were excised. The aortas were inspected grossly and evaluated microscopically. Results The animals were sacrificed at two (n = 3), six (n = 3), and eight months (n = 2) after endovascular repair. In two dogs, the aortic lumen was occluded at two months after the placement. On gross inspection of specimens from the other six dogs with a patent aortic lumen, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by glossy white neointima, whereas, stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by brownish neointima. On microscopic inspection, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by thin neointima (0.27 ± 0.05 mm, mean ± standard deviation) with an endothelial layer, and stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by thick neointima (0.62 ± 0.17 mm) without any endothelial lining. Transgraft cell migration at the normal aortic wall was more active than that at the aneurysmal aortic wall. Conclusion Close contact between the stent and the graft, which was achieved with stent grafts with endo-exo-skeleton, could not enhance endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over the aneurysms. PMID:25246823

Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; So, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Beom; Min, Seung-Kee; Park, Jae Hyung

2014-01-01

412

An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. Case presentation A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patient’s left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Conclusion Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma. PMID:23327472

2013-01-01

413

Resistance to adhesion formation: A comparative study of treated and untreated mesh products placed in the abdominal cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New materials have been devised to prevent postoperative adhesions when placing a prosthesis in contact with abdominal contents. Methods: Eighty rats underwent laparotomy and denudation of the serosa of the cecum and peritoneal covering of the abdominal wall. Five treated mesh products (Parietex Composite, Parietene Composite, Bard Composix E\\/X, Sepramesh, and Gore-Tex Dual Mesh) and one untreated mesh product

R. Gonzalez; G. T. Rodeheaver; D. L. Moody; P. A. Foresman; B. J. Ramshaw

2004-01-01

414

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

2012-03-01

415

Influence of ferromagnetic walls on resistive wall mode stability in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a ferromagnetic wall on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in a tokamak is calculated using a simple quasi-cylindrical plasma model in which the dissipation required to stabilize the mode (in combination with toroidal plasma rotation) is provided by neoclassical poloidal flow damping. For present-day tokamaks, which possess relatively thin walls, ferromagnetism is found to have relatively little influence on the critical toroidal plasma rotation velocity above which the RWM is stabilized, which is almost the same as that calculated for a non-ferromagnetic wall. The same is true for walls of moderate thickness. In fact, ferromagnetism is only found to have a significant effect on the critical velocity in the limit of extreme wall thickness (i.e., a wall thickness comparable with the wall minor radius), in which case increasing wall permeability leads to a marked increase in the critical velocity.

Fitzpatrick, R.

2014-10-01

416

OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

1989-01-01

417

Multidetector CT Findings of Bowel Transection in Blunt Abdominal Trauma  

PubMed Central

Objective Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. Results The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Conclusion Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity. PMID:23901318

Cho, Hyun Suk; Hong, Hye-Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Ha, Hong Il; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji-Young

2013-01-01

418

Abdominal aortic feminism.  

PubMed

A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2?years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6?cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4?days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12?day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

Mortimer, Alice Emily

2014-01-01

419

Can activity within the external abdominal oblique be measured using real-time ultrasound imaging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDifferences in the function of the anterolateral abdominal muscles have been the subject of much investigation, but primarily using electromyography. Recently changes in thickness of transversus abdominis and internal oblique measured from real-time ultrasound images have been shown to represent activity within these muscles. However it is still unclear if such a change in thickness in external oblique similarly represents

E. K. John; I. D. Beith

2007-01-01

420

Diastasis recti and abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

An association between abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and abdominal wall hernia has been suggested, possibly reflecting a common collagen disorder. The same mechanism may also cause a greater frequency of diastasis recti among patients at risk of developing AAA. Diastasis recti could be used to identify patients at risk of AAA, with implications for AAA screening. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association between diastasis recti and AAA could be demonstrated.The preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans of 75 male patients undergoing elective AAA repair were retrospectively examined and linea alba width recorded at supraumbilical and subumbilical levels. Measurements were compared with controls frequency matched for age.Fifty patients with AAA were observed to have supraumbilical diastasis recti on preoperative CT compared with 47 controls. Mean linea alba width was not significantly different between the two groups at either the supraumbilical (19.3 mm vs 20.7 mm, p = .45) or subumbilical (3.6 mm vs 4.3 mm, p = .43) level.The findings do not support the hypothesis that the presence of diastasis recti can serve as an indication to select male patients for screening for AAA. PMID:19909679

Moesbergen, Todd; Law, Alice; Roake, Justin; Lewis, David R

2009-01-01

421

Parietal abdominal endometriosis following Cesarean section.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a pathological feature induced by the presence and ectopic development of islets of endometrial active cells. The most common site of occurrence is the genital system, causing specific gynecological pathology. The extragenital localization of endometriosis is rare, but it is more severe and it may have a malignant local evolution, although its structures remain benign. The endometrial inclusions in the abdominal wall scar are iatrogenic "implants", created at the same time with the surgical operation, performed on patients with genital endometriosis. The only curable treatment of this topography of endometriosis is the surgical removal of all the pathological tissue, through a large excision. The hormonal therapy is adjuvant. Our study presents three cases treated in our clinic; the most important objective was to establish the etiological diagnosis and, subsequently, the large excision of the lesions. PMID:21424102

Pa?alega, M; Mirea, C; Vîlcea, I D; Vasile, I; Ple?ea, I E; Calot?, F; Me?in?, C; Pârv?nescu, H; Baluta, M

2011-01-01

422

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Paracentesis  

MedlinePLUS

... organs), severe bowel or bladder distention, and previous abdominal-pelvic surgery may increase the risk of the procedure. In those situations, an ultrasound-guided paracentesis should be considered. Procedural complications are rare but can include ANALYSIS OF ASCITIC ...

423

Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernia: one-year experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 101 consecutive laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repairs (LTPR) were performed in 62 patients by a single surgeon. The series was begun in April 1991, and involved repair of 49 direct, 41 indirect, 4 femoral, 3 umbilical, 3 sliding, and 1 incisional hernias. Twelve cases were bilateral, eleven hernias were incarcerated, and fifteen hernias were recurrent. There were no intraoperative complications, and none of the procedures required conversion to open surgery. Patients experienced the following postoperative complications: transient testicular pain (1), transient anterior thigh paresthesias (2), urinary retention requiring TURP (1), and hernia recurrences (2). Follow up has ranged from 4 - 15 months and initial results have been encouraging.

Kavic, Michael S.

1993-05-01

424

NOTES ® transgastric abdominal wall hernia repair in a porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  With approximately 1 million ventral and inguinal hernia repairs performed in the United States each year, even small rates\\u000a of complications translate into large numbers of patients. Less invasive approaches that potentially lower morbidity deserve\\u000a consideration, recognizing there are many technical considerations that currently limit their use. We describe a reproducible\\u000a technique and lessons learned in our laboratory that answer some

D. B. Earle; D. J. Desilets; J. R. Romanelli

2010-01-01

425

Detection of elemental mercury in abdominal wall soft tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case Report  A 19-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history presented with his father, who requested an evaluation of a pathology\\u000a specimen from a reported “lump” under the skin in the middle of the son’s lower abdomen. The lump had been excised by a surgeon\\u000a approximately 3 months prior, per parental request. Upon gross inspection, the specimen appeared to contain small

Linda S. Ellis; Michael E. Mullins; Nancy Galvin; Anthony J. Scalzo

2009-01-01