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1

Abduction dealing with potential values  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of “value” to the abduction procedure. In fact, “values” are dealt with outside of the abduction procedure. For usual abduction, we always consider values included in the knowledge (hard coded). However, for a certain procedure, such values are unnecessary and sometimes harmful. Outside of the main abduction procedure, the inference system can flexibly

Akinori Abe

2010-01-01

2

Diagnostic procedures in dermatology.  

PubMed

Although most skin diseases can be diagnosed with simple visual inspection, laboratory investigations are necessary in several clinical circumstances. This contribution highlights the usefulness of routine diagnostic procedures that are often overlooked and the innovative methods of molecular biology, which are expensive and require an experienced staff. Among the classic diagnostic investigations are (1) the use of Wood's light in many dermatologic disorders (eg, vitiligo, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma, porphyrias), (2) cytodiagnosis of Tzanck in dermatologic practice (eg, herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis, pemphigus vulgaris, basal cell carcinoma, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Hailey-Hailey disease), and (3) microscopic examination for fungal and bacterial skin infections as well as for mite infestation using potassium hydroxide, simple saline, and Gram stain. Modern molecular biotechnologies encompassing gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and its variants have a substantial affect in selected cases of viral (especially herpes simplex virus), bacterial, fungal, and protozoan (Leishmania) skin infections. PMID:21855731

Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Ruocco, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

3

Evaluation of diagnostic procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-5 Further› more, research funds rarely cover diagnostic research starting from symptoms or tests. Since quality of the diagnostic process largely determines quality of care, overcoming deficiencies in standards, methodology, and funding deserves high priority. This article summarises objectives of diagnos› tic testing and research, methodological challenges, and options for design of studies.

Chris van Weel; Jean W M Muris

2002-01-01

4

Animal Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two sections of this chapter are strictly related to some seminal Peircean philosophical considerations concerning\\u000a abduction, perception, inference, and instinct which I consider are still important to current cognitive research. Peircean\\u000a analysis helps us to better grasp how model-based, sentential and manipulative aspects of abduction have to be seen as intertwined.\\u000a Moreover, Peircean emphasis on the role of

Lorenzo Magnani

5

Abduction for Creative Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creative design primarily comes from innovative combination of existing knowledge. While abduction is considered crucial for design in general, the paper also focuses on the role of abduction to integrate knowledge. Based on Schurz's classification of abductive reasoning, the paper identifies that abduction for integrating theories can be performed by a special type of abduction called second order existential abduction.

Tetsuo Tomiyama; Hideaki Takeda; Masaharu Yoshioka; Yoshiki Shimomura

2003-01-01

6

Patterns of abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes abductions as special patterns of inference to the best explanation whose structure determines a particularly promising abductive conjecture (conclusion) and thus serves as an abductive search strategy (Sect. 1). A classification of different patterns of abduction is provided which intends to be as complete as possible (Sect. 2). An important distinction is that between selective abductions, which

G. Schurz

2008-01-01

7

Alien Abductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

Nickell, Joe

2000-03-01

8

Abduction moment arm of transposed subscapularis tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the procedure of superior transposition of the subscapularis on the biomechanics of glenohumeral abduction.Design. The abduction moment arms of the subscapularis muscle for the normal attachment and transposed tendon were measured on 10 cadaver shoulders and compared to that for the normal supraspinatus tendon for which it is

Tomotaka Nakajima; Jain Liu; Richard E. Hughes; Shawn O'Driscoll; Kai-Nan An

1999-01-01

9

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

10

Metaphor and Abduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper a recent approach to inference in text understanding based on abduction is applied to the problem of metaphor interpretation. The fundamental ideas in the interpretation as abduction approach are outlined. A succinct characterization of inte...

J. R. Hobbs

1991-01-01

11

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

12

Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye  

PubMed Central

Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface.

Kastelan, Snjezana; Tomic, Martina; Salopek-Rabatic, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

2013-01-01

13

Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.  

PubMed

In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs. PMID:18834282

Forrest, David V

2008-01-01

14

[Ectopic pregnancy: changes in diagnostic procedures? (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Patients with ectopic pregnancy and those suspected having ectopic pregnancy were reviewed in a twenty years interval (1957-59, 1977-79). These patients were evaluated with regard to medical history, clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic procedures, and clinical course. The diagnostic usefulness of symptoms and diagnostic procedures is expressed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. According to our results laparoscopy is an ideal procedure for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Nevertheless, puncture of the Douglas pouch in our experience has its place as a diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:6213442

Ortner, A; Zech, H; Thöni, A; Dapunt, O

1982-05-01

15

Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of

T. R. Addis; D. C. Gooding

2004-01-01

16

Psychoeducational Diagnostic Services for Learning Disabled Youths. Research Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed explicit definition of learning disability (LD) is presented in terms of the diagnostic procedures and decision points used in identifying that category among a group of juvenile delinquent and control group adolescent males. The described procedures include a review of existing records, interviews, and diagnostic assessments.…

Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others

17

Does preoperative abduction value affect functional outcome of combined muscle transfer and release procedures in obstetrical palsy patients with shoulder involvement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb function because of functional limitations, bony deformities and joint contractures. Shoulder is the most frequently affected joint with internal rotation contracture causing limitation of abduction, external rotation. The treatment

Atakan Aydin; Turker Ozkan; Defne Onel

2004-01-01

18

Abductive, Inductive and Deductive Reasoning about Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe a method for reasoning about programs that uses a mixture of abductive, inductive and deductive inference. It\\u000a allows us to synthesize a pre\\/post spec for a program procedure, without requiring any information about the procedure’s calling\\u000a context. The method can be used to obtain partial specifications for portions of large code bases in the millions of lines\\u000a of

Peter W. O'Hearn

2010-01-01

19

20 CFR 404.1519m - Diagnostic tests or procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519m Diagnostic tests or procedures....

2013-04-01

20

Managing diagnostic procedures in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most prevalent of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, is associated with a poor prognosis. An accurate diagnosis of IPF is essential for its optimal management. The 2011 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS)/Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS)/Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT) recommendations on the diagnosis and management of IPF were developed from a systematic review of the published literature. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning has a central role in the IPF diagnostic pathway, with formal designation of criteria for an HRCT pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the correct clinical context, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT is indicative of a definite diagnosis of IPF and negates the need for a surgical lung biopsy. However, although the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement is a major advance, the application of the guideline recommendations by clinicians has identified limitations that should be addressed in future statements. Key problems include: 1) HRCT misdiagnosis, particularly by less experienced radiologists; 2) lack of management recommendations for the highly prevalent clinical scenarios of "probable" or "possible" IPF; 3) ongoing confusion concerning the diagnostic role of bronchoalveolar lavage; and 4) the lack of integration of clinical data in the designation of the diagnostic likelihood of IPF, including the treated course of disease. These issues become evident as the recommendations are applied and highlight the need for continued guideline adjustments. PMID:23728870

Wells, Athol U

2013-06-01

21

Pediatric radiological diagnostic procedures in cases of suspected child abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostic procedures are essential in cases of clinically diagnosed injuries to the\\u000a head, thorax, abdomen or extremities of a child, especially if there is no case history or if the reporting of an inadequate\\u000a trauma suggests battered child syndrome. In particular, these diagnostic procedures should aim at detecting lesions of the\\u000a central nervous system (CNS), so

C. Erfurt; G. Hahn; D. Roesner; U. Schmidt

2011-01-01

22

Abduction as Belief Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model of abduction based on the revision of the epistemic state of an agent. Explanations must be sufficient to induce belief in the sentence to be explained (for instance, some observation), or ensure its consistency with other beliefs , in a manner that adequately accounts for factual and hypothetical sentences. Our model will generate explanations that nonmonotonically

Craig Boutilier; Verónica Becher

1995-01-01

23

Modelling Temporal Abductive Explanation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abductive reasoning and temporal reasoning have for the most part remained separate fields of study. Models for either tasks have made overly-simplistic assumptions about the other in order to concentrate on small highly-domain specific tasks. For example...

E. Santos

1993-01-01

24

Abduction in Classification Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this paper is to show how abduction can be used in classification tasks when we deal with incomplete data. Some\\u000a classifiers, even if based on decision tree induction like C4.5 1, produce as output a set of rules in order to classify new\\u000a given examples. Most of these rule-based classifiers make the assumption that at classification time

Maurizio Atzori; Paolo Mancarella; Franco Turini

2003-01-01

25

Child molesters who abduct.  

PubMed

This study examined the differences between 97 abducting and 60 nonabducting child molesters on selected typological and antisocial/criminal variables. Although the results supported one a priori hypothesis, they disconfirmed two others and yielded an unpredicted but theoretically interesting abductor covariate. Our hypothesis that child abductors would more likely be classified as "low" in their contact with children (i.e., have little or no contact with children outside of their offenses) than the nonabductors was supported. In contrast, our hypotheses that the abductors were more likely to be characterized by a history of antisocial and criminal behavior as well as a greater degree of aggression were not supported. Abductors were found to be lower in social competence than the child molesters who never abducted their victims. The results were discussed in terms of abduction as in victim control strategy that is more likely employed by offenders with poor social and interpersonal skills. The complex interrelation among social competence, weapons, and sadism for abductors and nonabductors was explored. PMID:1818619

Prentky, R A; Knight, R A; Burgess, A W; Ressler, R; Campbell, J; Lanning, K V

1991-01-01

26

Echocardiographic guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous procedures  

PubMed Central

Echocardiographic guidance has an important role in percutaneous cardiovascular procedures and vascular access. The advantages include real time imaging, portability, and availability, which make it an effective imaging modality. This article will review the role of echocardiographic guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous procedures, specifically, transvenous and transarterial access, pericardiocentesis, endomyocardial biopsy, transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement, pulmonary valve repair, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and percutaneous mitral valve repair. We will address the ways in which echocardiographic guidance provides these procedures with detailed information on anatomy, adjacent structures, and intraprocedural instrument position, thus resulting in improvement in procedural efficacy, safety and patient outcomes.

Nguyen, Cam Tu; Lee, Eunice; Luo, Huai

2011-01-01

27

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal...Protection Guidance for Diagnostic X-rays,'' which was released in...

2013-04-03

28

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2012-10-01

29

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2011-10-01

30

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2010-10-01

31

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2013-10-01

32

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2009-10-01

33

Diagnostic Procedures for Detecting Nonlinear Relationships between Latent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation models are commonly used to estimate relationships between latent variables. Almost universally, the fitted models specify that these relationships are linear in form. This assumption is rarely checked empirically, largely for lack of appropriate diagnostic techniques. This article presents and evaluates two procedures that can…

Bauer, Daniel J.; Baldasaro, Ruth E.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

2012-01-01

34

[Ophthalmologic diagnostic procedures and imaging of retinal vein occlusions].  

PubMed

Retinal vein occlusions are a common vascular disease of the eye. Ophthalmological diagnostic procedures and imaging are important for the prognosis of the disease, as are the systemic work-up and therapy. Besides routine ophthalmic tests (visual acuity, slit lamp examination, funduscopy) a work-up for glaucoma such as intraocular pressure, visual field or 24 h IOP profile is useful as a diagnostic procedure. Furthermore, new diagnostic and imaging tests such as central corneal thickness and optic nerve head imaging by Heidelberg retina tomography or optical coherence tomography (OCT) should be considered for glaucoma evaluation. Optical coherence tomography also plays a major role in treatment monitoring of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusions. Fluorescein angiography is well established and can provide information with regard to size and extent of the occlusion, degree of ischemia, areas of non-perfusion and neovascularization, as well as macular edema. PMID:21331683

Mirshahi, A; Lorenz, K; Kramann, C; Stoffelns, B; Hattenbach, L-O

2011-02-01

35

Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.  

PubMed

Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (? = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (? = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run. PMID:23636760

Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

2013-07-01

36

Frameless stereotactic procedures in pediatric patients: safety and diagnostic efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and diagnostic yield of a frameless method for\\u000a stereotactic neurosurgical procedures in pediatric patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-two frameless stereotactic neurosurgical procedures (18 biopsies, 4 catheter placements), using a modified frameless\\u000a stereotactic navigational system, were performed in 21 pediatric patients in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All procedures\\u000a were performed

Mary G. Parreño; Xiao Bo; Okezie O. Kanu; Shlomi Constantini; Andrew A. Kanner

37

Shoulder abduction fatiguability.  

PubMed Central

Shoulder abduction fatiguability has been measured using a hand held myometer in normal subjects and patients with peripheral neuromuscular diseases. An index of fatiguability was based on the decline in force over a series of ten maximum voluntary contractions performed in under a minute. The technique was repeatable and well tolerated. Patients with myasthenia, mitochondrial myopathy and motor neuron disease tended to show excess fatiguability independent of muscle strength. Serial measurements demonstrated alterations in fatiguability but not necessarily strength, associated with changes in symptoms. Images

Nicklin, J; Karni, Y; Wiles, C M

1987-01-01

38

Shoulder abduction fatiguability.  

PubMed

Shoulder abduction fatiguability has been measured using a hand held myometer in normal subjects and patients with peripheral neuromuscular diseases. An index of fatiguability was based on the decline in force over a series of ten maximum voluntary contractions performed in under a minute. The technique was repeatable and well tolerated. Patients with myasthenia, mitochondrial myopathy and motor neuron disease tended to show excess fatiguability independent of muscle strength. Serial measurements demonstrated alterations in fatiguability but not necessarily strength, associated with changes in symptoms. PMID:3585353

Nicklin, J; Karni, Y; Wiles, C M

1987-04-01

39

Abductive reasoning and qualitative research.  

PubMed

Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. Deduction and induction are discussed in the nursing literature. However, abduction has been largely neglected by nurse scholars. In this paper it is proposed that abduction may play a part in qualitative data analysis - specifically, in the identification of themes, codes, and categories. Abduction is not, in research, restricted to or associated with any particular methodology. Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. First, it is suggested that abductively derived claims require support from deductive and inductively sourced evidence if they are to 'hold' and, yet, in qualitative research this is clearly problematic. Second, difficulties in choosing between alternative plausible hypotheses (i.e. concerning theme, code, and category description) are explored through an examination of the 'generality problem'. Third, the role of background and auxiliary theories in adjudicating between hypothesis options is discussed. It is argued that if qualitative researchers utilize abductive inference in the manner suggested, then the peculiarly fallible nature of abduction must be acknowledged and, in consequence, the action guiding potential of qualitative research findings is compromised. PMID:22950728

Lipscomb, Martin

2012-10-01

40

[Evaluation of quality of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was quality assessment of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland, including human and technical resources as well as laboratory practice. Sixty questionnaires were distributed among diagnostic centers to obtain qualitative data. Basing on the survey data serological control using coded panels of HIV-1/2 samples was performed. Thirty-one filled questionnaires were received (50.8%). Surveyed laboratories perform from 350 to 5500 serological screening tests per year. In most of laboratories fourth generation assays are available, while Blood Donation Centers screen the blood both with serological assays and by HIV-RNA detection. Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and academic laboratories hold the ISO/IEC 17025 or IS0 9001:2001 accreditation, five of the surveyed centers participate in Labquality assurance and two in Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics programs. Data of control serological testing were received from 21 centers. In the quality control assessment 194 analyses were performed with 91 true negative, 2 false negative, 96 true positive and 5 false positive results. False negative rate of % and false positive rate of 5.2% was noted for this study. Conclusions: Currently, virtually no guidelines related to the HIV-diagnostics quality assurance and control in Poland are in delineated. Development of the national unified quality control system, basing on the central institution is highly desirable. National certification within the frames of the quality control and assurance program should be mandatory for all the diagnostic labs, and aim at improvement of reliability of the result distributed among clinicians and patients. PMID:20499659

Parczewski, Mi?osz; Madali?ski, Kazimierz; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Boro?-Kaczmarska, Anna

2010-01-01

41

Safety issues regarding colonic cleansing for diagnostic and surgical procedures.  

PubMed

There are various methods available to cleanse the colon in preparation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. The popular options are diet and cathartic regimens, gut lavage and phosphate preparations. Each method has its own unique characteristics and safety profile. Diet and cathartic regimens are based on traditional methods of colonoscopy preparation and remain an acceptable and safe alternative for patients unwilling or unable to tolerate other bowel preparations. Gut lavage methods involve ingestion of 2-4L of osmotically balanced solutions containing polyethylene glycol, which have been shown to be safe and effective for colon cleansing, including for special patient populations with cardiac, renal or hepatic dysfunction. Phosphate preparations have also been shown to be safe and effective for colon cleansing and are generally better tolerated than counterpart gut lavage solutions. However, this method has safety concerns for some patients with cardiac, renal and hepatic dysfunctions. PMID:15588118

Clark, Larry E; Dipalma, Jack A

2004-01-01

42

An evolutionary algorithm for abductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abductive reasoning (or abduction) is the process of inferring hypotheses from observed data using a certain ‘knowledge’ encoded in the form of inference rules (or causal relations). Many important kinds of intellectual tasks, including medical diagnosis, fault diagnosis, scientific discovery, legal reasoning, and natural language understanding have been characterised as abduction. Unfortunately, abduction is 𝒩𝒫-hard. Genetic algorithms and biologically motivated

L. B. Romdhane; B. Ayeb

2011-01-01

43

Problems with Peirce's Concept of Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abductive reasoning takes place in forming``hypotheses'' in order to explain ``facts.'' Thus, theconcept of abduction promises an understanding ofcreativity in science and learning. It raises,however, also a lot of problems. Some of them will bediscussed in this paper. After analyzing thedifference between induction and abduction (1), Ishall discuss Peirce's claim that there is a ``logic''of abduction (2). The thesis is

Michael Hoffmann

1999-01-01

44

Abductive Logics in a Belief Revision Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction was first introduced by the philosopher C.S. Peirce in the epistemological context of scientific discovery. It was more recently analyzed in Artificial Intelligence, especially with respect to diagnosis analysis or ordinary reasoning. These two fields share a common view of abduction as a general process of hypotheses formation. More precisely, abduction is conceived as a kind of reverse explanation

Bernard Walliser; Denis Zwirn; Hervé Zwirn

2005-01-01

45

The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

2011-01-01

46

Creativity: Surprise and abductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates creativity focusing on the nature of abductive reasoning, as originally formulated by Peirce, situating it in the context of the theory of self -organization. An ancient question will be addressed: is it appropriate to investigate creative processes from a mechanistic perspective or do they involve subjective elements which cannot - in principle - be investigated from a

Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez

2005-01-01

47

What makes propositional abduction tractable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction is a fundamental form of nonmonotonic reasoning that aims at finding explanations for observed manifestations. This process underlies many applications, from car configuration to medical diagnosis. We study here the computational com- plexity of deciding whether an explanation exists in the case when the application domain is described by a propositional knowledge base. Building on previous results, we classify

Gustav Nordh; Bruno Zanuttini

2008-01-01

48

Prevention of tumour cell dissemination in diagnostic needle procedures  

PubMed Central

Background: A side effect of diagnostic needle biopsies is the possibility to disseminate tumour cells into the needle track, which may cause concern in certain malignant tumour types. Methods: In order to prevent tumour cell dissemination we developed a technology that uses radiofrequency (RF) pulses to sterilise the needle track and denaturate tumour cells. To determine feasibility, we applied this technology to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and used breast cancer as a model tumour. Routine FNAB was performed in 88 patients with adenocarcinoma and blood droplets passing the skin orifice were cytomorphologically analysed for the presence of tumour cells. Results: The analysis showed the presence of tumour cells in 65/88 cases (74%). When using an experimental anti-seeding device in a subset of patients viable tumour cells were found in 0/31 cases (P<0.001). In all 31 patients blood passing the skin orifice was sparse. No degrading effect on the cytological sample inside the needle was detected and pain caused by the RF pulses was comparable to that of the biopsy procedure itself. Conclusion: The herein presented method has the potential to prevent the dissemination of viable tumour cells in the needle track and minimize bleeding without additional pain or degradation of the aspirate.

Wiksell, H; Schassburger, K-U; Janicijevic, M; Leifland, K; Lofgren, L; Rotstein, S; Sandberg, P-O; Wadstrom, C; Auer, G

2010-01-01

49

[List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].  

PubMed

Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future clarification. Ankle brachial pressure index, color duplex sonography, plethysmography, MSCT and MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, phlebography, angiography, x-ray, and capillaroscopy in lupus erythematosus are indicated. Except for bacteriologic analyses of wound biopsies, there is no test to provide specific information on the wound condition. PMID:24371972

Spoljar, Sanja

2013-10-01

50

Guided abduction traction in the treatment of congenital hip dislocation.  

PubMed

Guided abduction is a form of overhead traction conceptually similar to the Pavlik harness. It is used in older children or in children in which the Pavlik harness has failed. The results of 27 congenitally dislocated hips treated by guided abduction traction from December 1979 to June 1989 were reviewed. Ages ranged from 1 month to 28 months. Twenty (74%) of the 27 hips underwent a gentle, often spontaneous, closed reduction, followed by abduction casting and bracing. Two hips developed radiographic evidence of avascular necrosis; five hips developed temporary irregular ossification. Closed reduction was unobtainable in any child older than 24 months. Two children needed additional reconstructive procedures, one an innominate pelvic osteotomy and the other a valgus derotation osteotomy. Both had had open reductions. Recent reports stated that preliminary traction in the treatment of congenitally dislocated hips is of no value. We consider guided abduction traction a valuable treatment modality resulting in a reduced incidence of open reduction. When comparing our results with those of a Salt Lake City study performed without preliminary traction, our incidence of open reduction is lower (26 versus 49%). Our study supports the use of preliminary traction to decrease the need for open reduction in congenitally dislocated hips. PMID:7962510

Tavares, J O; Gottwald, D H; Rochelle, J R

1994-01-01

51

Abductive reasoning in neural-symbolic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny.\\u000a There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research\\u000a community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive\\u000a reasoning. In this paper

Artur S. d’Avila Garcez; Dov M. Gabbay; Oliver Ray; John Woods

2007-01-01

52

The role of abduction in proving processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes.\\u000a Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students’ mathematical activity\\u000a and extend Toulmin’s model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students’ reasoning and to classify

Bettina Pedemonte; David Reid

2011-01-01

53

Abductive Reasoning and Similarity: Some Computational Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abductive reasoning includes discovering new hypotheses or explanations. This chapter identifies several factors involved\\u000a in abductive reasoning in an effort to move toward a theory of such reasoning. The chapter has an ultimate focus on the nature\\u000a and influence of similarity. A major goal of our work is to develop computational tools that provide intelligent abductive\\u000a suggestions to people engaged

Roger W. Schvaneveldt; Trevor A. Cohen

54

An abductive inference technique for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a system modeling concept and a new algorithm based on abductive inference for handling diagnostic problems in electrical power transmission networks. The overall technique relies on the inherent functional and logical relationships between system elements such as lines, buses, relays and breakers to generate a diagnostic model rather than on experientially derived heuristics. This approach allows for

T. S. Sidhu; O. Cruder; G. J. Huff

1997-01-01

55

Sedation and analgesia for brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures done outside of the operating room and the intensive care unit has increased\\u000a substantially in recent years. In parallel, the management of acute pain and anxiety in children undergoing therapeutic and\\u000a diagnostic procedures has developed considerably in the past two decades. The primary goal of procedural sedation and analgesia\\u000a is the safe and

Sascha Meyer; Ulrich Grundmann; Sven Gottschling; Stefan Kleinschmidt; Ludwig Gortner

2007-01-01

56

A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research.

Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

2014-01-01

57

Using Abductive Logic Agents for Legal Justification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel approach for legal justification based on an abductive multi-agent system. Legal justification has the main objective of finding the plausible explanations for some given pieces of evidence, for instance in a crime trial. In our approach, the process of justification is done through the collaborative abductive reasoning of agents, which operate within a

A. Ciampolini; P. Torroni

2002-01-01

58

Abductive processes in conjecturing and proving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to build a cognitive model to identify and account for possible cognitive processes students implement when they prove assertions in Calculus, specifically a cognitive model that would help to recognize creative processes of an abductive nature. To this end, Peirce's Theory of Abduction and Harel's Theory of Transformational Proof Scheme have been used.

Elisabetta Ferrando

2005-01-01

59

Abduction, tomography, and other inverse problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles S. Peirce introduced in the late 19th century the notion of abduction as inference from effects to causes, or from observational data to explanatory theories. Abductive reasoning has become a major theme in contemporary logic, philosophy of science, and artificial intelligence. This paper argues that the new growing branch of applied mathematics called inverse problems deals successfully with various

Ilkka Niiniluoto

2011-01-01

60

Peirce and the autonomy of abductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential to Peirce's distinction among three kinds of reasoning, deduction, induction and abduction, is the claim that each is correlated to a unique species of validity irreducible to that of the others. In particular, abductive validity cannot be analyzed in either deductive or inductive terms, a consequence of considerable importance for the logical and epistemological scrutiny of scientific methods. But

Tomis Kapitan

1992-01-01

61

Abduction and Induction: Syllogistic and Inferential Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction and induction are reasoning forms for drawing con- clusions from incomplete information. Induction, i.e. inferring properties of sets of individuals from properties of individuals, was already distinguished by Aristotle, while the term 'abduction' was introduced much later by Peirce for inference of explanations for observed phenomena. Both reasoning forms are presently being studied and applied by researchers in artificial

Peter A. Flach

1996-01-01

62

Procedures Document for Psychoeducational Diagnostic Services for Learning Disabled Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The listed procedures are intended to provide guidance for the implementation of a study of learning disability among 12-15 year old adjudicated delinquent boys and non-adjudicated public school boys of the same age, and to support interpretation of study data and replication of the study's procedures. This task can best be considered in several…

Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others

63

Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

64

Crime of Family Abduction. A Child's and Parent's Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Family abduction is the most prevalent form of child abduction in the United States. Regardless of the abductors motive, it is an illegal act that has lasting consequences for the abducted child, the custodial parent, and the abducting family member. It i...

2010-01-01

65

Implication of Abduction: Complexity without Organized Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abduction, which is articulated by C.S. Peirce, is one of the forms of inference. Abduction has been researched not only in philosophy but also in artificial intelligence and information science. Finlay and Dix's representation of abduction (1996) has almost the same meaning which is given by Peirce. On the other hand, Sawa and Gunji (2010) express three types of inference as operations of arrows on a simple triangular diagram. In the present paper, we show that Sawa-Gunji's representation of abduction is consistent with Finlay-Dix's one, and synthesize the two representations. Both parameter estimation and abduction occupy a similar position on the synthesized representation, but they are not completely corresponding. We present ``incomplete'' parameter estimation as a sort of ``simulated abduction'', since abduction has an intrinsic incompleteness, which means that abduction is formally equivalent to ``the logical fallacy affirming the consequent''. In other words, a numerical aspect of abduction (i.e. the simulated abduction) is formalized as incomplete parameter estimation. The concept of simulated abduction is applied to parameter estimation of auto-regressive models, and the effects of it is investigated. As a result of the numerical analyses, the distribution of the incompletely estimated parameter shows a power law of the slop -2 in the tail, although conventionally estimated parameter is normally distributed. The power law of the incompletely estimated parameter is based on the structure of ratio distribution. In other words, this result shows that the power law can arise when system observers premise a linearity of input and output data which are too small to estimate the system structure. We call the premise of the system observers ``linearity bias''. As an example of the cause of power law distributions, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been known. These distributions are based on the mechanisms of the systems themselves, which have some organized interaction between their elements. On the other hand, power law distribution which is derived from the incomplete parameter estimation and the linearity bias is not based on a mechanism of system itself but on relationship between data on the system and observer of the data. Consequently, our research suggests that complexity expressed by a power law distribution can be derived from the incomplete parameter estimation which is a numerical aspect of abduction and is different from SOC mechanisms.

Kamiura, Moto

2010-11-01

66

Parental Abduction: A Review of the Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This literature review is a companion to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Bulletin, The Criminal Justice Systems Response to Parental Abduction (NCJ 186160). The Bulletin summarizes the primary findings of an OJJDP-funded ...

J. Chiancone

2008-01-01

67

Completing fault models for abductive diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

In logic-based diagnosis, the consistency-based method is used to determine the possible sets of faulty devices. If the fault models of the devices are incomplete or nondeterministic, then this method does not necessarily yield abductive explanations of system behavior. Such explanations give additional information about faulty behavior and can be used for prediction. Unfortunately, system descriptions for the consistency-based method are often not suitable for abductive diagnosis. Methods for completing the fault models for abductive diagnosis have been suggested informally by Poole and by Cox et al. Here we formalize these methods by introducing a standard form for system descriptions. The properties of these methods are determined in relation to consistency-based diagnosis and compared to other ideas for integrating consistency-based and abductive diagnosis.

Knill, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cox, P.T.; Pietrzykowski, T. (Technical Univ., NS (Canada))

1992-11-05

68

Radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures following allogeneic stem cell transplantation - How much is acceptable?  

PubMed

Background Frequent diagnostic radiology procedures in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients raise concern about the potential harm from incidental radiation. Objectives To determine the cumulative radiation dose from diagnostic studies in allogeneic SCT and its impact on clinical outcome. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the cumulative radiation dose from diagnostic studies following SCT. Sixty-four consecutive patients with hematological malignancies in a single tertiary care institution underwent total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning followed by six of six human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling allogeneic SCT. The median follow-up was 3 years. The cumulative effective dose in mSv from diagnostic radiological studies in the peri-transplant period from day -30 to day +200 was calculated for each patient and its impact on overall survival and non-relapse mortality was determined. Results The median cumulative radiation exposure from diagnostic radiological procedures was 92 mSv (range 1.2-300), representing about 30× the normal annual background radiation for the population and 10% of the 1200 cGy TBI dose used in conditioning. Sixty-five percent of the cumulative radiation exposure was delivered between day +1 and day 100 and computed tomography scans contributed 88%. In multivariate analysis, diagnostic procedures did not significantly impact clinical outcomes. Conclusions While radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures did not impact clinical outcomes the risk of secondary cancers in long-term survivors is likely to be increased. Our results indicate that patients who are acutely ill for prolonged periods can receive clinically significant radiation doses during their hospital care. Our findings should prompt attempts to limit radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures in post-SCT recipients. PMID:24094072

Battiwalla, Minoo; Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Jain, Natasha A; Klotz, Jeffrey K; Pophali, Priyanka A; Draper, Debbie; Haggerty, Janice; McIver, Zachariah; Jelinek, James; Chawla, Kamna; Ito, Sawa; Barrett, John

2014-07-01

69

Abductive Reasoning, Information, and Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We investigate, from a philosophical perspective, the relation between abductive reasoning and information in the\\u000a context of biological systems. Emphasis is given to the organizational role played by abductive reasoning in practical activities\\u000a of embodied embedded agency that involve meaningful information. From this perspective, meaningful information is provisionally\\u000a characterized as a selforganizing process of pattern generation that constrains coherent

Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez; Mariana Claudia Broens; Fabricio Loffredo D'ottaviano

2007-01-01

70

Abductive networks applied to electronic combat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

1990-08-01

71

Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction  

PubMed Central

We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory’s predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored “while-loops” over “for-loops” in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks.

Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.

2013-01-01

72

Diagnostic x-ray procedures and risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to diagnostic x-rays and the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma were studied within two prepaid health plans. Adult patients with leukemia (n = 565), NHL (n = 318), and multiple myeloma (n = 208) were matched to controls (n = 1390), and over 25,000 x-ray procedures were abstracted from medical records. Dose response was evaluated by assigning each x-ray procedure a score based on estimated bone marrow dose. X-ray exposure was not associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignant conditions never linked to radiation (relative risk (RR), 0.66). For all other forms of leukemia combined (n = 358), there was a slight elevation in risk (RR, 1.17) but no evidence of a dose-response relationship when x-ray procedures near the time of diagnosis were excluded. Similarly, patients with NHL were exposed to diagnostic x-ray procedures more often than controls (RR, 1.32), but the RR fell to 0.99 when the exposure to diagnostic x-ray procedures within 2 years of diagnosis was ignored. For multiple myeloma, overall risk was not significantly high (RR, 1.14), but there was consistent evidence of increasing risk with increasing numbers of diagnostic x-ray procedures. These data suggest that persons with leukemia and NHL undergo x-ray procedures frequently just prior to diagnosis for conditions related to the development or natural history of their disease. There was little evidence that diagnostic x-ray procedures were causally associated with leukemia or NHL. The risk for multiple myeloma, however, was increased among those patients who were frequently exposed to x-rays.

Boice, J.D. Jr.; Morin, M.M.; Glass, A.G.; Friedman, G.D.; Stovall, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-03-13

73

“The General's Abduction by Aliens from a UFO: Levels of Meaning of Alien Abduction Reports”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study is presented of a patient who claims to have been abducted by aliens from a distant planet. Four related levels of meaning for the patient's belief that he—and other “contactees”—were deducted is provided. These explanations can be categorized as: historical, moral, metaphorical, and psychological. A rationale is offered for the treatment of patients with alien abduction beliefs.

Carl Goldberg

2000-01-01

74

General-purpose abductive algorithm for interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abduction, inference to the best explanation, is an information-processing task that is useful for solving interpretation problems such as diagnosis, medical test analysis, legal reasoning, theory evaluation, and perception. The task is a generative one in which an explanation comprising of domain hypotheses is assembled and used to account for given findings. The explanation is taken to be an interpretation as to why the findings have arisen within the given situation. Research in abduction has led to the development of a general-purpose computational strategy which has been demonstrated on all of the above types of problems. This abduction strategy can be performed in layers so that different types of knowledge can come together in deriving an explanation at different levels of description. Further, the abduction strategy is tractable and offers a very useful tradeoff between confidence in the explanation and completeness of the explanation. This paper will describe this computational strategy for abduction and demonstrate its usefulness towards perceptual problems by examining problem-solving systems in speech recognition and natural language understanding.

Fox, Richard K.; Hartigan, Julie

1996-11-01

75

Limitations of current diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic procedures for porcine cysticercosis. Sera were obtained from 32 pigs reared in commercial farms, 47 pigs before and after experimental infection, 42 carefully necropsied rural pigs and 191 slaughtered pigs from rural communities in which the presence of the Taenia solium metacestode was assessed by tongue dissection. Sera were analyzed

E. Sciutto; J. J. Mart??nez; N. M. Villalobos; M. Hernández; M. V. José; C. Beltrán; F. Rodarte; I. Flores; J. R. Bobadilla; G. Fragoso; M. E. Parkhouse; L. J. S. Harrison; A. S. de Aluja

1998-01-01

76

Past-Life Identities, Ufo Abductions, and Satanic Ritual Abuse: The Social Construction of Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual Satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured

Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Burgess; Melissa Faith Burgess

1994-01-01

77

Scientific method, abduction, and clinical reasoning.  

PubMed

This special issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology comprises six theoretical papers that are concerned with the interconnected topics of scientific method, abductive inference, and clinical reasoning. The first four papers deal with the nature and limitations of a broad abductive theory of scientific method, and its application to clinical reasoning and case formulation. These are followed by three papers which in turn consider the prospects of using explanatory criteria to appraise competing models of psychopathy, examine the merits of a number of different psychometric perspectives on the assessment of psychopathology, and reject a core supposition of the orthodox approach to hypothesis testing. PMID:18615499

Haig, Brian D

2008-09-01

78

Abductive signal interpretation for nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of how knowledge-intensive explanatory reasoning can be used to construct an interpretation of ultrasonic signals indicating the existence of cracks and similar defects in solid materials; this AI 'abductive' reasoning is able to simultaneously inspect and classify the material sample in question. The abduction (logic-programming-based) engine used is implemented in the PROLOG code AMAL, and conducts backward chains that reduce observations to known facts via general laws. AMAL is capable of making assumptions in ways comparable to those recently explored in truth maintenance and logic programming frameworks.

O'Rorke, Paul; Morris, Steven

1992-03-01

79

Workshop on Abduction and Induction in AI and Scientific Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction and Induction are forms of logical reasoning with incomplete information that have many applications in AI. Abduction reasons from effects to possible causes and has been used in tasks such as planning and diagno- sis. Induction learns general rules for observed data and is typically used for classification and knowledge acquisition. This Workshop investigates the claim that Abduction and

Peter A. Flach; Antonis C. Kakas; Lorenzo Magnani; Oliver Ray

80

An abductive expert system for interpretation of real-time data  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes DINT, a data interpretation expert system which can provide an explanation of the real-time operating state of a substation to its operators. DINT is based on a generalized version of the set covering model for diagnostic problem solving. This abductive reasoning model is an object-based, frame-like knowledge representation paradigm. Test cases illustrate the application of the model to the real-time operation of a substation.

Dabbaghchi, I.; Gursky, R.J. (American Electric Power Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-07-01

81

Sex Differences in Knee Abduction During Landing  

PubMed Central

Background: Females suffer injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament at rates significantly higher than males. Frontal plane knee motion and load have been identified as major risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury and in turn have been examined extensively. Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, CINHAL, and SportDISCUS was performed (1982–June 2010). Criteria for inclusion were the use of 3-dimensional analyses of frontal plane knee motion and moments during landing between males and females. Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Sixty-three percent of included studies identified sex differences in knee abduction when landing across a variety of landing conditions. Conclusions: Females appear to land with increased knee abduction motion compared with males in most biomechanics studies.

Carson, Daniel W.; Ford, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

82

Abductive reasoning with recurrent neural networks.  

PubMed

Abduction is the process of proceeding from data describing a set of observations or events, to a set of hypotheses which best explains or accounts for the data. Cost-based abduction (CBA) is a formalism in which evidence to be explained is treated as a goal to be proven, proofs have costs based on how much needs to be assumed to complete the proof, and the set of assumptions needed to complete the least-cost proof are taken as the best explanation for the given evidence. In previous work, we presented a method for using high order recurrent networks to find least cost proofs for CBA instances. Here, we present a method that significantly reduces the size of the neural network that is produced for a given CBA instance. We present experimental results describing the performance of this method and comparing its performance to that of the previous method. PMID:12850021

Abdelbar, Ashraf M; Andrews, Emad A M; Wunsch, Donald C

2003-01-01

83

Abduction and Meaning in Evolutionary Soundscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The creation of an artwork named RePartitura is discussed here under principles of Evolutionary Computation (EC) and the triadic\\u000a model of thought: Abduction, Induction and Deduction, as conceived by Charles S. Peirce. RePartitura uses a custom-designed\\u000a algorithm to map image features from a collection of drawings and an Evolutionary Sound Synthesis (ESSynth) computational\\u000a model that dynamically creates sound objects. The

Mariana Shellard; Luis Felipe Oliveira; Jose E. Fornari; Jonatas Manzolli

84

Teeth clenching reduces arm abduction force.  

PubMed

It has been reported that the 90° arm abduction force counteracting external adduction loads appeared to be smaller under teeth clenching condition than under non-clenching condition. To elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying the possible inhibitory effect of teeth clenching on the arm abduction, we have attempted to quantify the difference in the force induced against the fast and slow ramp load between the arm abductions under teeth non-clenching and clenching conditions. When the load of adduction moment was linearly increased, the abductor force increased to a maximal isometric contraction force (MICF) and further increased to a maximal eccentric contraction force (MECF) with forced adduction. The MICF measured under teeth clenching was significantly lower than that under non-clenching, despite no significant difference in the MECF between the two conditions. The reduction in MICF caused by teeth clenching was enhanced by increasing the velocity of the load. These results suggest that clenching inhibits abduction force only during isometric contraction phase. The invariability of MECF would indicate the lack of involvement of fatigue in such inhibitory effects of clenching. To discover the source of the inhibition, we have examined the effects of teeth clenching on the stretch reflex in the deltoid muscle. The stretch reflex of deltoid muscles was inhibited during clenching, contrary to what was expected from the Jendrassik maneuver. Taken together, our results suggest that the teeth clenching reduced the MICF by depressing the recruitment of deltoid motoneurones presumably via the presynaptic inhibition of spindle afferent inputs onto those motoneurones. PMID:24687460

Sato, Hajime; Kawano, Tsutomu; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Kang, Youngnam

2014-07-01

85

Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad-backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented.

Chiariotti, P.; Martarelli, M.; Santolini, C.; Tomasini, E. P.

2013-02-01

86

Harvard-led study finds diagnostic and invasive procedures common in women with breast-conserving surgery  

Cancer.gov

Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have high rates of diagnostic and invasive breast procedures after treatment with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) according to a study published April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast-conserving surgery is the most common treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ and has proven to be an effective alternative to mastectomy in most women; however, the necessity for and likelihood of further diagnostic mammograms and invasive procedures following BCS are unknown.

87

Does scapular elevation accompany glenohumeral abduction in healthy subjects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Although it is used in clinical practice, there are no data concerning scapular elevation during glenohumeral abduction. Materials and methods Scapular elevation of 30 healthy volunteers in supine and sitting positions were measured at 90–180 deg of glenohumeral abduction by two examiners. In addition, radiographs of the ten subjects were taken in supine position at 0–180 deg of glenohumeral abduction, and

Hasan Hallaceli; Metin Manisali; Izge Gunal

2004-01-01

88

Alleged Experiences Inside UFOs: An Analysis of Abduction Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six well-documented UFO abductions reported in Spain are re- viewed. Investigation reveals them to be the result of hoax, delusion or psy- chosis. On a global scale, the annual distribution of abductions plotted ac- cording to year of report shows clusters associated with media-related triggers. Abduction narratives seem to proceed from internal sources, repre- senting non-physical experiences of psychological origin

VICENTE-JUAN BALLESTER OLMOS

89

Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.  

PubMed

During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

2009-01-01

90

Trends of population radiation adsorbed dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran: 1985-1989  

SciTech Connect

In view of the rapid expansion of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran, this study was undertaken to examine trends of nuclear medicine practice in the country and to determine the mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita. Comprehensive national data covering 93% of all nuclear medicine centers in 1985-1989 were obtained. The total number of nuclear medicine examinations inc teased by 42% during these years. The relative frequency of thyroid investigations was 84% followed by liver/spleen and bone procedures (7% and 6%, respectively). {sup 99m}Tc was the radionuclide of choice for 86% of investigation while {sup 131}I alone accounted for 59% of collective effective dose equivalent. The annual average number of nuclear medicine procedures per 1,000 people was 1.9. For the thyroid, the highest number (48%) of patients investigated was in the 15-29 y age group and the lowest (3%) was in the >64 y age group. The male to female ratio of thyroid and cardiac patient was 0.18 and 3.64, respectively. The numbers of males and females studied for the remaining eight procedures were less frequent and about the same. The mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita was about 4.3 mSv and 8 {mu}Sv, respectively. {sup 131}I was responsible for most of collective effective dose equivalent produced by nuclear medicine. Therefore, future efforts should be concentrated on dose reduction for diagnostic {sup 131}I tests.

Mohammadi, H.; Tabeie, F.; Saghari, M. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1995-04-01

91

Abducted, hyperextended small finger deformity of nonneurologic etiology.  

PubMed

The abduction and hyperextension deformity of the small finger is usually associated with ulnar nerve palsy. Six patients who sustained an abduction force to their small finger presented with the finger in an abducted and hyperextended position. All patients were neurologically intact and were unable to adduct or flex the finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint. Surgical findings in these patients included rupture of the radial sagittal band, collateral ligament, and junctura tendinum. Sequential division of these structures in cadaveric hands confirmed that all these tissues had to be deficient for this deformity to occur. The traumatic abducted, hyperextended small finger deformity may respond to conservative treatment, but surgery is sometimes necessary. PMID:10194016

Lourie, G M; Lundy, D W; Rudolph, H P; Bayne, L G

1999-03-01

92

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in a feline colony from central Italy: clinical features, diagnostic procedures and molecular characterization.  

PubMed

Clinical features and conventional and molecular diagnostic procedures have been investigated and evaluated for the infection caused by the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida). Individual fecal samples from all cats living in a colony with suspected lungworm infection underwent coprological flotation with sugar and zinc sulfate solution and the Baermann migration method. Also, pharyngeal swabs collected for each animal were subjected to a diagnostic nested PCR assay specific for a region internal to the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 of A. abstrusus. Eighteen animals were positive at the Baermann method, while 12 and ten out of them were negative when feces were subjected to the flotation with sugar and zinc sulfate solution, respectively. The nested PCR assay yielded positive results when using the pharyngeal swabs from the 18 coprologically positive cats and from six more cats which were coprologically negative, thus indicating an overall infection rate of 24.4%. Twenty-two out of 24 infected cats showed clinical respiratory symptoms and the most common were general respiratory distress, cough, wheezing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. These results indicate that cat aelurostrongylosis is of clinical importance and, thus, needs to be included in differential diagnosis of feline respiratory diseases. The importance of the disease is discussed together with pros and cons of different conventional and innovative diagnostic approaches. PMID:18651179

Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Milillo, Piermarino; Iorio, Raffaella; Otranto, Domenico

2008-10-01

93

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure to Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of a procedure to measure diagnostic-reasoning and problem-solving skills taught in predoctoral orthodontic education were studied using 68 second year dental students. The procedure includes stimulus material and 33 multiple-choice items. It is a feasible way of assessing problem-solving skills in dentistry education…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

1990-01-01

94

WHAT IS ABDUCTION? OVERVIEW AND PROPOSAL FOR INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of the field of abduction in order to provide the conceptual framework of our overall study of abductive reasoning and its relation to explanatory reasoning in subsequent chapters. It is naturally divided into seven parts. After this brief introduction, in the second part (section 2) we motivate our study

ATOCHA ALISEDA

95

Abduction, Induction, and the Logic of Scientific Knowledge Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we outline some recent developments in the study of abduction and induction and their role in scientific modelling and knowledge refinement. We also describe a centr al challenge that appears to be emerging from this study: namely, the problem of developing practical approaches for exploiting abduction and induction, of formally characterising the limitations of such ap- proaches,

Peter Flach; Antonis Kakas; Oliver Ray

96

Revisiting the role of abductive inference in fusion domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abductive inference plays a very important role in the fusion domain, seen as a “conceptual framework” driving the conjecturing and hypothesizing process mainly aimed to discover relationships. Unfortunately, despite the recent gained attention in several fields as philosophy of science and logic, and the ongoing debate, in the fusion domain almost only one kind of abductive inference is taken under

Giovanni Ferrin; Lauro Snidaro; Gian Luca Foresti

2010-01-01

97

Neutral Abduction Test for Managing Subacromial Impingement Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subacromial impingement is a clinical syndrome where the participant experiences pain around the tip of the shoulder that is commonly aggravated by overhead activities such as reaching or throwing. In the principal investigator's experience, a common clinical finding in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome is a restriction in a particular type of abduction. Classic abduction involves movement of the humerus

Thompson Jr. Bob

2007-01-01

98

Determination of Impact Force and Crush Energy Using Abductive Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory based methods as well as approximation methods are currently being used to determine the impact force and the crush energy pertained to vehicles' collision. This paper describes a method, based on Abductive Networks that can be used to develop explicit models by which the above quantities can be estimated. Similar to Neural Networks Abductive Networks are \\

Oren Masory; Nicolas Putod

99

Subacute cadmium intoxication in jewelry workers: an evaluation of diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed

An outbreak of cadmium intoxication in a jewelry factory provided an opportunity for evaluating the usefulness of diagnostic procedures used to evaluate human cadmium toxicity. Blood cadmium levels in workers exposed to cadmium were higher (.93 micrograms/100ml vs .38 micrograms/100 ml) than in unexposed workers. A dose-response relationship was noted between blood cadmium level and symptom prevalence in four symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, dysuria, and dizziness). Segmental hair analysis revealed highest cadmium levels (up to 19 micrograms/gm) in segments formed prior to cadmium exposure, suggesting that extrinsic contamination was the primary source of cadmium in the hair. beta2-microglobulin levels were within normal limits. No significant renal or pulmonary dysfunction was noted. Symptoms ceased after a cadmium-containing brazing alloy used in jewelry production was replaced, yet urine cadmium levels remained persistently elevated in four workers. Blood cadmium determinations were found to be useful in evaluating symptoms potentially related to cadmium intoxication. PMID:222221

Baker, E L; Peterson, W A; Holtz, J L; Coleman, C; Landrigan, P J

1979-01-01

100

Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.  

PubMed

The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. PMID:10840926

Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

2000-04-01

101

[Use of levofloxacin in the antibiotic prophylaxis for diagnostic procedures in urology].  

PubMed

Chemoprophylaxis is the use of antimicrobial agents before contamination in the hope of preventing infections. The need for prophylaxis depends on the type of procedure and the risk for each individual patient. The risk for infection from urethral catheterization in a hospital setting is 5% for men and 10-20% for women, after routine cystoscopy is 4.7%, after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) is 39%, after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is 6-43%, after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is 6.2-87%, and after shock wave lithotripsy is 5.7%. On this basis prophylactic treatment is recommended in all patients for transrectal prostate biopsy and transurethral surgery and in patients with increased risk of infection for diagnostic endoscopy of the urinary tract and SWL. Risk factors such as age, immunosuppression, metabolic dysfunction (e.g., diabetes), reduced general condition, prolonged operative time and bleeding, should be considered. Broad-spectrum cephalosporin, penicillins and fluoroquinolones are most often used. The choice of the drug also depends on its pharmacokinetic properties that should secure effective tissue levels during the procedure. Levofloxacin meets these criteria and reduces the incidence of infection after transrectal prostate biopsy and endoscopy of the urinary tract. PMID:12053449

Trinchieri, Alberto; Mangiarotti, Barbara; Lizzano, Renata

2002-03-01

102

Improving Creative Thinking Using Instructional Technology: Computer-Aided Abductive Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the concept of abductive reasoning; discusses its importance for instructional designers in education; and describes the development of a computer program called the Abductive Reasoning Tool (ART) that helps students learn and understand abductive logic. Highlights include abduction and creativity, and field-testing ART with…

Shank, Gary; And Others

1994-01-01

103

What Performance Technologists Should Know about Abductive Reasoning...and Why.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains abductive reasoning; compares it to more traditional forms of logic, i.e., deduction and induction; and describes a computerized tutorial called A.R.T. (Abductive Reasoning Tool) that was created to foster abductive reasoning. Implications of using abductive techniques in instructional design are suggested. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

Ross, John Minor; Shank, Gary D.

1993-01-01

104

An abductive theory of scientific method.  

PubMed

A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is given, and the process of their detection is briefly described in terms of a multistage model of data analysis. The construction of explanatory theories is shown to involve their generation through abductive, or explanatory, reasoning, their development through analogical modeling, and their fuller appraisal in terms of judgments of the best of competing explanations. The nature and limits of this theory of method are discussed in the light of relevant developments in scientific methodology. PMID:16392993

Haig, Brian D

2005-12-01

105

Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders usually requires a muscle biopsy to examine mitochondrial function. We describe our diagnostic procedure and results for 29 patients with mitochondrial disorders. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were from 43 healthy individuals and 29 patients with defects in one of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), or the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Homogenized

Antoon J. M. Janssen; J. M. F. Trijbels; Rob C. A. Sengers; Liesbeth T. M. Wintjes; Wim Ruitenbeek; Jan A. M. Smeitink; Eva Morava; Baziel G. M. van Engelen; Lambert P. van den Heuvel; Richard J. T. Rodenburg

2006-01-01

106

Whole clam culture as a quantitative diagnostic procedure of Perkinsus atlanticus (Apicomplexa, Perkinsea) in clams Ruditapes decussatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Perkinsus atlanticus (Azevedo, 1989) causes severe losses among cultured clams, Ruditapes decussatus. This parasite is routinely diagnosed by means of histology or incubation of gills in fluid thioglycollate medium. However, in order to develop models of experimental reproduction of the disease, a procedure for infection intensity evaluation was required. Thus, a diagnostic method has been developed, based

Manuela Almeida; Franck Berthe; Anne Thébault; Maria Teresa Dinis

1999-01-01

107

[Boussignac CPAP in diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in the critical patient].  

PubMed

Boussignac valve is a new resource to consider in acute pulmonary edema cardiogenic management. As it generates positive airways pressure continuous (CPAP) and it is very simple to use, its use is being extended to emergency, urgency and hospitalization ward services. This valve is a small tube placed over the interface expiratory port. The gas flow (oxygen/air) accelerates when it crosses through four microchannels in the valve wall, pressurizing the bronchial tree by the principle of the energy in movement. It has a functioning, not hermetic system, allowing the passage of a catheter through it to help the patient (to drink, to eat, to aspirate, etc.). These characteristics make it possible to extend it use in those patients who, in extreme conditions, need diagnostic tests that could deteriorate their respiratory situation, such as endoscopy procedures. We report three critical patients who received CPAP with a Boussignac valve connected to an orofacial interface, while performing two fibrobronchoscopies and one upper digestive tract endoscopy. All finished successfully and none of them need orotracheal intubation. PMID:21194802

Gómez Grande, M L; Lázaro, J

2011-01-01

108

Attacking Large Industrial Code with Bi-abductive Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In joint work with Cristiano Calcagno, Peter O'Hearn, and Hongseok Yang, we have introduced bi-abductive inference and its use in reasoning about heap manipulating programs (5). This extended ab- stract briefly surveys the key concepts and describes our experience in the application of bi-abduction to real-world applications and systems programs of over one million lines of code.

Dino Distefano

2009-01-01

109

Relation Between Abductive and Inductive Types of Nursing Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we contrast inductive nursing risk management and abductive nursing risk management, point out the importance\\u000a of the abductive type, and suggest cooperation between them. In general risk management, inductive management is usually adopted.\\u000a If we computationally conduct inductive management, it is vital to collect a considerable number of examples to perform machine\\u000a learning. For nursing risk management,

Akinori Abe; Hiromi Itoh Ozaku; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kiyoshi Kogure

2006-01-01

110

Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.  

PubMed

People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs. PMID:7960296

Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

1994-10-01

111

On the distinction between Peirce's abduction and Lipton's Inference to the best explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue against the tendency in the philosophy of science literature to link abduction to the inference to the best explanation\\u000a (IBE), and in particular, to claim that Peircean abduction is a conceptual predecessor to IBE. This is not to discount either\\u000a abduction or IBE. Rather the purpose of this paper is to clarify the relation between Peircean abduction and

Daniel G. Campos

2011-01-01

112

On the permissiveness of the abductive theory of method.  

PubMed

In this article, the author examines Romeijn's (2008) contention that the account of theory construction in the abductive theory of scientific method suffers from the problem of the underdetermination of theories by empirical evidence. Following Romeijn, the author focuses on the issue of underdetermination as it affects the method of exploratory factor analysis, the strategy of analogical modeling, and the theory of explanatory coherence. The author argues that in each case there are sufficient methodological resources available to researchers to use these methods to good effect. Additionally, he comments on the normative force of the abductive theory of method. PMID:18612973

Haig, Brian D

2008-09-01

113

Diagnostic procedures for Trend Monitoring System (TMS) communications. [coaxial cable bus system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype coaxial cable bus communications sytem was developed to support the trend monitoring system (TMS). Troubleshooting procedures are described at the system level. The procedures can be used by repair personnel to isolate a fault in the TMS and to restore the system to operation by swapping out failed components.

Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

1979-01-01

114

Measuring the Academic Skills of University Students: Evaluation of a Diagnostic Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measuring the Academic Skills of University Students is a procedure developed in the 1990s at the University of Sydney's Language Centre to identify students in need of academic writing development by assessing examples of their written work against five criteria. This paper reviews the literature relating to the development of the procedure with…

Erling, Elizabeth J.; Richardson, John T. E.

2010-01-01

115

From Ugly Duckling to Swan: C. S. Peirce, Abduction, and the Pursuit of Scientific Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaakko Hintikka (1998) has argued that clarifying the notion of abduction is the fundamental problem of contemporary epistemology. One traditional interpretation of Peirce on abduction sees it as a recipe for generating new theoretical discoveries. A second standard view sees abduction as a mode of reasoning that justifies beliefs about the probable truth of theories. While each reading has some

Daniel J. McKaughan

2008-01-01

116

You're not Alone: The Journey from Abduction to Empowerment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This resource for young people who are victims of abduction was prepared with the assistance of five young adults who were abducted as children and who are walking the path of healing and recovery. The guide is designed to help those who experience abduct...

2005-01-01

117

Improving diagnostic procedure and treatment in patients with non-epileptic seizures (NES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of patients with NES vs. NES and concomitant epilepsy in an epilepsy centre and to present a diagnostic algorithm. We collected and reviewed the data of 322 patients consecutively referred to the adult ward of our epilepsy centre in 1 year. The results of our study reveal that 44 (14%)

T Müller; M Merschhemke; C Dehnicke; M Sanders; H.-J Meencke

2002-01-01

118

Taking a Closer Look at Science. Science Diagnostic Procedure. Education 5-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This diagnostic assessment guide is designed to assist schools in developing their curriculum and assessment policies and help teachers in assessing individual pupils' understanding and progress and identifying appropriate next steps in a way which fits in with day to day teaching. Existing research and practice are applied within the context of…

Scottish Council for Research in Education, Edinburgh.

119

Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If\\/then\\/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its

Anton E. Lawson; Erno S. Daniel

2011-01-01

120

Foreign Affairs: Federal Response to International Parental Child Abductions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are a number of problems and issues related to the federal response to international parental child abduction. Four problems and issues have received substantial attention. These are gaps in federal services to left-behind parents, which make it dif...

1999-01-01

121

Hume: The power of abduction and simple observation in economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hume’s epistemology, induction leads to discovery in matters of fact. However, because of the poor data Hume analyzes the balance of trade with a thought experiment, doing what Mill makes explicit afterwards: reason from assumptions, to reach conclusions which are true in the abstract. Hume’s potential explanation, what Peirce later calls abduction, is backed by a case study, the

Jorge Streb

2010-01-01

122

Theorising and practitioners in HRD: the role of abductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which has led to a relevance gap between scholars and

Jeff Gold; John Walton; Peter Cureton; Lisa Anderson

2011-01-01

123

Theorising and Practitioners in HRD: The Role of Abductive Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which…

Gold, Jeff; Walton, John; Cureton, Peter; Anderson, Lisa

2011-01-01

124

MULTI THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN AN ABDUCTIVE ACTION RESEARCH STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ongoing abductive research process with two researchers, with different educational background, involved in the same action research, thus having different theoretical perspectives on the study. The method of involving two researchers in the same study is not main stream in action research. The empirical data is analysed based on the two research perspectives and on parallel

Annika Olsson; Malin Olander

125

Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

Shanahan, Murray

2005-01-01

126

Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data Into Meaningful Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a unifying framework. In addition, a number of themes are

Murray Shanahan

2005-01-01

127

An Abductive Framework for Level One Information Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for, and describes some of the advantages of, construing level one information fusion, as a task of abductive inference or inference to the best explanation. Such an approach enables certain benefits, such as, an expectation-based critique of hypotheses, and an elegant system for revising old beliefs, which may gainfully be exploited. It also introduces several relevant dimensions

Vivek Bharathan; John R. Josephson

2006-01-01

128

Abductive Science Inquiry Using Mobile Devices in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advancements in digital technology have attracted the interest of educators and researchers to develop technology-assisted inquiry-based learning environments in the domain of school science education. Traditionally, school science education has followed deductive and inductive forms of inquiry investigation, while the abductive form of…

Ahmed, Sohaib; Parsons, David

2013-01-01

129

Abductive reasoning and the formation of scientific knowledge within nursing research.  

PubMed

Peirce's notion of abductive reasoning and the way this reasoning can enhance forming of scientific knowledge within nursing research is of great importance. Abduction is the first stage of inquiry within which hypotheses are invented; they are then explicated through deduction and verified through induction. In an abductive model, new ideas emerge by taking various clues and restrictions into account, and by searching and combining existing ideas in novel ways. Thus, abduction can be developed further as a 'pure' form of inference and this gives means for analysing and organizing the abductive search explicitly within the research community. PMID:20840137

Råholm, Maj-Britt

2010-10-01

130

Validation of diagnostic procedures on stratified populations: application on the quantification of thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.  

PubMed

In this report we present a method for the quantitative description of the degree of deviation from the norm of 201thallium single photon emission tomographic (SPECT) data. Validation is obtained from the frequency of "positive" outcomes in subgroup of patients in whom the prevalence of coronary artery disease, for the group as a whole, is known, even if individual patient outcomes are not verified. This approach overcomes the bias associated with nonrandomized clinical studies, in which the likelihood that a more invasive but definitive procedure (coronary arteriogram) will be performed is influenced by the result of the outcome of the procedure under study. PMID:2647110

Goris, M L; Bretille, J; Askienazy, S; Purcell, G P; Savelli, V

1989-01-01

131

Specific Area Gonad Shielding. Recommendation for Use on Patients During Medical Diagnostic X-Ray Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this document is to encourage the use of gonad shielding during x-ray procedures so that unnecessary radiation exposure of the reproductive organs of patients can be avoided. This in turn can lessen the likelihood of adverse genetic conse...

1976-01-01

132

Diagnostic procedures as a guide for the treatment of severe rhesus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of fetal erythroblastosis is usually evaluated by the study of antibody titres, analysis of amniotic fluid and more recently by analysis of the antibody nitrogen content. The development of these latter procedures was prompted by the inadequacies of the antibody titration. Severe involvement may be associated with a low titre and indeed a rise in titre may occur

Thomas J. Degnan; Shirley Karasik

1970-01-01

133

Foetal radiation dose and risk from diagnostic radiology procedures: a multinational study.  

PubMed

In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001-21.9?mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10(-9)) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10(-4)) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10(-8)) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10(-3)). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child. PMID:24959554

Osei, Ernest K; Darko, Johnson

2013-01-01

134

Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.

2011-01-01

135

Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study  

PubMed Central

In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9?mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10?9) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10?4) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10?8) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10?3). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child.

Osei, Ernest K.; Darko, Johnson

2013-01-01

136

Sharpening the boundaries of Parkinson-associated dementia: recommendation for a neuropsychological diagnostic procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently present with an additional form of severe neurodegenerative\\u000a and\\/or vascular pathology. Findings of differential clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, depending on presence\\u000a and nature of such coexisting brain pathology, raise the question for neuropsychological procedures that are capable not only\\u000a of distinguishing between non-demented PD patients and patients with Parkinson-associated dementia (PDD),

Marc R. BotheIngo; Ingo Uttner; Markus Otto

2010-01-01

137

[Neuroradiologic diagnostic and interventional procedures for diseases of the skull base].  

PubMed

Besides image-guided biopsy techniques, the emphasis in the interdisciplinary cooperation between head and neck surgery and neuroradiology is on vessel-occluding and preserving measures. Knowledge of dangerous anastomoses between extracranial and intracranial vessels is crucial. The principles of vessel-occluding procedures including materials are presented and illustrated with case examples. Embolization of glomus tumors or epistaxis and preoperative permanent vessel occlusion techniques are demonstrated as well as vessel-preserving therapies, such as placement of covered stents for improving tumor resectability or after iatrogenic laceration of the internal carotid artery. PMID:21647830

Macht, S; Turowski, B

2011-04-01

138

Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall. PMID:23816980

Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

2013-12-01

139

Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship With Respect to Cervical and Cranial Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Methods: Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009–2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. Results: In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and “muscle” adjustments. Conclusion: There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction

Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

2012-01-01

140

Smart on-board diagnostic decision trees for quantitative aviation equipment and safety procedures validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current trend in high-accuracy aircraft navigation systems is towards using data from one or more inertial navigation subsystem and one or more navigational reference subsystems. The enhancement in fault diagnosis and detection is achieved via computing the minimum mean square estimate of the aircraft states using, for instance, Kalman filter method. However, this enhancement might degrade if the cause of a subsystem fault has some effect on other subsystems that are calculating the same measurement. One instance of such case is the tragic incident of Air France Flight 447 in June, 2009 where message transmissions in the last moment before the crash indicated inconsistencies in measured airspeed as reported by Airbus. In this research, we propose the use of mathematical aircraft model to work out the current states of the airplane and in turn, using these states to validate the readings of the navigation equipment throughout smart diagnostic decision tree network. Various simulated equipment failures have been introduced in a controlled environment to proof the concept of operation. The results have showed successful detection of the failing equipment in all cases.

Ali, Ali H.; Markarian, Garik; Tarter, Alex; Kölle, Rainer

2010-04-01

141

Stolen Children: Abduction and Recruitment in Northern Uganda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored and researched by individuals who work for the Human Rights Watch Organization, this 31-page report documents the tragic situation faced by children in Uganda. Since 1986, members of the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda have abducted close to 20,000 children, often forcing them to serve as soldiers, laborers, and sexual slaves. The report estimates that since June of 2002, almost 5,000 children have been abducted. The report is based on field research conducted in February 2003, and includes interviews with eighteen children (who are now young adults), and a number of religious and civic leaders. The authors of the report have divided the work into six primary sections, including a summary of their findings, policy recommendations, background material, and documentation of how the children are recruited into the LRA.

142

The hung up shoulder: anterior subluxation locking in abduction.  

PubMed

The hung up shoulder, or anterior subluxation locking in abduction, is a bizarre clinical picture which is not frequently seen. It is probably due to the fact that, in the subluxed position, the subscapularis muscle becomes an abductor, rather than an internal rotator. External rotation might shift the subscapular muscle fibres towards the proximal aspect of the humeral head, while joint laxity favors subluxation. It is possible that the hung up shoulder is just one aspect of multidirectional shoulder instability, given the tendency to generalised joint laxity, the frequent autoreduction, the positive sulcus sign, and initiation of subluxation by either abduction-external rotation or extension. In this series three out of four patients were treated conservatively and performed well in daily life; however, only the fourth patient had almost unlimited access to sports, thanks to surgical stabilization. PMID:9415723

Kestens, B; Hoogmartens, M

1997-09-01

143

Précis of 'an abductive theory of scientific method'.  

PubMed

This short article is a précis of the author's (2005a) abductive theory of scientific method. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods of relevance to psychology that are employed in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is given, and the process of their detection is briefly described in terms of a multistage model of data analysis. The construction of explanatory theories is shown to involve their generation through abductive, or explanatory, reasoning, their development through analogical modeling, and their fuller appraisal in terms of judgments of the best of competing explanations. The nature and limits of this theory of method are discussed in the light of relevant developments in scientific methodology. PMID:18615570

Haig, Brian D

2008-09-01

144

An abductive perspective on clinical reasoning and case formulation.  

PubMed

Clinical reasoning has traditionally been understood in terms of either hypothetico-deductive or Bayesian methods. However, clinical psychology requires an organizing framework that goes beyond the limits of these methods and characterizes the full range of reasoning processes involved in the description, understanding, and formulation of the difficulties presented by clients. In this article, the authors present a framework for clinical reasoning and case formulation that is largely based on a broad abductive theory of scientific method (Haig, 2005b). The abductive theory articulates and combines the processes of phenomena detection and theory construction. Both of these processes are applied to clinical reasoning and case formulation, and a running case example is provided to illustrate the application. PMID:18618734

Vertue, Frances M; Haig, Brian D

2008-09-01

145

An approach to evaluating heuristics in abduction: a case study using RedSoar--an abductive system for red blood cell antibody identification.  

PubMed Central

Abduction, or inference to a best explanation, is a ubiquitous type of inference that is frequently used by humans in a wide range of tasks. However, many realistic domains have properties that make abduction computationally intractable (i.e., where the time to reach a solution increases exponentially with the number of possible explanations). We present a domain task analysis and performance evaluation of RedSoar, a plausible cognitive computational model of abduction, that accomplishes the antibody identification task in immunohematology. The task analysis reveals how a computationally intractable abductive problem, where one is seeking optimal solutions, can be reformulated to be a computationally tractable abductive problem, by seeking satisfactory rather then optimal solutions. From the satisfactory perspective, our evaluation framework of RedSoar's performance explores the computational benefits and costs of having directly available abstract hypothesis formation knowledge, and how a strong causal constraint between hypotheses and data reduces the combinatorial explosion of constructing a best explanation.

Amra, N. K.; Smith, J. W.; Johnson, K. A.; Johnson, T. R.

1992-01-01

146

Discovery of Genetic Networks Through Abduction and Qualitative Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

GenePath is an automated system for reasoning about genetic networks, wherein a set of genes have various influences on one\\u000a another and on a biological outcome. It acts on a set of experiments in which genes are knocked-out or overexpressed, and\\u000a the outcome of interest is evaluated. Implemented in Prolog, GenePath uses abductive inference to elucidate network constraints\\u000a based on

Blaz Zupan; Ivan Bratko; Janez Demsar; Peter Juvan; Adam Kuspa; John A. Halter; Gad Shaulsky

2007-01-01

147

Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens  

Microsoft Academic Search

False memory creation was examined in people who reported having recovered memories of traumatic events that are unlikely to have occurred: abduction by space aliens. A variant of the Deese\\/Roediger- McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger III & K. B. McDermott, 1995) was used to examine false recall and false recognition in 3 groups: people reporting recovered memories

Susan A. Clancy; Richard J. McNally; Daniel L. Schacter; Mark F. Lenzenweger; Roger K. Pitman

2002-01-01

148

Hip Muscle Activity during Isometric Contraction of Hip Abduction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of varying hip flexion angle on hip muscle activity during isometric contraction in abduction. [Subjects] Twenty-seven healthy men (mean age=21.5?years, SD=1.2) participated in this study. [Methods] Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of the upper portion of the gluteus maximus (UGM), lower portion of the gluteus maximus (LGM), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and gluteus medius (GMed) during isometric contraction under two measurement conditions: hip flexion angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 degrees) and abduction of the hip joint at 20, 40, 60, and 80% maximum strength. Integrated EMG (IEMG) were calculated and normalized to the value of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). [Results] Results indicated that the IEMG of both the UGM and LGM increased significantly with increases in hip flexion angle, whereas the IEMG of the TFL decreased significantly. The maximum activities of the UGM and the LGM were 85.7 ± 80.8%MVC and 38.2 ± 32.9%MVC at 80 degrees of hip flexion, respectively, and that of the TFL was 71.0 ± 39.0%MVC at 40 degrees of hip flexion. [Conclusion] The IEMG of the GMed did not change with increases in hip flexion angle. Hip flexion angle affected the activity of the GM and TFL during isometric contraction in abduction.

Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Yamaguchi, Emi; Yoshiki, Hiromi; Wada, Yui; Watanabe, Aya

2014-01-01

149

The role of a labial salivary gland biopsy in the diagnostic procedure for Sjögren's syndrome; a study of 94 cases.  

PubMed

Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to examine the role of the outcome of the labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB) in the diagnostic procedure of patients suspected of suffering from Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Material and Methods: In a retrospective study the result of histopathological assessment of 94 consecutively taken labial salivary gland biopsies has been examined. For the diagnosis of SS the American-European Consensus Group classification (AECG, 2002) have been used. The outcome of the assessment has been discussed in relation to a recently reported classification provided by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR, 2012). Results: In the 94 LSGBs support for a diagnosis of SS has been encountered in 24 out of 26 patients with SS. In the 68 patients with a negative diagnosis of SS only six positive LSGBs were observed. The sensitivity of the labial biopsy amounted 0.92; the specificity was 0.91, while the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value amounted 0.80 and 0.97 respectively. LSGBs taken by or on the request of the departments of Rheumatology or Internal Medicine had a significant higher yield compared to LSGBs taken in other clinical departments. Conclusions: The LSGB may play a role in the diagnostic procedure of Sjögren's syndrome when using either the AECG classification or the ACR classification. A LSGB should preferably taken after counseling for the possible presence of SS by a department of Rheumatology or Internal Medicine since the yield of such biopsies is much higher than in patients who have not been counseled by these departments prior to the taking of a LSGB. When using the ACR classification, a positive serologic result and a positive ocular test make the taking of a LSGB redundant. Only in case of a negative serologic outcome or a negative result of the ocular test a LSGB is indicated. Since both the serologic test and the ocular test carry hardly any morbidity, these tests should, indeed, be performed first before considering to take a LSGB. PMID:24880453

van Stein-Callenfels, D; Tan, J; Bloemena, E; van Vugt, R-M; Voskuyl, A-E; Santana, N-T-Y; van der Waal, I

2014-01-01

150

Regular Extension Semantics and Disjunctive Eshghi Kowalski Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the elegant abductive proof procedure by Eshghi and Kowalski be extendedto answer queries for disjunctive logic programs? If yes, what is thesemantics that such an extended procedure computes? Several years ago, inan unpublished manuscript Dung specified a proof procedure that embedsa form of linear resolution into the Eshghi-Kowalski procedure [3]. Morerecently, You et al. defined the regular extension semantics

Jia-huai You; Li-yan Yuan; Randy Goebel

1998-01-01

151

Should excretory urography be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute ureteric colic: a single center study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find an accurate, easily available and safe imaging modality as an alternative to intravenous urography for the diagnosis of acute urinary obstruction. This retrospective study included 332 patients, who underwent both excretory urography (EU) preceeded by plain radiograph as well as ultrasonography for evaluation of acute flank pain. There were 198 male and 134 female patients. The presence or absence of urinary stones, level of obstruction, excretion delay on EU and dilated excretory system on either or both techniques were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy for plain radiograph, ultrasonography, and for both modalities together were measured considering EU as a standard reference. The sensitivity and specificity of combined plain radiograph and ultrasound were 97% and 67%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values and accuracy rates of 92%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Our study suggests that the combination of plain radiograph and ultrasonography yields a high sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy in depiction of urinary stones. Thus, EU need not be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute obstructive uropathy. PMID:21566310

Samara, Osama A; Haroun, Dina A; Ashour, Do'a Z; Tarawneh, Emad S; Haroun, Azmi A

2011-05-01

152

The all-too-flexible abductive method: ATOM's normative status.  

PubMed

The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use of analogical reasoning and the application of exploratory factor analysis leave us with too many candidate theories to choose from, and explanatory coherence cannot be expected to save the day. The author ends with some suggestions to remedy the permissiveness and lack of normative force in ATOM, deriving from the experimental practice within which psychological data are produced. PMID:18633994

Romeijn, Jan-Willem

2008-09-01

153

Diagnostic Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor will have to tell you what these pictures show. Some tests are more reliable than others, especially for detecting coronary artery disease. Your doctor will decide which test is best for you, based on your symptoms, your medical ...

154

Abduction as a strategy for concept formation in mathematics: Cardano postulating a negative  

Microsoft Academic Search

When dealing with abductive reasoning in scientific discovery, historical case studies are focused mostly on the physical sciences, as with the discoveries of Kepler, Galilei and Newton. We will present a case study of abductive reasoning in early algebra. Two new concepts introduced by Cardano in his Ars Magna, imaginary numbers and a negative solution to a linear problem, can

Albrecht Heeffer

155

Subacromial space width changes during abduction and rotation - a 3-D MR imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine systematic changes of the normal subacromial space width during abduction and rotation, and to analyze the spatial relationship of the supraspinatus muscle with the acromion and clavicle. 12 healthy volunteers were imaged by an open MR scanner in 5 different positions of abduction and in 3 positions of rotation. After three dimensional

H. Graichen; H. Bonel; T. Stammberger; K. H. Englmeier; M. Reiser; F. Eckstein

1999-01-01

156

Subacromial space width changes during abduction and rotation -a 3-D MR imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were to determine systematic changes of the normal subacromial space width during abduction and rotation, and to analyze the spatial relationship of the supraspinatus muscle with the acromion and clavicle. 12 healthy volunteers were imaged by an open MR scanner in 5 different positions of abduction and in 3 positions of rotation. After three

H. Graichen; H. Bonel; T. Stammberger; K. H. Englmeier; M. Reiser; F. Eckstein

1999-01-01

157

Children's welfare and human rights under the 1980 Hague Abduction Convention – the ruling in Re E  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case note examines the Supreme Court's decision in Re E (Children) (Abduction: Custody Appeal) [2011] UKSC 27; [2011] 2 WLR 1326, in particular, its analysis of the interrelationship between the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the European Convention on Human Rights. The

Victoria Stephens; Nigel Lowe

2012-01-01

158

Abduction-Induction (Generalization) Processes of Elementary Majors on Figural Patterns in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article deals with issues concerning the abductive-inductive reasoning of 42 preservice elementary majors on patterns that consist of figural and numerical cues. We discuss: ways in which the participants develop generalizations about classes of abstract objects; abductive processes they exhibit which support their induction leading to a…

Rivera, F. D.; Becker, Joanne Rossi

2007-01-01

159

Hip abduction can prevent posterior edge loading of hip replacements.  

PubMed

Edge loading causes clinical problems for hard-on-hard hip replacements, and edge loading wear scars are present on the majority of retrieved components. We asked the question: are the lines of action of hip joint muscles such that edge loading can occur in a well-designed, well-positioned acetabular cup? A musculoskeletal model, based on cadaveric lower limb geometry, was used to calculate for each muscle, in every position within the complete range of motion, whether its contraction would safely pull the femoral head into the cup or contribute to edge loading. The results show that all the muscles that insert into the distal femur, patella, or tibia could cause edge loading of a well-positioned cup when the hip is in deep flexion. Patients frequently use distally inserting muscles for movements requiring deep hip flexion, such as sit-to-stand. Importantly, the results, which are supported by in vivo data and clinical findings, also show that risk of edge loading is dramatically reduced by combining deep hip flexion with hip abduction. Patients, including those with sub-optimally positioned cups, may be able to reduce the prevalence of edge loading by rising from chairs or stooping with the hip abducted. PMID:23575923

van Arkel, Richard J; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T M; Jeffers, Jonathan R T

2013-08-01

160

Hip Abduction Can Prevent Posterior Edge Loading of Hip Replacements  

PubMed Central

Edge loading causes clinical problems for hard-on-hard hip replacements, and edge loading wear scars are present on the majority of retrieved components. We asked the question: are the lines of action of hip joint muscles such that edge loading can occur in a well-designed, well-positioned acetabular cup? A musculoskeletal model, based on cadaveric lower limb geometry, was used to calculate for each muscle, in every position within the complete range of motion, whether its contraction would safely pull the femoral head into the cup or contribute to edge loading. The results show that all the muscles that insert into the distal femur, patella, or tibia could cause edge loading of a well-positioned cup when the hip is in deep flexion. Patients frequently use distally inserting muscles for movements requiring deep hip flexion, such as sit-to-stand. Importantly, the results, which are supported by in vivo data and clinical findings, also show that risk of edge loading is dramatically reduced by combining deep hip flexion with hip abduction. Patients, including those with sub-optimally positioned cups, may be able to reduce the prevalence of edge loading by rising from chairs or stooping with the hip abducted. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1172–1179, 2013.

van Arkel, Richard J; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew TM; Jeffers, Jonathan RT

2013-01-01

161

Are theories to be evaluated in isolation or relative to alternatives? An abductive view.  

PubMed

Although it is distinct from induction and deduction, abduction is often mistaken for them. The initial stage of abduction, or novel hypothesis abduction, has 2 components. The first concerns providing novel hypotheses that explain the pattern of data; the second suggests that the novel hypothesis should be accepted to the extent that it is the best available hypothesis. The second component is known as inference to the best explanation. Others have shown how novel hypothesis abduction provides an important type of reasoning for generating novel hypotheses. Our concern is with evaluating already formed abductions to determine which is best, using inference to the best explanation in connection with theories. We call this competing theories abduction. Competing theories abduction suggests that theories should be evaluated in relation to other theories rather than in isolation, as suggested by some philosophers and psychologists. In psychology this is demonstrated in connection with 2 widely accepted forms of relativism: the logical possibilities view and unique standards relativism. PMID:19105581

Capaldi, E J; Proctor, Robert W

2008-01-01

162

Criminal profiling as a plotting activity based on abductive processes.  

PubMed

In this article the authors analyze the nature and aims of criminal profiling from a theoretical point of view. The need to become increasingly "scientific" has given rise to the modern approaches of profiling, which have been particularly successful in cases of serial homicides and sex crimes, given that compulsive (perverse) acts, because of their ritual nature, have been described as being more easily foreseeable and presumably linkable to the psychological and even personal characteristics of a given criminal. On this basis, the authors analyze profiling from an epistemological point of view and show how, in the concrete activity of profiling, profilers depart from the "certainty" of the scientific models (those that are based on deductive-inductive processes); the epistemological basis of reasoning changes as there is no longer an induction-deduction model but rather an abductive model (as conceived and explained by Peirce) in which the importance of plotting (the weaving of a narrative) becomes greater. PMID:19561134

Verde, Alfredo; Nurra, Antonio

2010-10-01

163

Data-Driven Abductive Discovery in the Earth Sciences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional pathways to discovery in the Earth sciences rely on inductive and deductive approaches, by which patterns and phenomena in nature are discovered first, and observations and modeling to test causal hypotheses follow. These powerful methods have proven successful in documenting and comprehending many aspects of the natural world, but they are inherently less efficient at discovering new complex patterns that require synthesis of diverse types of data. Consequently, such gradual global processes as plate tectonics and climate change required decades of integrated data synthesis preceding discovery of critical Earth phenomena. Vast but largely untapped Earth science data resources offer a potentially revolutionary alternative 'abductive' approach to investigate Earth's co-evolving geo- and biospheres--a systematic data-driven search for accelerated discovery of hidden patterns in the data resources of a dozen different disciplines. Today's Earth science enterprises generate terabytes per day of new data, yet these vast resources are woefully underutilized because they are not linked into a single platform. We advocate the implementation of data infrastructure and interrogation strategies that link existing and new data resources and methods in mineralogy, paleontology, proteomics, irreversible thermodynamics, geodynamics, and geochronology, coupled with newly adapted statistical analysis and visualization capabilities--a new kind of open-access 'scientific instrument' that could transform the Earth sciences. Recent 'brute force' studies of variations in minerals of beryllium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum through deep time demonstrate the potential of this concept as a means to search for critical resources; generate insights regarding the co-evolution of ocean chemistry and microbial metabolism; uncover evidence for the timing and rates of near-surface oxygenation; and document subtle ongoing feedbacks between terrestrial life, weathering, soils, and climate. Abductive discovery could thus become a model for a 21st-century, data-driven science that exploits the tremendous opportunities represented by the vast and growing explosion of Earth science data.

Hazen, R. M.

2013-12-01

164

Development and validation of a new procedure for the diagnostic assessment of personality disorder: the Multidimensional Personality Disorder Rating Scale (MPDRS).  

PubMed

Data from a community-based prospective longitudinal study were used to investigate the utility of a structured assessment of the DSM-IV General Diagnostic Criteria for a Personality Disorder (PD). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV PDs (SCID-II) was administered to 154 adults. After completing the interview, an experienced clinician assessed the General Diagnostic Criteria for a PD using a structured rating scale. PD diagnoses, based solely on the rating scale data, demonstrated strong agreement with diagnoses obtained using the diagnostic thresholds for specific PDs (Kappa = 0.89). The sensitivity, specificity, predictive power, and internal reliability of the rating scale were satisfactory. PD diagnoses, based on both of the assessment procedures, were associated with substantial impairment and distress. These findings suggest that a structured assessment of the DSM-IV General Diagnostic Criteria for a Personality Disorder may constitute a useful alternative or supplement to standard assessments of the diagnostic thresholds for specific DSM-IV PDs. PMID:18540797

Johnson, Jeffrey G; First, Michael B; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie

2008-06-01

165

An economic evaluation of the use of rare earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic X-ray procedures in Israel.  

PubMed

In Israel the diffusion of rare earth screen technology has been limited. These screens could halve the radiation dose to the patient from diagnostic X-ray radiography, with little managerial effort and without being detrimental to the quality of the diagnostic image. We estimated the total effective dose from diagnostic film radiography capable of reduction by the use of rare earth screens, based on the number of hospital and ambulatory diagnostic X-ray procedures. This number was multiplied by the computed radiation dose per body site for a series of diagnostic procedures. The annual dose was approximately 0.53 mSv per head, approximately half of which could be averted by the introduction of rare earth screen technology. Based on a fatality risk of 3% Sv-1, it is estimated that the adoption of rare earth screen technology might reduce the annual incidence of cancer by some 93 cases, half of which would be fatal after an average latency period of 18.4 years. The cost of purchasing rare earth screens on a nationwide basis is approximately $3.0 million. This cost is outweighed by a saving of $9.6 million in X-ray tube replacement costs over the period 1997-2006. Government legislation enforcing the use of rare earth screens is essential, because of the lack of prestige associated with acquiring rare earth technology, as well as institutional reluctance to accept the external benefits of reduced morbidity and mortality and/or to extend budgetary time horizons. PMID:9659134

Ginsberg, G M; Schlesinger, T; Ben-Shlomo, A; Kushilevsky, A; Margaliot, M; Oren, M; Finkleman, M; Friedman, A; Handlesman, M; Lev, B

1998-04-01

166

Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet application time and forearm clench should be verified by all quality laboratory managers in the services. Moreover, the procedure for collecting blood specimens should be revised to eliminate this source of laboratory variability and safeguard the quality.

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

2012-01-01

167

The effect of velocity on load range during isokinetic hip abduction and adduction exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantify the components of acceleration, load range and deceleration through a velocity spectrum during concentric hip abduction and adduction isokinetic exercise, and to investigate the effect of load range on peak torque and work done. 16 male healthy subjects performed 3 maximal concentric reciprocal hip abduction and adduction gravity corrected repetitions in a fixed order at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420° · s-1, with a 30 s rest between velocities. Hip abduction and adduction results revealed that load range significantly decreased while acceleration and deceleration ROM significantly increased (p<0.05) with each increase in velocity. When the total peak torque data was corrected for load range there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in peak torque at velocities of 300° · s-1 and above, for both hip abduction and adduction. Load range correction also resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.05) in work done at velocities of 120° · s-1 and above, for both hip abduction and adduction. The results demonstrate an inverse relationship between isokinetic velocity and load range during concentric hip abduction and adduction, and suggest a need for the clinician to carefully consider velocity selection when performing exercise on an isokinetic device. PMID:23444092

Gautrey, C N; Watson, T; Mitchell, A

2013-07-01

168

Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients During and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical supervision; careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications; appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between depth of sedation and

Charles J. Cote ´; Stephen Wilson

169

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure To Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary psychometric data assessing the reliability and validity of a method used to measure the diagnostic reasoning and problem-solving skills of predoctoral students in orthodontia are described. The measurement approach consisted of sets of patient demographic data and dental photos and x-rays, accompanied by a set of 33 multiple-choice…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

170

General design and implementation procedure for sensor-based electrical diagnostic systems for mining machinery. Report of investigation/1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to develop a sensor-based diagnostic system for generic application to mining machinery, using a KBES implementation. The efficacy of the system was to be evaluated by constructing a prototype and installing it on an actual mining machine. A Joy 14CM continuous mining machine was to be used for the prototype development.

Kohler, J.L.; Sottile, J.

1993-01-01

171

Disseminated neoplasia in clams Venerupis aurea from Galicia (NW Spain): histopathology, ultrastructure and ploidy of the neoplastic cells, and comparison of diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed

This study reports evidence of a neoplastic disorder in the clam Venerupis aurea. In the first stage of the disease, masses of neoplastic cells were mainly observed in connective tissue of gills. These masses of neoplastic cells appeared more compact than in cases of disseminated neoplasia of other bivalve molluscs. As disease progresses, masses of abnormal cells were also observed in the connective tissue of all organs, thus alteration of vital functions in late stage is likely. The neoplastic cells had aneuploid DNA content, ranging from 1.6n to 7.8 n. The ploidy level increased with the severity of the disease. A comparison of three light microscopy diagnostic procedures was performed. Histology was the most sensitive diagnostic test, whereas two different haematological techniques assayed presented unsatisfactory low levels of sensitivity. Specificity was high for the three assayed tests. PMID:23123300

Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Díaz, Seila; Villalba, Antonio

2013-01-01

172

Applications of abduction: hypothesis testing of neuroendocrinological qualitative compartmental models.  

PubMed

It is difficult to assess hypothetical models in poorly measured domains such as neuroendocrinology. Without a large library of observations to constrain inference, the execution of such incomplete models implies making assumptions. Mutually exclusive assumptions must be kept in separate worlds. We define a general abductive multiple-worlds engine that assesses such models by (i) generating the worlds and (ii) tests if these worlds contain known behaviour. World generation is constrained via the use of relevant envisionment. We describe QCM, a modeling language for compartmental models that can be processed by this inference engine. This tool has been used to find faults in theories published in international refereed journals; i.e. QCM can detect faults which are invisible to other methods. The generality and computational limits of this approach are discussed. In short, this approach is applicable to any representation that can be compiled into an and-or graph, provided the graphs are not too big or too intricate (fanout < 7). PMID:9201384

Menzies, T; Compton, P

1997-06-01

173

In-vivo glenohumeral translation and ligament elongation during abduction and abduction with internal and external rotation  

PubMed Central

Study Design Basic Science. To investigate humeral head translations and glenohumeral ligament elongation with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. Background The glenohumeral ligaments are partially responsible for restraining the humeral head during the extremes of shoulder motion. However, in-vivo glenohumeral ligaments elongation patterns have yet to be determined. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to 1) quantify the in-vivo humeral head translations and glenohumeral ligament elongations during functional shoulder positions, 2) compare the inferred glenohumeral ligament functions with previous literature and 3) create a baseline data of healthy adult shoulder glenohumeral ligament lengths as controls for future studies. Methods Five healthy adult shoulders were studied with a validated dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) and MR imaging technique. Humeral head translations and the superior, middle and inferior glenohumeral ligaments (SGHL, MGHL, IGHL) elongations were determined. Results The humeral head center on average translated in a range of 6.0mm in the anterior-posterior direction and 2.5mm in the superior-inferior direction. The MGHL showed greater elongation over a broader range of shoulder motion than the SGHL. The anterior-band (AB)-IGHL showed maximum elongation at 90° abduction with maximum external rotation. The posterior-band (PB)-IGHL showed maximum elongation at 90° abduction with maximum internal rotation. Discussion The results demonstrated that the humeral head translated statistically more in the anterior-posterior direction than the superior-inferior direction (p?=?0.01), which supports the concept that glenohumeral kinematics are not ball-in-socket mechanics. The AB-IGHL elongation pattern makes it an important static structure to restrain anterior subluxation of the humeral head during the externally rotated cocking phase of throwing motion. These data suggest that in healthy adult shoulders the ligamentous structures of the glenohumeral joint are not fully elongated in many shoulder positions, but function as restraints at the extremes of glenohumeral motion. Clinically, these results may be helpful in restoring ligament anatomy during the treatment of anterior instability of the shoulder.

2012-01-01

174

Accuracy of abduction-external rotation MRA versus standard MRA in the diagnosis of intra-articular shoulder pathology.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the accuracy of abduction-external rotation magnetic resonance arthrography (ABERMRA) with standard MRA in the diagnosis of intra-articular shoulder pathology.One hundred three consecutive patients undergoing preoperative direct MRA and subsequent arthroscopic examination were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients underwent standard MRA and 25 underwent ABERMRA. Specialist-trained musculoskeletal radiologists reported all scans, and attending shoulder surgeons performed all arthroscopies. Arthroscopic assessment revealed 11 partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, 3 full-thickness tears, 64 labral lesions (48 soft tissue and 16 significant bony), and 17 superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. The sensitivity/specificity for standard MRA was 0.56/0.99 for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, 1.00/1.00 for full-thickness rotator cuff tears, 0.75/0.91 for soft tissue labral tears, 0.58/1.00 for significant bony glenoid lesions, and 0.50/0.91 for SLAP tears. Abduction-external rotation magnetic resonance arthrography increased the sensitivity/specificity to 1.00/0.85 for soft tissue labral tears, 0.75/1.00 for significant bony glenoid lesions, and 1.00/1.00 for SLAP tears, although it missed 2 of 2 partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.This study suggests that standard MRA is a valuable investigation tool for instability, SLAP tears, and rotator cuff tears, although limitations exist. Additional ABERMRA sequences appear to improve the diagnostic accuracy of soft tissue anterior and posterior labral tears, SLAP tears, and significant bony glenoid lesions and should be routinely requested by shoulder surgeons when ordering MRAs to obtain the maximum benefit from this invasive investigation. PMID:23464954

Modi, Chetan S; Karthikeyan, Shanmugam; Marks, Avi; Saithna, Adnan; Smith, Christopher D; Rai, Santosh B; Drew, Stephen J

2013-03-01

175

Constraint handling using tournament selection: abductive inference in partly deterministic bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Constraints occur in many application areas of interest to evolutionary computation. The area considered here is Bayesian networks (BNs), which is a probability-based method for representing and reasoning with uncertain knowledge. This work deals with constraints in BNs and investigates how tournament selection can be adapted to better process such constraints in the context of abductive inference. Abductive inference in BNs consists of finding the most probable explanation given some evidence. Since exact abductive inference is NP-hard, several approximate approaches to this inference task have been developed. One of them applies evolutionary techniques in order to find optimal or close-to-optimal explanations. A problem with the traditional evolutionary approach is this: As the number of constraints determined by the zeros in the conditional probability tables grows, performance deteriorates because the number of explanations whose probability is greater than zero decreases. To minimize this problem, this paper presents and analyzes a new evolutionary approach to abductive inference in BNs. By considering abductive inference as a constraint optimization problem, the novel approach improves performance dramatically when a BN's conditional probability tables contain a significant number of zeros. Experimental results are presented comparing the performances of the traditional evolutionary approach and the approach introduced in this work. The results show that the new approach significantly outperforms the traditional one. PMID:19207088

Galán, Severino F; Mengshoel, Ole J

2009-01-01

176

QUAWDS: A Composite Diagnostic System for Gait Analysis  

PubMed Central

QUAWDS is a system for analyzing human gait. QUAWDS integrates associational and qualitative models of knowledge into a diagnostic system, taking advantage of the tasks each kind of model can determine efficiently and effectively. An abductive assembler is used to coordinate the different models. The result is a diagnostic solution that is “locally best,” i.e, no single change to the answer will produce a better solution. We believe QUAWDS' architecture is suitable for many complex domains.

Weintraub, Michael A.; Bylander, Tom

1989-01-01

177

Delito del Secuestro Familiar: La Perspectiva de Hijos y Padres (Crime of Family Abduction: A Child's and Parent's Perspective).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The abduction of a child by another family member is one of the most devastating crises that a parent could ever encounter. The impact on the abducted child is also traumatic, as he or she grapples with a host of feelings, above all, a sense of betrayal a...

2010-01-01

178

Re-painting the golden gate bridge: Coordination of services for abducted children reunited with their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case study of a program implemented to serve abducted children who have been recovered and returned to their families. Development of working relationships between and coordination of mental health, law enforcement, child protective, judicial, mediation and victim assistance services is a process which produced effective readjustment services for children traumatized by abduction and has reduced “systems trauma”

Jim McGuire

1994-01-01

179

Follow-up study of persons who had iodine-131 and other diagnostic procedures during childhood and adolescence  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study of 3,503 children and adolescents who received diagnostic doses of iodine-131 was conducted to evaluate the risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasia. The exposed group was followed for a total of 93,442 person-years. Thyroid doses received by the exposed group ranged from less than 10 rads to slightly more than 2,000 rads. The majority received less than 100 rads. A group of 2,594 children and adolescents who were not exposed to radioactive iodine comprised the control group for the study. Members of the control group were followed for a total of 66,797 person-years. An elevated risk of malignant thyroid tumors was observed in the exposed group. An increased risk of benign thyroid conditions was also noted in the exposed group. The results described above failed to fulfill the requirements for statistical significance because of the small number of cases but are suggestive of a radiation effect.

Hamilton, P.M.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Kaczmarek, R.G.

1989-08-01

180

Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure  

SciTech Connect

To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

D'Ercole, Loredana, E-mail: l.dercole@smatteo.pv.it [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Klersy, Catherine [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy); Bocchiola, Milena [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lisciandro, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2013-04-15

181

One-step antibody immobilization-based rapid and highly-sensitive sandwich ELISA procedure for potential in vitro diagnostics.  

PubMed

An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay using one-step antibody immobilization has been developed for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-HFA formed a stable complex with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The complex adsorbed on microtiter plates exhibited a detection range of 4.9?pg mL(-1) to 20?ng mL(-1) HFA, with a limit of detection of 7?pg mL(-1). Furthermore, an analytical sensitivity of 10?pg mL(-1) was achieved, representing a 51-fold increase in sensitivity over the commercial sandwich ELISA kit. The results obtained for HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma showed the same precision as the commercial kit. When stored at 4°C in 0.1?M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the anti-HFA bound microtiter plates displayed no significant decrease in their functional activity after two months. The new ELISA procedure was extended for the detection of C-reactive protein, human albumin and human lipocalin-2 with excellent analytical performance. PMID:24638258

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Marion Schneider, E; Lam, Edmond; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H T

2014-01-01

182

Issues in Resolving Cases of International Child Abduction by Parents. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that many kidnapped children who are taken to other countries are never returned to their families only intensifies the trauma suffered by parents who are victimized by such abductions and adds to their anxiety for the recovery and return of thei...

J. Chiancone L. Chirdner P. Hoff

2001-01-01

183

Foreign Affairs: Changes to Germany's Implementation of the Hague Child Abduction Convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past several years, the United States has been critical of Germanys handling of international parental child abduction cases that have been filed by U.S. parents. Both the executive and legislative branches of the U.S. government have criticized ...

2001-01-01

184

Application of abductive ILP to learning metabolic network inhibition from temporal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use a logic-based representation and a combination of Abduc- tion and Induction to model inhibition in metabolic networks. In general, the integration of abduction and induction is required when the following two conditions hold. Firstly, the given background knowledge is incomplete. Secondly, the problem must require the learning of general rules in the circumstance in which

Alireza Tamaddoni-nezhad; Raphael Chaleil; Antonis C. Kakas; Stephen Muggleton

2006-01-01

185

Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

Oh, Phil Seok

2011-01-01

186

Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion  

PubMed Central

Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old). We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction) and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides) with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers.

2011-01-01

187

Robotic hand biomimicry: The effect of finger force and position abduction feedback during contour interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint motion profiles of 10 human test subjects were recorded as they ran their hands over a flat surface and a convex surface. From this data, three controllers for a dexterous robotic hand were developed to mimic this behavior. Specifically, this work examines the role of finger abduction force and position feedback to motors that control finger extension. Experimental

Benjamin A. Kent; Erik D. Engeberg

2011-01-01

188

The effect of muscle loading on the kinematics of in vitro glenohumeral abduction.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effects of four different muscle-loading ratios on active glenohumeral joint abduction. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested using a shoulder simulator designed to reproduce unconstrained abduction of the humerus via computer-controlled pneumatic actuation. Forces were applied to cables that were sutured to tendons or fixed to bone, to simulate loading of the supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus/teres minor, and anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid muscles. Four sets of muscle-loading ratios were employed, based on: (1) equal loads, (2) average physiological cross-sectional areas (pCSAs), (3) constant values of the product of electromyographic (EMG) data and pCSAs, and (4) variable ratios of the EMG and pCSA data which changed as a function of abduction angle. The investigator generated passive motions with no muscle loads simulated. Repeatability was quantified by five successive trials of the passive and simulated active motions. There was improved repeatability in the simulated active motions versus passive motions, significant for abduction angles less than 40 degrees (p=0.02). No difference was found in the repeatability of the four different muscle-loading ratios for simulated active motions (p0.067 for all angles). The improved repeatability of active over passive motion suggests simulated active motion should be employed for in vitro simulations of shoulder motion. PMID:17433334

Kedgley, Angela E; Mackenzie, Geoffrey A; Ferreira, Louis M; Drosdowech, Darren S; King, Graham J W; Faber, Kenneth J; Johnson, James A

2007-01-01

189

Examining the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Delivery Models to Teach Children Abduction Prevention Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly all children receive abduction prevention training. Most traditional education programs increase the learner's knowledge, but often fail to produce concomitant behavior change. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a multi-component, behavior-based training strategy with empirical support demonstrating its effectiveness in teaching children…

Seckinger-Bancroft, Kimberly E.

2010-01-01

190

ACTIVITY OF SERRATUS ANTERIOR, UPPER AND LOWER TRAPEZIUS DURING ARM ABDUCTION IN MULTIDIRECTIONAL INSTABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Multidirectional instability of the shoulder is a complex entity and it appears that factors in addition to excessive capsular laxity play a pathophysiologic role. So the objective of this study is to compare the electromyography activity of the scapular muscles during abduction and adduction of shoulder in athletes with multidirectional instability and abnormal scapulothoracic motion with individual without lesion.

Hugo Maxwell Pereira; Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Benno Ejnisman; Moisés Cohen

191

Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student’s abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of 5th grade children. A significant number of subjects who have prior belief about the length to alter pendulum motion failed to apply their prior belief to generate a hypothesis on a swing task. These results suggest that students’ failure in hypothesis generation was related to abductive reasoning ability, rather than simple lack of prior belief. This study, then, supports the notion that abductive reasoning ability beyond prior belief plays an important role in the process of hypothesis generation. This study suggests that science education should provide teaching about abductive reasoning as well as scientific declarative knowledge for developing children’s hypothesis-generation skills.

Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

2006-08-01

192

Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student's abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of…

Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

2006-01-01

193

Compositional shape analysis by means of bi-abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a compositional shape analysis, where each procedure is analyzed independently of its callers. The analysis uses an abstract domain based on a restricted fragment of separation logic, and assigns a collection of Hoare triples to each procedure; the triples provide an over-approximation of data structure usage. Compositionality brings its usual benefits -- increased potential to scale, ability

Cristiano Calcagno; Dino Distefano; Peter W. O'hearn; Hongseok Yang

2009-01-01

194

Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5–9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1–17.9 years). Results: The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10–20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°–140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13–25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°–180°, P < .0003). Conclusion: The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder.

Nath, Rahul K.; Somasundaram, Chandra

2012-01-01

195

A muscle controlled finite-element model of laryngeal abduction and adduction.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional finite-element model was developed to simulate the complex movement of the laryngeal cartilages during vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model consists of cricoid and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the intralaryngeal muscles and vocal folds. The active and passive properties of the muscles were idealised by one-dimensional elements based on the Hill theory. Its controlling input value is a time dependent stimulation rate. Optimisation loops have been carried out for the arrangement of the individual stimulation rates. Since in vivo measurements are not feasible, the developed biomechanical model shall be used to analyse the force distribution within the laryngeal muscles during phonatory manoeuvres. Simulations of abduction and adduction in different pitches of voice lead to realistic tensions of the vocal folds. The model is a first step to analyse motional vocal fold diseases and to predict the consequences of phonosurgical interventions. PMID:17891575

Gömmel, Andreas; Butenweg, Christoph; Bolender, Katrin; Grunendahl, Arno

2007-10-01

196

Reconstruction of an infrared band of meteorological satellite imagery with abductive networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the current fleet of meteorological satellites age, the accuracy of the imagery sensed on a spectral channel of the image scanning system is continually and progressively degraded by noise. In time, that data may even become unusable. We describe a novel approach to the reconstruction of the noisy satellite imagery according to empirical functional relationships that tie the spectral channels together. Abductive networks are applied to automatically learn the empirical functional relationships between the data sensed on the other spectral channels to calculate the data that should have been sensed on the corrupted channel. Using imagery unaffected by noise, it is demonstrated that abductive networks correctly predict the noise-free observed data.

Singer, Harvey A.; Cockayne, John E.; Versteegen, Peter L.

1995-01-01

197

Effect of cup abduction angle and head lateral microseparation on contact stresses in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

A finite elements model was developed in order to evaluate the combined influence of the head lateral microseparation and the cup abduction angle on the contact pressure in Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty. The model's parameters were those used on the Leeds II hip simulator. A 32 mm head diameter and a 30 ?m radial clearance was used. The cup was positioned with an abduction angle ranging from 45° to 90°. The medio-lateral microseparation varied from 0 to 500 ?m. A load of 2500 N was applied through the head centre. For 45° abduction angle, edge loading appeared above a medial-lateral separation of 30 ?m. Complete edge loading was obtained for a 60 ?m medial-lateral separation. Under edge loading conditions, the contact area was found to be elliptical. For 45° abduction angle, as the head lateral separation increased, the maximal contact pressure increased from 66 MPa and converged to an asymptotic value of 205 MPa. Both cup abduction and lateral microseparation displacement induced a large increase in the stresses in Ceramic-on-Ceramic THA. However, this increase in contact pressure induced by higher abduction angle, became negligible as the lateral separation increased. PMID:22119582

Sariali, Elhadi; Stewart, Todd; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

2012-01-10

198

The Method of Scientific Discovery in Peirce’s Philosophy: Deduction, Induction, and Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will show Peirce’s distinction between deduction, induction and abduction. The aim of the paper is to show\\u000a how Peirce changed his views on the subject, from an understanding of deduction, induction and hypotheses as types of reasoning\\u000a to understanding them as stages of inquiry very tightly connected. In order to get a better understanding of Peirce’s

Cassiano Terra Rodrigues

2011-01-01

199

Bride abduction in KwaZuiu-Natal schools and its effects on education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The custom of ukuthwala or bride abduction is assumed to have vanished in the face of social change—however, it is still vigorously practiced among some deep rural Zulu communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Abuse of the ancient custom of ukuthwala has resulted in young girls being kidnapped while attending school—during break times on their way to and from school. They are raped

Makho Nkosi

2009-01-01

200

Abducted by a UFO: prevalence information affects young children's false memories for an implausible event  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study examined whether prevalence information promotes children's false memories for an implausible event. Forty-four 7-8 and forty-seven 11-12 year old children heard a true narrative about their first school day and a false narrative about either an implausible event (abducted by a UFO) or a plausible event (almost choking on a candy). Moreover, half of the children in

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel; Harald Merckelbach; Kimberley A. Wade

2009-01-01

201

Mental health among former child soldiers and never-abducted children in northern Uganda.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact. PMID:22654596

Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Cadei, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco

2012-01-01

202

Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.  

PubMed

The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

2012-06-01

203

Comparison of the influence of two stressors on steadiness during index finger abduction  

PubMed Central

Although several stressors have been used to examine the influence of arousal on motor performance, including noxious electrical stimulation, cold pressor test, and mental math calculations, no study has compared the influence of different physical stressors on motor output. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of two stressors (cold pressor test and electrical stimulation) on the steadiness of the abduction force exerted by the index finger. Sixteen subjects (22.8 ± 3.5 yrs, 8 women) performed steadiness trials before (anticipatory phase), during (stressor phase), and after (recovery phase) each stressor. The steadiness task involved isometric contractions with the first dorsal interosseus muscle, which is the muscle that produces most of the abduction force exerted by the index finger. Subjects were required to match the abduction force on a monitor to a target force set to 5% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force for 60 s. In contrast to previous studies that examined the influence of stressors on pinch grip steadiness, the two stressors did not decrease steadiness. Furthermore, the absence of a change in steadiness contrasted with the increases in cognitive (State-Trait Anxiety Index, Visual Analog Scale) and physiological (heart rate) arousal during the stressor phase and the subsequent decline during recovery. The null effect of the stressors on index finger steadiness may be due to the relative simplicity of the task compared with those examined previously.

Marmon, Adam R.; Enoka, Roger M.

2010-01-01

204

Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.

Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Cadei, Francesca; Altoe, Gianmarco

2012-01-01

205

Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The number of patients in the world has increased recently. In our country it is detected late and patients visit doctor in the advanced stage of the disease with already developed metastases. Material and methods: A clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of gastroenterohepatologists, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University on 164 patients. Special attention was given to the symptoms, which are considered to be a macroscopically visible as bleeding, anemia pain, weight loss and disturbance of defecation. Smoking had no effect because a small number of observed patients smoked. Endoscopic examination revealed localization of the tumor in the colon and then underwent targeted biopsy, histological analysis by pathologist, and we determined the concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the serum. Results: In order to get the most relevant results we used larger data set. The program used to prepare the data was Microsoft Excel 2013, and for the creation of decision trees is a used software RapidMiner version 5. Our research has shown that patients older than 55 years with significant stenosis, metastasis and diarrhea that lasted longer than 3.5 months and bleeding that lasted up to 10 months had cancer of the rectum. Bleeding that lasts longer than 10 months indicated that it was the case of cancer that was localized in the rectum in men and sigma in women. Patients older than 82.5 years and had diarrhea up to 3.5 months developed cancer in the sigma part of the colon. Analyzing pain as a symptom of an alarm, the study found that pain that lasts longer than a few days, is caused by rectal cancer, and occurs after the age of 70.5 years, and in patients younger than 63 years anemia as a alarm symptom, which lasted more than two months in men was caused by cancer of the rectum and in women cancer in other localizations within colon. In patients without stenosis developed bleeding as the most important symptom. We can say that after the age of 74 years cancer of the rectum and sigmoid is more common in men and in women dominate sigma and other locations in the colon. In patients under the 70 years of age with short time of bleeding, cancer predominates in rectum. In patients younger than 63 years can be concluded that weight loss is greater than 8 kg follows rectal cancer. In patients with bleeding that lasted one month or more as classifier occurring the age and gender. Patients younger than 74 years have rectal cancer, while older than 73 years have cancer at other sites. In women these locations are sigma and rectum. Conclusion: Based on this study we can conclude that regardless of the technical advances in medicine must pay special attention to the symptoms that doctors will refer to the localization of the tumor, stenosis of the intestine and possibly metastasis. Key words: Colorectal cancer, diagnostic procedures, concentration of CEA and CA19-9.

Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

206

The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.

Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

2013-01-01

207

Increased hip internal abduction moment and reduced speed are the gait strategies used by women with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the gait strategies in women with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty women diagnosed with OA of the knee and 40 healthy women participated in the study. Toe-out progression angle, trunk lateral lean, hip internal abduction moment and gait speed were measured using Qualisys ProReflex System and two force plates. Principal component analysis was applied to extract features from the gait waveforms data that characterized the waveforms main modes of temporal variation. Discriminant analysis with a stepwise model was conducted to determine which strategies could best discriminate groups. According to the discriminant model, the PC2 of the internal abduction moment of the hip and the gait speed were the most discriminatory variables between the groups. The OA group showed decreased gait speed, decreased hip internal abduction moment during the loading response phase, and increased hip internal abduction moment during the mid and terminal stance phases. Interventions that may increase hip internal abduction moment, such as the strengthening of the hip abductors muscles, may benefit women with knee OA. Training slower than normal gait speeds must be considered in light of potential adverse implications on overall physical function, daily tasks, and safety. PMID:23871653

Magalhães, Claudio Marcos Bedran; Resende, Renan Alves; Kirkwood, Renata Noce

2013-10-01

208

Excessive Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction as Occurs During the Late Cocking Phase of the Throwing Motion Can Be Critical for Internal Impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increased horizontal abduction with maximum external rotation, as occurs during the late cocking phase of throwing motion, on shoulder internal impingement.Hypothesis: An increase in glenohumeral horizontal abduction will cause overlap of the rotator cuff insertion with respect to the glenoid and increase pressure between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus

Teruhisa Mihata; Michelle H. McGarry; Mitsuo Kinoshita; Thay Q. Lee

2010-01-01

209

Prevalence and monthly distribution of head lice using two diagnostic procedures in several age groups in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Some epidemiological characteristics of head lice, Pediculus capitis, were studied using two procedures: cut hair analysis and head inspection. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the middle and at the end of the school terms. Both procedures indicated that children were the main reservoir for this type of pediculosis in Uberlândia. PMID:17568900

Borges, Raquel; Silva, Juliana J; Rodrigues, Rosângela M; Mendes, Júlio

2007-01-01

210

A Statistical Test of the Validity of Diagnostic Categories Used in Childhood Language Disorders: Implications for Assessment Procedures. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the validity of diagnostic categories frequently used to classify children with severe language disorders by determining the relationship of the categories to independently derived developmental, psychological, and medical variables. It is argued that the classification systems currently available too often fail to achieve the…

Rosenthal, William S.; And Others

211

Diagnostics of bearings in presence of strong operating conditions non-stationarity—A procedure of load-dependent features processing with application to wind turbine bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition monitoring of bearings used in Wind Turbines (WT) is an important issue. In general, bearings diagnostics is a well recognized field of research; however, it is not the case for machines operating under non-stationary load. In the case of varying load/speed, vibration signal generated by rolling element bearings is affected by operation factors, and makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. These difficulties come from the variation of vibration-based diagnostic features caused mostly by load/speed variation (operation factors), low energy of sought-after features, and low signal-to-noise levels. Analysis of the signal from the main bearing is even more difficult due to a very low rotational speed of the main shaft. In the paper, a novel diagnostic approach is proposed for bearings used in wind turbines. As an input data we use parameters obtained from commercial diagnostic system (peak-to-peak and root mean square (RMS) of vibration acceleration, and generator power that is related to the operating conditions). The received data cover the period of several months.

Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Barszcz, Tomasz; Urbanek, Jacek

2014-05-01

212

Animal Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Many animals – traditionally considered “mindless” organisms – make up a series of signs and are engaged in making,\\u000a manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity – which is fundamentally model-based – they are at the same time engaged in “being cognitive agents” and therefore in thinking intelligently. An important effect\\u000a of this semiotic

Lorenzo Magnani

2007-01-01

213

How Can Teachers Help Students Formulate Scientific Hypotheses? Some Strategies Found in Abductive Inquiry Activities of Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find how the teacher could help students formulate scientific hypotheses. Data came from two microteaching episodes in which two groups of pre-service secondary science teachers taught high school students as they were engaged in abductive inquiry activities of earth science. Multiple data sources including video…

Oh, Phil Seok

2010-01-01

214

Application of abductive network and FEM to predict an acceptable product on T-shape tube hydroforming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of the finite element method in conjunction with abductive network is presented to predict an acceptable product of which the minimum wall thickness and the protrusion height fulfill the industrial demand on the T-shape tube hydroforming process. The minimum wall thickness and the protrusion height are influenced by the process parameters such as the internal

F. C. Lin; C. T. Kwan

2004-01-01

215

Preswing Knee Flexion Assistance Is Coupled With Hip Abduction in People With Stiff-Knee Gait After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Stiff-knee gait is defined as reduced knee flexion during the swing phase. It is accompanied by frontal plane compensatory movements (eg, circumduction and hip hiking) typically thought to result from reduced toe clearance. As such, we examined if knee flexion assistance before foot-off would reduce exaggerated frontal plane movements in people with stiff-knee gait after stroke. Methods We used a robotic knee orthosis to assist knee flexion torque during the preswing phase in 9 chronic stroke subjects with stiff-knee gait on a treadmill and compared peak knee flexion, hip abduction, and pelvic obliquity angles with 5 nondisabled control subjects. Results Maximum knee flexion angle significantly increased in both groups, but instead of reducing gait compensations, hip abduction significantly increased during assistance in stroke subjects by 2.5°, whereas no change was observed in nondisabled control subjects. No change in pelvic obliquity was observed in either group. Conclusions Hip abduction increased when stroke subjects received assistive knee flexion torque at foot-off. These findings are in direct contrast to the traditional belief that pelvic obliquity combined with hip abduction is a compensatory mechanism to facilitate foot clearance during swing. Because no evidence suggested a voluntary mechanism for this behavior, we argue that these results were most likely a reflection of an altered motor template occurring after stroke.

Sulzer, James S.; Gordon, Keith E.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Peshkin, Michael A.; Patton, James L.

2012-01-01

216

Formerly Abducted Child Mothers in Northern Uganda: A Critique of Modern Structures for Child Protection and Reintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study documents and analyzes the community structures supporting reintegration of the formerly abducted child mothers (FACM) within postconflict northern Uganda. A qualitative approach assesses the relevance and effectiveness of child protection structures created by different development agencies to enhance the reintegration of FACM and protect vulnerable children more broadly. Findings suggest that the efficacy of the community-based structures to

Eric Awich Ochen; Adele D. Jones; James W. McAuley

2012-01-01

217

Addition of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration and On-Site Cytology to EUS-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy Increases Procedure Time but Not Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Although the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in pancreas adenocarcinoma is high, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is often required in other lesions; in these cases, it may be possible to forgo initial EUS-FNA and rapid on-site cytology evaluation (ROSE). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB alone (EUS-FNB group) with a conventional sampling algorithm of EUS-FNA with ROSE followed by EUS-FNB (EUS-FNA/B group) in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. Methods Retrospective cohort study of subjects who underwent EUS sampling of nonpancreatic adenocarcinoma lesions between February 2011 and May 2013. Results Over the study period, there were 43 lesions biopsied in 41 unique patients in the EUS-FNB group and 53 patients in the EUS-FNA/B group. Overall diagnostic accuracy was similar between the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (83.7% vs. 84.9%; p=1.0). In the subgroup of subepithelial mass lesions, diagnostic accuracy remained similar in the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (81.0% and 70.6%; p=0.7). EUS-FNB procedures were significantly shorter than those in the EUS-FNA/B group (58.4 minutes vs. 73.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions EUS-FNB without on-site cytology provides a high diagnostic accuracy in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. There appears to be no additive benefit with initial EUS-FNA but this requires further study in a prospective study.

Krishnan, Kumar; Wani, Sachin; Keefer, Laurie; Komanduri, Srinadh

2014-01-01

218

Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].  

PubMed

This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves. PMID:12292476

1991-09-01

219

Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

2012-01-01

220

Shoulder abduction strength measurement in football players: reliability and validity of two field tests.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal and neurologic injuries affecting shoulder strength are common in contact sports. Full-strength recovery is desired before resumption of competition. On-field assessment of shoulder strength is usually done by manual muscle testing, which lacks sensitivity and reliability. Our objective was to determine the reliability and validity of two field instruments capable of quantifying shoulder abduction strength. Twenty junior football players underwent bilateral isokinetic (60 degrees/s) and isometric shoulder abduction strength measurements using a Cybex 340 isokinetic dynamometer. Test-retest measurements of both shoulders of each player were made using strain gauge (SG) and handheld dynamometer (HHD) instruments. Players were tested during rested and competition conditions. Within and between session reliabilities were calculated using the intraclass coefficient, and validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Overall reliability for each device was calculated using Lisrel analysis. SG was found to be superior to HHD in overall reliability and validity. Within-session reliability in the rested and competition states was 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, for SG and 0.60 and 0.81, respectively, for HHD. Between-session reliability in the rested and competition states dropped to 0.51 and 0.63, respectively, for SG and 0.55 and 0.70, respectively, for HHD. Validity was 0.41 and 0.70 for SG when correlated with Cybex at 0 degree and 60 degrees/s respectively. Validity for HHD was 0.28 and 0.42 for Cybex speeds of 0 degree and 60 degrees/s, respectively. SG reliability and validity were similar when testing was done one shoulder at a time or both shoulders concurrently.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882119

Burnham, R S; Bell, G; Olenik, L; Reid, D C

1995-01-01

221

Diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the rectosigmoid—CT scan, a new diagnostic modality, and surgical management using sphincter-saving procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the rectosigmoid is a rare lesion. Preoperative recognition has been recorded but, because\\u000a of lack of awareness and inconsistent diagnoses inappropriate therapy still persists. Surgical therapy is the hallmark of\\u000a treatment. Abdominoperineal resection has been advocated. Three cases of diffuse cavernous hemangiomas of the rectosigmoid,\\u000a recognized preoperatively and treated successfully with sphincter-saving procedures, are reported. Use

Carol Ann Aylward; Guy R. Orangio; George W. Lucas; Victor W. Fazio

1988-01-01

222

After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ?1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ?1 reintegration program were not significantly different from those who self-reintegrated (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Over 40% of female abductees in this sample had accessed a reintegration program, however significant differences in mental health were not observed between those who accessed a reintegration program and those who self-reintegrated. The successful reintegration of combatants and abductees into their recipient community is a complex process and these results support the need for gender-specific services and ongoing evaluation of reintegration programming.

2014-01-01

223

Tendon transfer for radial nerve palsy: a single tendon to restore finger extension as well as thumb extension/radial abduction.  

PubMed

Since 1994, the author has been treating irreparable radial nerve palsy with pronator teres to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (for wrist extension) and a single tendon (flexor carpi radialis or ulnaris) transfer to restore finger extension as well as thumb extension/radial abduction. We sought to investigate whether these patients are able to flex the fingers with the thumb in abduction/extension posture. This was a prospective study over a 5-year period, and the results of this transfer in 15 consecutive patients (mean age 28 years) were analyzed. At final follow-up (mean 30 months), all patients had reasonable wrist movement, finger extension, and thumb extension/radial abduction. The overall results were rated excellent in 12 patients and good in the remaining three patients according to the Bincaz scale. More interesting was the ability of all patients to flex their fingers with only mild relaxation of the extended/abducted thumb. PMID:22311919

Al-Qattan, M M

2012-11-01

224

Upside-Down Meta-Interpretation of the Model Elimination Theorem-Proving Procedure for Deduction and Abduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Typical bottom-up, forward-chaining reasoning systems such as hyperresolution lack goal-directedness while typical top-down, backward-chaining reasoning systems like Prolog or model elimination repeatedly solve the same goals. Reasoning systems that are g...

M. E. Stickel

1992-01-01

225

Effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the mechanical interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons for the intact, partial-thickness torn, and repaired supraspinatus tendon conditions.  

PubMed

Rotator cuff tears are difficult to manage because of the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of the supraspinatus tendon. Previously, we showed that with the arm at the side, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons mechanically interact such that conditions that increase supraspinatus tendon strain, such as load or full-thickness tears, also increase infraspinatus tendon strain. This suggests that the infraspinatus tendon may shield the supraspinatus tendon from further injury while becoming at increased risk of injury itself. In this study, the effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the interaction between the two tendons was evaluated for supraspinatus tendon partial-thickness tears and two repair techniques. Principal strains were quantified in both tendons for 0 degrees , 30 degrees , and 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction. Results showed that interaction between the two tendons is interrupted by an increase in abduction angle for all supraspinatus tendon conditions evaluated. Infraspinatus tendon strain was lower at 30 degrees and 60 degrees than at 0 degrees abduction angle. In conclusion, interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons is interrupted with increase in abduction angle. Additionally, 30 degrees abduction should be further evaluated for management of rotator cuff tears and repairs as it is the angle at which both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon strain is decreased. PMID:20058264

Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Kuntz, Andrew F; Ramsey, Matthew L; Soslowsky, Louis J

2010-07-01

226

Effect of Glenohumeral Abduction Angle on the Mechanical Interaction between the Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus Tendons for the Intact, Partial-thickness Torn and Repaired Supraspinatus Tendon Conditions  

PubMed Central

Rotator cuff tears are difficult to manage because of the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of the supraspinatus tendon. Previously, we showed that with the arm at the side, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons mechanically interact such that conditions that increase supraspinatus tendon strain, such as load or full-thickness tears, also increase infraspinatus tendon strain. This suggests that the infraspinatus tendon may shield the supraspinatus tendon from further injury while becoming at increased risk of injury itself. In this study, the effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the interaction between the two tendons was evaluated for supraspinatus tendon partial-thickness tears and two repair techniques. Principal strains were quantified in both tendons for 0°, 30° and 60° of glenohumeral abduction. Results showed that interaction between the two tendons is interrupted by an increase in abduction angle for all supraspinatus tendon conditions evaluated. Infraspinatus tendon strain was lower at 30° and 60° than at 0° abduction angle. In conclusion, interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons is interrupted with increase in abduction angle. Additionally, 30° abduction should be further evaluated for management of rotator cuff tears and repairs as it is the angle at which both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon strain is decreased.

Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Matthew L.

2012-01-01

227

The Impact of Shoulder Abduction Loading on EMG-based Intention Detection of Hand Opening and Closing After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Many stroke patients are subject to limited hand functions in the paretic arm due to a significant loss of Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibers. A possible solution for this problem is to classify surface Electromyography (EMG) signals generated by hand movements and uses that to implement Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). However, EMG usually presents an abnormal muscle coactivation pattern shown as increased coupling between muscles within and/or across joints after stroke. The resulting Abnormal Muscle Synergies (AMS) could make the classification more difficult in individuals with stroke, especially when attempting to use the hand together with other joints in the paretic arm. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the impact of AMS following stroke on EMG pattern recognition between two hand movements. In an effort to achieve this goal, 7 chronic hemiparetic chronic stroke subjects were recruited and asked to perform hand opening and closing movements at their paretic arm while being either fully supported by a virtual table or loaded with 25% of subject’s maximum shoulder abduction force. During the execution of motor tasks EMG signals from the wrist flexors and extensors were simultaneously acquired. Our results showed that increased synergy-induced activity at elbow flexors, induced by increasing shoulder abduction loading, deteriorated the performance of EMG pattern recognition for hand opening for those with a weak grasp strength and EMG activity. However, no such impact on hand closing has yet been observed possibly because finger/wrist flexion is facilitated by the shoulder abduction-induced flexion synergy.

Lan, Yiyun; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Julius P.A.

2012-01-01

228

The use of abduction bracing for the prevention of early postoperative dislocation after revision total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

One potential strategy to decrease the risk of dislocation after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the use of an abduction brace to limit flexion and adduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the dislocation rate after revision THA between patients treated with or without an abduction brace. Data were obtained from 1211 revision THAs performed in 610 women and 518 men who had a mean age of 64.7 years (range, 22-95 years) and were followed up for a minimum of 90 days. Five hundred two patients were braced, whereas 650 were not. The 90-day dislocation rate among patients who wore a brace was 5.2% compared with 5.7% in the nonbrace group (P = .70). Multivariate regression found no benefit to bracing (P = .37), while controlling for factors found to significantly affect dislocation rate in this population. Our data do not support the routine use of an abduction brace to aid in the prevention of dislocation. PMID:22608688

Murray, Trevor G; Wetters, Nathan G; Moric, Mario; Sporer, Scott M; Paprosky, Wayne G; Della Valle, Craig J

2012-09-01

229

The Abduction of Geographic Information Science: Transporting Spatial Reasoning to the Realm of Purpose and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People intuitively understand that function and purpose are critical parts of what human-configured entities are about, but these notions have proved difficult to capture formally. Even though most geographical landscapes bear traces of human purposes, visibly expressed in the spatial configurations meant to serve these purposes, the capability of GIS to represent means-ends relationships and to support associated reasoning and queries is currently quite limited. This is because spatial thinking as examined and codified in geographic information science is overwhelmingly of the descriptive, analytic kind that underlies traditional science, where notions of means and ends play a negligible role. This paper argues for the need to expand the reach of formalized spatial thinking to also encompass the normative, synthetic kinds of reasoning characterizing planning, engineering and the design sciences in general. Key elements in a more comprehensive approach to spatial thinking would be the inclusion of abductive modes of inference along with the deductive and inductive ones, and the development of an expanded geographic ontology that integrates analysis and synthesis, form and function, landscape and purpose, description and design.

Couclelis, Helen

230

Attempts to restore abduction of the paralyzed equine arytenoid cartilage. III. Nerve anastomosis.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to attempt restoration of abduction of a recently denervated left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle in the horse by anastomosing the first cervical nerve to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Ten horses were used in the study. In six horses the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was transected and ligated while the ventral branch of the left first cervical nerve was anastomosed to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The remaining four horses also had the left recurrent laryngeal nerve transected and ligated but had no nerve anastomosis performed. Each horse was evaluated preoperatively, and at one week, three and six months after surgery, by endoscopy and determination of upper airway resistance. The endoscopy was performed with the horses breathing room air and while breathing 10% carbon dioxide. All ten horses showed endoscopic signs of complete laryngeal hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. Starting at three months postoperatively clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage were observed in four of the six reinnervated horses but not in the sham operated horses. At the sixth postoperative month five reinnervated horses had clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage. The comparison of upper airway resistance measurements before surgery and at one week, three and six months after surgery showed no significant differences in either control or experimental horses. Following euthanasia at six months postoperatively, the left and right dorsal crioarytenoid muscles were compared for evidence of reinnervation. No significant difference in weight was noted in the reinnervated horses but the left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle weighed less than the control horses. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

Ducharme, N G; Viel, L; Partlow, G D; Hulland, T J; Horney, F D

1989-01-01

231

Effects of expected perturbations on the velocity control of fast arm abduction movements.  

PubMed

A triphasic electromyographic pattern of sequential activation of agonist, antagonist, and again agonist muscles underlies rapid or ballistic limb movements in humans. The first agonist burst reflects muscular force accelerating the limb, the antagonist burst is mainly related to the braking process of movement, while the second agonist burst is considered a reactive adjustment to the deceleration. The duration of the first agonist burst has been reported to be constant for movements of different amplitudes, thus suggesting that only changes in its amplitude contribute to the velocity control of movement. The present research has been undertaken to investigate the strategy whereby the nervous system increases agonist impulsive force for ballistic performance in response to experimental conditions requiring perceptual and/or provisional processes related to expected changes in load or accuracy constraints. The effects of expected perturbations of different strengths on some kinematic and electromyographic variables of fast arm abduction movements performed in a step-tracking task and in an outer-stop terminated task were analyzed in normal subjects. All motor performances were characterized by triphasic electromyographic patterns. In the absence of expected perturbations, the mean velocity of the movements was markedly higher in the outer-stop terminated task. Correspondingly, greater amplitudes and durations of the first agonist burst were observed. In both types of motor tasks, when expected perturbations were inserted, the velocity of the movement increased as well as the amplitude and the duration of the first agonist burst. These results, in agreement with previous observations, indicate that the normal mechanism, whereby the nervous system increases agonist impulsive force in rapid movements, comprises changes not only in the amplitude but also in the duration of the first agonist burst. PMID:3416977

Pantaleo, T; Benvenuti, F; Bandinelli, S; Mencarelli, M A; Baroni, A

1988-09-01

232

Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) ? and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given ? and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

Rayner, Manny

1994-05-01

233

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

234

Symptomatic cardiac metastases of breast cancer 27 years after mastectomy: a case report with literature review - pathophysiology of molecular mechanisms and metastatic pathways, clinical aspects, diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the heart and pericardium are rare but more common than primary cardiac tumours and are generally associated with a rather poor prognosis. Most cases are clinically silent and are undiagnosed in vivo until the autopsy. We present a female patient with a 27-year-old history of an operated primary breast cancer who was presented with dyspnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and orthopnoea. The clinical signs and symptoms aroused suspicion of congestive heart failure. However, the cardiac metastases were detected during a routine cardiologic evaluation and confirmed with computed tomography imaging. Additionally, this paper outlines the pathophysiology of molecular and clinical mechanisms involved in the metastatic spreading, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures and treatment of heart metastases. The present case demonstrates that a complete surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy may result in a favourable outcome for many years. However, a lifelong medical follow-up, with the purpose of a detection of metastases, is highly recommended. We strongly call the attention of clinicians to the fact that during the follow-up of all cancer patients, such heart failure may be a harbinger of the secondary heart involvement.

2013-01-01

235

In vitro evaluation of anatomic landmarks for the placement of suture to achieve effective arytenoid cartilage abduction by means of unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization in dogs.  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate anatomic landmarks to define the ideal suture placement location to achieve appropriate and consistent arytenoid cartilage abduction via unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization (UCL) in dogs. Sample-6 cadaveric canine larynges. Procedures-Laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after suture placements with the epiglottis open and closed. To achieve UCL, suture was placed through the cricoid cartilage just caudal to the cricoarytenoid articulation (suture placement position [SPP] 1), one-fourth of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 2), and three-fourths of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 3). The LAR was again calculated after tensioning of each suture separately. Results-With a closed epiglottis, median LAR was 30.0, 20.4, 11.4, and 3.3 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPP 1, LAR with the epiglottis closed was not significantly different from that at baseline. With an open epiglottis, median LAR was 2.0, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.0 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPPs 1, 2, or 3, LAR with an open epiglottis was significantly lower than that at baseline. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that placement of suture through the cricoid cartilage at the caudal border of the cricoarytenoid articulation was appropriate to sufficiently reduce LAR without increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia through overabduction of the arytenoid cartilage. PMID:24866518

Gauthier, Christopher M; Monnet, Eric

2014-06-01

236

Supraspinatus tendon load during abduction is dependent on the size of the critical shoulder angle: A biomechanical analysis.  

PubMed

Shoulders with supraspinatus (SSP) tears are associated with significantly larger critical shoulder angles (CSA) compared to disease-free shoulders. We hypothesized that larger CSAs increase the ratio of joint shear to joint compression forces (defined as "instability ratio"), requiring substantially increased compensatory supraspinatus loads. A shoulder simulator with simulated deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus/teres minor, and subscapularis musculotendinous units was constructed. The model was configured to represent either a normal CSA of 33° or a CSA characteristic of shoulders with rotator cuff tears (38°), and the components of the joint forces were measured. The instability ratio increased for the 38° CSA compared with the control CSA (33°) for a range of motion between 6° to 61° of thoracohumeral abduction with the largest differences in instability observed between 33° and 37° of elevation. In this range, SSP force had to be increased by 13-33% (15-23?N) to stabilize the arm in space. Our results support the concept that a high CSA can induce SSP overload particularly at low degrees of active abduction. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:952-957, 2014. PMID:24700399

Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G; Baumgartner, Daniel; Viehöfer, Arnd F

2014-07-01

237

Arguing at Play in the Fields of the Lord; or, Abducting Charles Peirce's Rhetorical Theory in "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the ideas of "play" and "abduction" in Charles Peirce's work represent an inventive theory of argument that opens up the kinds of activities that can be called "arguments" and avoids some of the struggles over imposed beliefs with which recent argument theory has grappled. (Contains 12 notes.)

Newcomb, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

238

A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)  

PubMed Central

The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO2), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO2 measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO2 parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III). Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO2), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO2 oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system. The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO2 can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible.

Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.; Potzschke, Harald

2012-01-01

239

Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study  

PubMed Central

Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ? 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N) to 202 N (p<0.001) while on the left, the recorded results improved from 158 N to 223 N (p<0.001). Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

2012-01-01

240

The effect of geometry and abduction angle on the stresses in cemented UHMWPE acetabular cups - finite element simulations and experimental tests  

PubMed Central

Background Contact pressure of UHMWPE acetabular cup has been shown to correlate with wear in total hip replacement (THR). The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that the cup geometry, abduction angle, thickness and clearance can modify the stresses in cemented polyethylene cups. Methods Acetabular cups with different geometries (Link®: IP and Lubinus eccentric) were tested cyclically in a simulator at 45° and 60° abduction angles. Finite element (FE) meshes were generated and two additional designs were reconstructed to test the effects of the cup clearance and thickness. Contact pressures at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces were calculated as a function of loading force at 45°, 60° and 80° abduction angles. Results At the cup-head interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures than the Lubinus eccentric at low loading forces. However, at higher loading forces, much higher contact pressures were produced on the surface of IP cup. An increase in the abduction angle increased contact pressure in the IP model, but this did not occur to any major extent with the Lubinus eccentric model. At the cup-cement interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures. Increased clearance between cup and head increased contact pressure both at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces, whereas a decreased thickness of polyethylene layer increased contact pressure only at the cup-cement interface. FE results were consistent with experimental tests and acetabular cup deformations. Conclusion FE analyses showed that geometrical design, thickness and abduction angle of the acetabular cup, as well as the clearance between the cup and head do change significantly the mechanical stresses experienced by a cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup. These factors should be taken into account in future development of THR prostheses. FE technique is a useful tool with which to address these issues.

Korhonen, Rami K; Koistinen, Arto; Konttinen, Yrjo T; Santavirta, Seppo S; Lappalainen, Reijo

2005-01-01

241

A comparison of the reliability of make versus break testing in measuring palmar abduction strength of the thumb.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established the role of quantitative measurements of palmar abduction strength of the thumb (PAST). This study compares the reliability of the 'make' versus the 'break' test in measuring PAST in healthy volunteers. In a 'make' test, the body part being tested is positioned at the start of its range of motion and the participant is asked to exert his/her maximal force. In a 'break' test, increasing force is applied to a body part after it has completed its range of motion, until the joint being tested gives way. PAST was measured in both hands in 100 healthy volunteers using a handheld device. Two examiners measured PAST using both the 'make' and 'break' test to determine inter-rater reliability. The tests were repeated in 30 volunteers 6 weeks after the initial testing to determine intra-rater reliability. Our results showed that the 'make' test has better inter and intra-rater reliability. PMID:24876683

Lim, J X; Toh, R X; Chook, S K H; Sebastin, S J; Karjalainen, T

2014-06-01

242

Diagnostic Research : improvements in design and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of evidence-based medicine, diagnostic procedures also need to undergo critical evaluations. In contrast to guidelines for randomised trials and observational etiologic studies, principles and methods for diagnostic evaluations are still incomplete. The research described in this thesis was conducted to further improve the methods for design and analysis of diagnostic studies.\\u000a \\u000a\\u000aIn the past, most diagnostic accuracy

Corné Biesheuvel

2005-01-01

243

Whipple Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board The Whipple Procedure Also called a pancreaticoduodenectomy, which is generally the ... have been many modifications and improvements of the procedure. There is a detailed account of the operative ...

244

Checkout Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reliable performance of some oceanographic instruments is dependent on proper checkout procedures. The Reliability Division of the National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center develops checkout procedures when necessary and disseminates them througho...

1971-01-01

245

Photodigitizing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents procedures and programs for efficiently running the Photo Digitizing System at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. Procedures have been tested and have been found to be effective. Any future acquisitions of programs or changes to current programs should be incorporated in these procedures. On-going research programs use high speed instrumentation cameras to record the motion of test subjects

P. D. Kilgore; J. H. Gottbrath

1984-01-01

246

Outcome of Mears procedure for Sprengel's deformity  

PubMed Central

Background: Sprengel’s shoulder is characterized by scapular maldescent and malposition, causing restriction of shoulder and cervical spine movements. It is associated with a variety of other congenital anomalies. Various surgical procedures have been described to treat this anomaly with no consensus as to the surgical procedure of choice. We report the results of the Mears procedure in the treatment of Sprengel’s shoulder. Materials and Methods: Seven children between the age group of two and six years were treated for Sprengel’s deformity, with omovertebral bar, and other congenital anomalies. The Cavendish score and Rigault radiological score were used to assess the severity of the deformity, and the position of the scapula relative to the cervical spine, respectively. The Mears procedure involved scapular osteotomy, par tial scapular excision, and release of a long head of triceps. Clavicular osteotomy was done only in two cases to decrease the risk of traction injury to the brachial plexus. Postoperatively, the patients were immobilized in a shoulder sling and range of motion exercises were started as early as possible. The patients were followed regularly at six weeks, three months and regularly at six-months interval. Results: The mean improvement in flexion and abduction was 45 ° (40 – 70 °) and 50 ° (40 – 70 °), respectively, which was the combined glenohumeral and thoracoscapular movement. The cosmetic and functional improvement by this procedure was acceptable to the patients. Minor scar hypertrophy was seen in two cases. Conclusion: The Mears procedure gives excellent cosmetic and functional results. This procedure addresses the functional aspect of the deformity and is much more acceptable to the patient and parents.

Bhasker, Atul Rajeshwar; Khullar, Sachin; Habeeb, Mohamed

2011-01-01

247

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads...

2010-04-01

248

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads...

2009-04-01

249

Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

1987-01-01

250

Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

1980-07-01

251

Fungal diagnostics.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

2014-01-01

252

Certainty, probability and abduction: why we should look to C.S. Peirce rather than Gödel for a theory of clinical reasoning.  

PubMed

This paper argues that Gödel's proof does not provide the appropriate conceptual basis on which to counter the claims of evidence-based medicine. The nature of, and differences between, deductive, inductive and abductive inference are briefly surveyed. The work of the American logician C.S. Peirce is introduced as a possible framework for a theory of clinical reasoning which can ground the claims of both evidence-based medicine and its critics. PMID:9406107

Upshur, R

1997-08-01

253

Abductive Reasoning as an Aesthetic of Interpretation and a Logic of Creativity in Umberto Eco’s 'The Name of the Rose'  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin my argument by questioning Peirce’s assumption that aesthetics exists only in the state of impulse and feeling (as opposed to method): if I can show how aesthetics necessitates reason, then abductive reasoning emerges as an aesthetic of creative logic useful for the interpretation of texts. Interpretation of the sign—Peirce defines the sign in terms of a triadic relation—to

Jody Kolter

2011-01-01

254

Role of the trochlear nerve in eye abduction and frontal vision of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).  

PubMed

Horizontal head rotation evokes significant responses from trochlear motoneurons of turtle that suggests they have a functional role in abduction of the eyes like that in frontal-eyed mammals. The finding is unexpected given that the turtle is generally considered lateral-eyed and assumed to have eye movements instead like that of lateral-eyed mammals, in which innervation of the superior oblique muscle by the trochlear nerve (nIV) produces intorsion, elevation, and adduction (not abduction). Using an isolated turtle head preparation with the brain removed, glass suction electrodes were used to stimulate nIV with trains of current pulses. Eyes were monitored via an infrared camera with the head placed in a gimble to quantify eye rotations and their directions. Stimulations of nIV evoked intorsion, elevation, and abduction. Dissection of the superior oblique muscle identified lines of action and a location of insertion on the eye, which supported kinematics evoked by nIV stimulation. Eye positions in alert behaving turtles with their head extended were compared with that when their heads were retracted in the carapace. When the head was retracted, there was a reduction in interpupillary distance and an increase in binocular overlap. Occlusion of peripheral fields by the carapace forces the turtle to a more frontal-eyed state, perhaps the reason for the action of abduction by the superior oblique muscle. These findings support why trochlear motoneurons in turtle respond in the same way as abducens motoneurons to horizontal rotations, an unusual characteristic of vestibulo-ocular physiology in comparison with other mammalian lateral-eyed species. PMID:23681972

Dearworth, J R; Ashworth, A L; Kaye, J M; Bednarz, D T; Blaum, J F; Vacca, J M; McNeish, J E; Higgins, K A; Michael, C L; Skrobola, M G; Jones, M S; Ariel, M

2013-10-15

255

Quantitative MRI of Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis and Gluteus Medius Muscle Workload after Squat Exercise: Comparison Between Squatting with Hip Adduction and Hip Abduction  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use MRI to quantify the workload of gluteus medius (GM), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in different types of squat exercises. Fourteen female volunteers were evaluated, average age of 22 ± 2 years, sedentary, without clinical symptoms, and without history of previous lower limb injuries. Quantitative MRI was used to analyze VM, VL and GM muscles before and after squat exercise, squat associated with isometric hip adduction and squat associated with isometric hip abduction. Multi echo images were acquired to calculate the transversal relaxation times (T2) before and after exercise. Mixed Effects Model statistical analysis was used to compare images before and after the exercise (?T2) to normalize the variability between subjects. Imaging post processing was performed in Matlab software. GM muscle was the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip adduction and VM the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip abduction, while VL was the most active during squat associated with isometric hip adduction. Our data suggests that isometric hip adduction during the squat does not increase the workload of VM, but decreases the GM muscle workload. Squat associated with isometric hip abduction does not increase VL workload.

Baffa, Augusto P.; Felicio, Lilian R.; Saad, Marcelo C.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Santos, Antonio C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Debora

2012-01-01

256

Diagnostic formulation  

PubMed Central

Writing a ‘Diagnostic Formulation’ is a skill expected of candidates in the post-graduate examinations in psychiatry in most universities in India. However there is ambiguity regarding what the term means and how it should be written. This article is an attempt to provide some guidelines on this topic.

Kuruvilla, K.; Kuruvilla, Anju

2010-01-01

257

Rapid mass spectrometric DNA diagnostics for assessing microbial community activity during bioremediation. 1997 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effort of the past year's activities, which covers the first year ofthe project, was directed at developing DNA-based diagnostic procedures for implementation in high through-put analytical instrumentation. The diagnostic procedures under evaluation a...

W. H. Benner J. Hunter-Cevera

1997-01-01

258

Interventional procedures of the spine.  

PubMed

Different interventional procedures performed under imaging guidance permit the diagnosis and treatment of the many causes of back pain. Sources of pain amenable to be treated include facet joints, vertebral body, intervertebral disk, and paraspinal structures including nerves and ganglion roots. These procedures may be merely diagnostic, therapeutic, or intended for both purposes. We review the main indications, advantages, and complications of these techniques. PMID:24896746

Santiago, Fernando Ruiz; Kelekis, Alexis; Alvarez, Luis Guzmàn; Filippiadis, Dimitrios K

2014-07-01

259

Musculoskeletal aspiration procedures.  

PubMed

With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

2012-12-01

260

Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures  

PubMed Central

With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections.

Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

2012-01-01

261

Photodigitizing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents procedures and programs for efficiently running the Photo Digitizing System at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. Procedures have been tested and have been found to be effective. Any future acquisitions of programs or changes to current programs should be incorporated in these procedures. On-going research programs use high speed instrumentation cameras to record the motion of test subjects during biodynamic experiments. The films are digitized and the 3-dimensional motion is reconstructed and analyzed. Experimental research is performed to determine the effects of aircraft crashes, ship motion, vibration, aircraft ejection and parachute opening forces on the health and performance of Navy personnel.

Kilgore, P. D.; Gottbrath, J. H.

1984-02-01

262

Cosmetic Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... 11.14 Read More Find a Cosmetic Dentist Teeth Whitening Accredited and General Member Dental Patients ? Cosmetic Procedures ... offered by your dentist’s use of modern technology. Teeth Whitening Most teeth can be whitened (some call it ...

263

Error Analysis: Procedures and Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Error analysis is proposed as a means to supplement diagnostic techniques with exceptional children. A purpose and definition of error analysis are provided. Also, procedures to use error analysis are explained along with basic guidelines to prevent abuse of error analytic techniques. (Author/CL)

Carpentar, Dale

1982-01-01

264

Substation evaluation using Diagnostic Logic System (DIALOG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigated the feasibility of applying a Diagnostic Logic System (DIAGLOG) to evaluate substation operation. The purpose was to see if a determination can be made as to whether the equipment in a substation operated correctly or not when an operating event occurred. The work was directed toward modifying an already proven diagnostic system to create a simplified procedure

1989-01-01

265

Special Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section contains a number of special diagnostics that are designed to examine certain mechanisms. Section 1 reports on the method used to test the photochemical partitioning in the models. Sections 2 and 3 represent efforts to examine the model calculated production and removal rates for ozone and how the values are combined with transport rates in the models to produce the simulated ozone distributions. Sections 4 and 5 concentrate on polar processes including the dynamics aspect of vortex confinement and the chemical aspects of chlorine activation.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

1999-01-01

266

Effect of hand position on EMG activity of the posterior shoulder musculature during a horizontal abduction exercise.  

PubMed

The reverse fly machine is a popular exercise for strengthening the horizontal shoulder abductors including the posterior deltoid. There seems to be little consensus as to which hand position most effectively targets the posterior deltoid despite this option on most machines. This study investigated the impact of varying one's hand position, and consequently altering shoulder joint rotation, on muscle activity in various glenohumeral muscles during exercise on the reverse fly machine. Nineteen resistance-trained men (mean age = 23.2 ± 4.3 years; height = 176.9 ± 7.1 centimeters; body mass = 81.3 ± 10.5 kilograms; body mass index = 25.9 ± 2.6) were recruited from a university population to participate in the study. In a repeated measures design, subjects grasped the hand bars on the machine with either a pronated (PRO) or neutral (NEU) grip and performed dynamic horizontal abduction repetitions to muscular failure using a load equating to approximately 75% body weight. The order of performance of the hand positions was counterbalanced between participants so that approximately half of the subjects performed PRO first and the other half performed NEU first. Surface electromyography was used to record both mean and peak muscle activity of the posterior deltoid, middle deltoid, and infraspinatus. Results showed that mean electromyography activity for the posterior deltoid was significantly greater in NEU compared with PRO (p = 0.046; 95% CI = 0.1-7.4% maximal voluntary isometric contraction). Similarly, mean electromyography activity of the infraspinatus also was significantly greater in NEU compared with PRO (p = 0.002; 95% CI = 3.7-13.6% maximal voluntary isometric contraction). The results of this study show that performing exercise on the reverse fly machine with a neutral hand position significantly increases activity of the posterior deltoid and infraspinatus muscles compared with a PRO hand position. PMID:23302754

Schoenfeld, Brad; Sonmez, R Gul Tiryaki; Kolber, Morey J; Contreras, Bret; Harris, Robert; Ozen, Serife

2013-10-01

267

The rat Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay: a physiological model for assessing botulinum neurotoxin-induced skeletal muscle paralysis.  

PubMed

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are approved for a number of therapeutic indications, including blepharospasm, cervical dystonia and hyperhidrosis, and have also shown efficacy in a variety of pain disorders. The potency of any given BoNT preparation can be routinely assessed by using the Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay, which measures the local muscle weakening efficacy of BoNT following injection into mouse hindlimb muscle. While most studies have employed mice to assess BoNT efficacy in the DAS, few have utilized rats. In this study, we applied the DAS assay to a rat model and compared the potency of IM-BOTOX(®) (onabotulinumtoxinA) injections between two separate hind limb muscles, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior (TA). The results demonstrated that the DAS assay can be performed on rats with similar criteria and parameters as for mice. Moreover in the rat, BoNT can be injected into either the gastrocnemius or TA muscle to elicit similar DAS scoring responses. Interestingly, onabotulinumtoxinA potency in the rat DAS was ?3-fold higher following TA injections than gastrocnemius injections. Additionally, our data showed that the durational kinetics of onabotulinumtoxinA in the rat DAS are approximately twice as long as in the mouse DAS. These results position the rat DAS as a more flexible model for examining the mechanisms of BoNT diffusion and muscle paralysis, while mouse DAS can be used for physiological screening of BoNT because of the potential for higher throughput. Overall, these data confirm the utility of the DAS assay for characterizing the physiological potency of BoNT and related compounds. PMID:23707612

Broide, Ron S; Rubino, John; Nicholson, Gregory S; Ardila, Maria C; Brown, Meenakshi S; Aoki, K Roger; Francis, Joseph

2013-09-01

268

Grievance Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because grievances are unavoidable, it is essential for organizations, such as the schools, to utilize an efficient, effective procedure to handle friction between employers and employees. Through successive steps, representatives of labor and management attempt to resolve the grievance, first with meetings of lower level representatives (such as…

Eisenhower, R. Warren

269

Deinstitutionalization Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a step by step procedure for normalizing the life situations of institutionalized handicapped persons by establishing comprehensive community services on a local level. Available from: American Association for the Education of the Severely/Profoundly Handicapped, 1600 West Armory Way, Seattle, Washington 98119. (GW)

Neufeld, G. R.

1977-01-01

270

A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

2014-07-01

271

Surgical Procedures. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains 13 units of instruction for a course that will prepare students with the entry-level competencies needed by a surgical technologist. The course covers the following topics: introduction to surgical procedures; diagnostic procedures; general surgery; gastrointestinal surgery; obstetrics and gynecological surgery;…

Baker, Beverly; And Others

272

A Tutorial on Confidence Intervals for Proportions in Diagnostic Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in diagnostic radiology often aims to establish the safety and the accuracy of a new procedure or to compare it with other procedures. Frequently, the diagnostic perform- ance of a test can be summarized by proportions such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Safety may be reflected by the proportion of patients experiencing unpleasant or adverse effects. The confidence interval

Charles C. Berry

1990-01-01

273

Rotorcraft Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

2012-01-01

274

TED-Turbine Engine Diagnostics: A Practical Application of a Diagnostic Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

TED (Turbine Engine Diagnostics) is a diagnostic expert system to aid an M1 Abrams tank mechanic in finding and fixing problems in an AGT-1500 turbine engine. TED was designed to provide apprentice mechanics with the ability to diagnose and repair a turbine engine like an expert mechanic. This paper discusses the reasoning method used in TED, called the Procedural Reasoning

Holly Ingham; Richard Helfman; Tim Hanratty; John Dumer; Edmund H. Baur

1997-01-01

275

Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

2008-01-01

276

Contraceptive procedures.  

PubMed

Although most women desire to control the size and spacing of their family, the rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States remains high, with approximately half of all pregnancies being unintended. Reducing unintended pregnancy is a national public health goal, and the increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) (intrauterine devices and implants) can help meet this goal. LARCs are among the most effective forms of contraception available. There are few contraindications to their use, and insertion and removal are straightforward procedures that are well tolerated in the outpatient office setting. PMID:24286997

Beasley, Anitra; Schutt-Ainé, Ann

2013-12-01

277

A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

2001-01-01

278

Keratorefractive procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two laser types are going to find a place in refractive surgery of the cornea: the excimer laser (193 nm) and mid-infrared YAG lasers, such as Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ). Whereas the excimer laser used for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) is currently studied in clinical trials, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers are still in the state of preclinical evaluation. For myopic corrections excimer laser PRK has shown to be safe and effective in the range up to -7.0 D. The results compare favorably with conventional procedures such as radial keratotomy. Complications are rare. Hyperopic and astigmatic corrections using the Ho:YAG laser (HOT) are effective, but safety and stability has yet to be proven. Er:YAG laser photoablation yields a healing response in animal eyes similar to the excimer laser.

Seiler, Theo

1991-11-01

279

Abduction, Induction, and Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analogical reasoning has been investigated by philosophers and psychologists who have produced different approaches like “schema\\u000a induction” (Gick and Holyoak) or the “structure-mapping theory” (Gentner).What is commonplace, however, is that analogical\\u000a reasoning involves processes of matching and mapping. Apart from the differences that exist between these approaches, one\\u000a important problem appears to be the lack of inferential precision with respect

Gerhard Minnameier

280

Theoretical and Manipulative Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a hundred years ago, the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, when working on logical and philosophical\\u000a problems, suggested the concept of pragmatism (“pragmaticism”, in his own words) as a logical criterion to analyze what words and concepts express through their practical\\u000a meaning. Many authors have illustrated creative processes and reasoning, especially in the case of scientific practices. In

Lorenzo Magnani

281

Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

Denisova, Natalia

2009-10-01

282

International Child Abduction Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 2673 and H.R. 3971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to consider enactment of H.R. 2673, a bill to facilitate implementation of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. The text of H.R. 2673 is included in the document as is the text of H.R. 3971, a bill…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

283

Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background The combined positioning of the trunk and knee in the coronal and sagittal planes during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has not been previously reported. Hypothesis During ACL injury female athletes demonstrate greater lateral trunk and knee abduction angles than ACL-injured male athletes and uninjured female athletes. Design Cross-section control-cohort design. Methods Analyses of still captures from 23 coronal (10 female and 7 male ACL-injured players and 6 female controls) or 28 sagittal plane videos performing similar landing and cutting tasks. Significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results Lateral trunk and knee abduction angles were higher in female compared to male athletes during ACL injury (p ? 0.05) and trended toward being greater than female controls (p = 0.16, 0.13, respectively). Female ACL-injured athletes showed less forward trunk lean than female controls (mean (SD) initial contact (IC): 1.6 (9.3)° vs 14.0 (7.3)°, p ? 0.01). Conclusion Female athletes landed with greater lateral trunk motion and knee abduction during ACL injury than did male athletes or control females during similar landing and cutting tasks. Clinical relevance Lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are important components of the ACL injury mechanism in female athletes as observed from video evidence of ACL injury.

Hewett, T E; Torg, J S; Boden, B P

2014-01-01

284

Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Tests and Procedures General Procedures Blood Tests Imaging Tests Nuclear Medicine Scans Anxiety Around Medical Procedures Treatment Options Treatment Side Effects Relapse Late Effects of Treatment Clinical Trials Glossary Tests and Procedures Many tests and procedures are done ...

285

Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

Oberry, Phillip A.

1991-01-01

286

Effect of time pressure on attentional shift and anticipatory postural control during unilateral shoulder abduction reactions in an oddball-like paradigm  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of time pressure on attentional shift and anticipatory postural control was investigated during unilateral shoulder abduction reactions in an oddball-like paradigm. Methods A cue signal (S1) - imperative signal (S2) sequence was repeated with various S2-S1 intervals (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s). S2 comprised target and non-target stimuli presented at the position (9° to the left or the right) indicated by S1. Right shoulder abduction was performed only in response to target stimuli, which were presented with a 30% probability. The P1, N1, N2, and P3 components of event-related potentials were analyzed, and onset times of postural muscles (electromyographic activity of erector spinae and gluteus medius) were quantified with respect to middle deltoid activation. Results There was no significant effect of S2-S1 interval on the latency or amplitude of P1, N1, or N2. The percentage of subjects with bimodal P3 peaks was significantly smaller and the slope of the P3 waveform in the 100 ms after the first peak was significantly steeper with a 1.0-s S2-S1 interval than with a 1.5- or 2.0-s S2-S1 interval. The onset of postural muscle activity was significantly later in the shorter interval conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that with a shorter S2-S1 interval, that is, higher time pressure, attention was allocated to hasten the latter part of cognitive processing that may relate to attentional shift from S2 to next S1, which led to insufficient postural preparation associated with arm movement and anticipatory attention directed to S2.

2014-01-01

287

XMAN - A tool for automated jet engine diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and operation of XMAN, a knowledge-based software tool designed for automated jet engine diagnostics, is presented. XMAN is an expert interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System Increment IV (CEMS IV), which makes it possible to automate the diagnostic procedures. The application of expert diagnostics to the TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System is described. As an integrated diagnostics tool, the XMAN system allows an insight into actual troubleshooting performed and the evaluation of the results. Interactive user training and a feedback loop to improve the diagnostic process are discussed.

Jellison, T. G.; Frenster, J. A.; Pratt, N. S.; Dehoff, R. L.

1987-06-01

288

Optical Diagnostics in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at the cellular level. A detailed description of several fiber optics based systems for early diseases diagnosis, as well as preliminary clinic results, will be presented.

Iftimia, Nicusor

2003-03-01

289

Evaluating a dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record.  

PubMed

Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school's predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization. PMID:21546594

White, Joel M; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; Ramoni, Rachel L; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F

2011-05-01

290

Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record  

PubMed Central

Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization.

White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.

2011-01-01

291

A systematic review of the diagnostic performance of orthopedic physical examination tests of the hip  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reviews of the diagnostic performances of physical tests of the hip in orthopedics have drawn limited conclusions because of the low to moderate quality of primary studies published in the literature. This systematic review aims to build on these reviews by assessing a broad range of hip pathologies, and employing a more selective approach to the inclusion of studies in order to accurately gauge diagnostic performance for the purposes of making recommendations for clinical practice and future research. It specifically identifies tests which demonstrate strong and moderate diagnostic performance. Methods A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Embase Classic and CINAHL was conducted to identify studies of hip tests. Our selection criteria included an analysis of internal and external validity. We reported diagnostic performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Likelihood ratios were used to identify tests with strong and moderate diagnostic utility. Results Only a small proportion of tests reported in the literature have been assessed in methodologically valid primary studies. 16 studies were included in our review, producing 56 independent test-pathology combinations. Two tests demonstrated strong clinical utility, the patellar-pubic percussion test for excluding radiologically occult hip fractures (negative LR 0.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.03-0.08) and the hip abduction sign for diagnosing sarcoglycanopathies in patients with known muscular dystrophies (positive LR 34.29, 95% CI 10.97-122.30). Fifteen tests demonstrated moderate diagnostic utility for diagnosing and/or excluding hip fractures, symptomatic osteoarthritis and loosening of components post-total hip arthroplasty. Conclusions We have identified a number of tests demonstrating strong and moderate diagnostic performance. These findings must be viewed with caution as there are concerns over the methodological quality of the primary studies from which we have extracted our data. Future studies should recruit larger, representative populations and allow for the construction of complete 2×2 contingency tables.

2013-01-01

292

Basic Sciences - Molecular Diagnostics  

Cancer.gov

The Hematopathology Section analyzes approximately 200 cases per month, integrates immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostic assays, and evaluates assays under translational testing for possible diagnostic or prognostic utility. Accessioned cases serve as source materials for research and training.

293

Diagnostic Radiology Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The health systems agency that reviews certificate of need applications for replacing or adding diagnostic radiology equipment should benefit from these guidelines. To help determine need for diagnostic radiology equipment, the Health Services Council, In...

1978-01-01

294

Diagnostic Ratings of Hypnotizability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A clinically derived system for the diagnostic rating of hypnotizability is described. Five major categories of hypnotizability are differentiated. Diagnostic ratings are contrasted with standardized verbatim tests of hypnotic susceptibility. Potential us...

D. N. O'Connell M. T. Orne

1966-01-01

295

40 CFR 1066.215 - Summary of verification and calibration procedures for chassis dynamometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications... In some cases, dynamometers are designed with internal diagnostic and control features to accomplish the verifications...

2013-07-01

296

Pre-Surgical Radiologic Diagnostics of Pancreas Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the example of a comparative study with 112 patients it should be demonstrated that the different radiologic techniques are complementary in pancreas diagnostics with respect to their indication and proposition. The study yields the following procedure...

C. Seifried

1979-01-01

297

21 CFR 660.53 - Controls for serological procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.53 Controls for serological procedures. Red blood cells sensitized with complement shall be tested with appropriate positive and negative control antisera. All...

2011-04-01

298

Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics  

Cancer.gov

The Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics Lecture series recognizes outstanding leaders who are making ground-breaking contributions in molecular diagnostics and who have demonstrated broad and integrated approaches in the development and implementation of diagnostics commensurate with emerging technologies. Speakers in this series will have made significant achievement through fundamental observations, discoveries and intellectual contributions in the basic and applied sciences relevant to the practice of clinical molecular diagnostics.

299

Diagnostics for ITER  

SciTech Connect

After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association Euratom-FOM, Partner in ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Barnsley, R. [ITER International Organization, Cadarache Centre, 13108 St Paul-Les-Durance (France)

2008-10-22

300

Pneumoperitoneum, Retropneumoperitoneum, Pneumomediastinum, and Diffuse Subcutaneous Emphysema following Diagnostic Colonoscopy.  

PubMed

Colonoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and curative procedure. Extraperitoneal perforation with pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema combined with intraperitoneal perforation is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of a 78-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and diffuse abdominal, chest, neck, and facial swelling appeared after a diagnostic colonoscopy. Diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are discussed. PMID:23024878

Falidas, Evangelos; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Goudeli, Christina; Stavros, Boutzouvis; Villias, Constantinos

2012-01-01

301

Principles of plasma diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics principles on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-principles development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.

Ian H. Hutchinson

1987-01-01

302

Educational Diagnostic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches proposed for educational diagnostic assessment are reviewed and identified as deficit assessment and error analysis. The development of diagnostic instruments may require a reexamination of existing psychometric models and development of alternative ones. The psychometric and content demands of diagnostic assessment all but require test…

Bejar, Isaac I.

1984-01-01

303

Lysosomal diseases: diagnostic update.  

PubMed

Technological developments in newborn and population screening, biomarker discovery for monitoring treatment and rapid high throughput DNA sequencing are having a great impact on the diagnostic procedure for symptomatic patients with lysosomal storage diseases. The use of dried blood spots, initially for newborn screening, has stimulated the introduction of automated, rapid and more sensitive methods for the assay of lysosomal enzymes, including the synthesis of novel substrates. Storage products and secondary metabolites in urine and cells can be identified and measured very accurately and sensitively by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This has enhanced the preliminary metabolite screen for LSDs and facilitated the diagnosis of transport defects. Fast, reliable and affordable high throughput DNA sequencing, such as whole or selected exome sequencing, is helping to make diagnoses in difficult cases, to reveal novel gene defects, to widen the clinical spectrum of diseases and possibly to identify modifying genetic factors. Bioinformatics will be necessary to handle the data generated by these new technologies. Notwithstanding, these technical innovations, accurate and reliable diagnosis will still depend on the knowledge and experience of skilled laboratory staff. PMID:24711203

Winchester, Bryan

2014-07-01

304

Vestibular migraine: diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

This paper presents diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, jointly formulated by the Committee for Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society and the Migraine Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The classification includes vestibular migraine and probable vestibular migraine. Vestibular migraine will appear in an appendix of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as a first step for new entities, in accordance with the usual IHS procedures. Probable vestibular migraine may be included in a later version of the ICHD, when further evidence has been accumulated. The diagnosis of vestibular migraine is based on recurrent vestibular symptoms, a history of migraine, a temporal association between vestibular symptoms and migraine symptoms and exclusion of other causes of vestibular symptoms. Symptoms that qualify for a diagnosis of vestibular migraine include various types of vertigo as well as head motion-induced dizziness with nausea. Symptoms must be of moderate or severe intensity. Duration of acute episodes is limited to a window of between 5 minutes and 72 hours. PMID:23142830

Lempert, Thomas; Olesen, Jes; Furman, Joseph; Waterston, John; Seemungal, Barry; Carey, John; Bisdorff, Alexander; Versino, Maurizio; Evers, Stefan; Newman-Toker, David

2012-01-01

305

Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Gas Turbine Performance Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of linear performance diagnostic methods are discussed, in comparison to methods based on full nonlinear calculation of performance deviations, for the purpose of condition monitoring and diagnostics. First, the theoretical background of linear methods is reviewed to establish a relationship to the principles used by nonlinear methods. Then computational procedures are discussed and compared. The effectiveness of determining

K. Mathioudakis

2005-01-01

306

Cortisol assays and diagnostic laboratory procedures in human biological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overview of cortisol physiology, action and pathology is achieved in relation to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis alteration by laboratory investigation. The measurements of cortisol and related compound levels in blood, urine and saliva used to study the physiological and pathological cortisol involvement, are critically reviewed. The immunoassay and chromatographic methods for cortisol measurement in the various biological fluids are examined

Rosalba Gatti; Giorgia Antonelli; Maddalena Prearo; Paolo Spinella; Enrico Cappellin; Elio F. De Palo

2009-01-01

307

A case study of the abductive reasoning processes of pre-service elementary education students in a role playing setting concerning a mock senate hearing on global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science education.

Petty, Michael Eugene

308

A predictive model to estimate knee-abduction moment: implications for development of a clinically applicable patellofemoral pain screening tool in female athletes.  

PubMed

Context: Prospective measures of high external knee-abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at increased risk of patellofemoral pain (PFP). A clinically applicable screening protocol is needed. Objective: To identify biomechanical laboratory measures that would accurately quantify KAM loads during landing that predict increased risk of PFP in female athletes and clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures of increased KAM status for use in a clinical PFP injury-risk prediction algorithm. We hypothesized that we could identify clinical correlates that combine to accurately determine increased KAM associated with an increased risk of developing PFP. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescent female basketball and soccer players (n = 698) from a single-county public school district. Main Outcome Measure(s): We conducted tests of anthropometrics, maturation, laxity, flexibility, strength, and landing biomechanics before each competitive season. Pearson correlation and linear and logistic regression modeling were used to examine high KAM (>15.4 Nm) compared with normal KAM as a surrogate for PFP injury risk. Results: The multivariable logistic regression model that used the variables peak knee-abduction angle, center-of-mass height, and hip rotational moment excursion predicted KAM associated with PFP risk (>15.4 NM of KAM) with 92% sensitivity and 74% specificity and a C statistic of 0.93. The multivariate linear regression model that included the same predictors accounted for 70% of the variance in KAM. We identified clinical correlates to laboratory measures that combined to predict high KAM with 92% sensitivity and 47% specificity. The clinical prediction algorithm, including knee-valgus motion (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.63), center-of-mass height (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26), and hamstrings strength/body fat percentage (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.16) predicted high KAM with a C statistic of 0.80. Conclusions: Clinical correlates to laboratory-measured biomechanics associated with an increased risk of PFP yielded a highly sensitive model to predict increased KAM status. This screening algorithm consisting of a standard camcorder, physician scale for mass, and handheld dynamometer may be used to identify athletes at increased risk of PFP. PMID:24762234

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Foss, Kim D Barber; Rauh, Mitchell J; Paterno, Mark V; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-06-01

309

Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of bronchoscopy video recordings.

2011-01-01

310

ICU Devices and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... ICU Devices and Procedures | | More ICU Devices and Procedures Critical Care Clinical Education Critical Care Cases Ethics Links Journal Club Information for Patients Podcasts Procedures Research Refractory ARDS Statements & Guidelines Ventilator Waveform Analysis ...

311

Multivariate Quality Control Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the design procedures and average run lengths of two multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) quality control procedures. The first CUSUM procedure reduces each multivariate observation to a scaler and then forms a CUSUM of the scalers. Th...

R. B. Crosier

1988-01-01

312

Diagnostic Laparoscopy in the Intensive Care Unit.  

PubMed

Primary and acquired abdominal pathology accounts for a significant proportion of sepsis and SIRS in the ICU population. Abdominal processes often present a difficult diagnostic dilemma in the truly critically ill patient who, due to hemodynamic instability or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high-level ventilatory support, is at significant risk during transport to radiology department. Furthermore, the accuracy of radiologic studies in the ICU setting is often limited. Laparoscopy provides a "minimally invasive" definitive modality to diagnose intra-abdominal problems. It may quickly provide the necessary information to define further management. In selective circumstances, it may actually allow appropriate intervention. However, the overall mortality of patients who undergo diagnostic laparoscopy in the ICU is high regardless of diagnostic findingsduring this procedure. Although not a technically difficult procedure, diagnostic laparoscopy does require a certain skill level, especially when limited time and unfavorable patient physiology are taken into account. The use of diagnostic laparoscopy should be limited to patients in whom a therapeutic intervention is feasible. PMID:23761270

Zemlyak, Alla; Heniford, B Todd; Sing, Ronald F

2013-06-11

313

Plasma diagnostics for FED  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the plasma diagnostic instruments recommended for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is described. First the role and need for plasma diagnostics is discussed. This is followed by an identification of particles and radiation eminating from the plasma. Next some design considerations are presented for the overall set of diagnostic instruments. Finally, instruments used for control and for plasma performance measurements are included in separate lists.

Nelson, W.D.

1981-01-01

314

Diagnostic Development on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

1999-12-16

315

Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials  

PubMed Central

Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies.

Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

2014-01-01

316

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture.

Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

2014-01-01

317

Three Diagnostic Patterns for Children with Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews attempts to categorize reading disabilities, describes a means of refining testing procedures to classify three diagnostic patterns of reading disorder, and reports results of application of those procedures with 172 children with reading disorders. Studies classifying poor readers by a verbal-performance pattern analysis of the…

Fuller, Gerald B.

318

A Graphic Procedure for Studying Differential Item Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A graphic procedure is presented for studying differential item functioning (DIF) that is designed to provide diagnostic information for psychometricians and educators. The procedure provides a signature of each test item that can be used with a summary statistic to flag items with DIF. Advantages and limitations are noted. (SLD)

Diamond, James J.

1992-01-01

319

Diagnostics on Z (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers,

T. J. Nash; M. S. Derzon; G. A. Chandler; D. L. Fehl; R. J. Leeper; J. L. Porter; R. B. Spielman; C. Ruiz; G. Cooper; J. McGurn; M. Hurst; D. Jobe; J. Torres; J. Seaman; K. Struve; S. Lazier; T. Gilliland; L. A. Ruggles; W. A. Simpson; R. Adams; D. Wenger; D. Nielsen; P. Riley; B. Stygar; T. Wagoner; T. W. L. Sanford; R. Mock; J. Asay; C. Hall; M. Knudson; J. Armijo; J. McKenney; R. Hawn; D. Schroen-Carey; D. Hebron; T. Cutler; S. Dropinski; C. Deeney; P. D. Lepell; C. A. Coverdale; M. Douglas; M. Cuneo; D. Hanson; J. E. Bailey; P. Lake; A. Carlson; C. Wakefield; J. Mills; J. Slopek; T. Dinwoodie; G. Idzorek

2001-01-01

320

Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

1992-01-01

321

Principles of plasma diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a reprint of the 1987 edition (44.003.073). Contents: 1. Plasma diagnostics. 2. Magnetic diagnostics. 3. Plasma particle flux. 4. Refractive-index measurements. 5. Electromagnetic emission by free electrons. 6. Electromagnetic radiation from bound electrons. 7. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation. 8. Ion processes.

I. H. Hutchinson

1990-01-01

322

Introducing Diagnostic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of introducing diagnostic assessment into Scottish secondary schools in the light of existing assessment policies, teachers' assessment skills, assessment practices, and in view of internal and external influences which produce sociological problems. Problems that the diagnostic assessment itself can produce are then…

Black, H. D.

1983-01-01

323

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

324

Neuromusculoskeletal thermography: a valuable diagnostic tool?  

PubMed

The use of neuromusculoskeletal thermography is rapidly increasing. Recent studies have begun to document the types of diagnostic and other clinically useful information which may be derived from the procedure. This paper provides a review and summary of current research and a comparison with myelography, computerized tomography, electromyography and clinical and surgical findings in cases of presumed musculoskeletal pain syndromes. The importance of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy (validity) are discussed. In general, the literature reports high sensitivity and negative predictive value, but lower specificity and positive predictive value. The implications of these findings are examined in regard to clinical case management, with emphasis on potential usefulness to chiropractors. Although thermography appears to be a promising diagnostic tool, there remain a number of threats to the scientific validity of current research which must be accounted for in future work. PMID:3543187

Meeker, W C; Gahlinger, P M

1986-12-01

325

Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

2001-05-01

326

Computerized procedures system  

DOEpatents

An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

2010-10-12

327

Diagnostics on Z (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12{sup o} above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them.

Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J. (and others) [and others

2001-01-01

328

Diagnostics on Z (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them.

Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Torres, J.; Seaman, J.; Struve, K.; Lazier, S.; Gilliland, T.; Ruggles, L. A.; Simpson, W. A.; Adams, R.; Seaman, J. A.; Wenger, D.; Nielsen, D.; Riley, P.; French, R.; Stygar, B.; Wagoner, T.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R.; Asay, J.; Hall, C.; Knudson, M.; Armijo, J.; McKenney, J.; Hawn, R.; Schroen-Carey, D.; Hebron, D.; Cutler, T.; Dropinski, S.; Deeney, C.; Lepell, P. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Douglas, M.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A.; Wakefield, C.; Mills, J.; Slopek, J.; Dinwoodie, T.; Idzorek, G.

2001-01-01

329

Regional Review Procedures: Office Operating Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this memorandum is to provide detailed and explicit information on office processing procedures. COG's review is to determine each project's consistency with the comprehensive planning process in the Metropolitan area. The policy review fun...

1969-01-01

330

Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of PE in pregnancy poses a challenge due to pregnancy-related physiological changes. Missing the PE or wrongly treating a pregnant woman for PE has serious clinical consequences. There has been concern over the use of radiation-based imaging modalities due to risk of teratogenicity and oncogenicity. This review is focused on various diagnostic options and risks of radiation to the fetus and mother from radiation-based procedures. PMID:21751084

Fatima, Nosheen; uz Zaman, Maseeh; Sajjad, Zafar; Hashmi, Ibrahim

2011-11-01

331

Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

2010-12-30

332

DNA diagnostics: goals and challenges.  

PubMed

The exponential increase in the discovery of human disease genes over the past 10 years has transformed DNA diagnostics from a minor research-based activity to a major professional operation. Mutation testing and linkage analysis are now used to provide prenatal or postnatal diagnosis for a wide range of monogenic disorders, but robust automated procedures for scanning disease genes for mutations are not yet available. The discovery of genes which confer susceptibility to common disorders is likely to create demand for high throughput testing for specific mutations or clinically relevant polymorphisms. Widespread genetic testing must be supported by adequate genetic counselling and by education of healthcare professionals in order to ensure the appropriate application of this information for the benefit of patients and their families. PMID:10723860

Mathew, C G

1999-01-01

333

Surgical procedures for voice restoration  

PubMed Central

Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention.

Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

2005-01-01

334

Plasma diagnostic reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

1996-02-26

335

Pediatric diagnostic imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the practical problems of pediatric radiography and radiological procedures. Written jointly by a radiographer and a radiologist, it covers pediatric positioning and procedures. An extended chapter covers neonatal radiography and radiology.

Gyll, C.; Blake, N.S.

1986-01-01

336

Common Procedures during Childbirth  

MedlinePLUS

... t InteliHealth Medical Content 2011-08-14 Common Procedures During Childbirth Most often labor and delivery proceeds ... needs a helping hand. Here are some common procedures used during childbirth: Continuous fetal monitoring is a ...

337

Cardiac ablation procedures  

MedlinePLUS

Ablate means "to destroy." Cardiac ablation is a procedure that is used to destroy small areas in ... be causing your heart rhythm problems . During the procedure, small wires called electrodes are placed inside your ...

338

Maintenance of arytenoid abduction following carbon dioxide laser debridement of the articular cartilage and joint capsule of the cricoarytenoid joint combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty in horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate CO2 laser debridement of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty to prevent post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction in seven horses. Horses were assigned to either laser debridement of the left CAJ and laryngoplasty (laser treated, n=5) or control laryngoplasty (sham, n=2), and were evaluated with endoscopic examinations and measurement of right to left angle quotients (RLQ) to assess maintenance of arytenoid abduction. The animals were euthanased at intervals after surgery and larynges were harvested for post-mortem testing, including determination of translaryngeal flow, pressure, impedance and RLQ. Measurements were obtained under increasing vacuum-generated negative pressure with laryngoplasty sutures intact and with the knot/crimp of the laryngoplasty sutures removed. Following post-mortem testing the cricoarytenoid joints were examined histologically. Post-operative endoscopic examinations revealed no significant differences between RLQ measurements calculated for day 1 following surgery to the termination date of the study for the seven horses. Post-mortem RLQ at airflows of 10 and 60 L/s was significantly higher in sham than in laser treated horses both before and after knot/crimp removal. Translaryngeal impedance at 10 and 60 L/s was not statistically different between groups. Histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of articular cartilage in the laser treated horses. The lymphoid cell infiltration subsided but joint capsule and periarticular fibrosis increased over the course of the study. Post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction after laryngoplasty can be minimized with CO2 laser debridement of the CAJ joint. PMID:24405681

Hawkins, J F; Couetil, L; Miller, M A

2014-02-01

339

Diagnostics for ATF  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains viewgraphs on diagnostic instruments used in toroidal plasmas. Ths primary instruments covered are Langmuir probe, bolometers, infrared interferometer, spectrometers, Thomson scattering systems, neutral particle analyzers and infrared cameras. (LSP)

Isler, R.C.

1987-01-01

340

Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic diagnostics will serve as principal diagnostics to determine the equilibrium pressure profile of the LDX plasma and the nature of magnetic fluctuations induced by instabilities. Various magnetic sensors, including 18 Bp-coils, 18 Hall probes, 6 flux loops, and 1 Mirnov coil, have been installed and tested. The external diagnostics will measure the boundary magnetic field to be inputted into an equilibrium code. Specifically, the boundary field values will be used to constrain the free parameters associated with the pressure model. An internal diagnostic Mirnov coil will measure plasma fluctuations on the order of 100 kHz to a few MHz caused by MHD activities. The number of Mirnov coils will be increased to form a toroidal array in the near future. Data from the first plasma experiments will be presented here. The sensitivity of the pressure model on the final reconstructed equilibrium will also be discussed.

Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.

2004-11-01

341

Avionics Diagnostic System (ADS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation will provide system design including a description of the commands, outputs and diagnostic capabilities provided by the ADS we created. Issues and decisions will also be described as will thoughts on potential new features that could be a...

T. Risko

1999-01-01

342

Shiva Optical Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the laser fusion program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, no target experiment is complete unless it is complemented by careful measurements of the laser pulse that irradiates the target. For this purpose, an incident beam diagnostics (IBD) package ha...

F. Rienecker M. Kobierecki R. Ozarski L. Seppala K. Manes

1977-01-01

343

Pneumoparotitis: a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Pneumoparotitis is a rare cause of recurrent parotid swelling and its diagnosis can be challenging if the patient does not present with typical symptoms and is not in a risk group for parotitis. Several diagnostic techniques have been described in the literature including plain radiography, sialography and CT scanning. This report suggests that ultrasound is an efficient diagnostic aid and should be routinely used for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22209185

Ghanem, M; Brown, J; McGurk, M

2012-06-01

344

Noninterceptive beam diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The need for accurate real-time diagnostics is critical for high-power particle beams. This paper describes the present level of development of noninterceptive devices for these beams. Discussion will be related to diagnostic measurements as they occur along the beamline, from ion-source performance through presentation to an RFQ and measures of the RFQ output, using the cw beam at Los Alamos as a guide. 23 refs.

Chamberlin, D.D.

1985-01-01

345

Crew procedures development techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

1975-01-01

346

Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

Brix, M.; Dodt, D.; Dunai, D.; Lupelli, I.; Marsen, S.; Melson, T. F.; Meszaros, B.; Morgan, P.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Silva, C.; Stamp, M.; Szabolics, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Zoletnik, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-01

347

Cognitive diagnostic assessment via Bayesian evaluation of informative diagnostic hypotheses.  

PubMed

There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric perspectives on diagnostic testing discussed by Borsboom (2008), that is, the dimensional, diagnostic, constructivist, and causal system perspectives. Bayesian evaluation of informative diagnostic hypotheses is an alternative for each of the other approaches that is more flexible in the diagnostic hypotheses that can be evaluated, and it can be used in each of the 4 psychometric perspectives on diagnostic testing. After being formulated, informative diagnostic hypotheses are evaluated by means of the Bayes factor using only the data from the person to be diagnosed. Already, relatively small diagnostic tests render Bayes factors that provide convincing evidence in favor of 1 of the diagnostic hypotheses under consideration. PMID:24127988

Hoijtink, Herbert; Béland, Sébastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A

2014-03-01

348

Comparison of muscle activation levels during arm abduction in the plane of the scapula vs. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation upper extremity patterns.  

PubMed

This study quantified activation of 8 muscles of the shoulder, trunk, and back during standing performance of (a) arm abduction in the plane of the scapula (scaption), (b) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) diagonal 1 flexion (D1F), and (c) PNF diagonal 2 flexion (D2F) while lifting a dumbbell with the dominant hand. Twelve men (26.1 ± 4.4 years) and 13 women (24.5 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate. Electromyographic signals were collected with DE-3.1 double-differential surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz. Electromyographic signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections (? = 0.05) examined muscle activation patterns across the 3 conditions. For the middle trapezius, average activation was greater (p < 0.001) for D2F (70.5 ± 23.4% MVIC) than D1F (46.4 ± 19.6% MVIC). Lower trapezius average activation was greater (p < 0.001) for D2F (55.3 ± 23.8% MVIC) than D1F (40.1 ± 16% MVIC). The anterior deltoid showed greater activation (p = 0.009) for scaption (92.4 ± 26% MVIC) than D1F (74.4 ± 21.4% MVIC). The erector spinae showed greater activation for D2F (34.2 ± 12% MVIC; p < 0.001) and D1F (41.7 ± 21.4% MVIC; p < 0.001) than scaption (14.5 ± 12.3% MVIC). During D2F and scaption, all 6 muscles of the shoulder complex demonstrated very high activation levels (>60% MVIC) with the exception of the lower trapezius (55% MVIC). In contrast, erector spinae and external oblique muscles exhibited moderate activation (21-40% MVIC) during arm elevation. The 6 muscles of the shoulder complex displayed high to very high muscle activation at a level appropriate for strength training during all 3 exercise conditions. PMID:22446675

Youdas, James W; Arend, David B; Exstrom, Jada M; Helmus, Taylor J; Rozeboom, Jessica D; Hollman, John H

2012-04-01

349

Invasive procedures for prenatal diagnosis: any future left?  

PubMed

Invasive diagnostic procedures (e.g chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis) remain essential to the complete prenatal genetic diagnosis armamentarium. Both procedures are relatively safe in experienced hands, carrying procedure-related losses of about 1 in 400. Sensitivity of aneuploidy detection with either invasive test is near 100%, 10-15% higher than non-invasive protocols that use maternal serum analyte and fetal nuchal translucency screening. Application of cell-free fetal DNA for aneuploidy screening may or may not narrow this difference. Irrespective, invasive procedures are currently required for application of array comparative genome hybridisation. PMID:22749621

Simpson, Joe Leigh

2012-10-01

350

Interim analyses in diagnostic versus treatment studies: differences and similarities  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to contrast interim analyses in (randomized controlled) treatment studies with interim analyses in paired diagnostic studies of accuracy with respect to planning and conduct. The term ‘treatment study’ refers to a (randomized) clinical trial that aims to demonstrate the superiority or noninferiority of one treatment compared with another, and the term ‘diagnostic study’ to a clinical study that compares two diagnostic procedures, using a third diagnostic procedure as the gold standard. Though interim analyses in treatment studies and paired diagnostic studies show similarities in a priori planning of timing, decision rules, and the consequences of the analyses, they differ with respect to (1) the need for sample size adjustments, (2) the possibility of early decisions without early stopping, and (3) the impact of keeping results secret. These differences are due, respectively, to certain characteristics of paired diagnostic studies: the dependence of the sample size on the agreement rate between the modalities, multiple aims of diagnostic accuracy studies, and the advantages of early unblinding of results at the individual level. We exemplified our points by using a recent investigation at our institution on the detection of bone metastases from prostate cancer in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer in which 99mTc-MDP whole body bone scintigraphy was compared to positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorocholine as tracer, using magnetic resonance imaging as a reference.

Gerke, Oke; H?ilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Vach, Werner

2012-01-01

351

Candidate CDTI procedures study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

Ace, R. E.

1981-01-01

352

Persistent upper airway obstruction is a diagnostic feature of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations (Hall type) with further evidence for dominant inheritance.  

PubMed

The spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias (SEMD) are a group of skeletal dysplasias of variable severity with a heterogeneous genetic aetiology. SEMD with multiple dislocations (Hall type) is a recently identified disorder (OMIM 603546) which is characterized by striking epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes of the long bones and joint laxity with multiple dislocations of the large joints. We report on persistent inspiratory stridor in a child with this type of SEMD in the second reported family with dominant transmission of this disorder. Microlaryngoscopy showed laryngeal stenosis due to failure of abduction of the vocal cords and a tracheostomy was required to provide a satisfactory airway. Since airway compromise has been reported previously in a small series of patients (total of five out of 13 cases so far), the evidence to date supports the association of upper airway obstruction in early childhood with the Hall type of SEMD. We therefore suggest that this is a clinically important diagnostic feature of this disorder. PMID:17676604

Park, Soo-Mi; Hall, Christine M; Gray, Roger; Firth, Helen V

2007-09-01

353

Studies and analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine: SSME failure data review, diagnostic survey and SSME diagnostic evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) failure data for the period 1980 through 1983 are presented. The data was collected, evaluated, and ranked according to procedures established during this study. A number of conclusions and recommendations are made based upon this failure data review. The results of a state-of-the-art diagnostic survey are also presented. This survey covered a broad range of diagnostic sensors and techniques and the findings were evaluated for application to the SSME. Finally, a discussion of the initial activities for the on-going SSME diagnostic evaluation is included.

Glover, R. C.; Kelley, B. A.; Tischer, A. E.

1986-01-01

354

ORION laser target diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-15

355

[Diagnostic DNA probes].  

PubMed

Advances in molecular biology have had a tremendous impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders, tumours and infectious diseases. It is anticipated that recombinant DNA technology will gradually assume an important role as a diagnostic tool in medicine, since at least some of the techniques are now ready for routine use in the clinical laboratory. The most lucrative application (and hence the most competitive market) for DNA probes will be the detection of bacteria, viruses and other microbiological organisms by nucleic acid hybridization techniques. The value of recombinant DNA technology for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection in genetic disorders is now firmly established. Analysis of DNA and RNA obtained from tumours may provide diagnostic information of practical relevance in carefully selected cases. It is, however, unlikely to challenge the established value of the more "traditional" diagnostic tools such as histopathology and immunophenotyping. PMID:2190309

Fey, M F

1990-05-19

356

Reversed field pinch diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

Weber, P.G.

1986-01-01

357

ORION laser target diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

2012-10-01

358

ORION laser target diagnostics.  

PubMed

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

2012-10-01

359

Diagnostic Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic or screening tests are used to help determine whether or not a patient has a certain condition or disease. The ability of a diagnostic test to correctly classify subjects is expressed by the four test characteristics—sensitivity, specificity, predictive value positive, and predictive value negative. This paper describes these characteristics and discusses methods for choosing optimal tests or cutoff points to maximize expected value considering the consequences of incorrect diagnoses. Data drawn from ongoing studies of facial pain are used to illustrate some of these concepts.

Antczak-Bouckoms, Alexia; Tulloch, J.F.C.; Bouckoms, Anthony J.; Keith, David; Lavori, Phillip

1990-01-01

360

Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites.  

PubMed

Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge to laboratories in most countries. Endemic malaria, population movements, and travelers all contribute to presenting the laboratory with diagnostic problems for which it may have little expertise available. Drug resistance and genetic variation has altered many accepted morphological appearances of malaria species, and new technology has given an opportunity to review available procedures. Concurrently the World Health Organization has opened a dialogue with scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers on the realistic possibilities for developing accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, capable of detecting 100 parasites/microl from all species and with a semiquantitative measurement for monitoring successful drug treatment. New technology has to be compared with an accepted "gold standard" that makes comparisons of sensitivity and specificity between different methods. The majority of malaria is found in countries where cost-effectiveness is an important factor and ease of performance and training is a major consideration. Most new technology for malaria diagnosis incorporates immunochromatographic capture procedures, with conjugated monoclonal antibodies providing the indicator of infection. Preferred targeted antigens are those which are abundant in all asexual and sexual stages of the parasite and are currently centered on detection of HRP-2 from Plasmodium falciparum and parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase or Plasmodium aldolase from the parasite glycolytic pathway found in all species. Clinical studies allow effective comparisons between different formats, and the reality of nonmicroscopic diagnoses of malaria is considered. PMID:11781267

Moody, Anthony

2002-01-01

361

Preschooler test or procedure preparation  

MedlinePLUS

Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... reduce distress in children who are undergoing medical tests, minimizing crying and resistance to the procedure. Research ...

362

Connectionist Learning Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of research on networks of neuron-like processing units is to discover efficient learning procedures that allow these networks to construct complex internal representations of their environ- ment. The learning procedures must be capable of modifying the connection strengths in such a way that internal units which are not part of the input or output come to represent

Geoffrey E. Hinton

1989-01-01

363

Useful Procedures of Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses and analyzes the many different procedures of inquiry, both old and new, which have been used in an attempt to solve the problems men encounter. Section A examines some outmoded procedures of inquiry, describes scientific inquiry, and presents the Dewey-Bentley view of scientific method. Sections B and C, which comprise the…

Handy, Rollo; Harwood, E. C.

364

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Backus, Lisa

2005-10-01

365

[Arthroscopy as a diagnostic and surgical method].  

PubMed

The use of the arthroscopic technique has dramatically changed and still does the orthopedic surgery. Arthroscopy has developed as a diagnostic method, particularly in the knee joint. In 1970 the era of surgical arthroscopic procedure has begun, again on the knee joint. The possibilities of surgical arthroscopies of the knee are best described by L. L. Johnson when he said for fun, but today almost true, that practically all surgeries except that of the knee endoprosthesis may be done by means of arthroscopy or, if performed together with it, are much more better. Following arthroscopy in the knee, arthroscopies of other joints of the human body have developed in the same way, first the diagnostic and then the surgical one. Today, arthroscopy is being used even in the temporomandibular joint and those of the spine. However, arthroscopy is currently most usually applied in the knee, shoulder, elbow and upper leg joints. Although arthroscopy means in the literal sense looking into the joints, today it is not limited only to joints. We shall mention arthroscopy of the carpal canal of wrist. With the development of MRI the use of diagnostic arthroscopy will be certainly reduced, but the surgical arthroscopy will be subjected to further developments. The authors report on the experience of the Department of Orthopedics, Medical School University of Zagreb in applying diagnostic and surgical arthroscopies, stressing the basic understandings being significant for general practitioners. PMID:1961081

Haspl, M; Pe?ina, M; Bojani?, I

1991-01-01

366

Substation evaluation using Diagnostic Logic System (DIALOG)  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated the feasibility of applying a Diagnostic Logic System (DIAGLOG) to evaluate substation operation. The purpose was to see if a determination can be made as to whether the equipment in a substation operated correctly or not when an operating event occurred. The work was directed toward modifying an already proven diagnostic system to create a simplified procedure for describing the operation of substation equipment. Special operating tables or modules of logic were identified for describing relay and breaker operations. The resulting model composed of all the modules connected together is used to evaluate the actual observations available at the substation, and to compare them with what the substation should have produced. The report covers the diagnostic approach used, information on how to construct the modules and examples of diagnosis. Also covered are discussions on the special features of substations that offer a challenge to performing diagnostics. Included in the report are the results of modeling a typical substation and several notes are provided along with an initial library of typical modules which were developed in modeling one of the substations belonging to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. This substation served as a feasibility demonstrator. 15 figs.

Andre, W.L.

1989-08-01

367

Data Structures for Abductive Reasoning  

PubMed Central

A common application in the area of medical information systems is that of a diagnosis-symptom database. The paper surveys some of the file structures found in commonly available commercial application packages. The advantages of using a database for emulation of a physician's thinking in reaching a diagnosis are discussed. Extensions to the normal hierarchical view of diagnoses and symptoms are offered in order to efficiently and easily allow computer-assisted diagnosis.

Zoll, Peter F.

1980-01-01

368

Childhood Depression: Diagnostic Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews existing definitions of childhood depression and their implications for diagnosis. Evaluates better known self-report inventories, parent rating scales, psychiatric interviewing schedules, and peer nomination techniques. Addresses diagnostic issues associated with reliability, validity, consistency across raters, settings, and time and…

Clarizio, Harvey F.

1984-01-01

369

Molecular diagnostics in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biology has significantly improved diagnosis in the field of clinical virology. Virus discovery and rapid implementation of diagnostic tests for newly discovered viruses has strongly beneficiated from the development of molecular techniques. Viral load and antiviral resistance or subtyping assays are now part of the biological monitoring of patients chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus

Guy Vernet

2004-01-01

370

Diagnostics for induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

Fessenden, T.J.

1996-04-01

371

Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

372

Beam Diagnostics for FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

2011-08-19

373

Principles of Plasma Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first principles the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as

I. H. Hutchinson

2002-01-01

374

Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

2009-01-01

375

Neutron Noise Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method is suitable for the diagnostics of mechanical vibrations of reactor internals and the indication of boiling in pressurized water reactors. Using the method it is possible to determine the immediate state of the equipment. A model is described o...

K. Dach

1982-01-01

376

Adaptive Diagnostic System Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Adaptive Diagnostic System (ADS) Project sought to integrate state-of-the-art, off-the-shelf hardware and software components with custom-deigned software and hardware interfaces to provide a cost-effective general testing platform for use at the San ...

S. Mullerheim

1998-01-01

377

Logistic Regression Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood fit of a logistic regression model (and other similar models) is extremely sensitive to outlying responses and extreme points in the design space. We develop diagnostic measures to aid the analyst in detecting such observations and in quantifying their effect on various aspects of the maximum likelihood fit. The elements of the fitting process which constitute the

Daryl Pregibon

1981-01-01

378

Reducing Diagnostic Bias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skill using the American Psychiatric Association's 2000 "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision" is essential for increased professional credibility, career marketability, and third-party reimbursement of professional counselors. This article focuses on how to improve counselors' skill with the manual, by providing…

McLaughlin, Jerry E.

2002-01-01

379

Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

Giugliano, John R.

2009-01-01

380

Projection display metrology at NIST: measurements and diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of digital cinema, medical imaging, and other applications, the need to properly characterize projection display systems has become increasingly more crucial. Several standards organizations have developed or are presently developing measurement procedures (including ANSI, IEC, ISO, VESA, and SMPTE). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has played an important role by evaluating standards and procedures, developing diagnostics, and providing technical and editorial input, especially where unbiased technical expertise is needed to establish credibility and to investigate measurement problems.

Boynton, Paul A.; Kelley, Edward F.; Libert, John M.

2004-05-01

381

Diagnostic immunohistochemistry: current applications and future directions.  

PubMed

In this review, the applications of enzyme immunohistochemistry in diagnostic pathology are discussed. Antibodies for diagnostic use are grouped into eight categories, viz, antibodies for tumour typing, for lymphocyte antigens, to hormones, peptides, amines and hormone receptors, to oncofetal antigens, to oncogenes and their products, to cell proliferation antigens, to infectious agents and for the study of glomerular diseases. The practical applications of these antibodies are reviewed with particular emphasis on the use of antibody panels for the identification of anaplastic round cell tumour in adults and children and of spindle cell neoplasms. Future directions for immunohistochemical techniques include their interphase with molecular biology and their applications in immunoelectron microscopy, in in-situ hybridisation procedures, in automation of routine staining and in image analyses. PMID:1795557

Rahman, S; Leong, A S

1991-06-01

382

Barriers to clinical translation with diagnostic drugs.  

PubMed

Radioactive imaging agents, like diagnostic drugs generally, undergo a drug development process that parallels that of therapeutic agents, with similar development times but substantially lower development costs and substantially smaller postapproval markets. Although rapid advances in genetic and expression profiling are furthering the development of expensive pharmacotherapies targeted to small patient populations, the commercial development of imaging agents for small patient populations is blocked by the limited revenues available with current per-dose pricing and the relatively small numbers of imaging procedures that would be performed. A wide-ranging discussion on the best approaches to allow new diagnostic imaging agents to become part of the health-care system, and benefit the patient, is needed. PMID:23359658

Josephson, Lee; Rudin, Markus

2013-03-01

383

47 CFR Procedures - Ship Stations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Stations Procedures Operating Procedures Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations §...

2010-10-01

384

47 CFR Procedures - Ship Stations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Stations Procedures Special Procedures Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Private Coast Stations...

2010-10-01

385

47 CFR Procedures - Land Stations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land Stations Procedures Operating Procedures Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General §...

2010-10-01

386

"? abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) motor nerve innervating the lateral rectums muscle which abducts the eye lessons of the nucleus which is located in the dorsal pons produce a horizontal gaze pals nerve fibers exit the ventromedial pons and because of their long course are vulnerable to damage by mass lessons/increased intracranial pressure"  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "? abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) motor nerve innervating the lateral rectums muscle which abducts the eye lessons of the nucleus which is located in the dorsal pons produce a horizontal gaze pals nerve fibers exit the ventromedial pons and because of their long course are vulnerable to damage by mass lessons/increased intracranial pressure" ?

387

Molecular Diagnostics Researcher: James Ferrenberg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF interview, PowerPoint slide set, and webpage biography of a molecular diagnostics researcher, detailing career information. Molecular diagnostics researchers used genetic information to diagnose infections and disease.

2012-05-02

388

A New Diagnostic Test for Endometrial Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective During saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS), the distension fluid is typically discarded. If cytology analysis could identify those patients with endometrial cancer, many women would be spared from further procedures. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with clinical stage I or II endometrial adenocarcinoma were prospectively recruited preoperatively. Saline-infused sonohysterography was performed by instilling 5 mL of saline, withdrawing and sending for analysis. Saline was reinfused until complete SIS images were obtained and sent separately for cytology. Results Of the 30 women enrolled, SIS was technically successful in 29. Demographics included mean age (60.5 ± 6.99 years), body mass index (35.55 ± 8.18 kg/m2), endometrioid histology (76%), and grade (grade 1, 67%). Prestudy diagnostic method included biopsy (70%), dilatation and curettage (17%), and hysteroscopy (10%). Adequate cytology specimens were obtained in 66% of the 5mL flushes and 72% of the complete SIS collections. Of adequate specimens, the sensitivities to detect endometrial cancer for the 5-mL, complete, and combined fluid samples were 26% (95% confidence interval, 9%–51%), 36% (17%–59%), and 42% (22%–63%). Sensitivity based on the whole study sample (N = 30) was 33% (17%–53%). Statistical significance was not found in the association between a positive test and age, body mass index, grade, diagnostic method, or volume instilled or aspirated. Conclusions Most patients with early endometrial cancer can undergo SIS procedures with adequate cytology specimens obtained from distention media. However, the sensitivity is low, and refinements are necessary before utilizing as a diagnostic test. In cases with positive results, the patient may be able to avoid other costly and painful procedures.

Guralp, Onur; Sheridan, Susan M.; Harter, Josephine; Hinshaw, James Louis; Seo, Songwon; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Lindheim, Steven; Stewar, Sarah; Kushner, David M.

2014-01-01

389

Current Status of Diagnostic Counting and Imaging Techniques Used in Nuclear Medicine: A Sketch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diagnostic procedures used in Nuclear Medicine are designed to provide information about the static and/or dynamic distribution of some particular stable or radioactive material within the patient, as well as the quantity of the material present. Thus, th...

R. N. Beck

1975-01-01

390

Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: A Guide for Meeting JCAHO and ACR Requirements and ICRP Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) requires the monitoring of patient doses resulting from diagnostic x-ray procedures. The intent of these standards is t...

M. C. Wrobel

1998-01-01

391

Flaw Evaluation Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendix A , ''Evaluation of Flaw Indications,'' of ASME Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,'' contains procedures acceptable to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee for establishing the acceptability o...

T. U. Marston

1978-01-01

392

Procedure Writing Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a best practice for writing procedures for test operations of solid motors and liquid engines based on two decades worth of test experience. The Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California, recently completed an effort t...

D. C. Harbour J. N. Beasley

2011-01-01

393

Emergency Evacuation Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The videotape and the booklet have been designed as a flexible supplement to nursing education classes that cover emergency evacuation procedures, policies, and regulations at each Veterans Administration Medical Center. The objective of the program is to...

1986-01-01

394

Periodontal Treatments and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Procedures Periodontists are dentistry's e?xperts in treating periodontal disease. They receive up to three additional years of specialized training in periodontal disease treatment in both non-surgical treatments and periodontal ...

395

Cosmetic Procedure Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... class="button-learn-more"> From aging skin to skin cancer... No one is more qualified to help than ... 5 million cosmetic procedures and 2.6 million skin cancer treatments. Conditions class="button-learn-more"> One American ...

396

Standard Operating Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) to biochemically modify, glycerolize and deglycerolize human red cells in the 800 ml primary polyvinyichioride (PVC) plastic collection bag system. Red blood cell concentrates stored at 4 C in the 800 ml primar...

1997-01-01

397

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... MS, Dover JS, Arndt KA, editors. Atlas of Cosmetic Surgery . United States of America, W. B. Saunders Company; ... of Dermatology Dermatologists have invented or refined several cosmetic procedures. Hair replacement and transplant surgery was pioneered by an American dermatologist.

398

Microbial forensics—Taking diagnostic microbiology to the next level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the diagnostic needs of medical practice and the epidemiologic needs of public health, microbial forensics for legal proceedings requires much more detailed characterization of microbial isolates and special processing procedures for producing legal evidence. Microbial forensic analyses for biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism ultimately are needed in court to answer the following questions: where did the specific

Ronald M Atlas

2004-01-01

399

ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR SELECTION FOR RESIDENTIAL RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses and critiques EPA's experience in conducting house evaluation visits in Florida and Ohio. Suggestions are offered as to the utility and priority to be given to selected diagnostic procedures and measurements. EPA had an experimental program to develop and demo...

400

RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

401

Procedural Tips and Tricks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of all peripheral vascular interventions, carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains the procedure with the steepest learning curve\\u000a and the lowest margin for error. The procedure demands a meticulous approach, advanced catheter and guidewire skills, an excellent\\u000a appreciation of neuroanatomy, and the ability to manage dynamic fluctuations in hemo-dynamic status. Of perhaps greater importance\\u000a is the decision-making and judgment necessary for

Robert Fathi

402

Costing imaging procedures.  

PubMed

The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

Bretland, P M

1988-01-01

403

Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

Katz, Ernest R.

404

Toward Objectivity in Diagnosing Learning Disabilities: Refinement of Established Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variability in diagnostic procedures and a lack of valid and reliable measures led to the development of a comprehensive battery, which incorporated an operational definition of learning disabilities. The battery consisted of forms for observing these functions: intelligence, academic achievement, gross and fine motor control, visual perception,…

Goodman, Marvin; Mina, Elias

405

Computerized Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview  

PubMed Central

A computerized psychiatric diagnostic interview was developed and administered to 121 adult acute psychiatric inpatients. Data on the 100 completers was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity of the computer diagnostic evaluation relative to the hospital discharge diagnosis and revealed sensitivity greater than 70% for major depression, alcohol/substance abuse, adjustment disorder, bipolar/mania, dependent personaltiy disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. Specificity was greater than 70% for schizophrania, alcohol/substance abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Meen interview time was 51 minutes. Eighty-two percent of patients evaluated the computerized interview as interesting and 78% rated it as thorough. The mouse input, large screen letters, and user-friendliness of the Macintosh computer make this ideal for patient-computer interaction.

Zetin, Mark; Warren, Stacey; Lanssens, Ed; Tominaga, Doris

1987-01-01

406

Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology.

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

2010-01-01

407

DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

2007-06-25

408

Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

Burger, D. R.

1990-01-01

409

Educational Improvement Act: Diagnostic Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kentucky Department of Education has a responsibility to provide technical assistance and consultative services to local school districts. Descriptions of the state selected diagnostic reading test, the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI) and the diagnostic math test, the Diagnostic Math Inventory (DMI), are explained. Each school district in…

Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Research and Planning.

410

STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

1998-07-01

411

Journal of Molecular Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 2000 Stanford University's HighWire Press announced the online publication of several journals. The Association for Molecular Pathology, co-sponsored by The American Society for Investigative Pathology, publishes the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics (JMD), which is produced online in conjunction with HighWire Press. Full-text content and abstracts begin November 1999; the free trial period for JMD Online ended March 2001.

412

Obturator hernia: A diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 90 Final Diagnosis: Obturator hernia Symptoms: Epigastric pain • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Obturator hernia (OH) can be difficult to diagnose because it shows only nonspecific signs and symptoms. Although pain in a lower limb caused by compression of the obturator nerve by the hernia in the obturator canal (Howship-Romberg sign) is a characteristic sign, its presence is rather rare. Case Report: We herein describe the case of a 90-year-old woman with an OH that was difficult to diagnose because of her slight abdominal signs and symptoms on admission and subtle abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings. Although the CT images revealed the presence of an OH, this finding was overlooked because it contained only a part of the small intestine wall, which is called the Richter type. Fortunately, her condition improved dramatically with only conservative treatment. Conclusions: Although early diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality, OH can be a diagnostic challenge even with abdominal CT.

Tokushima, Midori; Aihara, Hidetoshi; Tago, Masaki; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Sakanishi, Yuta; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Kyoraku, Itaru; Sugioka, Takashi; Yamashita, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

413

Microwave techniques for diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

Microwaves (MWs) were first introduced as a method of fixation just over 20 years ago. In recent years their use has extended far beyond that of a safe, clean and rapid method of fixation of tissue blocks and large specimens, including brains. MWs accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives and can greatly accelerate the various stages of tissue processing to produce a paraffin block in 30 min. An extensive range of ultrafast MW-stimulated special stains has been developed, and immunohistochemical procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing MWs. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by MWs than by conventional cross-linking fixatives. Also, the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman's solution is clearly improved. MWs can similarly be applied for fixation and staining of preparations for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and they also greatly accelerate polymerisation of resins. In the current climate of cost containment, this wide range of applications makes the MW oven an invaluable addition to the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:8287207

Leong, A S

1993-01-01

414

Diagnostics for multiple regression problems  

SciTech Connect

In the last 10 to 15 years there has been much work done in trying to improve linear regression results. Individuals have analyzed the susceptibility of least-squares results to values far removed from the center of the independent variable observations. They have studied the problem of heavy-tailed residuals, and they have studied the problem of collinearity. From these studies have come ridge regression techniques, robust regression techniques, regression on principal components, etc. However, many practitioners view these methods with suspicion (and ignorance), and prefer to continue using the usual least-squares procedures to fit their models, even though their results might not be answering the question they think. In reaction to this, statisticians are spending more time analyzing how the individual observations affect the least squares results. In the last few years approximately 10 papers and one text have appeared that address the problem of how to study the influence of the individual observations. This report is a study of the recent work done in linear regression diagnostics. It is concerned with analyzing the effect of one case at a time, since the methods to analyze this situation are relatively straight-forward and are not prohibitive computationally.

Daly, J.C.

1982-03-01

415

Diagnostic Care: Grade 9. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Level 2. Technology Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Technology Learning Activity (TLA) on exploring diagnostic care careers for Grade 9 is designed for use in eight class periods. It gives students experience in using standard health care equipment to perform basic diagnostic procedures. This teacher's edition begins with an overview of technology education. The second section describes…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

416

BUILDING HVAC/FOUNDATION DIAGNOSTICS FOR RADON MITIGATION INSCHOOLS, PART 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a case study of radon diagnostics andmitigation procedures performed in a school researched by the U.S.EPA in New York State. t discusses building construction details,radon diagnostic measurements, mitigation system details, andpost-mitigation radon levels. l...

417

Verifying Diagnostic Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA s Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g., an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a nondeterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

Lindsey, Tony; Pecheur, Charles

2004-01-01

418

ITER Diagnostic First Wal  

SciTech Connect

The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

2012-09-21

419

Alpha Particle Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

Fisher, Ray, K.

2009-05-13

420

Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

Santoro, Gilbert J. (editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (editor)

1988-01-01

421

Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

2014-04-01

422

Neutron diagnostics for ITER  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diagnostics will play a prominent role in the control and evaluation of thermonuclear plasmas in ignition device to test engineering concepts (ITER). As in present D-T experiments, measurements of neutron yield and of fusion power and power density are essential. In addition, the spectral width of the 14.1-MeV t(d,n){alpha} neutron emission should be a reliable indicator of ion temperature in an ignited plasma. More detailed measurements of the neutron spectrum may allow determination of the densities of tritium, deuterium, and confined alpha particles. Although the central fusion power density in ITER will be comparable to the maximum values obtainable in TFTR and JET, neutron flux on the first wall will be ten times higher, and the neutron yield per discharge will be about five orders of magnitude greater than previously experienced. The thermal and radiation shielding necessary to protect the ITER superconducting coils from the intense flux at the first wall will restrict diagnostic access for neutron cameras and spectrometers, complicate the design of material activation systems, and limit the applicability of conventional calibration techniques for neutron source strength monitors. These considerations, together with unprecedented reliability requirements and the need for full remote handling of many components, pose demanding challenges for the design of the ITER neutron diagnostic systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Krasilnikov, A.; Marcus, F.B.; Nishitani, T. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States)] [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States)

1997-01-01

423

PML diagnostic criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended.

Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

2013-01-01

424

An evaluation of 11 red cell elution procedures.  

PubMed

Eleven elution procedures were evaluated for their efficacy in recovering antibody from red cells sensitized with immunoglobulin. The procedures evaluated included eight published methods (Lui, heat, digitonin-acid, ether, chloroform, dichloromethane, xylene, and alcohol freeze-thaw) and three commercial elution kits (EluAid, Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Inc.; Elution Solution, Biological Corporation of America; and Elu-Kit II, Gamma Biologicals, Inc.). The xylene elution method proved to be the most effective method, followed by Elu-Kit II, chloroform, dichloromethane, and digitonin-acid. The other six methods evaluated were not optimal based on the suitability of each procedure and the calculated sensitivity. PMID:3952791

South, S F; Rea, A E; Tregellas, W M

1986-01-01

425

Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

1993-09-01

426

Considerations for regeneration procedures.  

PubMed

When pulp tissue becomes necrotic in immature teeth, the prognosis of the teeth is compromised. Disinfection of the root(s) presents several challenges including difficulties in cleaning and shaping large canals with open apices, obturation of canals with open apices, and potential root fractures caused by thin and/or weakened root walls. Regenerative endodontic procedures may increase the prognosis of the compromised immature tooth by re-establishment of a functional pulp tissue that fosters continued root development and immune competency. This article reviews the literature related to and discuss considerations for regenerative endodontic procedures and how these procedures may increase the prognosis for immature teeth with necrotic pulp tissue. PMID:23439044

Law, Alan S

2013-03-01

427

Considerations for regeneration procedures.  

PubMed

When pulp tissue becomes necrotic in immature teeth, the prognosis of the teeth is compromised. Disinfection of the root(s) presents several challenges including difficulties in cleaning and shaping large canals with open apices, obturation of canals with open apices, and potential root fractures caused by thin and/or weakened root walls. Regenerative endodontic procedures may increase the prognosis of the compromised immature tooth by re-establishment of a functional pulp tissue that fosters continued root development and immune competency. This article reviews the literature related to and discuss considerations for regenerative endodontic procedures and how these procedures may increase the prognosis for immature teeth with necrotic pulp tissue. PMID:23635982

Law, Alan S

2013-01-01

428

A Bayesian Discovery Procedure  

PubMed Central

Summary We discuss a Bayesian discovery procedure for multiple comparison problems. We show that under a coherent decision theoretic framework, a loss function combining true positive and false positive counts leads to a decision rule based on a threshold of the posterior probability of the alternative. Under a semi-parametric model for the data, we show that the Bayes rule can be approximated by the optimal discovery procedure (ODP), recently introduced by Storey (2007a). Improving the approximation leads us to a Bayesian discovery procedure (BDP), which exploits the multiple shrinkage in clusters implied by the assumed nonparametric model. We compare the BDP and the ODP estimates in a simple simulation study and in an assessment of differential gene expression based on microarray data from tumor samples. We extend the setting of the ODP by discussing modifications of the loss function that lead to different single thresholding statistics. Finally, we provide an application of the previous arguments to dependent (spatial) data.

Guindani, Michele; Muller, Peter; Zhang, Song

2010-01-01

429

Robotic benign esophageal procedures.  

PubMed

Robotic master-slave devices can assist surgeons to perform minimally invasive esophageal operations with approaches that have already been demonstrated using laparoscopy and thoracoscopy. Robotic-assisted surgery for benign esophageal disease is described for the treatment of achalasia, epiphrenic diverticula, refractory reflux, paraesophageal hernias, duplication cysts, and benign esophageal masses, such as leiomyomas. Indications and contraindications for robotic surgery in benign esophageal disease should closely approximate the indications for laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. Given the early application of the technology and paucity of clinical evidence, there are currently no procedures for which robotic esophageal surgery is the clinically proven preferred approach. PMID:24780427

Hanna, Jennifer M; Onaitis, Mark W

2014-05-01

430

Procedure and Program Examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here some modules, procedures and whole programs are described, that may be useful to the reader, as they have been, to the author. They are all in Fortran 90/95 and start with a generally useful module, that will be used in most procedures and programs in the examples, and another module useful for programs using a Rosenbrock variant. The source texts (except for the two modules) are not reproduced here, but can be downloaded from the web site www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue &issn=1616-6361&volume=666 (the two lines form one contiguous URL!).

Britz, Dieter

431

Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker ?-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy. PMID:22196205

Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

2012-01-01

432

A diagnostic system that learns from experience.  

PubMed Central

LiverSoar is a flexible knowledge-based system that can learn from its problem-solving experience in individual cases. Within an opportunistic abductive framework, it can diagnose liver diseases from findings in liver tissue biopsies. As more cases are encountered and more recognition knowledge is acquired, the system becomes prepared for most of the usual cases, hence solves them with less problem-solving effort. At the same time, it stays flexible enough to fall back to deliberative problem solving in more unusual cases if the acquired knowledge does not apply.

Bayazitoglu, A.; Smith, J. W.; Johnson, T. R.

1992-01-01

433

Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates  

SciTech Connect

A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

2006-01-01

434

[Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].  

PubMed

Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and ?-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2010: audit (of true delivered dose); appropriateness (since at least one-third of examinations are inappropriate); awareness (since the knowledge of doses and risks is largely). The regular application of "3 A's strategy" is usually not facilitated by a health system that pays for volumes, not for appropriateness. PMID:24675449

Carpeggiani, Clara

2014-03-01

435

Droplet diagnostics and scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical scattering by fuel droplets of spray jets can provide information about droplet evaporation in a combustion chamber. Evaporating fuel droplets are often spatially inhomogeneous and non-spherical. Spatial inhomogeneities in droplets can occur in the imaginary or in the real part of the index of refraction. We review some of the theoretical progress to date in modeling scattering by non-spheres and by inhomogeneous droplets. These models help investigate the effects of shape and refractive index perturbations on morphology dependent resonances of droplets. These investigations may lead to the use of such effects as tools for droplet diagnostics.

Chowdhury, Dipakbin Q.; Mazumder, Md. Mohiuddin

1993-05-01

436

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo [ENEA Unita' Tecnica Fusione , Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione C R Frascati v E Fermi 45 00044 Frascati (Italy)

2012-06-19

437

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

2012-06-01

438

Usambrl Shoulder Unit Laboratory Evaluation and Fitting Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The unit contained a friction adjustment for varying torque in the extension-flexion direction, and a free-swing feature in the adduction-abduction direction. The evaluation consisted of cycling the pulley system, and determining the ability of the unit t...

J. W. Hodge R. Plumb

1966-01-01

439

Lightweight Remote Procedure Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight Remote Procedure Call (LRPC) is a com- munication facility designed and optimized for commu- nication between protection domains on the (same ma- chine. In contemporary small-kernel operating systems, ex- isting RPC systems incur an unnecessarily high cost when used for the type of communication that pre- dominates - between protection domains on the same machine. This cost leads system

Brian N. Bershad; Thomas E. Anderson; Edward D. Lazowska; Henry M. Levy

1989-01-01

440

Lightweight remote procedure call  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight Remote Procedure Call (LRPC) is a communication facility designed and optimized for communication between protection domains on the same machine. In contemporary small-kernel operating systems, existing RPC systems incur an unnecessarily high cost when used for the type of communication that predominates—between protection domains on the same machine. This cost leads system designers to coalesce weakly related subsystems into

Brian N. Bershad; Thomas E. Anderson; Edward D. Lazowska; Henry M. Levy

1990-01-01

441

Pediatric Procedural Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

2006-01-01

442

Student Loan Collection Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

443

Vascular Access Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... use. Your intravenous line will be removed. For pediatric patients, a smaller catheter and equipment appropriate to the patient’s size may be used. As children are smaller than adults, the x-ray equipment ... procedures are frequently performed with deeper sedation, possibly ...

444

Interventional breast procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to provide histologic diagnoses of nonpalpable lesions by performance of percutaneous needle biopsy has revolutionized breast imaging in the past decade. The radiologist who performs percutaneous breast biopsies assumes an increased level of responsibility for the patient regarding patient selection, lesion selection, performance of the biopsy procedure, interpretation of results, and patient follow-up. With variable and increasingly numerous

Joanne Cousins; T LANGER

1998-01-01

445

Terrestrial photovoltaic measurement procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for obtaining cell and array current-voltage measurements both outdoors in natural sunlight and indoors in simulated sunlight are presented. A description of the necessary apparatus and equipment is given for the calibration and use of reference solar cells. Some comments relating to concentration cell measurements, and a revised terrestrial solar spectrum for use in theoretical calculations, are included.

1977-01-01

446

Office Procedures Curriculum Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guideline is intended as a resource for instructors who are teaching an office procedures course. This course offers closure for all students completing a scope and sequence in the business education program--accounting, secretarial, office services, and related areas. The stated purpose of the course is to prepare a secondary learner for…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Div. of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education Services.

447

Procedures and Policies Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

Davis, Jane M.

2006-01-01

448

Visual Screening: A Procedure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…

Williams, Robert T.

449

Multifactor Screener: Scoring Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

450

The Task Matrix Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for developing work samples geared to a range of entry-level jobs in an occupation or industry, rather than to a specific job, was developed in 1975. Differences between the task matrix procedure and conventional work sample development are discu...

T. A. Korn D. J. Dunn

1975-01-01

451

[Embolization procedures in acute haemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract].  

PubMed

Perioperative mortality in the pa tients with acute haemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract undergo ng unsuccessful routine endoscopic procedures is relatively high. The study evaluates the effective ness of upper gastrointestinal tract arterial vessels embolization as the alternative procedure to surgery. The analyses was conducted in 48 patients who underwent unsuccessful endoscopic procedures. All patients were subjected to diagnostic angiogra phy, which allowed to localize or con firm the haemorrhage site in 37 (77%) cases. Twenty eight (58%) out of 48 analyzed patients underwent embolizaion and hemorrhage was successfully controlled in 19 (68%) of these cases There were no complications in the analyzed group related to the perfor med intravascular procedures. Intravascular embolization of upper gastrointestinal tract is the alternative to surgical operations and effective method to be used in the treatment of acute haemorrhages from upper ga strointestinal tract in the patients who underwent unsuccessful endoscopic procedures. PMID:23944102

Popiela, Tadeusz J; Brzegowy, Pawe?; Paciorek, Anna

2013-01-01

452

76 FR 62092 - Filing Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission. ACTION: Notice of issuance of Handbook on Filing Procedures...Commission (``Commission'') is issuing a Handbook on Filing Procedures to replace its Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures. The...

2011-10-06

453

Toddler test or procedure preparation  

MedlinePLUS

Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child probably will cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

454

Diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan system disease that often presents insidiously. The diagnosis is often made fortuitously upon routine chest radiography or that done for other reasons. Blacks are more commonly affected than whites and age of onset is typically adolescents to young adults. Lung involvement is common and symptoms may include cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Extrapulmonary symptoms may include the skin, joint and eye findings. Bilateral hilar adenopathy is the classic finding on chest radiograph. Anemia or other cell line deficiencies, elevated liver enzymes, hypercalciuria, and EKG abnormalities may also be present. Angiotensin converting enzyme levels may be elevated but are not diagnostic. Histopathological confirmation of noncaseating granulomas is essential for diagnosis. It is generally performed through a biopsy of the most peripheral site possible, although transbronchial biopsy is commonly required. Finally, other possible etiologies must be evaluated and differentiated with a particular emphasis on tuberculosis due to the multiple overlapping symptoms and findings. Newer techniques such as proteomics and transcriptional gene signatures may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of sarcoidosis, and may even serve as diagnostic tools in the future. PMID:24424172

Heinle, Robert; Chang, Christopher

2014-01-01

455

TFTR Poloidal Rotation Diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new spectroscopic diagnostic to measure the poloidal velocity profile of TFTR plasmas is presented. This diagnostic will be used to complement the measurements of T_i, v_?, and ni from the existing charge exchange spectroscopy system (CHERS) allowing the determination of radial electric field profiles using the force balance equation. A novel inversion technique has been developed to calculate local poloidal rotation velocities from line-integrated measurements. This technique can recover radial spatial resolution that is lost due to the curvature of the field lines. Poloidal velocity profiles across the entire minor radius of the plasma are measured using both intrinsic emission and charge exchange emission (CX) from neutral beams. Two opposing vertical views are required to handle effects of the CX cross section which can cause apparent velocities greatly in excess of expected poloidal velocites. Three high-throughput 0.085 m f/1.8 spectrometers are used at relatively low dispersion to produce pairs of spectra for 30 radial chords yielding a radial resolution ~3.5 cm. Spectra of the 5291 Åline of carbon are recorded on three 2D CCD cameras.

Bell, R. E.; Dudek, L. E.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D. W.; Palladino, R. W.; Ramsey, A. T.

1996-11-01

456

Fusion gamma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactions of interest in fusion research often possess a branch yielding prompt emission of gamma radiation in excess of 15 MeV which can be exploited to provide a new fusion reaction diagnostic having applications similar to conventional neutron emission measurements. Conceptual aspects of fusion gamma diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on application to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during deuterium neutral beam heating of D--T and D--/sup 3/He plasmas. Recent measurements of the D (T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/He, D(/sup 3/He, ..gamma..)/sup 5/Li, and D(D, ..gamma..)/sup 4/He branching ratios at low center-of-mass energy (30--100 keV) and of the response of a large volume Ne226 detector for gamma detection in high neutron backgrounds are presented. Using a well-shielded Ne226 detector during 20 MW--120 kV deuterium beam heating of a tritium plasma in TFTR, the D(T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/He gamma signal level is estimated to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ cps.

Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.; Cole, D.; Conway, M.A.; Wilkinson F.J. III

1985-05-01

457

Fusion gamma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactions of interest in fusion research often possess a branch that yields prompt emission of gamma radiation in excess of 15 MeV. This branch can be exploited to provide a new fusion reaction diagnostic having applications similar to conventional neutron emission measurements. Conceptual aspects of fusion gamma diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on application to TFTR during deuterium neutral beam heating of D-T and D-/sup 3/He plasmas. Recent measurements of the D(T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/He, D(/sup 3/He, ..gamma..)/sup 5/Li, and D(D, ..gamma..)/sup 4/He branching ratios at low center-of-mass energy (30 to 100 keV) and of the response of a large volume Ne226 detector for gamma detection in high neutron backgrounds are presented. For a well-shielded Ne226 detector, the D(T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/ He gamma signal level during 20 MW to 120 keV deuterium neutral beam heating of a TFTR tritium plasma was estimated to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ CPS.

Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.; Cole, D.; Conway, M.A.; Wilkinson, F.J. III

1984-12-01

458

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

459

Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism  

PubMed Central

Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined.

Lindstrom, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-01-01

460

Rapid qualitative procedure for the identification of petroleum products in animal tissue by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory has investigated many cases of suspected petroleum hydrocarbon intoxication. The potential for litigation required that the laboratory develop analytical procedures for the identification and quantitation of petroleum hydrocarbons in interstinal contents and tissues. This analytical procedure is a reasonably rapid, extremely accurate, qualitative test that lends itself to modification as a quantitative procedure. Petroleum

L. L. Zinn; W. C. Edwards

1979-01-01

461

Improved diagnostics for future systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for the incorporation of diagnostic design automation into the weapon system design process and the integration of diagnostic capabilities into field maintenance is examined. The current design processes produce systems that are too expensive to operate, support, and maintain. The problems encountered in performing diagnostics on these complex weapon systems are described. The development of a system which will allow engineers involved in requirements analysis, design, documentation, fabrication, and support to work as an integrated team is discussed.

Nunn, M. E.

1986-05-01

462

Receiver operating characteristic analysis of eyewitness memory: comparing the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups.  

PubMed

A police lineup presents a real-world signal-detection problem because there are two possible states of the world (the suspect is either innocent or guilty), some degree of information about the true state of the world is available (the eyewitness has some degree of memory for the perpetrator), and a decision is made (identifying the suspect or not). A similar state of affairs applies to diagnostic tests in medicine because, in a patient, the disease is either present or absent, a diagnostic test yields some degree of information about the true state of affairs, and a decision is made about the presence or absence of the disease. In medicine, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the standard method for assessing diagnostic accuracy. By contrast, in the eyewitness memory literature, this powerful technique has never been used. Instead, researchers have attempted to assess the diagnostic performance of different lineup procedures using methods that cannot identify the better procedure (e.g., by computing a diagnosticity ratio). Here, we describe the basics of ROC analysis, explaining why it is needed and showing how to use it to measure the performance of different lineup procedures. To illustrate the unique advantages of this technique, we also report 3 ROC experiments that were designed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups. According to our findings, the sequential procedure appears to be inferior to the simultaneous procedure in discriminating between the presence versus absence of a guilty suspect in a lineup. PMID:23294282

Mickes, Laura; Flowe, Heather D; Wixted, John T

2012-12-01

463

Diagnostics development plan for ZR.  

SciTech Connect

The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

Hanson, David Lester

2003-09-01

464

MRCP compared to diagnostic ERCP for diagnosis when biliary obstruction is suspected: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an alternative to diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for investigating biliary obstruction. The use of MRCP, a non-invasive procedure, may prevent the use of unnecessary invasive procedures. The aim of the study was to compare the findings of MRCP with those of ERCP by the computation of accuracy statistics. METHODS: Thirteen electronic bibliographic databases,

Eva C Kaltenthaler; Stephen J Walters; Jim Chilcott; Anthony Blakeborough; Yolanda Bravo Vergel; Steven Thomas

2006-01-01

465

Converging on the tipping point: a diagnostic methodology for standard setting.  

PubMed

This article discusses the strengths and weakness of the Angoff and Bookmark standard setting procedures. An alternative approach that focuses on the strengths of these procedures and adds three diagnostic indices is presented. This alternative approach is applied to three standard setting data sets and the results are discussed. PMID:22357160

Stahl, John A; Becker, Kirk A

2011-01-01

466

Science Buddies: Experimental Procedure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Buddies website aims to promote deep understanding of scientific research through student science fair projects. This segment of the website provides explicit help in preparing an experimental design. It includes key information about: 1) Setting up experimental and control groups, 2) Sample materials lists, 3) How to write a detailed procedure, 4) The meaning of reliability and how it is impacted by sample size.

2013-09-18

467

Automated crew procedure maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation of 30 controlled documents for each flight of the Space Shuttle involves 90 people in processing 200 or 300 changes to existing checklists, and building new procedures. A prototype system is discussed which stores and displays those precise sets of instructions, which include rationale and change history, by using readily available hardware. It provides a simple method of structuring the data in a form for easy undertanding and maintenance.

Hollingshead, P.

1985-01-01

468

standard operating procedures (SOP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pre-established, systematic written procedures for the management, organisation, conduct, data collection, documentation and\\u000a verification especially of clinical trials; SOP should describe the step-by-step actions necessary to initiate and complete the task required in each job description;\\u000a SOP assure correctness, consistency and completeness in an operation and shorten training periods; EC guidelines request that\\u000a sponsors “establish detailed SOPs to comply with

Gerhard Nahler

469

Endoscopic cochlear implant procedure.  

PubMed

The objective was to asses the feasibility of the endoscopic technique for cochlear implant (CI) positioning avoiding mastoidectomy and to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the technique. The study design is a surgical procedure description and prospective case series report. From December 2011 to October 2012, six patients underwent endoscopic CI. All cases were selected based on CT and MRI studies. All surgical steps were analyzed; intra-and post-operative complications were noted. The length of time for each surgical procedure was recorded. The surgical procedure was described step by step focusing on the anatomy of the round window (RW) niche, analyzing the critical point during the dissection. The timing of the surgical procedures was 120 ± 21 (mean ± SD) min. In 1/6 patients, intra-operative injury of the chorda tympani occurred. In all cases, an endoscopic identification was performed and the anatomical details of the RW niche were noted. In 6/6 cases, a RW niche magnification was performed endoscopically. 5/6 cases showed a normal conformation of the RW. In 1/6 patients, obliteration of the RW niche was found. In 4/6 patients, an endoscopic cochleostomy through the RW was performed. In 1/6 patients, a difficult insertion of the array was observed. The current follow-up is 7.3 months (SD ± 3.7). No post-operative short- or long-term complications were noted in this series. Endoscopic CI is a safe and viable technique with a low rate of complications and with good outcomes. PMID:23595616

Marchioni, Daniele; Grammatica, Alberto; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Genovese, Elisabetta; Presutti, Livio

2014-05-01

470

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.