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1

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2010-04-01

2

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

2010-04-01

3

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

2014-04-01

4

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

2012-04-01

5

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2011-04-01

6

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

2013-04-01

7

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2012-04-01

8

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2014-04-01

9

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2013-04-01

10

Diagnostic procedures in dermatology.  

PubMed

Although most skin diseases can be diagnosed with simple visual inspection, laboratory investigations are necessary in several clinical circumstances. This contribution highlights the usefulness of routine diagnostic procedures that are often overlooked and the innovative methods of molecular biology, which are expensive and require an experienced staff. Among the classic diagnostic investigations are (1) the use of Wood's light in many dermatologic disorders (eg, vitiligo, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma, porphyrias), (2) cytodiagnosis of Tzanck in dermatologic practice (eg, herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis, pemphigus vulgaris, basal cell carcinoma, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Hailey-Hailey disease), and (3) microscopic examination for fungal and bacterial skin infections as well as for mite infestation using potassium hydroxide, simple saline, and Gram stain. Modern molecular biotechnologies encompassing gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and its variants have a substantial affect in selected cases of viral (especially herpes simplex virus), bacterial, fungal, and protozoan (Leishmania) skin infections. PMID:21855731

Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Ruocco, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

11

Learning as Abductive Deliberations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains an architecture for a BDI agent that can learn based on its own experience. The learning is conducted through explicit procedural knowledge or plans in a goal-directed manner. The learning is described by encoding abductions within the deliberation processes. With this model, the agent is capable of modifying its own plans on the run. We demonstrate that

Budhitama Subagdja; Iyad Rahwan; Liz Sonenberg

2006-01-01

12

Alien Abductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

Nickell, Joe

2000-03-01

13

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

14

Learning with Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how abduction and induction can be integrated intoa common learning framework through the notion of Abductive ConceptLearning (ACL). ACL is an extension of Inductive Logic Programming(ILP) to the case in which both the background and the target theory areabductive logic programs and where an abductive notion of entailment isused as the coverage relation. In this framework, it is

Antonis C. Kakas; Fabrizio Riguzzi

1997-01-01

15

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

16

Abductive Concept Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how abduction and induction can be integrated into a common learning framework. In particular, we consider\\u000a an extension of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for the case in which both the background and the target theories are abductive\\u000a logic programs and where an abductive notion of entailment is used as the basic coverage relation for learning. This extended\\u000a learning

Antonis C. Kakas; Fabrizio Riguzzi

2000-01-01

17

Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye  

PubMed Central

Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomi?, Martina; Salopek-Rabati?, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

2013-01-01

18

Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures  

PubMed Central

The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

2012-01-01

19

Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large, modularized, computer programs were developed to explore the possibilities for utilizing the processing speed and power of digital computers in interactions with students designed to teach them procedural and diagnostic tasks. (Author)

Rigney, J. W.; Towne, D. M.

1974-01-01

20

Managing diagnostic procedures in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most prevalent of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, is associated with a poor prognosis. An accurate diagnosis of IPF is essential for its optimal management. The 2011 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS)/Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS)/Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT) recommendations on the diagnosis and management of IPF were developed from a systematic review of the published literature. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning has a central role in the IPF diagnostic pathway, with formal designation of criteria for an HRCT pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the correct clinical context, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT is indicative of a definite diagnosis of IPF and negates the need for a surgical lung biopsy. However, although the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement is a major advance, the application of the guideline recommendations by clinicians has identified limitations that should be addressed in future statements. Key problems include: 1) HRCT misdiagnosis, particularly by less experienced radiologists; 2) lack of management recommendations for the highly prevalent clinical scenarios of "probable" or "possible" IPF; 3) ongoing confusion concerning the diagnostic role of bronchoalveolar lavage; and 4) the lack of integration of clinical data in the designation of the diagnostic likelihood of IPF, including the treated course of disease. These issues become evident as the recommendations are applied and highlight the need for continued guideline adjustments. PMID:23728870

Wells, Athol U

2013-06-01

21

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2010-10-01

22

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2014-10-01

23

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2012-10-01

24

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2013-10-01

25

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

2011-10-01

26

Diagnostic oral food challenges: procedures and biomarkers.  

PubMed

Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. They are conducted to confirm whether an allergy to food exists (initial challenge) or to monitor for resolution of a food allergy. The history of an immediate allergic reaction, when supported by positive tests for specific IgE antibodies to the suspect food, is often sufficient to establish a diagnosis without OFC. Additionally, higher concentrations of food-specific IgE or larger allergy prick skin test wheal sizes correlate with an increased likelihood of a reaction upon ingestion. Although these food-specific IgE tests are helpful biomarkers of allergy, their limited sensitivity and specificity often necessitates the use of OFC to establish reactivity. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of non-IgE-mediated food allergy, such as food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES) or proctocolitis and food allergy due to mixed IgE and non-IgE mediated processes, such as atopic dermatitis or eosinophilic gastroenteropathies may not be assessable with specific IgE tests, also warranting OFCs. This review provides an overview on the technique and interpretation of OFCs, use of food-specific testing to predict whether OFC is warranted and to predict OFC outcomes. Additionally, biomarkers that correlate with OFC outcomes will be discussed, as well as future diagnostic tests promising better predictive value. PMID:22414488

Järvinen, Kirsi M; Sicherer, Scott H

2012-09-28

27

Echocardiographic guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous procedures  

PubMed Central

Echocardiographic guidance has an important role in percutaneous cardiovascular procedures and vascular access. The advantages include real time imaging, portability, and availability, which make it an effective imaging modality. This article will review the role of echocardiographic guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous procedures, specifically, transvenous and transarterial access, pericardiocentesis, endomyocardial biopsy, transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement, pulmonary valve repair, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and percutaneous mitral valve repair. We will address the ways in which echocardiographic guidance provides these procedures with detailed information on anatomy, adjacent structures, and intraprocedural instrument position, thus resulting in improvement in procedural efficacy, safety and patient outcomes. PMID:24282682

Nguyen, Cam Tu; Lee, Eunice; Luo, Huai

2011-01-01

28

Integrating Induction and Abduction in Logic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach for the integration of abduction and induction in Logic Programming. We define an Abductive Learning Problem as an extended Inductive Logic Programming problem where both the background and target theories are abductive theories and where abductive derivability is used as the coverage relation instead of deductive derivability. The two main benefits of this integration are the

Evelina Lamma; Paola Mello; Michela Milano; Fabrizio Riguzzi

1999-01-01

29

Diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis in uveitis: a safe procedure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDDifferentiation between infectious and non-infectious uveitis is of crucial value for accurate management of patients with uveitis. Tests performed on aqueous humour yield more relevant information than those done in serum. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the aqueous humour tap for diagnostic purposes is a safe procedure to perform in uveitis patients.METHODSIn this retrospective study 361

Allegonda Van der Lelij; Aniki Rothova

1997-01-01

30

Inference of Gene Relations from Microarray Data by Abduction  

E-print Network

Inference of Gene Relations from Microarray Data by Abduction Irene Papatheodorou, Antonis Kakas- iments. We develop an ALP theory that provides a simple and general model of how gene interactions can cause changes in observable expres- sion levels of genes. Input to the procedure are the observed

Sergot, Marek

31

The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

2011-01-01

32

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal Guidance...Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic X-rays,'' which was released in October...

2013-04-03

33

[Differential diagnostics of Parkinson's disease with nuclear medicine procedures].  

PubMed

Early differential diagnosis of parkinsonism is of paramount therapeutic and prognostic importance. In the present review, the diagnostic value of routinely used nuclear medicine procedures is presented and critically discussed. The [(123)I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the method of choice for differentiation between neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative parkinsonism. The [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) method provides a very high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes (APS), which is clearly superior to the accuracy of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT, [(123)I]IBZM SPECT and [(123)I]MIBG scintigraphy. Furthermore, [(18)F]FDG-PET is the only of the aforementioned techniques that also allows a reliable differentiation between APS subgroups (e.g., multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration). Current studies are investigating the probable value of [(18)F]FDG-PET for risk stratification of dementia in PD. PMID:24821290

Meyer, P T; Amtage, F; Hellwig, S

2014-06-01

34

An abductive inference technique for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a system modeling concept and a new algorithm based on abductive inference for handling diagnostic problems in electrical power transmission networks. The overall technique relies on the inherent functional and logical relationships between system elements such as lines, buses, relays and breakers to generate a diagnostic model rather than on experientially derived heuristics. This approach allows for

T. S. Sidhu; O. Cruder; G. J. Huff

1997-01-01

35

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2010-01-01

36

A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

2014-01-01

37

Introducing Abduction into (Extensional) Inductive Logic Programming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach for the integration of abduction and induction in Logic Programming. In particular, we show how it is possible to learn an abductive logic program starting from an abductive background knowledge and a set of examples. By integrating Inductive Logic Programming with Abductive Logic Programming we can learn in presence of incomplete knowledge. Incomplete knowledge is handled

Evelina Lamma; Paola Mello; Michela Milano; Fabrizio Riguzzi

1997-01-01

38

Implication of Abduction: Complexity without Organized Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abduction, which is articulated by C.S. Peirce, is one of the forms of inference. Abduction has been researched not only in philosophy but also in artificial intelligence and information science. Finlay and Dix's representation of abduction (1996) has almost the same meaning which is given by Peirce. On the other hand, Sawa and Gunji (2010) express three types of inference as operations of arrows on a simple triangular diagram. In the present paper, we show that Sawa-Gunji's representation of abduction is consistent with Finlay-Dix's one, and synthesize the two representations. Both parameter estimation and abduction occupy a similar position on the synthesized representation, but they are not completely corresponding. We present "incomplete" parameter estimation as a sort of "simulated abduction", since abduction has an intrinsic incompleteness, which means that abduction is formally equivalent to "the logical fallacy affirming the consequent". In other words, a numerical aspect of abduction (i.e. the simulated abduction) is formalized as incomplete parameter estimation. The concept of simulated abduction is applied to parameter estimation of auto-regressive models, and the effects of it is investigated. As a result of the numerical analyses, the distribution of the incompletely estimated parameter shows a power law of the slop -2 in the tail, although conventionally estimated parameter is normally distributed. The power law of the incompletely estimated parameter is based on the structure of ratio distribution. In other words, this result shows that the power law can arise when system observers premise a linearity of input and output data which are too small to estimate the system structure. We call the premise of the system observers "linearity bias". As an example of the cause of power law distributions, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been known. These distributions are based on the mechanisms of the systems themselves, which have some organized interaction between their elements. On the other hand, power law distribution which is derived from the incomplete parameter estimation and the linearity bias is not based on a mechanism of system itself but on relationship between data on the system and observer of the data. Consequently, our research suggests that complexity expressed by a power law distribution can be derived from the incomplete parameter estimation which is a numerical aspect of abduction and is different from SOC mechanisms.

Kamiura, Moto

2010-11-01

39

Completing fault models for abductive diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

In logic-based diagnosis, the consistency-based method is used to determine the possible sets of faulty devices. If the fault models of the devices are incomplete or nondeterministic, then this method does not necessarily yield abductive explanations of system behavior. Such explanations give additional information about faulty behavior and can be used for prediction. Unfortunately, system descriptions for the consistency-based method are often not suitable for abductive diagnosis. Methods for completing the fault models for abductive diagnosis have been suggested informally by Poole and by Cox et al. Here we formalize these methods by introducing a standard form for system descriptions. The properties of these methods are determined in relation to consistency-based diagnosis and compared to other ideas for integrating consistency-based and abductive diagnosis.

Knill, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cox, P.T.; Pietrzykowski, T. (Technical Univ., NS (Canada))

1992-11-05

40

Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction  

PubMed Central

We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory’s predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored “while-loops” over “for-loops” in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks. PMID:24082090

Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.

2013-01-01

41

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Controversies in the Use of Diagnostic Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a genetically, immunologically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of inflammatory bowel disorders classified at present time as ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis (IC). Diagnosis of IBD is based on a non-strictly defined combination of clinical and diagnostic parameters. In order to guide the treatment, patients must be assessed by determining

Boris Vucelic

2009-01-01

42

Diagnostic Invasive Procedures in Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of infiltrative diffuse lung disease may require invasive procedures after all noninvasive tools have failed. The clinical context in which these diseases develop and the radiological patterns are crucial for defining the timing and the methods to be used. Immunocompromised hosts are usually acutely ill with fever, cough, shortness of breath, and often with progressive hypoxemia. In this

Venerino Poletti; Marco Chilosi; Dario Olivieri

2004-01-01

43

Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks…

Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

44

Past-Life Identities, Ufo Abductions, and Satanic Ritual Abuse: The Social Construction of Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual Satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured

Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Burgess; Melissa Faith Burgess

1994-01-01

45

Pharmacological aspects of the antibiotics used for urological diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed

Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis is the use of an antibiotic before, during, or shortly after a urological procedure to prevent postoperative infections such as urinary tract or wound infection. The optimal antimicrobial drug must be microbiologically active against the most frequent potential pathogens and have good pharmacological properties. Correct timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis is the first critical issue in determining treatment efficacy. The antibiotic must be administered before the start of the surgical procedure in order to ensure a high tissue level at the time of microbial contamination. If using an oral antibiotic, this must be administered 1-3 hours before the operation and a parenteral antibiotic should be administered at the induction of anaesthesia. The antibiotics potentially useful for antimicrobial prophylaxis are the beta-lactams, cotrimoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and fosfomycin trometamol. The criteria for choosing the optimal antibiotic include an appropriate antimicrobial spectrum, favourable pharmacokinetic parameters (especially good tissue penetration), and elevated safety or tolerability. The use of cotrimoxazole must be restricted due to increasing chemoresistance. Unfortunately fluoroquinolone-based regimens, once the mainstay of prophylaxis guidelines, are increasingly ineffective due to a constant increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. The same concerns apply with regard to the second and third generation cephalosporins that have problems of resistance and, if administered orally, do not sufficiently penetrate prostatic tissue. An appropriate beta-lactam could be an aminopenicillin combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Fosfomycin trometamol can also be a good potential choice due to its elevated activity against MDR Gram-negative bacteria and its favourable pharmacokinetic parameters, including an elevated penetration into prostatic tissue. PMID:25245708

Mazzei, Teresita; Diacciati, Sara

2014-10-01

46

The Adaptive Logics Approach to Abductive Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

(AC: A B,B ' A) as a defeasible rule of inference. This comes down to the fact that the abductive consequences obtained by means of AC are accepted only for as long as certain conditions are satisfied — for example, as long as their negation hasn't been derived from the background theory. In the end, only the unproblematic applications of

Hans Lycke

47

A dummy orbit for training in diagnostic procedures and laser surgery with enucleated eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

% %PURPOSE: A dummy orbit for enucleated eyes was developed for training residents in diagnostic and surgical procedures.METHODS: Porcine eyes were used to construct the model. The device is made of black anodized metal. The final prototype was tested for ease of use and optical quality. Principal elements are an adjustable eye support, a cylinder, and a removable ring.RESULTS: The

Constantin E. Uhlig; Heinrich Gerding

1998-01-01

48

THE SELECTION PROCEDURE OF DIAGNOSTIC INDICATOR OF SUSPENSION FAULT MODES FOR THE RAIL VEHICLES MONITORING  

E-print Network

THE SELECTION PROCEDURE OF DIAGNOSTIC INDICATOR OF SUSPENSION FAULT MODES FOR THE RAIL VEHICLES, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland rme@wt.pw.edu.pl ABSTRACT The monitoring system of a rail vehicle and Evaluation of its Lifespan. The main subsystem of a rail vehicle being the object of on-line monitoring

Boyer, Edmond

49

An abductive inference technique for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission networks  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a system modeling concept and a new algorithm based on abductive inference for handling diagnostic problems in electrical power transmission networks. The overall technique relies on the inherent functional and logical relationships between system elements such as lines, buses, relays and breakers to generate a diagnostic model rather than on experientially derived heuristics. This approach allows for a systematic implementation scheme that is more readily adapted to any power system. Logical models for relays, breakers, lines and buses are presented along with examples on how these models can be interconnected to represent a power system. The resulting system model can simulate the forward behavior of a power system. Inputs to the forward model consist of disorders or disturbances, and the outputs are manifestations or alarms. Using abductive logic, a reverse system model can be generated. This system model takes the alarms as inputs and produces a diagnosis by generating sets of disorders or disturbances that explain the observed alarms.

Sidhu, T.S.; Cruder, O.; Huff, G.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Power System Research Group] [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Power System Research Group

1997-01-01

50

Alleged Experiences Inside UFOs: An Analysis of Abduction Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six well-documented UFO abductions reported in Spain are re- viewed. Investigation reveals them to be the result of hoax, delusion or psy- chosis. On a global scale, the annual distribution of abductions plotted ac- cording to year of report shows clusters associated with media-related triggers. Abduction narratives seem to proceed from internal sources, repre- senting non-physical experiences of psychological origin

VICENTE-JUAN BALLESTER OLMOS

51

Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: results of the who collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury by a systematic literature search. After screening 38,806 abstracts, we critically reviewed 228 diagnostic studies and accepted 73 (32%). The estimated prevalence of intracranial CT scan abnormalities is 5% in patients presenting to hospital with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and 30% or higher in patients presenting with a

Jörgen Borg; Lena Holm; J. David Cassidy; Paul M. Peloso; Linda J. Carroll; Hans von Holst; Kaj Ericson

2004-01-01

52

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning El-Sayed M. El to utilize heuristic search and machine learning approaches, including neural networks. This paper proposes accuracy. Abductive machine learning automatically selects only effective model inputs and builds

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

53

Marriage through abduction ('Telefa') in rural north west Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287

Getahun, H

2001-04-01

54

Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data Into Meaningful Representation  

E-print Network

of other top- ics, including attention and sensor fusion. The methodological context here is robotics a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low; Abduction; Robotics; Vision; Knowledge representation; Logic 1. Introduction Philosophers who subscribe

Shanahan, Murray

55

Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.  

PubMed

The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. PMID:10840926

Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

2000-04-01

56

Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

1983-11-30

57

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure to Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of a procedure to measure diagnostic-reasoning and problem-solving skills taught in predoctoral orthodontic education were studied using 68 second year dental students. The procedure includes stimulus material and 33 multiple-choice items. It is a feasible way of assessing problem-solving skills in dentistry education…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

1990-01-01

58

An abductive theory of scientific method.  

PubMed

A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is given, and the process of their detection is briefly described in terms of a multistage model of data analysis. The construction of explanatory theories is shown to involve their generation through abductive, or explanatory, reasoning, their development through analogical modeling, and their fuller appraisal in terms of judgments of the best of competing explanations. The nature and limits of this theory of method are discussed in the light of relevant developments in scientific methodology. PMID:16392993

Haig, Brian D

2005-12-01

59

MEDICAL PHYSICISTS' IMPLICATION IN RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES: RESULTS AFTER 1 Y OF EXPERIENCE.  

PubMed

Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

2014-12-01

60

Relation Between Abductive and Inductive Types of Nursing Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we contrast inductive nursing risk management and abductive nursing risk management, point out the importance\\u000a of the abductive type, and suggest cooperation between them. In general risk management, inductive management is usually adopted.\\u000a If we computationally conduct inductive management, it is vital to collect a considerable number of examples to perform machine\\u000a learning. For nursing risk management,

Akinori Abe; Hiromi Itoh Ozaku; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kiyoshi Kogure

2006-01-01

61

Integrating Extensional and Intensional ILP Systems through Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present an hybrid extensional-intensional Inductive LogicProgramming algorithm. We then show how this algorithm solves theproblem of global inconsistency of intensional systems when learning multiplepredicates, without incurring in the problems of incompleteness andinconsistency of extensional systems. The algorithm is obtained by modifyingan intensional system [6] for learning abductive logic programs.Extensionality is thus obtained by exploiting abduction: the training set...

E. Lamma; P. Mello; M. Milano; F. Riguzzi

1997-01-01

62

Exposure reduction through quality assurance for diagnostic x-ray procedures.  

PubMed

Traditional state x-ray inspection programs concentrate on measurement of x-ray machine parameters such as kVp and mAs, timer accuracy, collimation, etc. In 1996, the New Jersey radiation control program began a paradigm shift from the traditional inspection to an outcome-based inspection that concentrated on two indicators of performance: image quality and entrance skin exposure (ESE). Through extensive outreach and involvement of stakeholders, a new approach was designed that placed an emphasis on quality assurance. Key to the positive outcome has been the credentialing of medical physicists. On 16 January 2001, the final regulation titled "Quality Assurance Programs for Medical Diagnostic X-ray Installations" was adopted. The new regulations require that each facility using diagnostic medical x-ray equipment (including radiographic, fluoroscopic, x-ray bone densitometric, and computed tomographic) establish and carry out a quality assurance program. The new regulation specifies the quality control tests, frequencies, and standards that are part of the quality assurance program. Five years of data have been gathered. Both ESE and image quality are checked and the inspectors conduct an audit of the facility's quality assurance program. ESE has been decreased by 34% for lumbar spine, 46% for chest, and 66% for foot x-ray procedures. Image quality has improved by 22%. Quality improvement initiatives were extended to the larger dental x-ray community. Through outreach and information sharing, stakeholders were instructed in the factors that affect patient radiation exposure and image quality and were encouraged to take actions to improve in these areas. PMID:18849692

Lipoti, Jill A

2008-11-01

63

Can diagnostic and procedural skills required to practice cardiology as a specialist be mastered in 3 years?  

PubMed

Cognitive and procedural skills required of cardiologists have increased in the past 10 years. What is unknown is whether residents consistently meet recommended volumes during training and what their own subjective assessments of their competency are after training. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether current training provides residents with opportunities to develop skills to function independently and (2) identify whether residents perceive gaps in their skills. We surveyed current and recent graduates of adult cardiology programs in Canada. One hundred ten responses from 425 surveys were received. Procedural and diagnostic test interpretation volumes were recorded, as were the optimum number the respondents believed were important to complete to function independently. These volumes were compared with the 2008 American College of Cardiology Core Cardiology Training Symposium (COCATS 3) and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) recommendations for training. The proportion of residents meeting recommended volumes for diagnostic test interpretation ranged from 7% (Holter monitors) to 91% (echocardiograms). For procedures, the range was from 71% (echocardiography) to 100% (cardioversion). The ratio of residents' perceived minimum numbers believed to be required for proficiency for diagnostic test interpretation to those recommended ranged from 14% (electrocardiograms) to 116% (echocardiograms), and for procedures, the ratio was 66% (temporary pacemaker placement) to 116% (echocardiography). Recent graduates' perception of minimum required numbers to achieve competency is underestimated compared with COCATS 3 and CCS recommendations. Few graduates achieved the recommended volume targets suggested for diagnostic test interpretation. PMID:25547557

Yu, Eric H C; Nair, Parvathy; Sibbald, Matthew G; Lee, Douglas S; Dorian, Paul

2015-01-01

64

[Tactical diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in early stages of vulvar cancer].  

PubMed

The objective of this report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic tactics in early vulvar carcinoma i.e. carcinoma in situ and carcinoma in I stage (IA and IB) which aim is to limit the radicalisation of the surgery. The clinical material is 57 women aged 27-63 years, colposcopy, cytology and histology diagnosed. The histology examination was made under colposcopic control, and the initial staging was settled i.e. ca in situ in 11 cases, carcinoma IA in 7 cases and carcinoma IB in 39 cases. In qualifying criteria for surgery, unifocal or multifocal location in carcinoma in situ was analysed, and presence of dystrophic lesions in ca in situ and ca IA was taken into consideration. In ca IB the additionally diameter of the lesion (1 cm and 1-2 cm), location (clitoris, perineum, or pudendal lip) and in carcinoma located within the pudendal lip, presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes of inguino-femoral region was taken into consideration. Local excision of lesion was therapeutical procedure in majority of cases in carcinoma in situ and carcinoma IA stage. In multifocal localisation of ca in situ or in coexistence of dystrophic lesions in ca in situ and ca IA vulvectomy was performed. But in carcinoma IB located within the pudendal lips, where lack of metastases to lymphatic nodes in intraoperative histopathology was confirmed, local excision of neoplastic lesion was performed. Presence of lesion within the clitoris, perineum or presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes led to more radical procedure including radical vulvectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy of inguino-femoral region. PMID:10375936

Basta, A

1999-01-01

65

A comparison of trapezius muscle activities of different shoulder abduction angles and rotation conditions during prone horizontal abduction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the differences in the activities of three parts of the trapezius muscle—the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT)—among three different rotation conditions of the shoulders, while subjects performed prone horizontal abduction (PHA) at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this experimental study were 16 healthy male adults. Surface electromyography was used to collect data on the activity of each part of the trapezius. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the activities of each area of the trapezius—the UT, MT, and LT—among internal rotation (IR), the neutral position (NP), and external rotation (ER) of the shoulders during PHA with shoulder abduction of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. [Results] Activity of the UT, MT, and LT significantly increased as the shoulder abduction angle increased during PHA. There was a significant difference only in the activity of the LT, with change in shoulder rotation. In addition, the muscle activity of the LT was highest during shoulder IR at 120°. [Conclusion] Although activity of the LT was the highest during IR at 120 abduction, PHA accompanied by ER at an abduction angle of 120° would be effective at eliciting high activity in the LT when PHA is performed. Nonetheless, at an early stage of rehabilitation, PHA accompanied by ER at low abduction angles of 30° and 60° would be desirable to elicit low activity of the UT and high activity of the LT. PMID:25642047

Lim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jung Seok; Mun, Byeong Mu; Kim, Tae Ho

2015-01-01

66

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication Devices and Services  

E-print Network

&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication DevicesTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication Devices and Services Approved: December 28, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: December 28, 2014 Texas A

67

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research  

E-print Network

of Interest in Research Page 1 of 3 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic LaboratoryTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research Approved: February 2, 2012 Revised: August 1, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: August 1

68

The Abduction of Children by Strangers and Nonfamily Members: Estimating the Incidence Using Multiple Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a national survey of households with children, a national survey of police records, and an analysis of FBI homicide data to estimate the incidence of nonfamily abductions of children. Offers a definition of abduction, analyzes problems in compiling abduction statistics, and discusses public policy on prevention and response. (RJM)

Finkelhor, David; And Others

1992-01-01

69

Parental Abduction from the Perspective of the Victims: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a descriptive study that examined parental abductions from the perspective of the abductee. The results will help counseling professionals better to understand the psychological consequences of parental abduction, coping mechanisms that were used by the abducted children and counseling techniques and strategies that helped the children…

Gibbs, Mary Jo L.

2009-01-01

70

A Systematic Review on the Accuracy of Diagnostic Procedures for Infravesical Obstruction in Boys  

PubMed Central

Background Infravesical obstruction leads to kidney and bladder dysfunction in a significant proportion of boys. The aim of this review is to determine the value of diagnostic tests for ascertainment of infravesical obstruction in boys. Methodology We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases until January 1, 2013, to identify papers that described original diagnostic accuracy research for infravesical obstruction in boys. We extracted information on (1) patient characteristics and clinical presentation of PUV and (2) diagnostic pathway, (3) diagnostic accuracy measures and (4) assessed risk of bias. Principal Findings We retrieved 15 studies describing various diagnostic pathways in 1,189 boys suspected for infravesical obstruction. The included studies reflect a broad clinical spectrum of patients, but all failed to present a standardised approach to confirm the presence and severity of obstruction. The risk of bias of included studies is rather high due to work-up bias and missing data. Conclusions As a consequence of low quality of methods of the available studies we put little confidence in the reported estimates for the diagnostic accuracy of US, VCUG and new additional tests for ruling in or ruling out infravesical obstruction. To date, firm evidence to support common diagnostic pathways is lacking. Hence, we are unable to draw conclusions on diagnostic accuracy of tests for infravesical obstruction. In order to be able to standardise the diagnostic pathway for infravesical obstruction, adequate design and transparent reporting is mandatory. PMID:24586242

Hennus, Pauline M. L.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.; Bosch, J. L. H.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.

2014-01-01

71

CT-guided percutaneous aspiration of Tarlov cyst as a useful diagnostic procedure prior to operative intervention.  

PubMed

Tarlov or perineural cysts are lesions of the nerve root most often found in the sacral region. Several authors recommend surgical treatment of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. However, successful surgical treatment is dependent on appropriate patient selection. In this article, we report three cases of a sacral perineural cyst, causing sciatic pain, and emphasize the usefulness of CT-guided percutaneous aspiration as an important diagnostic and prognostic procedure prior to definitive operative treatment. PMID:15197609

Lee, J-Y; Impekoven, P; Stenzel, W; Löhr, M; Ernestus, R-I; Klug, N

2004-07-01

72

Probabilistic Abductive Computation of Evidence Collection Strategies in Crime Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for integrating two approaches to building decision support systems (DSS) for crime investigation: symbolic crime scenario abduction [16] and Bayesian forensic evidence evaluation [5]. This is achieved by means of a novel compositional modelling technique that allows for automatically generating a space of models describing plausible crime scenarios from given evidence and formally represented domain

Jeroen Keppens; Qiang Shen; Burkhard Schafer

2005-01-01

73

Semantics of Communicating Agents Based on Deduction and Abduction  

E-print Network

Semantics of Communicating Agents Based on Deduction and Abduction Koen V. Hindriks, Frank S. de Boer, Wiebe van der Hoek and John­Jules Ch. Meyer University Utrecht, Department of Computer Science P and goals which make up their mental state. In this paper, we integrate communication at the agent level

Utrecht, Universiteit

74

Arm abduction strength and its relationship to shoulder geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to test whether glenohumeral geometry, as measured through MRI scans, is correlated with upper arm strength. The isometric shoulder strength of 12 subjects during one-handed arm abduction in the coronal plane, in a range from 5° to 30°, was correlated with the geometries of their glenoid fossas. Seven parameters describing the glenohumeral joint geometry in the

Krystyna Gielo-Perczak; Simon Matz; Kai-Nan An

2006-01-01

75

Abductive Science Inquiry Using Mobile Devices in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advancements in digital technology have attracted the interest of educators and researchers to develop technology-assisted inquiry-based learning environments in the domain of school science education. Traditionally, school science education has followed deductive and inductive forms of inquiry investigation, while the abductive form of…

Ahmed, Sohaib; Parsons, David

2013-01-01

76

Towards Automated Web Service Composition with the Abductive Event Calculus  

E-print Network

Towards Automated Web Service Composition with the Abductive Event Calculus Onur Aydin1 Nihan Kesim Cicekli2 Ilyas Cicekli3 1 Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, U.S.A. 2 Department of Computer Engineering, METU, Ankara , Turkey 3 Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey onura

Cicekli, Ilyas

77

Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

Shanahan, Murray

2005-01-01

78

Comparison of two types of adult phantoms in terms of organ doses from diagnostic CT procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly increasing number of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) procedures in the recent decades has spurred heightened concern over the potential risk to patients. Although an accurate organ dose assessment tool has now become highly desirable, existing software packages depend on stylized computational phantoms that were originally developed more than 40 years ago, exhibiting very large discrepancies when compared with phantoms that are anatomically realistic. However, past comparative studies did not focus on CT protocols for adult patients. This study was designed to quantitatively compare two types of phantoms, the stylized phantoms and a pair of recently developed RPI-adult male and adult female (RPI-AM and RPI-AF) phantoms, for various CT scanning protocols involving the chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis. Organ doses were based on Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and a detailed CT scanner model for the GE LightSpeed 16. Results are presented as ratios of organ doses from the stylized phantoms to those from the RPI phantoms. It is found that, for most organs contained in the scan volume, the ratios were within the range of 0.75-1.16. However, the stomach doses are significantly different and the ratio is found to be up to 1.86 in male phantoms and 2.29 in the female phantoms due to the anatomical differences between the two types of phantoms. Organs that lie near a scan boundary also exhibit a significant relative difference in organ doses between the two types of phantoms. This study concludes that, due to relatively low x-ray energies, CT doses are very sensitive to organ shape, size and position, and thus anatomically realistic phantoms should be used to avoid the dose uncertainties caused by the lack of anatomical realism. The new phantoms, such as the RPI-AM and AF phantoms that are designed using advanced surface meshes, are deformable and will make it possible to match the anatomy of a specific patient leading to further improvement in dose and risk assessments for patients undergoing CT examinations.

Liu, Haikuan; Gu, Jianwei; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

2010-03-01

79

A world allergy organization international survey on diagnostic procedures and therapies in drug allergy/hypersensitivity  

E-print Network

, pulmonology, or allergy/immunology10,11), type of allergological practice (private, government practice, clinical or research-based institution), funding mechanisms, accessibility to various types of diagnostic tests, availability of basic versus tertiary...

Thong, Bernard YH; Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

2011-12-15

80

Impact of diagnostic procedures on patient management and hospitalization cost during the 2000 and 2005 enterovirus epidemics in Marseilles, France.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are frequent aetiological agents of central nervous system infections in humans. In 2000 and 2005, two large outbreaks of Echovirus 30 (a member of species human enterovirus B) were observed in the University Hospitals of Marseilles (France). Between the two epidemics, the diagnostic protocols for enterovirus infection were modified, moving from viral cultures and classic RT-PCR in 2000 to real-time RT-PCR in 2005. We compared some viral and epidemiological characteristics of the 2000 and 2005 outbreaks with special attention to diagnostic procedures and to the subsequent clinical management of patients. Despite similar virological and epidemiological characteristics during both outbreaks, our results show that real-time RT-PCR techniques used in 2005 noticeably shortened the period of time necessary to deliver diagnostic results and suggest that this was associated with a decrease in the duration of hospitalization for positive cases. In conclusion, this study suggests that the improvement of enterovirus diagnosis had a major financial impact on the management of the 2005 epidemic in Marseilles and may constitute an interesting example of how new diagnostic methods in microbiology can be self-financed through improvement in patient management. PMID:20015267

Ninove, L; Tan, C; Nougairede, A; Zandotti, C; Richet, H; Charrel, R; de Lamballerie, X

2010-06-01

81

Précis of 'an abductive theory of scientific method'.  

PubMed

This short article is a précis of the author's (2005a) abductive theory of scientific method. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods of relevance to psychology that are employed in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is given, and the process of their detection is briefly described in terms of a multistage model of data analysis. The construction of explanatory theories is shown to involve their generation through abductive, or explanatory, reasoning, their development through analogical modeling, and their fuller appraisal in terms of judgments of the best of competing explanations. The nature and limits of this theory of method are discussed in the light of relevant developments in scientific methodology. PMID:18615570

Haig, Brian D

2008-09-01

82

Shoulder abduction moment arms in three clinically important positions.  

PubMed

The abduction moment arms of 4 shoulder muscles were calculated in clinically important positions to evaluate the best test situation for the supraspinatus based on its mechanical advantage.Moment arms of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and middle and anterior deltoid in 18 individuals were computed using individual magnetic resonance imaging data and a computer-assisted design tool for simulation. Three tests with the arm in the neutral position (arm hanging on side), at 90 of scaption,and at 90 of scaption and full internal humeral rotation (Jobe test) were investigated. The supraspinatushas a greater mechanical advantage vs the other tested muscles in the neutral arm position. In the Jobe position, the supraspinatus' abduction moment arm is reduced with increased internal humeral rotation.Comparing these results with the literature indicates that this new method is adequate for calculation of moment arms and may be used in any desired joint configuration. PMID:19655429

Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Krzycki, Jacek; Petrou, Nassos; Favre, Philippe; Horn, Tamara; Schmid, Stefan; Stussi, Edgar

2009-01-01

83

Multi-Tasking Non-Destructive Laser Technology in Conservation Diagnostic Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser metrology provides techniques that have been successfully applied in industrial structural diagnostic fields but have\\u000a not yet been refined and optimised for the special investigative requirements found in cultural heritage applications. A major\\u000a impediment is the partial applicability of various optical coherent techniques, each one narrowing its use down to a specific\\u000a application. This characteristic is not well suited

V. Tornari; E. Tsiranidou; Y. Orphanos; C. Falldorf; R. Klattenhof; E. Esposito; A. Agnani; R. Dabu; A. Stratan; A. Anastassopoulos; D. Schipper; J. Hasperhoven; M. Stefanaggi; H. Bonnici; D. Ursu

84

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research  

E-print Network

for TVMDL involving the use of human subjects in research. 2.3 Responsibility for ensuring that all research Services, the Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP) at the TAMU Office of Research Compliance Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research Page 1 of 2 PROCEDURE

85

The Australian experiment: the use of evidence based medicine for the reimbursement of surgical and diagnostic procedures (1998–2004)  

PubMed Central

Background In 1998 a formal process using the criteria of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (evidence based medicine) on the introduction and use of new medical procedures was implemented in Australia. As part of this process an expert panel, the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) was set up. This paper examines the effectiveness of this process based on the original criteria, that is, evidence based medicine. Method The data for this analysis was sourced primarily from that made available in the public domain. The MSAC web site provided Minutes from MSAC meetings; Annual Reports; Assessment and Review reports; Progress status; and Archived material. Results The total number of applications submitted to the MSAC has been relatively low averaging approximately only fourteen per year. Additionally, the source of applications has quickly shifted to the medical devices, equipment and diagnostic industry as being the major source of applications. An overall average time for the processing of an application is eighteen months. Negative recommendations were in most cases based on insufficient clinical evidence rather than clinical evidence that clearly demonstrated a lack of clinical effectiveness. It was rare for a recommendation, either positive or negative, to be based on cost-effectiveness. Conclusion New medical procedures are often the result of a process of experimentation rather than formally conducted research. Affordability and the question of who should pay for the generation, collection and analysis of the clinical evidence is perhaps the most difficult to answer. This is especially the case where the new procedure is the result of a process of experimentation with an old procedure. A cost-effective way needs to be found to collect acceptable levels of evidence proving the clinical effectiveness of these new procedures, otherwise the formal processes of evaluation such as that used by the Australian MSAC since 1998 will continue to run the risk of committing Type II errors, that is, denying access to medical procedures that are beneficial and efficient. PMID:16684362

O'Malley, Sue P

2006-01-01

86

A World Allergy Organization International Survey on Diagnostic Procedures and Therapies in Drug Allergy/Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the diagnostic and treatment modalities used in drug allergy/hypersensitivity among members of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Methods A questionnaire comprising 39 questions was circulated electronically to member societies, associate member societies, and regional and affiliate organizations of WAO between June 29, 2009, and August 9, 2009. Results Eighty-two responses were received. Skin testing was used by 74.7%, with only 71.4% having access to penicillin skin test reagents. In vitro–specific IgE tests were used by 67.4%, and basophil activation test was used by 54.4%. Lymphocyte transformation tests were used by 36.8% and patch tests by 54.7%. Drug provocation tests were used by 68.4%, the most common indication being to exclude hypersensitivity where history/symptoms were not suggestive of drug hypersensitivity/allergy (76.9%). Rapid desensitization for chemotherapy, antibiotics, or biologic agents was used by 69.6%. Systemic corticosteroid was used in the treatment of Stevens–Johnson syndrome by 72.3%, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in toxic epidermal necrolysis by 50.8%. Human leukocyte antigen screening before prescription of abacavir was used by 92.9% and before prescription of carbamazepine by 21.4%. Conclusions Results of this survey form a useful framework for developing educational and training needs and for improving access to drug allergy diagnostic and treatment modalities across WAO member societies. PMID:23268453

Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

2011-01-01

87

Towards A Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures.  

PubMed

We have designed, developed, and evaluated the performance of a multi-degree-of-freedom discretely actuated steerable cannula with shape memory alloy (SMA)actuators. This will enable us to deliver diagnostic as well as therapeutic devices to the target location through the hollow inner core of the cannula. We propose to use SMAs to generate bending forces due to its small size and high power density. We annealed the SMA wires through a customized training process in arc shape and mounted them at discrete locations on the outer surface of the cannula to enable joint motion. A pulse width modulation(PWM)-based control scheme was implemented to control all SMA actuators simultaneously to enable multiple joint motion using a single power supply. The proposed controller was validated through an experiment inside gelatin to mimic the motion of the cannula inside a medium which requires a significant amount of force to move the joints of the cannula. Trajectory planning using a suitable metric and trajectory execution were successfully implemented. To demonstrate the delivery of a diagnostic tool through our cannula, we demonstrate that we can pass an optical coherence tomography probe through the cannula and perform in situ micro-scale imaging. PMID:22639482

Ayvali, Elif; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ho, Mingyen; Chen, Yu; Desai, Jaydev P

2012-04-01

88

Towards A Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures  

PubMed Central

We have designed, developed, and evaluated the performance of a multi-degree-of-freedom discretely actuated steerable cannula with shape memory alloy (SMA)actuators. This will enable us to deliver diagnostic as well as therapeutic devices to the target location through the hollow inner core of the cannula. We propose to use SMAs to generate bending forces due to its small size and high power density. We annealed the SMA wires through a customized training process in arc shape and mounted them at discrete locations on the outer surface of the cannula to enable joint motion. A pulse width modulation(PWM)-based control scheme was implemented to control all SMA actuators simultaneously to enable multiple joint motion using a single power supply. The proposed controller was validated through an experiment inside gelatin to mimic the motion of the cannula inside a medium which requires a significant amount of force to move the joints of the cannula. Trajectory planning using a suitable metric and trajectory execution were successfully implemented. To demonstrate the delivery of a diagnostic tool through our cannula, we demonstrate that we can pass an optical coherence tomography probe through the cannula and perform in situ micro-scale imaging. PMID:22639482

Ayvali, Elif; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ho, Mingyen; Chen, Yu; Desai, Jaydev P.

2012-01-01

89

Rapid sandwich ELISA-based in vitro diagnostic procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of human fetuin A.  

PubMed

A rapid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based in vitro diagnostic (IVD) procedure has been developed for human fetuin A (HFA), an important disease biomarker for inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies. In this simplified and cost-effective procedure, the EDC-activated anti-HFA antibody (Ab) was admixed with 1% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in 1:1 (v/v) and dispensed in a KOH-pretreated microtiter plate (MTP). APTES formed a stable complex with the capture antibody that was in turn covalently bonded on the KOH-treated surface in 30min. The resulting immunoassay (IA) format detects HFA with a dynamic range of 0.1-243ngmL(-1), and a limit of detection (LOD) and analytical sensitivity of 0.3ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1), respectively. For the determination of HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum, and HFA in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma of patients, the obtained analytical precision is similar to that of the conventional sandwich ELISA. The anti-HFA Ab-bound MTPs, stored at 4°C in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4, retained its biological activity for 8 weeks, thereby demonstrating excellent storage stability. This generic sandwich ELISA procedure can be extended for rapid, simplified and cost-effective detection of other disease biomarkers. PMID:25022575

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

2015-05-15

90

Sharpening the boundaries of Parkinson-associated dementia: recommendation for a neuropsychological diagnostic procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently present with an additional form of severe neurodegenerative\\u000a and\\/or vascular pathology. Findings of differential clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, depending on presence\\u000a and nature of such coexisting brain pathology, raise the question for neuropsychological procedures that are capable not only\\u000a of distinguishing between non-demented PD patients and patients with Parkinson-associated dementia (PDD),

Marc R. BotheIngo; Ingo Uttner; Markus Otto

2010-01-01

91

Diagnostic procedures in tularaemia with special focus on molecular and immunological techniques.  

PubMed

Tularaemia is a severe bacterial zoonosis caused by the highly infectious agent Francisella tularensis. It is endemic in countries of the northern hemisphere ranging from North America to Europe, Asia and Japan. Very recently, Francisella-like strains causing disease in humans were described from tropical northern Australia. In the last decade, efforts have been made to develop sensitive and specific immunological and molecular techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and also for the definite identification of members of the species F. tularensis and its four subspecies. Screening for the keyword 'Francisella' a Medline search over the last decade was performed and articles describing diagnostic methods for tularaemia and its causative agent were selected. Besides classical microbiological techniques (cultivation, biochemical profiling, susceptibility testing) several new immunological and molecular approaches to identify F. tularensis have been introduced employing highly specific antibodies and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Whereas direct antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence might allow early presumptive diagnosis of tularaemia, these methods--like all PCR techniques--still await further evaluation. Therefore, diagnosis of tularaemia still relies mainly on the demonstration of specific antibodies in the host. ELISA and immunoblot methods started to replace the standard tube or micro-agglutination assays. However, the diagnostic value of antibody detection in the very early clinical phase of tularaemia is limited. Francisella tularensis is regarded as a 'highest priority' biological agent (category 'A' according to the CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA), thus rapid and reliable diagnosis of tularaemia is required not only for a timely onset of therapy, the handling of outbreak investigations but also for the surveillance of endemic foci. Only very recently, evaluated test kits for serological diagnosis of human tularaemia became available, while the introduction of standardized molecular techniques for detection and typing is still missing. PMID:16219088

Splettstoesser, W D; Tomaso, H; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Schuff-Werner, P

2005-08-01

92

Frequency of use of diagnostic and manual therapeutic procedures of the spine currently taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College: A preliminary survey of Ontario chiropractors. Part 2 – procedure usage rates  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the spine are most commonly utilized by chiropractors practicing in Ontario, based on a list of currently taught procedures at CMCC. In Part 1 of this study (published previously), the demographics and practice patterns of the respondents were presented. Part 2 of this study (presented here) reports on the utilization rates of spinal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures by the respondents. Methods: The study consisted of a paper-based survey that was sent to 500 randomly selected Ontario chiropractors who responded confidentially. Survey questions inquired into demographic and practice style characteristics as well as the frequency with which spinal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were performed. Results: There were 108 respondents to the survey, giving a response rate of 22.4%. Frequency of use of diagnostic procedures fell into three broad categories: (i) those tests that are almost always performed, (ii) those tests that are almost always performed by two-thirds to one-half of patients, and (iii) those tests that are virtually never used. By comparison, respondents utilized the same therapeutic procedures for patients care less consistently. Conclusions: Despite a low response rate, respondents reported mostly relying on static and motion palpation, joint play, neurological tests, and ranges of motion when assessing their patients. Due to a low response rate, the results of this study may not be generalizable to all Ontario chiropractors. PMID:23754862

Gleberzon, Brian; Stuber, Kent

2013-01-01

93

Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall. PMID:23816980

Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

2013-12-01

94

A Semiring-based Framework for the Deduction/Abduction Reasoning in Access Control  

E-print Network

A Semiring-based Framework for the Deduction/Abduction Reasoning in Access Control with Weighted are chosen from a semiring algebraic structure. Our goal is to use this language as a semantic foundation model the deduction and abduction reasoning with semiring-based soft constraints: deduction can validate

Boyer, Edmond

95

A Critique of Budd Hopkins' Case of the UFO Abduction of  

Microsoft Academic Search

- ABSTRACT: Budd Hopkins has made a number of public presentations of a purported UFO abduction case with multiple witnesses. The primary abductee is Linda Napolitano, who lives in an apartment building on the lower east side of Manhattan (New York City). She claims to have been abducted by extraterrestr ial aliens from her 12th floor apartment in November 1989.

Linda Napolitano; Joseph J. Stefula; Richard D. Butler; George P. Hansen

96

[Role of videomediastinoscopy in diagnostic procedures of pathological conditions in the mediastinum].  

PubMed

Due to recent advances in videotechnology and a worldwide comback of invasive staging methods of the lung cancer, mediastinoscopy has been revived. In the Surgical Clinic of the Faculty Hospital in Plzen, the authors carried out 54 videomagnetoscopic examinations of 53 patients aged 58.1 years on average, in total, during the period from 2000 till 2003. Mostly, in 41 cases (76%) the examination was performed as a part of the lung cancer staging procedure. None of the patients exited in direct correlation with the surgical procedure. Complications, not requiring reoperation, were reported in 2 cases. The lung carcinoma staging findings agreed with the postoperative N disease classification in 86% of the examined cases. Five cases (14%) were underestimated and always the superior lobe carcinomas were concerned, out of which four of them were on the left. At the same time, the non-invasive staging examination using computer tomography (CT) in the mediastinal lung cancer dissemination examination, proved to show a high rate of false-positive findings, when compared to that with videomediastinoscopy. Mediastinoscopy remains the supreme method in determining other pathological affections of the middle mediastinum, if properly indicated. The authors carry out the above miniinvasive examination as a part of the lung cancer staging method in all patients with the CT-confirmed mediastinal lymphonodes enlarged over 1 cm. They consider this method a necessary part of this disease staging protocol, in cases of the left superior lung lobe tumors combined with videothoracoscopy. At the same time the authors recommend it as the method of choice in diagnosing other pathological processes of the middle mediastinum, mainly for its high efficiency rate and its low rates of complications. PMID:15552017

Vodicka, J; Spidlen, V; Klecka, J; Simánek, V; Safránek, J

2004-08-01

97

Digital differential radiography (DDR): a new diagnostic procedure for locating neoplasms, such as breast cancers, in soft, deformable tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method, the Image Correlation Technique (ICT), that automatically estimates the transformation of deformations (including large ones) between an image and a distorted version of that image. The outcome of the method is a displacement field. The geometric distortion that occurs between an undeformed (reference) and a deformed picture is, in general, unknown. Using new algorithms and simulation annealing, a well established global optimization technique, by rearranging pixels from a picture frame taken prior to the deformation (the reference picture), we arrive at the pixel arrangement represented by the picture frame taken after the deformation. The method works equally well for linear and non- linear cases. We present examples of deformation estimation for pairs of two-dimensional images. However, the method can be readily applied to three-dimensional objects such as those imaged by CT. By using ICT, we propose a new diagnostic procedure, Digital Differential Radiography (DDR), to find neoplasms, physiological liquid drainage, swelling or tissue necrosis, etc. We present examples of the deformation estimation for a pair of two- dimensional images of breast tissue and the result of the divergence calculation to pinpoint simulated tissue growth abnormalities. This new procedure for automatic detection of growing masses may be applicable to all imaging modalities, especially Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Mazur, Andrzej K.; Mazur, E. J.; Gordon, Richard

1993-07-01

98

Hip abduction can prevent posterior edge loading of hip replacements.  

PubMed

Edge loading causes clinical problems for hard-on-hard hip replacements, and edge loading wear scars are present on the majority of retrieved components. We asked the question: are the lines of action of hip joint muscles such that edge loading can occur in a well-designed, well-positioned acetabular cup? A musculoskeletal model, based on cadaveric lower limb geometry, was used to calculate for each muscle, in every position within the complete range of motion, whether its contraction would safely pull the femoral head into the cup or contribute to edge loading. The results show that all the muscles that insert into the distal femur, patella, or tibia could cause edge loading of a well-positioned cup when the hip is in deep flexion. Patients frequently use distally inserting muscles for movements requiring deep hip flexion, such as sit-to-stand. Importantly, the results, which are supported by in vivo data and clinical findings, also show that risk of edge loading is dramatically reduced by combining deep hip flexion with hip abduction. Patients, including those with sub-optimally positioned cups, may be able to reduce the prevalence of edge loading by rising from chairs or stooping with the hip abducted. PMID:23575923

van Arkel, Richard J; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T M; Jeffers, Jonathan R T

2013-08-01

99

Muscular load characterization during isometric shoulder abductions with varying force.  

PubMed

This study sought to characterize muscle loading and fatigue during static shoulder abductions with varying force. In a supine posture, participants maintained fixed shoulder abductions against a time-varying external resistance, generated by a dynamometer-spring mechanism. Patterns (cumulative distribution) of the external resistance were varied by selecting different 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution. Dynamometer angular velocities were also varied, to reflect different rates of cyclic muscle contraction. The degree of local fatigue development was assessed by common measures, including endurance time, strength reduction, and perceived discomfort. Myoelectric (EMG) signals were continuously obtained from the middle deltoid muscle throughout experimental exercise (60min max). Changes in EMG root-mean-square (RMS) and spectral measures (derived from 1-s windows at peaks in the cyclic contractions) were used as manifestations of muscle fatigue. For each minute, the RMS signal was further reduced using two methods, the cumulative probability distribution of EMG (CPDE) and exposure variation analysis (EVA). The former resulted in three percentile values (10th, 50th, and 90th), whereas the latter method resulted in 10 different measures (grouped by EMG activity level and duration). A main finding of the study was the applicability of several common fatigue indicators for these cyclic, repetitive exertions. Overall, the use of CPDE and EVA to characterize task differences and predict muscle fatigue was found to have limited value. PMID:17382561

Iridiastadi, Hardianto; Nussbaum, Maury A; van Dieën, Jaap H

2008-08-01

100

Are theories to be evaluated in isolation or relative to alternatives? An abductive view.  

PubMed

Although it is distinct from induction and deduction, abduction is often mistaken for them. The initial stage of abduction, or novel hypothesis abduction, has 2 components. The first concerns providing novel hypotheses that explain the pattern of data; the second suggests that the novel hypothesis should be accepted to the extent that it is the best available hypothesis. The second component is known as inference to the best explanation. Others have shown how novel hypothesis abduction provides an important type of reasoning for generating novel hypotheses. Our concern is with evaluating already formed abductions to determine which is best, using inference to the best explanation in connection with theories. We call this competing theories abduction. Competing theories abduction suggests that theories should be evaluated in relation to other theories rather than in isolation, as suggested by some philosophers and psychologists. In psychology this is demonstrated in connection with 2 widely accepted forms of relativism: the logical possibilities view and unique standards relativism. PMID:19105581

Capaldi, E J; Proctor, Robert W

2008-01-01

101

Data-Driven Abductive Discovery in the Earth Sciences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional pathways to discovery in the Earth sciences rely on inductive and deductive approaches, by which patterns and phenomena in nature are discovered first, and observations and modeling to test causal hypotheses follow. These powerful methods have proven successful in documenting and comprehending many aspects of the natural world, but they are inherently less efficient at discovering new complex patterns that require synthesis of diverse types of data. Consequently, such gradual global processes as plate tectonics and climate change required decades of integrated data synthesis preceding discovery of critical Earth phenomena. Vast but largely untapped Earth science data resources offer a potentially revolutionary alternative 'abductive' approach to investigate Earth's co-evolving geo- and biospheres--a systematic data-driven search for accelerated discovery of hidden patterns in the data resources of a dozen different disciplines. Today's Earth science enterprises generate terabytes per day of new data, yet these vast resources are woefully underutilized because they are not linked into a single platform. We advocate the implementation of data infrastructure and interrogation strategies that link existing and new data resources and methods in mineralogy, paleontology, proteomics, irreversible thermodynamics, geodynamics, and geochronology, coupled with newly adapted statistical analysis and visualization capabilities--a new kind of open-access 'scientific instrument' that could transform the Earth sciences. Recent 'brute force' studies of variations in minerals of beryllium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum through deep time demonstrate the potential of this concept as a means to search for critical resources; generate insights regarding the co-evolution of ocean chemistry and microbial metabolism; uncover evidence for the timing and rates of near-surface oxygenation; and document subtle ongoing feedbacks between terrestrial life, weathering, soils, and climate. Abductive discovery could thus become a model for a 21st-century, data-driven science that exploits the tremendous opportunities represented by the vast and growing explosion of Earth science data.

Hazen, R. M.

2013-12-01

102

Diagnostic Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... your heart with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation, which means the study of heart sounds. Doctors ... diagnose some types of heart valve disease by listening to any abnormal heart sounds that they hear ...

103

Proposal for a trigonometric method to evaluate the abduction angle of the lower limbs in neonates.  

PubMed

It is difficult to precisely measure articular arc movement in newborns using a goniometer. This article proposes an objective method based on trigonometry for the evaluation of lower limb abduction. With the newborn aligned in the dorsal decubitus position, 2 points are marked at the level of the medial malleolus, one on the sagittal line and the other at the end of the abduction. Using the right-sided line between these 2 points and a line from the medial malleolus to the reference point at the anterior superior iliac spine or umbilical scar, an isosceles triangle is drawn, and half of the inferential abduction angle is obtained by calculating the sine. Twenty healthy full-term newborns comprise the study cohort. Intersubject and intrasubject variability among the abduction angle values (mean [SD], 37 degrees [4] degrees) is low. This method is advantageous because the measurement is precise and because the sine can be used without approximation. PMID:19073852

Lima, Thaís; Alves, Cyntia; Funayama, Carolina A R

2008-12-01

104

Development and validation of a new procedure for the diagnostic assessment of personality disorder: the Multidimensional Personality Disorder Rating Scale (MPDRS).  

PubMed

Data from a community-based prospective longitudinal study were used to investigate the utility of a structured assessment of the DSM-IV General Diagnostic Criteria for a Personality Disorder (PD). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV PDs (SCID-II) was administered to 154 adults. After completing the interview, an experienced clinician assessed the General Diagnostic Criteria for a PD using a structured rating scale. PD diagnoses, based solely on the rating scale data, demonstrated strong agreement with diagnoses obtained using the diagnostic thresholds for specific PDs (Kappa = 0.89). The sensitivity, specificity, predictive power, and internal reliability of the rating scale were satisfactory. PD diagnoses, based on both of the assessment procedures, were associated with substantial impairment and distress. These findings suggest that a structured assessment of the DSM-IV General Diagnostic Criteria for a Personality Disorder may constitute a useful alternative or supplement to standard assessments of the diagnostic thresholds for specific DSM-IV PDs. PMID:18540797

Johnson, Jeffrey G; First, Michael B; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie

2008-06-01

105

Agape: Peirce's Abduction Concerning the Growth of Intelligibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the metaphysical articulation of the unity between science and sentiment either possible or desirable? Assuming an affirmative answer to both of these questions, this dissertation contends that the notion of agape may provide such a unity. Though agape has historical roots in the Christian notion of divine love, Charles S. Peirce considered this "law of Love" to be the fundamental principle giving coherence to the otherwise random, spontaneous evolution of the physical and psychical universe. The ability of agape to accomplish this unification is based upon the connection which Peirce drew between it and the logic of abduction, or hypothesis formation. By explicating the way in which agape acts as Peirce's primary evolutionary hypothesis, agape will be shown to act as a bridge between continuous evolutionary processes and discrete evolutionary events. As a similar debate is currently being explored regarding the evolution of quantum mechanical systems, this dissertation has the corollary purpose of indicating precisely how Peirce's notion of agape speaks to questions posed by contemporary quantum theorists.

Staab, Janice Marie

106

Predicting wastewater temperatures in sewer pipes using abductive network models.  

PubMed

A predictive modelling technique was employed to estimate wastewater temperatures in sewer pipes. The simplicity of abductive predictive models attracts large numbers of users due to their minimal computation time and limited number of measurable input parameters. Data measured from five sewer pipes over a period of 12 months provide 33,900 training entries and 39,000 evaluation entries to support the models' development. Two simple predictive models for urban upstream combined sewers and large downstream collector sewers were developed. They delivered good correlation between measured and predicted wastewater temperatures proven by their R(2) values of up to 0.98 and root mean square error (RMSE) of the temperature change along the sewer pipe ranging from 0.15 °C to 0.33 °C. Analysis of a number of potential input parameters indicated that upstream wastewater temperature and downstream in-sewer air temperature were the only input parameters that are needed in the developed models to deliver this level of accuracy. PMID:25607674

Abdel-Aal, M; Mohamed, M; Smits, R; Abdel-Aal, R E; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

2015-01-01

107

Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.  

PubMed

Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

2014-10-01

108

A three-dimensional model of vocal fold abductionÕadduction  

PubMed Central

A three-dimensional biomechanical model of tissue deformation was developed to simulate dynamic vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model was made of 1721 nearly incompressible finite elements. The cricoarytenoid joint was modeled as a rocking–sliding motion, similar to two concentric cylinders. The vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle’s fiber characteristics were implemented as a fiber–gel composite made of an isotropic ground substance imbedded with fibers. These fibers had contractile and/or passive nonlinear stress–strain characteristics. The verification of the model was made by comparing the range and speed of motion to published vocal fold kinematic data. The model simulated abduction to a maximum glottal angle of about 31°. Using the posterior-cricoarytenoid muscle, the model produced an angular abduction speed of 405° per second. The system mechanics seemed to favor abduction over adduction in both peak speed and response time, even when all intrinsic muscle properties were kept identical. The model also verified the notion that the vocalis and muscularis portions of the thyroarytenoid muscle play significantly different roles in posturing, with the muscularis portion having the larger effect on arytenoid movement. Other insights into the mechanisms of abduction/adduction were given. PMID:15101653

Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.; Alipour, Fariborz

2006-01-01

109

NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ?0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ?0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of Evidence: 2A PMID:24567857

Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

2014-01-01

110

Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

111

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure To Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary psychometric data assessing the reliability and validity of a method used to measure the diagnostic reasoning and problem-solving skills of predoctoral students in orthodontia are described. The measurement approach consisted of sets of patient demographic data and dental photos and x-rays, accompanied by a set of 33 multiple-choice…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

112

The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

2009-01-01

113

Evaluation of a Commercially Available Program and in Situ Training by Parents to Teach Abduction-Prevention Skills to Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child abduction is a serious problem; therefore, it is essential that researchers evaluate the efficacy of commercially available abduction-prevention programs. A multiple baseline design across participants (ages 6 to 8 years) was used to evaluate the effects of a training program, The Safe Side. Experimenters assessed safety responses in situ in…

Beck, Kimberly V.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

2009-01-01

114

Evaluation Of Behavioral Skills Training For Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills To Young Children  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effectiveness of individual behavioral skills training in conjunction with in situ training in teaching 13 preschool children abduction prevention skills. Children's performance was measured during baseline, training, and at 2-week, 1-month, and 3-month follow-ups using in situ assessments in which abduction prevention skills were measured in naturalistic settings. Results revealed that all the children learned the skills and all the children available at the 2-week and 1-month follow-ups maintained the skills at criterion level. All but 3 children's criterion-level performances were maintained at the 3-month follow-up as well. PMID:15898475

Johnson, Brigitte M; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Jostad, Candice M; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian

2005-01-01

115

Spinal palpatory diagnostic procedures utilized by practitioners of spinal manipulation: annotated bibliography of content validity and reliability studies  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction is a pre-requisite for application of spinal manual therapy. Different disciplines rely on palpatory procedures to establish this diagnosis and design treatment plans. Over the past 30 years, the osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy and allopathic professions have investigated the validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. We explored the literature from all four disciplines looking for scientific papers studying the content validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. Thirteen databases were searched for relevant papers between January 1966 and October 2001. An annotated bibliography of these articles is presented and organized by the type of test used.

Seffinger, Michael; Adams, Alan; Najm, Wadie; Dickerson, Vivian; Mishra, Shiraz I; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda

2003-01-01

116

Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion  

PubMed Central

Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old). We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction) and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides) with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers. PMID:21819566

2011-01-01

117

Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student's abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of…

Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

2006-01-01

118

Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic Jeppe Revall Frisvad1  

E-print Network

, however, that `´ is translated by "reduc- tion" in the latter version. The logician Charles Sanders Peirce (1839­1914) was pre- sumably the first to describe abduction as "the operation of adopting in [Peirce, 1958, §§249­252] or the translation by A. J. Jenkinson which is available on- line1 . Note

119

Robotic hand biomimicry: The effect of finger force and position abduction feedback during contour interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint motion profiles of 10 human test subjects were recorded as they ran their hands over a flat surface and a convex surface. From this data, three controllers for a dexterous robotic hand were developed to mimic this behavior. Specifically, this work examines the role of finger abduction force and position feedback to motors that control finger extension. Experimental

Benjamin A. Kent; Erik D. Engeberg

2011-01-01

120

Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of these…

Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

2008-01-01

121

Missing and Abducted Children: The School's Role in Prevention. Fastback 249.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pamphlet is to aid teachers, counselors, administrators, paraprofessionals, and other support personnel in alleviating the problem of missing and abducted children. After an introductory overview of the national incidence of missing children, three specific categories of missing children are identified and discussed: runaways,…

Wishon, Phillip M.; Broderius, Bruce W.

122

Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

Oh, Phil Seok

2011-01-01

123

Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student’s abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of 5th grade children. A significant number of subjects who have prior belief about the length to alter pendulum motion failed to apply their prior belief to generate a hypothesis on a swing task. These results suggest that students’ failure in hypothesis generation was related to abductive reasoning ability, rather than simple lack of prior belief. This study, then, supports the notion that abductive reasoning ability beyond prior belief plays an important role in the process of hypothesis generation. This study suggests that science education should provide teaching about abductive reasoning as well as scientific declarative knowledge for developing children’s hypothesis-generation skills.

Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

2006-08-01

124

Efficacy of the Stranger Safety Abduction-Prevention Program and Parent-Conducted in Situ Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

2013-01-01

125

Using Abduction for Video-Text Coreference Jerry R. Hobbs and Rutu Mulkar-Mehta  

E-print Network

Using Abduction for Video-Text Coreference Jerry R. Hobbs and Rutu Mulkar-Mehta Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California Marina del Rey, California hobbs@isi.edu,rutu@isi-Tacitus, to interpret the combination of video and audio streams of news broadcasts, aiming at a coherent interpretation

Hobbs, Jerry R.

126

The Effect of Sex and Age on Isokinetic Hip-Abduction Torques  

PubMed Central

Context As high school female athletes demonstrate a rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury 3–6 times higher than their male counterparts, research suggests that sagittal-plane hip strength plays a role in factors associated with ACL injuries. Objective To determine if gender or age affect hip-abductor strength in a functional standing position in young female and male athletes. Design Prospective cohort design. Setting Biomechanical laboratory. Participants Over a 3-y time period, 852 isokinetic hip-abduction evaluations were conducted on 351 (272 female, 79 male) adolescent soccer and basketball players. Intervention Before testing, athletes were secured in a standing position, facing the dynamometer head, with a strap secured from the uninvolved side and extending around the waist just above the iliac crest. The dynamometer head was positioned in line with the body in the coronal plane by aligning the axis of rotation of the dynamometer with the center of hip rotation. Subjects performed 5 maximum-effort repetitions at a speed of 120°/s. The peak torque was recorded and normalized to body mass. All test trials were conducted by a single tester to limit potential interrater test error. Main Outcome Measure Standing isokinetic hip-abduction torque. Results Hip-abduction torque increased in both males and females with age (P < .001) on both the dominant and nondominant sides. A significant interaction of gender and age was observed (P < .001), which indicated that males experienced greater increases in peak torque relative to body weight than did females as they matured. Conclusions Males exhibit a significant increase in normative hip-abduction strength, while females do not. Future study may determine if the absence of similar increased relative hip-abduction strength in adolescent females, as they age, may be related to their increased risk of ACL injury compared with males. PMID:22715125

Brent, Jensen L.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

127

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the appropriate state social service agencies and, when necessary...authorities (such as state social service agencies or state attorneys...for example, by providing a directory of lawyer referral services, or pro bono listing...

2011-04-01

128

Biobanking Human Endometrial Tissue and Subject Blood Specimens: Standard Operating Procedure and Importance to Reproductive Biology Research and Diagnostic Development  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) for collection, transport, storage of human endometrial tissue and blood samples, subject and specimen annotation, and establishing sample priorities. Design The SOP synthesizes sound scientific procedures, the literature on ischemia research, sample collection and gene expression profiling, good laboratory practices, and the authors’ experience of workflow and sample quality. Setting The NIH University of California San Francisco Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. Patients Women undergoing endometrial biopsy or hysterectomy for non-malignant indications. Intervention Collecting, processing, storing, distributing endometrial tissue and blood samples under approved institutional review board (IRB) protocols and written informed consent from participating subjects. Main outcome measure SOP. Results The SOP addresses rigorous and consistent subject annotation, specimen processing and characterization, strict regulatory compliance, and a reference for researchers to track collection and storage times that may influence their research. Conclusion The comprehensive and systematic approach to the procurement of human blood and endometrial tissue in this SOP ensures the high quality, reliability, and scientific usefulness of biospecimens made available to investigators by the NIH University of California San Francisco Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. The detail and perspective in this SOP also provides a blueprint for implementation of similar collection programs at other institutions. PMID:21371706

Sheldon, Elizabeth; Vo, Kim Chi; McIntire, Ramsey A; Aghajanova, Lusine; Zelenko, Zara; Irwin, Juan C; Giudice, Linda C

2011-01-01

129

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

2008-01-01

130

Effect of acetabular cup abduction angle on wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip simulator testing.  

PubMed

The effect of acetabular component positioning on the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene articulations has not been extensively studied. Placement of acetabular cups at abduction angles of more than 40° has been noted as a possible reason for early failure caused by increased wear. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of different acetabular cup abduction angles on polyethylene wear rate, wear area, contact pressure, and contact area. Our in vitro study used a hip joint simulator and finite element analysis to assess the effects of cup orientation at 4 angles (0°, 40°, 50°, 70°) on wear and contact properties. Polyethylene bearings with 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads were cycled in an environment mimicking in vivo joint fluid to determine the volumetric wear rate after 10 million cycles. Contact pressure and contact area for each cup abduction angle were assessed using finite element analysis. Results were correlated with cup abduction angles to determine if there were any differences among the 4 groups. The inverse relationship between volumetric wear rate and acetabular cup inclination angle demonstrated less wear with steeper cup angles. The largest abduction angle (70°) had the lowest contact area, largest contact pressure, and smallest head coverage. Conversely, the smallest abduction angle (0°) had the most wear and most head coverage. Polyethylene wear after total hip arthroplasty is a major cause of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which may lead to premature implant failure. Several studies have found that high wear rates for cups oriented at steep angles contributed to their failure. Our data demonstrated that larger cup abduction angles were associated with lower, not higher, wear. However, this potentially "protective" effect is likely counteracted by other complications of steep cup angles, including impingement, instability, and edge loading. These factors may be more relevant in explaining why implants fail at a higher rate if cups are oriented at more than 40° of abduction. PMID:25303445

Korduba, Laryssa A; Essner, Aaron; Pivec, Robert; Lancin, Perry; Mont, Michael A; Wang, Aiguo; Delanois, Ronald E

2014-10-01

131

Reconstruction of an infrared band of meteorological satellite imagery with abductive networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the current fleet of meteorological satellites age, the accuracy of the imagery sensed on a spectral channel of the image scanning system is continually and progressively degraded by noise. In time, that data may even become unusable. We describe a novel approach to the reconstruction of the noisy satellite imagery according to empirical functional relationships that tie the spectral channels together. Abductive networks are applied to automatically learn the empirical functional relationships between the data sensed on the other spectral channels to calculate the data that should have been sensed on the corrupted channel. Using imagery unaffected by noise, it is demonstrated that abductive networks correctly predict the noise-free observed data.

Singer, Harvey A.; Cockayne, John E.; Versteegen, Peter L.

1995-01-01

132

Abducted by a UFO: prevalence information affects young children's false memories for an implausible event  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study examined whether prevalence information promotes children's false memories for an implausible event. Forty-four 7-8 and forty-seven 11-12 year old children heard a true narrative about their first school day and a false narrative about either an implausible event (abducted by a UFO) or a plausible event (almost choking on a candy). Moreover, half of the children in

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel; Harald Merckelbach; Kimberley A. Wade

2009-01-01

133

[Diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for two popular but quite distinct adverse reactions to food - fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance].  

PubMed

Claiming to suffer from adverse food reactions is popular. In contrast to the classical food allergy, there are some pathomechanisms which are evidently dose-dependent. Thus the procedure in diagnosis and therapy must undoubtedly differ from the practice when food allergy is suspected or proven. Nevertheless many patients suffering from dose-dependent adverse reactions to food are given strict elimination diets, which is neither necessary nor helpful and decreases their quality of life broadly. This holds especially true for fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance. For the latter, the term adverse reaction to ingested histamine is preferred, because histamine intolerance implies that symptoms are caused entirely by an enzyme defect. Why this is not very likely to be the only reason is discussed in this article. Both adverse reactions require an individual approach especially with regard to nutrition therapy. Therefore the task of diagnosis should be to establish an individual profile of tolerated and not tolerated foods taking into account that tolerance can greatly vary by meal composition, frequency and individual triggering factors. In view of this, therapeutic recommendations should not be based on the absolute quantities of the eliciting substance to be eliminated but on a feasible transfer into daily life. Thereby food restriction can be minimized and a high quality of life will be maintained. PMID:22477662

Reese, I

2012-04-01

134

One-step antibody immobilization-based rapid and highly-sensitive sandwich ELISA procedure for potential in vitro diagnostics  

PubMed Central

An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay using one-step antibody immobilization has been developed for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-HFA formed a stable complex with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The complex adsorbed on microtiter plates exhibited a detection range of 4.9?pg mL?1 to 20?ng mL?1 HFA, with a limit of detection of 7?pg mL?1. Furthermore, an analytical sensitivity of 10?pg mL?1 was achieved, representing a 51-fold increase in sensitivity over the commercial sandwich ELISA kit. The results obtained for HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma showed the same precision as the commercial kit. When stored at 4°C in 0.1?M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the anti-HFA bound microtiter plates displayed no significant decrease in their functional activity after two months. The new ELISA procedure was extended for the detection of C-reactive protein, human albumin and human lipocalin-2 with excellent analytical performance. PMID:24638258

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Marion Schneider, E.; Lam, Edmond; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T.

2014-01-01

135

GAVeCeLT* consensus statement on the correct use of totally implantable venous access devices for diagnostic radiology procedures.  

PubMed

The use of totally implantable venous access devices in radiology may be associated with complications such as occlusion of the system (because of the high density of some contrast), infection (if the port is not handled in aseptic conditions, using proper barrier protections), and mechanical complications due to the high-pressure administration of contrast by automatic injectors (so-called power injector), including extravasation of contrast media into the soft tissues, subintimal venous or myocardial injection, or serious damage to the device itself (breakage of the external connections, dislocation of the non-coring needle, or breakage of the catheter). The last problem - i.e., the damage of the device from a power injection - is not an unjustified fear, but a reality. A warning by the US Food and Drug Administration of July 2004 reports around 250 complications of this kind, referring to both port and central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheter systems, which occurred over a period of several years; in all cases, the damage occurred during the injection of contrast material by means of power injectors for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Though the risk associated with the use of ports in radiodiagnostics is thus clear, it has been suggested that administration of the contrast material via the port may have some advantage in terms of image quality, increased comfort for the patient, and maybe more accurate reproducibility of the patient's own follow-up exams. This contention needs to be supported by evidence. Also, since many cancer patients who need frequent computed tomography studies already have totally implantable systems, it would seem reasonable to try to define how and when such systems may safely be used. The purpose of this consensus statement is to define recommendations based on the best available evidence, for the safe use of implantable ports in radiodiagnostics. PMID:21534233

Bonciarelli, Giorgio; Batacchi, Stefano; Biffi, Roberto; Buononato, Massimo; Damascelli, Bruno; Ghibaudo, Flavio; Orsi, Franco; Pittiruti, Mauro; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Verzè, Alessia; Borasi, Guido; De Cicco, Marcello; Dosio, Roberto; Gazzo, Paolo; Maso, Renzo; Roman, Alessandro; Ticha, Vladimira; Venier, Giacomo; Blackburn, Paul; Goossens, Godelieve A; Bowen Santolucito, Jamie; Stas, Marguerite; Van Boxtel, Ton; Vesely, Thomas M; de Lutio, Enrico

2011-01-01

136

Anterior mediastinal masses: A study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background: Mediastinal tumors are an uncommon abnormalities found in clinical practice. Anterior mediastinum is the common site and tissue diagnoses of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) are very important for correct therapeutic decision. Objective: We evaluate the different malignant AMMs in various age groups and the sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Cytology smears are reviewed with particular emphasis on pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 patients who were consulted for AMMs and underwent FNAC and CNB under guidance of ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2011. Cytology smears and histological sections were evaluated in all patients. Results: Among 50 cases, 36 were male and 14 were female. Most AMMs (52%) were identified in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Metastatic carcinoma and nonHodgkin's lymphoma are the common AMMs. Adequate tissue material was obtained in 49 of 50 cases by CNB. Of these 49 patients, 35 (71.42%) cases were diagnosed correctly by FNAC, whereas 14 (28.57%) cases were not diagnosed definitely by FNAC. The sensitivity of CNB for AMMs was 97.95%, significantly higher than FNAC (71.42%) (P < 0.05). CNB had statistically significant higher diagnostic rate than FNAC in the noncarcinoma group (100% versus 62.96%) (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference of CNB and FNAC in carcinoma group (P > 0.05). Diagnostic rate of FNAC was higher for carcinomatous lesions (81.81%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (62.96%). Conclusion: Ultrasound or CT scan-guided CNB in combination with FNAC are safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective procedure, which can provide a precise diagnosis in the AMMs, and may obviate the need for invasive surgical approach. FNAC usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but CNB should be performed whenever the diagnosis of carcinoma is equivocal or noncarcinoma lesions are suspected. PMID:24455533

Nasit, Jitendra G.; Patel, Maulin; Parikh, Biren; Shah, Manoj; Davara, Kajal

2013-01-01

137

Population radiation dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the Tehran population in 1999-2003: striking changes in only one decade.  

PubMed

Use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals in Iran's nuclear medicine centers has expanded rapidly in the last decade. As part of a nationwide survey, this study was undertaken to estimate the radiation risk due to the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed in Tehran in 1999-2003. During the five years of the study, the data of 101,540 yearly examinations of diagnostic nuclear medicine were obtained for 34 (out of 40) active nuclear medicine centers in Tehran. The patients studied were aged 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adults (>15 y). Compared to an earlier investigation in 1989 (which was published in 1995), striking changes were found to be occurring in the trends of nuclear medicine in Tehran in a matter of a decade. The frequency of cardiac examinations increased from less than 1% in 1989 to 43.2% (mean of 5 y) in 2003; thyroid examinations, with the relative frequency of higher than 80% in 1989, decreased to 26.7% in the current investigation (averaged for 2001); and the number of overall examinations per 1,000 population of Tehran increased from 1.9 in 1989 to 8.8 in this study (about fourfold). The decrease in relative frequency of thyroid examinations could be attributed to the lower referral policy (mainly by specialists), decreased incidence of goiter due to implementation of programs for iodine enrichment diets, introduction of fine needle aspiration (FNA), and sonography techniques for diagnosis of thyroid disease. The large increase in relative frequency of cardiac examinations could be due to the increase in the number of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) systems in recent years as compared to 1989 in Tehran. The collective effective dose increased from 400 (person-Sv) in 1999 to 529 (person-Sv) in 2003, and the effective dose per capita increased from 34.80 ?Sv in 1999 to 44.06 ?Sv in 2003 (average, 35.60 ?Sv). PMID:23274814

Tabeie, Faraj; Mohammadi, Hooshang; Asli, Isa Neshandar

2013-02-01

138

Effect of abduction and external rotation of the hip joint on muscle onset time during prone hip extension with knee flexion  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of hip position on muscle onset time during prone hip extension with knee flexion. [Subjects] The study included 21 healthy male volunteers. [Methods] Muscle onset times of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during right hip extension with knee flexion in the prone position. Measurements were made with the hip in 3 positions: (1) neutral, (2) abduction, and (3) abduction and external rotation. [Results] Gluteus maximus onset relative to the hamstrings was significantly earlier with hip abduction and with hip abduction and external rotation compared with that with the hip in the neutral position. Gluteus maximus onset relative to the hamstrings was significantly earlier with hip abduction and external rotation compared with that with hip abduction. The bilateral multifidus and left lumbar erector spinae onset times relative to the hamstrings were significantly earlier with hip abduction and external rotation compared with those with hip abduction and with the hip in the neutral position. [Conclusion] Abduction and external rotation of the hip during prone hip extension with knee flexion is effective for advancing the onset times of the gluteus maximus, bilateral multifidus, and contralateral lumbar erector spinae.

Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

2015-01-01

139

Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19–9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The number of patients in the world has increased recently. In our country it is detected late and patients visit doctor in the advanced stage of the disease with already developed metastases. Material and methods: A clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of gastroenterohepatologists, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University on 164 patients. Special attention was given to the symptoms, which are considered to be a macroscopically visible as bleeding, anemia pain, weight loss and disturbance of defecation. Smoking had no effect because a small number of observed patients smoked. Endoscopic examination revealed localization of the tumor in the colon and then underwent targeted biopsy, histological analysis by pathologist, and we determined the concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the serum. Results: In order to get the most relevant results we used larger data set. The program used to prepare the data was Microsoft Excel 2013, and for the creation of decision trees is a used software RapidMiner version 5. Our research has shown that patients older than 55 years with significant stenosis, metastasis and diarrhea that lasted longer than 3.5 months and bleeding that lasted up to 10 months had cancer of the rectum. Bleeding that lasts longer than 10 months indicated that it was the case of cancer that was localized in the rectum in men and sigma in women. Patients older than 82.5 years and had diarrhea up to 3.5 months developed cancer in the sigma part of the colon. Analyzing pain as a symptom of an alarm, the study found that pain that lasts longer than a few days, is caused by rectal cancer, and occurs after the age of 70.5 years, and in patients younger than 63 years anemia as a alarm symptom, which lasted more than two months in men was caused by cancer of the rectum and in women cancer in other localizations within colon. In patients without stenosis developed bleeding as the most important symptom. We can say that after the age of 74 years cancer of the rectum and sigmoid is more common in men and in women dominate sigma and other locations in the colon. In patients under the 70 years of age with short time of bleeding, cancer predominates in rectum. In patients younger than 63 years can be concluded that weight loss is greater than 8 kg follows rectal cancer. In patients with bleeding that lasted one month or more as classifier occurring the age and gender. Patients younger than 74 years have rectal cancer, while older than 73 years have cancer at other sites. In women these locations are sigma and rectum. Conclusion: Based on this study we can conclude that regardless of the technical advances in medicine must pay special attention to the symptoms that doctors will refer to the localization of the tumor, stenosis of the intestine and possibly metastasis. Key words: Colorectal cancer, diagnostic procedures, concentration of CEA and CA19-9. PMID:24825931

Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

140

Preventing Abductions  

MedlinePLUS

... predators to stalk kids. Be aware of your kids' Internet activities and chat room "friends," and remind them ... Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Choosing and Instructing a Babysitter Internet Safety Choosing Childcare What You Need to Know ...

141

The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in situ Feedback to Protect Children with Autism from Abduction Lures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…

Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.

2014-01-01

142

How Can Teachers Help Students Formulate Scientific Hypotheses? Some Strategies Found in Abductive Inquiry Activities of Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find how the teacher could help students formulate scientific hypotheses. Data came from two microteaching episodes in which two groups of pre-service secondary science teachers taught high school students as they were engaged in abductive inquiry activities of earth science. Multiple data sources including video…

Oh, Phil Seok

2010-01-01

143

Abduction, Deduction and Induction: Can These Concepts Be Used for an Understanding of Methodological Processes in Interpretative Case Studies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…

Åsvoll, Håvard

2014-01-01

144

Demystifying ABER (ABduction and External Rotation) sequence in shoulder MR arthrography.  

PubMed

ABduction and External Rotation (ABER) sequence in magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder is particularly important to better depict abnormal conditions of some glenohumeral joint structures and surrounding tissues by making imaging possible under a stress position relevant to pathologic conditions. Among the structures and tissues better depicted in this position are articular surface of the supraspinatus tendon, anteroinferior portion of the glenoid labrum, and anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral band. Despite these benefits of the ABER sequence, it is either not being used extensively as part of shoulder MR arthrograms or, when utilized, not properly assessed, mostly due to some practical difficulties in setting up the sequence and unfamiliarity with the alignment of structures displayed on MR images. In this technical note, we aimed to explain the ABER sequence planning in a step-by-step manner with emphasis on scout series set-up, and also present an outline of anatomic landmarks seen on ABER images. PMID:25205022

Ayd?ngöz, Ustün; Mara? Özdemir, Zeynep; Ergen, Fatma Bilge

2014-11-01

145

Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities. PMID:22293642

Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

2012-01-01

146

Construction of Bayesian networks for diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian networks have been proposed by many authors as the modeling technique of choice for the development of diagnostic systems. This paper describes a procedure for efficient creation of Bayesian networks for diagnostics. We have applied this procedure in diagnostic systems for diesel locomotives, satellite communication systems, and satellite testing equipment. We divide the process into several phases: problem decomposition,

K. Wojtek Przytula; Don Thompson

2000-01-01

147

Addition of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration and On-Site Cytology to EUS-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy Increases Procedure Time but Not Diagnostic Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Although the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in pancreas adenocarcinoma is high, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is often required in other lesions; in these cases, it may be possible to forgo initial EUS-FNA and rapid on-site cytology evaluation (ROSE). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB alone (EUS-FNB group) with a conventional sampling algorithm of EUS-FNA with ROSE followed by EUS-FNB (EUS-FNA/B group) in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. Methods Retrospective cohort study of subjects who underwent EUS sampling of nonpancreatic adenocarcinoma lesions between February 2011 and May 2013. Results Over the study period, there were 43 lesions biopsied in 41 unique patients in the EUS-FNB group and 53 patients in the EUS-FNA/B group. Overall diagnostic accuracy was similar between the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (83.7% vs. 84.9%; p=1.0). In the subgroup of subepithelial mass lesions, diagnostic accuracy remained similar in the EUS-FNB and EUS-FNA/B groups (81.0% and 70.6%; p=0.7). EUS-FNB procedures were significantly shorter than those in the EUS-FNA/B group (58.4 minutes vs. 73.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions EUS-FNB without on-site cytology provides a high diagnostic accuracy in nonpancreas adenocarcinoma lesions. There appears to be no additive benefit with initial EUS-FNA but this requires further study in a prospective study. PMID:24944988

Krishnan, Kumar; Wani, Sachin; Keefer, Laurie; Komanduri, Srinadh

2014-01-01

148

The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate. PMID:25642052

Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

2015-01-01

149

Concept abduction and contraction for semantic-based discovery of matches and negotiation spaces in an e-marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a Description Logic approach to extended matchmaking between Demands and Supplies in an Electronic Marketplace, which allows the semantic-based treatment of negotiable and strict requirements in the description.To this aim we exploit two novel non-standard Description Logic inference services, Concept Contraction -which extends satisfiability-and Concept Abduction -which extends subsumption.Based on these services we devise algorithms

Simona Colucci; Tommaso Di Noia; Eugenio Di Sciascio; Marina Mongiello; Francesco M. Donini

2004-01-01

150

Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5–9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1–17.9 years). Results: The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10–20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°–140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13–25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°–180°, P < .0003). Conclusion: The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder. PMID:23308301

Nath, Rahul K.; Somasundaram, Chandra

2012-01-01

151

Determination of radioisotopes in gamma-ray spectroscopy using abductive machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithmic approach has been adopted for many years for identifying and quantifying radioisotopes in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra. Complexity of the technique, particularly when used with lower resolution detectors, warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only during training, while actual sample analysis is greatly simplified. This should be advantageous in developing simple portable systems for fast online analysis of large numbers of samples, particularly in situations where accuracy can be traded off for speed and simplicity. Solutions based on neural networks have been reported in the literature. This paper describes the use of abductive networks which offer shorter training times and a simpler and more automated approach to model synthesis. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for determining isotopes in both single-and multiple-isotope samples represented by spectra from an NaI (Tl) detector. Inspite of a 50-fold poorer resolution for the AIM spectral data, AIM results are adequate, with average errors ranging between 11.8% and 20.5% for a number of simulated multi-isotope cocktails. AIM is a Registered Trademark of AbTech Corporation, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Abdel-Aal, R. E.; Al-Haddad, M. N.

1997-02-01

152

Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p?=?0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences, both overall and by gender. The analysis further revealed that young northern Ugandans in general are in desperate need of education, skills development, and support for victims of sexual violence. Conclusions This study persuasively demonstrates that all young people in northern Ugandan have been similarly affected by HIV infection during war and displacement. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore abandon rudimentary targeting practices based on abductees as a high-profile category. Instead, they must develop evidence-based HIV interventions that are commensurate with young people’s specific needs. As such programmes will be less stigmatizing, more oriented to self-selection, and more inclusive, they will effectively reach the most vulnerable young people in northern Uganda. PMID:23919329

2013-01-01

153

Diagnostic carotid and cerebral angiography: a historical summary of the evolving changes in coding and reimbursement in a complex procedure family.  

PubMed

Carotid and cerebral angiography have been a mainstay of neurointerventional and neuroradiologic practice for years. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) initiatives have compelled the professional societies to bundle component codes under threat of unilateral CMS revision and revaluation. Code bundling usually results in a decrease in the professional Relative Value Unit (RVU) valuation, and thus the MD reimbursement. The year 2013 saw a dramatic revision to the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code set that defines carotid and cerebral procedures. This paper reviews the process that led to that code set being revised and estimates the impact on professional reimbursement. We show the current and previous carotid angiography CPT codes and use clinical examples to assess professional RVU valuation before and after code revision. PMID:25179635

Donovan, William D; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Silva, Ezequiel; Woo, Henry H; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Tu, Raymond; Hirsch, Joshua A

2014-11-01

154

Computerised diagnostics in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammography is a major diagnostic procedure in early detection of breast cancer; however, the interpretation of mammograms for diagnosis of breast cancer can be problematic. A computerized diagnostic system has been developed to serve as a “second opinion” for radiologists. This system enhances the structures which appear in the mammogram and calculates parameters which characterized lesions. The authors have developed

B. Novak; S. Fields; R. Lederman; P. Bamberger; I. Leichter; D. Behar

1996-01-01

155

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

156

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring\\u000a the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology\\u000a departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography\\u000a and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome

K. Løken; S. Steine; E. Lærum

1999-01-01

157

Adjustable Augmented Rectus Muscle Transposition Surgery with or Without Ciliary Vessel Sparing for Abduction Deficiencies  

PubMed Central

Background Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Results Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3–5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9? (range, 17–50?) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8? (range, 0–25?) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3? reduced to 0?), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3? reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2? in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4?, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Conclusions Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia. PMID:24738948

Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L.; Demer, Joseph L.; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G.

2014-01-01

158

Supraspinatus tendon load during abduction is dependent on the size of the critical shoulder angle: A biomechanical analysis.  

PubMed

Shoulders with supraspinatus (SSP) tears are associated with significantly larger critical shoulder angles (CSA) compared to disease-free shoulders. We hypothesized that larger CSAs increase the ratio of joint shear to joint compression forces (defined as "instability ratio"), requiring substantially increased compensatory supraspinatus loads. A shoulder simulator with simulated deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus/teres minor, and subscapularis musculotendinous units was constructed. The model was configured to represent either a normal CSA of 33° or a CSA characteristic of shoulders with rotator cuff tears (38°), and the components of the joint forces were measured. The instability ratio increased for the 38° CSA compared with the control CSA (33°) for a range of motion between 6° to 61° of thoracohumeral abduction with the largest differences in instability observed between 33° and 37° of elevation. In this range, SSP force had to be increased by 13-33% (15-23?N) to stabilize the arm in space. Our results support the concept that a high CSA can induce SSP overload particularly at low degrees of active abduction. PMID:24700399

Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G; Baumgartner, Daniel; Viehöfer, Arnd F

2014-07-01

159

Nursing Procedures. NAVMED P-5066.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised manual of nursing procedures covers fundamental nursing care, admission and discharge of the patient, assisting with therapeutic measures, pre- and postoperative care, diagnostic tests and procedures, and isolation technique. Each of the over 300 topics includes the purpose, equipment, and procedure to be used and, where relevant, such…

Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (Navy), Washington, DC.

160

The effect of geometry and abduction angle on the stresses in cemented UHMWPE acetabular cups – finite element simulations and experimental tests  

PubMed Central

Background Contact pressure of UHMWPE acetabular cup has been shown to correlate with wear in total hip replacement (THR). The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that the cup geometry, abduction angle, thickness and clearance can modify the stresses in cemented polyethylene cups. Methods Acetabular cups with different geometries (Link®: IP and Lubinus eccentric) were tested cyclically in a simulator at 45° and 60° abduction angles. Finite element (FE) meshes were generated and two additional designs were reconstructed to test the effects of the cup clearance and thickness. Contact pressures at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces were calculated as a function of loading force at 45°, 60° and 80° abduction angles. Results At the cup-head interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures than the Lubinus eccentric at low loading forces. However, at higher loading forces, much higher contact pressures were produced on the surface of IP cup. An increase in the abduction angle increased contact pressure in the IP model, but this did not occur to any major extent with the Lubinus eccentric model. At the cup-cement interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures. Increased clearance between cup and head increased contact pressure both at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces, whereas a decreased thickness of polyethylene layer increased contact pressure only at the cup-cement interface. FE results were consistent with experimental tests and acetabular cup deformations. Conclusion FE analyses showed that geometrical design, thickness and abduction angle of the acetabular cup, as well as the clearance between the cup and head do change significantly the mechanical stresses experienced by a cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup. These factors should be taken into account in future development of THR prostheses. FE technique is a useful tool with which to address these issues. PMID:15904521

Korhonen, Rami K; Koistinen, Arto; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Santavirta, Seppo S; Lappalainen, Reijo

2005-01-01

161

[Diagnostic accuracy].  

PubMed

Clinical decision making while making a diagnosis is based on pre-test probability evaluation, a decision whether further tests are needed, and post-test probability evaluation based on test results. The add value of the test is the increase in probability, which depends on its diagnostic accuracy. Some measures of diagnostic accuracy are sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, area under the curve, Youden index, and diagnostic odds ratio. ROC curve is the most efficient way of graphic description of the relationship between sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic accuracy of a test is evaluated in a cross-sectional study on a group of individuals subjected simultaneously to the index test and the gold standard. All parameters of diagnostic accuracy are very sensitive to the study design, therefore it is of utmost importance to perform and write a study to adhere to the proposed STARD standards. This lecture gives an insight into the basics of biostatistical terminology from the field of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:16526310

Simundi?, Ana-Maria

2006-01-01

162

Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

1987-01-01

163

How safe is diagnostic ultrasonography?  

PubMed Central

Health care workers and patients alike are concerned about the safety of diagnostic ultrasonography in clinical practice. Evidence published to date on the immediate and possible long-term biologic effects of exposure to ultrasound in diagnostic procedures is reviewed in this paper. No harmful effect in the human fetus, child or adult following the diagnostic use of pulsed ultrasound has been reported. However, the question of long-term biologic effects cannot yet be answered. Continued vigilance and further research are required. PMID:6378349

Brown, B S

1984-01-01

164

Diagnostic Immunopathology  

PubMed Central

The application of immunologic techniques to tissue sections has added a new dimension to the investigation and classification of various processes. Virtually every section of diagnostic pathology has been enhanced by using specific monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antiserum. Neoplasms formerly diagnosed as poorly differentiated or anaplastic may be precisely identified as to their origin through the use of specific membrane or cytoplasmic markers. Other cellular products, including viruses, hormones, enzymes or highly specific proteins, are also available to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. New and more specific reagents are regularly becoming available for the diagnostic repertoire of pathologists. We present some of the principles of diagnostic immunopathology to show the scope and importance of the techniques. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3529633

Cancilla, Pasquale A.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Naeim, Faramarz; Said, Jonathan W.

1986-01-01

165

A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)  

PubMed Central

The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO2), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO2 measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO2 parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO2 values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III). Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO2) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO2), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so-called mosaic wounds. The hypoxia grades found in all of the chronic wounds was seen to be evenly distributed with values ranging from 0 to 40 mmHg, and therefore extremely inhomogeneous. In terms of oxygenation, chronic wounds are therefore inhomogeneous in two respects: (1) within the wound itself (intra-individual wound inhomogeneity) and (2) between different wounds (inter-individual wound inhomogeneity). Due to the extreme oxygen inhomogeneity, single measurements are not diagnostically useful. In healthy individuals the oxygen inhalation challenge (see above) results in synchronised tcPO2 oscillations occurring at minute rhythms, which are not seen in CVI wounds. These oscillations can be interpreted as a sign of a functioning arterial vasomotor system. The new procedure is suitable for the routine characterisation of chronic wounds in terms of their oxygen status, and correspondingly, their metabolically determining (and limiting) potential for healing and regeneration. The oxygen characteristic K-PO2 can furthermore be used as a warning of impending ulceration, since the oxygen provision worsens over time prior to the demise of the ulcerated tissue, thus making a controlled prophylaxis possible. PMID:22737104

Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.; Pötzschke, Harald

2012-01-01

166

Comparison of Hip Stabilization Muscle Use during Neutral Sit to Stand and Sit to Stand Involving Isometric Hip Abduction in Elderly Females  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles during neutral (N) sit to stand (STS) and STS involving hip abduction (ABD) in elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 16 healthy elderly females with no pain in the knee joint or any other orthopedic problems of the lower limbs. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system. Subjects then undertook a total of six STS trials: three for neutral STS and three for STS involving hip abduction. [Results] In the pre-TO phase, activation of the RF muscle was significantly increased during hip ABD. In the post-TO phase during hip ABD, Gmed muscle activation was significantly increased, and RF muscle activation was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] This study suggests that STS involving hip ABD is more effective in decreasing Gmed activation and reducing RF effort in elderly females.

Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2014-01-01

167

Role of the trochlear nerve in eye abduction and frontal vision of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).  

PubMed

Horizontal head rotation evokes significant responses from trochlear motoneurons of turtle that suggests they have a functional role in abduction of the eyes like that in frontal-eyed mammals. The finding is unexpected given that the turtle is generally considered lateral-eyed and assumed to have eye movements instead like that of lateral-eyed mammals, in which innervation of the superior oblique muscle by the trochlear nerve (nIV) produces intorsion, elevation, and adduction (not abduction). Using an isolated turtle head preparation with the brain removed, glass suction electrodes were used to stimulate nIV with trains of current pulses. Eyes were monitored via an infrared camera with the head placed in a gimble to quantify eye rotations and their directions. Stimulations of nIV evoked intorsion, elevation, and abduction. Dissection of the superior oblique muscle identified lines of action and a location of insertion on the eye, which supported kinematics evoked by nIV stimulation. Eye positions in alert behaving turtles with their head extended were compared with that when their heads were retracted in the carapace. When the head was retracted, there was a reduction in interpupillary distance and an increase in binocular overlap. Occlusion of peripheral fields by the carapace forces the turtle to a more frontal-eyed state, perhaps the reason for the action of abduction by the superior oblique muscle. These findings support why trochlear motoneurons in turtle respond in the same way as abducens motoneurons to horizontal rotations, an unusual characteristic of vestibulo-ocular physiology in comparison with other mammalian lateral-eyed species. PMID:23681972

Dearworth, J R; Ashworth, A L; Kaye, J M; Bednarz, D T; Blaum, J F; Vacca, J M; McNeish, J E; Higgins, K A; Michael, C L; Skrobola, M G; Jones, M S; Ariel, M

2013-10-15

168

Hypnosis as a diagnostic modality for vocal cord dysfunction.  

PubMed

Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a condition of paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. VCD often presents as stridorous breathing, which may be misdiagnosed as asthma. The mismanagement of this disorder may result in unnecessary treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. An association with psychogenic factors has been reported, and a higher incidence of anxiety-related illness has been demonstrated in patients with VCD. Definitive diagnosis of VCD is made by visualization of adducted cords during an acute episode using nasopharyngeal fiber-optic laryngoscopy. Diagnosis can be problematic, because it may be difficult to reproduce an attack in a controlled setting. To maximize diagnostic yield during laryngoscopy, provocation of symptoms using methacholine, histamine, or exercise challenges have been used. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, wherein hypnotic suggestion was used as an alternative method to achieve a diagnosis of VCD. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for elective fiber-optic laryngoscopy to confirm a diagnosis of VCD. The patient had a 4-year history of refractory asthma, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for which he had undergone a Nissen fundoplication, and suspected VCD. At 9 years of age the patient began manifesting monthly respiratory distress episodes of a severe character different from those that had been attributed to his asthma. Typically, he awoke from sleep with shortness of breath and difficulty with inhalation. He described a "neck attack" during which he felt as if the walls of his throat were "beating together." The patient was at times noted by his mother to exhibit a "suckling" behavior before onset of his respiratory distress episodes. On 4 occasions the patient became unconscious during an attack and then spontaneously regained consciousness after a few minutes. On these occasions, he was transported by ambulance to the hospital and the severe difficulty with inhalation resolved within a few minutes on treatment with oxygen and bronchodilators. Sometimes he was noted to manifest wheezing for several hours, which was responsive to bronchodilator therapy. Given the severity of the patient's disease, it was imperative to determine whether VCD was a complicating factor. It was proposed that an attempt be made to induce VCD by hypnotic suggestion while the patient underwent a fiberscopic laryngoscopy to establish a definitive diagnosis. The patient and his mother gave written consent for this procedure. He was admitted for observation to the pediatric intensive care unit for the induction attempt. The patient requested that no local anesthesia be applied in his nose before passage of the laryngoscope because he wanted to eat right after the procedure. Therefore, the nasopharyngeal laryngoscope was inserted while he used self-hypnosis as the sole form of anesthesia. He demonstrated no discomfort during its passing. Once the vocal cords were visualized, the patient was instructed to develop an episode of respiratory distress while in a state of hypnosis by recalling a recent "neck attack." His vocal cords then were observed to adduct anteriorly with each inspiration. The patient then was asked to relax his neck. When he did, the vocal cords immediately abducted with inspiration, and he breathed easily. After removal of the laryngoscope, the patient alerted from hypnosis and said he felt well. He reported no recollection of the procedure, thus demonstrating spontaneous amnesia that sometimes is associated with hypnosis. Because the diagnosis of VCD was confirmed, the patient was encouraged to use self-hypnosis and speech therapy techniques to control his symptoms. He also was referred for counseling. To our knowledge this is the first description in the medical literature of the use of hypnotic suggestion for making a diagnosis of VCD. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:11099624

Anbar, R D; Hehir, D A

2000-12-01

169

Paper Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.

170

Special Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section contains a number of special diagnostics that are designed to examine certain mechanisms. Section 1 reports on the method used to test the photochemical partitioning in the models. Sections 2 and 3 represent efforts to examine the model calculated production and removal rates for ozone and how the values are combined with transport rates in the models to produce the simulated ozone distributions. Sections 4 and 5 concentrate on polar processes including the dynamics aspect of vortex confinement and the chemical aspects of chlorine activation.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

1999-01-01

171

On-line diagnostic system for power generators  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

Skormin, V.A. [Binghamton Univ., NY (United States). Watson School; Goodenough, G.S. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Huber, R.K. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

172

A Tutorial on Confidence Intervals for Proportions in Diagnostic Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in diagnostic radiology often aims to establish the safety and the accuracy of a new procedure or to compare it with other procedures. Frequently, the diagnostic perform- ance of a test can be summarized by proportions such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Safety may be reflected by the proportion of patients experiencing unpleasant or adverse effects. The confidence interval

Charles C. Berry

1990-01-01

173

Test Design Manual: Guidelines for Developing Diagnostic Tests. Diagnostic Testing Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide teachers with technically sound, easy-to-follow procedures for developing diagnostic tests to be used with their own students. The definition of diagnostic testing is broadened to include any tests systematically designed to provide information about skills that students have or have not mastered. A five-step…

Herman, Joan; Winters, Lynn

174

Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

2008-01-01

175

A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

2001-01-01

176

Diagnostic utility of bronchoalveolar lavage  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic procedure by which cells and other components from bronchial and alveolar spaces are obtained for various studies. One of the main advantages of BAL is that it can be done as a day care procedure. Material obtained by BAL can give a definite diagnosis in conditions such as infections and malignancies. Aims: The aims and objective of this study were to assess the utility of BAL as a diagnostic tool to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the material obtained from BAL in various infections and neoplastic lesions to study the limitations of BAL in certain lung disorders. Materials and Methods: This study was done in a tertiary care center in Hyderabad. Bronchoscopy was done as an outpatient procedure and lavage fluid obtained analyzed. This is a prospective study done from January 2012 to Jun 2013. Ninety-one BALs were analyzed for total and differential count, microbiological examination and cytological evaluation. Cases selected included nonresolving pneumonias, diffuse lung infiltrates, infiltrates in immunosuppressed hosts and ventilator-associated pneumonias. Results: Bronchoalveolar lavage was done in 91 cases over a period of 1½ years. Definite diagnosis was not given in 7 cases. Four cases were inadequate. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 22 cases, fungal infections in 7 cases. Thirty-eight cases of bacterial pneumonias were diagnosed, Klebsiella was the most common organism. Malignancy was diagnosed in 13 cases. Conclusion: Definite diagnosis can be made in tuberculosis, fungal infections, bacterial pneumonias and in malignancies.

Radha, Sistla; Afroz, Tameem; Prasad, Sudheer; Ravindra, Nallagonda

2014-01-01

177

Diagnostic randomized controlled trials: the final frontier.  

PubMed

Clinicians, patients, governments, third-party payers, and the public take for granted that diagnostic tests are accurate, safe and effective. However, we may be seriously misled if we are relying on robust study design to ensure accurate, safe, and effective diagnostic tests. Properly conducted, randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for assessing the effectiveness and safety of interventions, yet are rarely conducted in the assessment of diagnostic tests. Instead, diagnostic cohort studies are commonly performed to assess the characteristics of a diagnostic test including sensitivity and specificity. While diagnostic cohort studies can inform us about the relative accuracy of an experimental diagnostic intervention compared to a reference standard, they do not inform us about whether the differences in accuracy are clinically important, or the degree of clinical importance (in other words, the impact on patient outcomes). In this commentary we provide the advantages of the diagnostic randomized controlled trial and suggest a greater awareness and uptake in their conduct. Doing so will better ensure that patients are offered diagnostic procedures that will make a clinical difference. PMID:22897974

Rodger, Marc; Ramsay, Tim; Fergusson, Dean

2012-01-01

178

A layered abduction model of perception: Integrating bottom-up and top-down processing in a multi-sense agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.

Josephson, John R.

1989-01-01

179

Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

Oberry, Phillip A.

1991-01-01

180

Plot procedure finds closure pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure has been developed for using a log-log plot of pressure decline to identify different flow regimes following microfrac or minifrac. Coupled with the square of time plot, it is possible to verify that the straight line used for determining closure pressure is a correct one. A log-log plot has been used as a diagnostic tool for identifying various

Sookprasong

1986-01-01

181

Analiza de drept penal a infractiunii de rapire a mijlocului de transport: experienta Republicii Moldova - A Penal Law Analysis of the Offence of Abduction of the Mean of Transport:the Republic of Moldova case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study comprehend the analysis of the object, the objective part, the subjective part, the subject and the aggravating circumstances of the offence of abduction of the mean of transport, provided by art.1921 of the Penal Code of the Republic of Moldova. Especially, it is showed that the mean of transport notion, stipulated in the disposal of art.1921 PC RM,

Vitalie STATI

2010-01-01

182

Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab  

E-print Network

Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Irrigation used Please check: Yes or No Type of system _______________________________________ Frequency/Rings/Arcs Yellowing Poor growth Terrain associated with problem (check as many as apply): Low area Irregular

Maxwell, Bruce D.

183

SmartHEALTH: A multisensor platform for POC cancer diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many diagnostic fields a massive trend towards bringing the diagnostic procedure closer to the patient in space and time can be observed. This so-called Point-of-Care diagnostics (POC) greatly benefits from recent advances in microfabrication technologies, namely in the field of polymer based microsystems [1]. This is the more important as there is a massive pressure in reducing cost in

C. Gartner; H. Becker

2008-01-01

184

Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

Poll, Scott

2011-01-01

185

Non-diagnostic intelligent tutoring systems: Teaching without student models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keystones of traditional intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been complex procedures for student diagnosis and adaptive instruction based on diagnostic data. While some of these systems have been shown to be effective, they are also very expensive to develop. This paper describes another class of ITSs, non-diagnostic ITSs, which do little or no student diagnosis, and concentrate their intelligence

Leo Gugerty

1997-01-01

186

HOUNSFIELD REVIEW SERIES Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology  

E-print Network

HOUNSFIELD REVIEW SERIES Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology E J HALL, DPhil, DSc, FACR, FRCR and D J BRENNER, PhD, DSc Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York diagnostic radiology comes from high-dose (in the radiological context) procedures such as CT, interventional

Brenner, David Jonathan

187

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2013-10-01

188

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2014-10-01

189

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2011-10-01

190

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2010-10-01

191

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2012-10-01

192

Whipple Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board The Whipple Procedure Also called a pancreaticoduodenectomy, which is generally ... operation was first described by .Dr. Alan O. Whipple of New York Memorial Hospital (now called Memorial ...

193

Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

2013-06-01

194

BEAM SIMULATIONS USING VIRTUAL DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DRIVER LINAC  

SciTech Connect

End-to-end beam simulations for the driver linac have shown that the design meets the necessary performance requirements including having adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances. However, to achieve reliable operational performance, the development of appropriate beam diagnostic systems and control room procedures are crucial. With limited R&D funding, beam simulations provide a cost effective tool to evaluate candidate beam diagnostic systems and to provide a critical basis for developing early commissioning and later operational activities. We propose to perform beam dynamic studies and engineering analyses to define the requisite diagnostic systems of the driver linac and through simulation to develop and test commissioning and operational procedures.

R. C. York; X. Wu; Q. Zhao

2011-12-21

195

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie...

2011-04-01

196

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie...

2014-04-01

197

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie...

2013-04-01

198

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie...

2012-04-01

199

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie...

2010-04-01

200

Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials  

PubMed Central

Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies. PMID:24948841

Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

2014-01-01

201

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA  

PubMed Central

This is an analytical study of the Diagnostic methods Prescribes in Ayurveda. As in the case of disease and treatments the concept of diagnosis also is unique in Ayurveda. It goes to the Nidana of Doshicimbalance by studying the physical, physiological, psychic and behavoural aspects of the patient. The paper gives an insight into the various diagnostic methods enunciated in Sastras which turns out to be a fore-runner of any of modern diagnostic methods. PMID:22556480

Thakar, V. J.

1982-01-01

202

Acquiring, Representing, and Evaluating a Competence Model of Diagnostic Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes NEOMYCIN, a computer program that models one physician's diagnostic reasoning within a limited area of medicine. NEOMYCIN's knowledge base and reasoning procedure constitute a model of how human knowledge is organized and how it is used in diagnosis. The hypothesis is tested that such a procedure can be used to simulate both…

Clancey, William J.

203

Three Diagnostic Patterns for Children with Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews attempts to categorize reading disabilities, describes a means of refining testing procedures to classify three diagnostic patterns of reading disorder, and reports results of application of those procedures with 172 children with reading disorders. Studies classifying poor readers by a verbal-performance pattern analysis of the…

Fuller, Gerald B.

204

Dehiscence with evisceration: a rare complication of diagnostic peritoneal lavage.  

PubMed

Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a well-established procedure for evaluating the patient suspected of having intraabdominal injury secondary to blunt abdominal trauma. Its accuracy and safety have been clearly documented; however, the procedure does have the potential for morbidity. This paper reports on the occurrence of a rare complication, dehiscence with evisceration, and reviews the literature regarding complications of DPL. PMID:2696750

Frame, S B; Hendrikson, M F; Boozer, A G; McSwain, N E

1989-01-01

205

Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

2014-08-01

206

Hypereosinophilia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

A case of hypereosinophilia is presented. The case illustrates the complexity of the diagnostic processes in certain conditions like hypereosinophilia. Keywords Hypereosinophilia; Myocarditis; Stroke PMID:21629546

Rehman, Habib Ur

2010-01-01

207

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture.  

PubMed

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

2014-05-01

208

A case study of the abductive reasoning processes of pre-service elementary education students in a role playing setting concerning a mock senate hearing on global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science education.

Petty, Michael Eugene

209

Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

1992-01-01

210

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

211

Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

1996-01-01

212

Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices  

SciTech Connect

A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

1982-06-01

213

Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging is a modality that is frequently used into the breast radiologist’s daily clinical practice. MRI examination should have optimal technical proficiency in order to attain diagnostic quality avoiding false positive and negative diagnoses. Furthermore, due to increasing usage fields of the examinations uniting with high sensitivity phenomenon, excessive usage and excision/interventional procedures are inevitable. Therefore, we hope to highlight the appropriate usage of the MRI technique and it’s clinical applications.

Kilic, Fahrettin; Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Gumus, Hatice; Unal, Ozlem; Kantarci, Mecit; Yilmaz, M. Halit

2012-01-01

214

Leg Endoscopic Groin Lymphadenectomy (LEG Procedure): Step-by-Step Approach to a Straightforward Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInguinofemoral lymphadenectomy can serve as a diagnostic and potentially therapeutic procedure in a variety of malignancies, including those of the genitalia and the skin. Historically, this procedure was associated with significant morbidity.

Viraj Master; Kenneth Ogan; David Kooby; Wayland Hsiao; Keith Delman

2009-01-01

215

Contraceptive procedures.  

PubMed

Although most women desire to control the size and spacing of their family, the rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States remains high, with approximately half of all pregnancies being unintended. Reducing unintended pregnancy is a national public health goal, and the increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) (intrauterine devices and implants) can help meet this goal. LARCs are among the most effective forms of contraception available. There are few contraindications to their use, and insertion and removal are straightforward procedures that are well tolerated in the outpatient office setting. PMID:24286997

Beasley, Anitra; Schutt-Ainé, Ann

2013-12-01

216

Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131  

PubMed Central

Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

2015-01-01

217

Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

Brix, M.; Morgan, P.; Stamp, M.; Zastrow, K.-D. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Dodt, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Dunai, D.; Meszaros, B.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Szabolics, T.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Roma (Italy); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Ass., D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Melson, T. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasma e Fusao Nuclear, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-15

218

Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots: Potential tools for new diagnostic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss the application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots for diagnostic purposes, with special emphasis for cancer. We prepared and applied core-shell cadmium sulfide-cadmium hydroxide (CdS/Cd(OH) 2) semiconductor quantum dots in aqueous medium. Tissue and cells labeling was evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy as well as by conventional fluorescence microscopy. The procedure presented in this work, shown to be a promising tool for fast, low-cost and precise cancer diagnostic protocols.

Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Fontes, A.; Vieira, A. A. S.; Silva, D. C. N.; Castro-Neto, A. G.; Chaves, C. R.; Da Cunha, A. H. G. B.; Scordo, D.; Amaral, J. C. O. F.; Moura-Neto, V.

2008-11-01

219

[Malperfusion in aortic dissection: diagnostic problems and therapeutic procedures].  

PubMed

Malperfusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta and its side branches is a common complication of aortic dissection, often proving fatal. Vital organ malperfusion accompanying acute aortic dissection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and requires timely reperfusion of the ischemic organs as well as adequate management of the aortic dissection. Ischemic damage to vital organs supplied by the thoracoabdominal aorta greatly increases the overall risk of aortic dissection. As initial symptoms may be subtle, malperfusion tends to be recognized late, and therefore accounts for a considerable percentage of fatalities.Effective reperfusion is not readily achieved by central aortic surgery alone in a certain number of patients. Various strategies have been used, including entry closure by central aortic surgery or stent grafting, surgical or catheter fenestration, bypass grafting and percutaneous stenting.Endovascular bare-metal stent placement is an attractive and promising treatment option since it is readily available, is less invasive and presents fewer risks to the patient. PMID:21858546

Jánosi, R A; Böse, D; Konorza, T; Eggebrecht, H; Tsagakis, K; Jakob, H; Erbel, R

2011-09-01

220

For Research Use Only Not for use in Diagnostic Procedures  

E-print Network

-Gobain Performance Plastics Company. Rheodyne® and the Rheodyne logo ( ) are registered trademarks of Rheodyne, L Thermo Electron San Jose performs complete testing and evaluation of its products to ensure full trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Teflon® is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company

221

Procedural knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

1986-01-01

222

Set theory in diagnostic reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Regarding diagnostic reasoning, the currently taught Bayesian theory is a form of hypothetical-deduction reasoning. Using set theory, we offer syllogism reasoning instead of hypothetical-deductive reasoning and establish an online diagnostic expert system model based on this diagnostic methodology. Methods: Concepts of set theory were employed to demonstrate diagnostic reasoning. ASP, Vbscript and Microsoft Access were used to establish the

Rui-Bao Tang; Qin-Fang Deng; Hou-Qi Liu

2003-01-01

223

Studies and analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine: SSME failure data review, diagnostic survey and SSME diagnostic evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) failure data for the period 1980 through 1983 are presented. The data was collected, evaluated, and ranked according to procedures established during this study. A number of conclusions and recommendations are made based upon this failure data review. The results of a state-of-the-art diagnostic survey are also presented. This survey covered a broad range of diagnostic sensors and techniques and the findings were evaluated for application to the SSME. Finally, a discussion of the initial activities for the on-going SSME diagnostic evaluation is included.

Glover, R. C.; Kelley, B. A.; Tischer, A. E.

1986-01-01

224

Maintenance of arytenoid abduction following carbon dioxide laser debridement of the articular cartilage and joint capsule of the cricoarytenoid joint combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty in horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate CO2 laser debridement of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty to prevent post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction in seven horses. Horses were assigned to either laser debridement of the left CAJ and laryngoplasty (laser treated, n=5) or control laryngoplasty (sham, n=2), and were evaluated with endoscopic examinations and measurement of right to left angle quotients (RLQ) to assess maintenance of arytenoid abduction. The animals were euthanased at intervals after surgery and larynges were harvested for post-mortem testing, including determination of translaryngeal flow, pressure, impedance and RLQ. Measurements were obtained under increasing vacuum-generated negative pressure with laryngoplasty sutures intact and with the knot/crimp of the laryngoplasty sutures removed. Following post-mortem testing the cricoarytenoid joints were examined histologically. Post-operative endoscopic examinations revealed no significant differences between RLQ measurements calculated for day 1 following surgery to the termination date of the study for the seven horses. Post-mortem RLQ at airflows of 10 and 60 L/s was significantly higher in sham than in laser treated horses both before and after knot/crimp removal. Translaryngeal impedance at 10 and 60 L/s was not statistically different between groups. Histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of articular cartilage in the laser treated horses. The lymphoid cell infiltration subsided but joint capsule and periarticular fibrosis increased over the course of the study. Post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction after laryngoplasty can be minimized with CO2 laser debridement of the CAJ joint. PMID:24405681

Hawkins, J F; Couetil, L; Miller, M A

2014-02-01

225

MJO Simulation Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

2008-06-02

226

Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease extent, thereby reducing the need for more invasive surgical interventions. Various navigational bronchoscopy systems have become available to increase flexible bronchoscope access to small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Furthermore, various modalities of airway assessment, including optical microscopic imaging technologies, may play significant roles in the diagnosis of a variety of pulmonary diseases in the future. Finally, the combination of new diagnostic bronchoscopy technologies and novel approaches in molecular analysis and biomarker assessment hold promise for enhanced diagnosis and personalized management of many pulmonary disorders. In this review, we provide a contemporary review of diagnostic bronchoscopy developments over the past decade. PMID:20378726

Haas, Andrew R.; Vachani, Anil; Sterman, Daniel H.

2010-01-01

227

Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle  

PubMed Central

Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

2013-01-01

228

High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: Is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury?  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying risk factors for knee pain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be an important step in the injury prevention cycle. Objective We evaluated two unique prospective cohorts with similar populations and methodologies to compare the incidence rates and risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and ACL injury. Methods The ‘PFP cohort’ consisted of 240 middle and high school female athletes. They were evaluated by a physician and underwent anthropometric assessment, strength testing and three-dimensional landing biomechanical analyses prior to their basketball season. 145 of these athletes met inclusion for surveillance of incident (new) PFP by certified athletic trainers during their competitive season. The ‘ACL cohort’ included 205 high school female volleyball, soccer and basketball athletes who underwent the same anthropometric, strength and biomechanical assessment prior to their competitive season and were subsequently followed up for incidence of ACL injury. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate potential group (incident PFP vs ACL injured) differences in anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Knee abduction moment (KAM) cut-scores that provided the maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of PFP or ACL injury risk were also compared between the cohorts. Results KAM during landing above 15.4 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk to develop PFP compared to a 2.9% risk if below the PFP risk threshold in our sample. Likewise, a KAM above 25.3 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk for subsequent ACL injury compared to a 0.4% risk if below the established ACL risk threshold. The ACL-injured athletes initiated landing with a greater knee abduction angle and a reduced hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio relative to the incident PFP group. Also, when comparing across cohorts, the athletes who suffered ACL injury also had lower hamstring/quadriceps ratio than the players in the PFP sample (p<0.05). Conclusions In adolescent girls aged 13.3 years, >15 Nm of knee abduction load during landing is associated with greater likelihood of developing PFP. Also, in girls aged 16.1 years who land with >25 Nm of knee abduction load during landing are at increased risk for both PFP and ACL injury. PMID:24687011

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Foss, Kim D Barber; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-01-01

229

Reversed field pinch diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

Weber, P.G.

1986-01-01

230

ORION laser target diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-15

231

Quantitative information of specific diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

The goal of diagnostic testing is to maximize information (I) of a specific disease of interest (D) resulting from the performance of a specific diagnostic test procedure (T). However, all tests suffer from errors which result in incomplete information and inaccurate diagnostic conclusions. The methods of Information Theory have successfully solved a range of signal transmission problems involving physical systems operating under conditions of noise. Medical testing procedures were found to be analogous to noisy systems; hence, Information Theory methods were applied to minimize errors in diagnostic testing. Prior to performing a diagnostic test, the quantity of information, Apriori Information (ID), regarding the presence or absence of the disease was only a function of the prevalence (P) of disease in the population. After performing a diagnostic test, the quantity of information, Aposteriori Information (IDIT) was a function of not only P but also the test sensitivity (A) and test specificity (B). The quantity of information gained by test performance was computed from the difference between aposteriori and apriori information. delta I = IDIT - ID To illustrate the relationship between pretest, apriori, and post-test, aposteriori, information the values of ID and IDIT were computed for five common cardiovascular tests applied to populations with different coronary artery disease prevalence. This cross-sectional analysis studied the quantitative information obtained from Electrocardiography (ECG), Bicycle Ergometer Stress Tests (BEST), Stress-Echo Ergometer Tests (SEET), Thallium 201 Stress Tests (ThST), and Coronary Arteriography (CorA). Apriori information ranged from a minimum of 0 (for prevalence = 0.5) to a maximum of 1.0 (for prevalence = 0 or 1.0) The aposteriori information was computed for all apriori information and occupied the range between that of a "perfect" test (A = 1.0 and B = 1.0) and that of a "worthless" test (A = 0.5 and B = 0.5). All tests demonstrated greater information gain when apriori information was minimal; Little additional information could be gained when the apriori information was close to certainty (i.e., for prevalence near 0 or 1.0). Electrocardiography demonstrated little significant IDIT at any value of ID. Thallium 201 stress tests provided similar aposteriori information values to those of Stress-Echo Ergometer Stress and either demonstrated greater information gain than Bicycle Ergometer Stress Tests. Coronary Arteriography provided the maximum values of aposteriori information. Information Theory methods provided an effective quantitative method to compare the effectiveness of diagnostic tests over a wide range of disease prevalence. PMID:9554104

Bowyer, A F

1998-02-01

232

Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of bronchoscopy video recordings. PMID:22185344

2011-01-01

233

General considerations and updates in pediatric gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal and colonic endoscopic examinations have been performed in pediatric patients in Korea for 3 decades. Endoscopic procedures are complex and may be unsafe if special concerns are not considered. Many things have to be kept in mind before, during, and after the procedure. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the most frequently performed procedure in children nowadays, Since the dimension size of the endoscopy was modified for pediatric patients 15 years ago, endoscopic procedures are almost performed routinely in pediatric gastrointestinal patients. The smaller size of the scope let the physicians approach the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. But this is an invasive procedure, so the procedure itself may provoke an emergence state. The procedure-related complications can more easily occur in pediatric patients. Sedation-related or procedure-related respiratory, cardiovascular complications are mostly important and critical in the care. The endoscopists are required to consider diverse aspects of the procedure - patient preparation, indications and contraindications, infection controls, sedation methods, sedative medicines and the side effects of each medicine, monitoring during and after the procedure, and complications related with the procedure and medicines - to perform the procedure successfully and safely. This article presents some important guidelines and recommendations for gastrointestinal endoscopy through literature review. PMID:21189965

2010-01-01

234

Photoionization, line emission diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoionization models for AGN, including Seyfert and LINERs are discussed. These photoionization models can be used to derive emission-line diagnostics for AGN that can determine the properties of the AGN and surrounding ISM, including the relative AGN contribution to the EUV radiation field, the hardness of the AGN radiation field, the ionization state of the gas, and the metallicity of the narrow-line region. It is shown how the AGN emission-line diagnostics are expected to change with redshift. Finally, latest application of these models by the author to wide integral field spectroscopy to separate starburst and AGN contributions in composite galaxies are presented.

Kewley, Lisa

2014-07-01

235

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infants: diagnostic usefulness and safety.  

PubMed

Although fiberoptic, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic technique in the older child and adult, concerns about safety have limited the use of this procedure in infants. A 1-year experience with 49 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies in infants less than 25 months of age is reported. There were varied indications for the procedures, including upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and obstruction, but evaluation for esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux was most common. Procedures were performed without sedation in 45% of all infants studied, including 87% of infants less than 3 months of age; procedures were well tolerated. General anesthesia was used on only three occasions. A thorough examination was always possible, and biopsies were taken whenever indicated. Only one complication, transient bradycardia, occurred in a critically ill infant. This experience demonstrates that upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a safe and effective diagnostic aid in infants, and it can often be performed with little or no sedation. PMID:6493878

Hargrove, C B; Ulshen, M H; Shub, M D

1984-11-01

236

ASSESSING THE USE OF A STANDARDIZED DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC TERMINOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Although standardized terminologies, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), have been in use in medicine for over a century, in the dental profession, efforts to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology - the ‘EZcodes’ terminology was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental practices and schools in the United States and Europe have implemented the ‘EZcodes’. In this paper we report on the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes at three of the dental schools that have adopted this standardized dental diagnostic terminology. Electronic data on the use of procedure codes with diagnostic terms from the three schools over a one-year period between July 2010 and June 2011 were aggregated. The diagnostic term and procedure code pairs were adjudicated by three calibrated dentists. Analyses were conducted to gain insight into the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology in the one-year period extending from 7/1/2010 through 6/30/2011. Error proportions in the entry of diagnostic term (and by diagnostic category) were also computed. Within the twelve-month period included in the analysis, a total of 29,965 diagnostic terms and 249,411 procedure codes were entered at the three institutions resulting in a utilization proportion of 12%. Caries and periodontics were the more frequently used categories. More than 1000 of the available 1321 diagnostic terms were never used at the three institutions. Overall, 60.5% of the EZcodes entries were found to be valid. In summary, our results demonstrate low utilization of EZ codes in an electronic dental record and raise the need for specific training of dental providers on the importance of using dental diagnostic terminology and specifically how to use the terms within the EHR. This will serve to increase the use/correct use of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology and ultimately create a reliable platform for undertaking clinical, outcomes and quality improvement-related research. PMID:23314462

Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel M.; Stark, Paul C.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.; Ramoni, Rachel B.; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E.; Kimmes, Nicole S.; Tavares, Anamaria

2012-01-01

237

Diagnostics for induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

Fessenden, T.J.

1996-04-01

238

Spectroscopic Diagnostics for AGNs  

E-print Network

A review of the spectroscopic tools needed to characterize AGNs is presented. This review focusses on ultraviolet, optical and infrared emission-line diagnostics specifically designed to help differentiate AGNs from starburst-dominated galaxies. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed in the context of on-going and future AGN surveys.

Sylvain Veilleux

2002-01-08

239

Diagnostic Reasoning Anaesthesia Knowledge  

E-print Network

Diagnostic Reasoning with Anaesthesia Knowledge Annette ten Teije 1 University of Amsterdam, Dept research groups. The first group has studied Formalization of ANaesthesia knowledge (FAN). An aim it was not designed. Keywords: Diagnosis, Anaesthesia 1 Introduction This paper reports on a collaboration between two

ten Teije, Annette

240

Heterodyne laser diagnostic system  

DOEpatents

The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wyeth, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

241

Beam Diagnostics for FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

2011-08-19

242

Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

243

Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab  

E-print Network

Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility/State_____________________________________ Zip___________________________ Plant common or scientific name____________________________________________________ Variety__________________________________________________________________ Planting date, age of plant

Maxwell, Bruce D.

244

9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2014-01-01

245

9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2012-01-01

246

9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2010-01-01

247

9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2013-01-01

248

9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2011-01-01

249

Making Diagnostic Thresholds Less Arbitrary  

E-print Network

The application of diagnostic thresholds plays an important role in the classification of mental disorders. Despite their importance, many diagnostic thresholds are set arbitrarily, without much empirical support. This paper seeks to introduce...

Unger, Alexis Ariana

2012-07-16

250

Molecular Diagnostics Researcher: James Ferrenberg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF interview, PowerPoint slide set, and webpage biography of a molecular diagnostics researcher, detailing career information. Molecular diagnostics researchers used genetic information to diagnose infections and disease.

2012-05-02

251

A New Diagnostic Test for Endometrial Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective During saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS), the distension fluid is typically discarded. If cytology analysis could identify those patients with endometrial cancer, many women would be spared from further procedures. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with clinical stage I or II endometrial adenocarcinoma were prospectively recruited preoperatively. Saline-infused sonohysterography was performed by instilling 5 mL of saline, withdrawing and sending for analysis. Saline was reinfused until complete SIS images were obtained and sent separately for cytology. Results Of the 30 women enrolled, SIS was technically successful in 29. Demographics included mean age (60.5 ± 6.99 years), body mass index (35.55 ± 8.18 kg/m2), endometrioid histology (76%), and grade (grade 1, 67%). Prestudy diagnostic method included biopsy (70%), dilatation and curettage (17%), and hysteroscopy (10%). Adequate cytology specimens were obtained in 66% of the 5mL flushes and 72% of the complete SIS collections. Of adequate specimens, the sensitivities to detect endometrial cancer for the 5-mL, complete, and combined fluid samples were 26% (95% confidence interval, 9%–51%), 36% (17%–59%), and 42% (22%–63%). Sensitivity based on the whole study sample (N = 30) was 33% (17%–53%). Statistical significance was not found in the association between a positive test and age, body mass index, grade, diagnostic method, or volume instilled or aspirated. Conclusions Most patients with early endometrial cancer can undergo SIS procedures with adequate cytology specimens obtained from distention media. However, the sensitivity is low, and refinements are necessary before utilizing as a diagnostic test. In cases with positive results, the patient may be able to avoid other costly and painful procedures. PMID:23881100

Guralp, Onur; Sheridan, Susan M.; Harter, Josephine; Hinshaw, James Louis; Seo, Songwon; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Lindheim, Steven; Stewar, Sarah; Kushner, David M.

2014-01-01

252

ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR SELECTION FOR RESIDENTIAL RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses and critiques EPA's experience in conducting house evaluation visits in Florida and Ohio. Suggestions are offered as to the utility and priority to be given to selected diagnostic procedures and measurements. EPA had an experimental program to develop and demo...

253

Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

2007-01-01

254

Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2012-01-01

255

BUILDING HVAC/FOUNDATION DIAGNOSTICS FOR RADON MITIGATION INSCHOOLS, PART 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a case study of radon diagnostics andmitigation procedures performed in a school researched by the U.S.EPA in New York State. t discusses building construction details,radon diagnostic measurements, mitigation system details, andpost-mitigation radon levels. l...

256

Partial Discharge Diagnostics of Micro Cavities in Epoxy Insulating Materials and their Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state evaluation of an electric insulation using diagnostic measuring technique generally takes place with integral procedures or with partial discharge measuring and analysis technology, which can detect local and limited defects. With such diagnostic measurements different goals are pursued: new insulating systems are examined in order to judge their suitability in the context of development processes regarding the adopted

M. Budde; M. Kurrat

2008-01-01

257

Assessing Disease Class-Specific Diagnostic Ability: A Practical Adaptive Test Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of the robustness of disease class-specific diagnostic concepts could play a central role in training programs designed to assure the development of diagnostic competence. In the pilot study, the authors used disease/sign-symptom conditional probability estimates, Monte Carlo procedures, and artificial intelligence (AI) tools to create…

Papa, Frank J.; Schumacker, Randall E.

258

61 FR 54120 - Appeals Procedures; Hearings Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1004-AC99 Appeals Procedures; Hearings Procedures AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...contests, appeals of BLM decisions and hearings. The proposed regulations provide more...the appellants, BLM and the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA). DATES:...

1996-10-17

259

Educational Improvement Act: Diagnostic Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kentucky Department of Education has a responsibility to provide technical assistance and consultative services to local school districts. Descriptions of the state selected diagnostic reading test, the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI) and the diagnostic math test, the Diagnostic Math Inventory (DMI), are explained. Each school district in…

Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Research and Planning.

260

[Immune diagnostics in rheumatology].  

PubMed

Laboratory diagnostics play a fundamental role in rheumatology but must always be interpreted in the context of symptoms and clinical signs. Laboratory tests have a variety of purposes, such as confirmation or negation of a diagnosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation of activity and prognosis, involvement of organs and drug side effects. Markers of inflammation and specific autoantibodies are the most important laboratory parameters in rheumatology. Thus, with the suspicion of rheumatoid arthritis the analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP or ACPA) should be performed as the first line tests. Only a few antibody titers are suitable for monitoring of disease activity. Some autoantibodies exhibit such a high diagnostic value that the antibodies are included in the classification criteria or in the definition of a disease entity. PMID:25096587

Gruber, R; Borgmann, S

2014-08-01

261

Diagnostics and structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of prominences and the diagnostic techniques used to evaluate their physical parameters are discussed. These include electron temperature, various densities (n sub p, n sub e, n sub l), ionization degree, velocities, and magnetic field vector. UV and radio measurements have already evidenced the existence of different temperature regions, corresponding to different geometrical locations, e.g., the so called Prominence-Corona (P-C) interface. Velocity measurements are important for considering formation and mass balance of prominences but there are conflicting velocity measurements which have led to the basic question: what structure is actually observed at a given wavelength; what averaging is performed within the projected slit area during the exposure time? In optically thick lines, the question of the formation region of the radiation along the line of sight is also not a trivial one. The same is true for low resolution measurements of the magnetic field. Coupling diagnostics with structure is now a general preoccupation.

Vial, J. C.

1986-01-01

262

Neutron diagnostic for MTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron diagnostic system has been installed on the MTX tokamak. The diagnostic will be used to measure both the peak ion temperature and the ion response to intense free-electron laser microwave pulses (140-250 GHz, 1-8 GW, 20-50 ns). High-speed measurements are important for studying the intense microwave absorption process. A plastic scintillator with a polymer-clad silica bundle is used for fast time response detection. Five-channel proportional counters and fission counters are used to monitor the neutron yield for a source strength from 108 to 1013 n/s. This sytem has been calibrated with a 252Cf neutron source in the vacuum vessel and is being tested using the MTX ohmic plasma.

Ogawa, T.; Oasa, K.; Hoshino, K.; Odajima, K.; Maeda, H.

1990-10-01

263

Journal of Molecular Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 2000 Stanford University's HighWire Press announced the online publication of several journals. The Association for Molecular Pathology, co-sponsored by The American Society for Investigative Pathology, publishes the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics (JMD), which is produced online in conjunction with HighWire Press. Full-text content and abstracts begin November 1999; the free trial period for JMD Online ended March 2001.

264

Diagnostic upgrades on MTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MTX experiment diagnostic capabilities have been recently upgraded with the addition of five new diagnostics. A second beamline was added on the existing Michelson ECE waveguide to accommodate the new polychromator. This provides four orders of magnitude higher time resolution (1-2 microsec) than the Michelson with an improved spectral resolution (5 GHz) using up to nine separate channels. A new four-channel ECE microwave receiver system using both an inside and outside hom placed on the inner tokamak wall allows us to measure the hot electron emission generated from gyrotron and FEL heating. A 15-channel interferometer on MTX has recently been upgraded with the addition of polarimetry to provide measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. This upgrade uses a new technique that determines the Faraday rotation by measuring the phase of a rapidly rotating polarization ellipse. The novel high-speed rotating optics (greater than 60 K rpm) used to produce this state of polarization is reviewed. A new two-channel O-mode reflectometer spanning 75-105 GHz is being added to measure the movements of the cutoff layer. By varying the frequency of this diagnostic, we are able to measure fluctuations deep within the plasma. Finally, a new particle probe diagnostic currently under construction will measure the FEL electric field strength inside the tokamak plasma. Here, we will inject a helium neutral beam into the center of the plasma and excite it with a high power excimer laser, thus, producing a Stark effect emission that is dependent on the FEL electric field strength.

Nilson, D.; Casper, T.; Foote, J.; Lasnier, C.; Lopez, P.; Rice, B.; Stever, R.; Hoshino, K.; Odajima, K.; Oda, T.

1991-09-01

265

Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities\\u000a when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon\\u000a of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some are used interchangeably.\\u000a Without clear criteria and definitions,

John R. Giugliano

2009-01-01

266

Trends in infant abductions (2005).  

PubMed

Infant kidnapping in healthcare facilities has been sharply reduced since the 1990s when educational programs and tagging systems were introduced. However, infant abductors in recent years have changed their methods of operation to meet improved nursery safeguards. In this updated report, the author warns of some new dangers posed by the Internet. PMID:16535955

Nahirny, Cathy

2005-01-01

267

PML diagnostic criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

2013-01-01

268

Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

Santoro, Gilbert J. (editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (editor)

1988-01-01

269

ITER Diagnostic First Wal  

SciTech Connect

The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

2012-09-21

270

Alpha Particle Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

Fisher, Ray, K.

2009-05-13

271

Verifying Diagnostic Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA s Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g., an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a nondeterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

Lindsey, Tony; Pecheur, Charles

2004-01-01

272

Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF  

SciTech Connect

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a high temperature and high density plasma is produced by the spherical implosion of a small capsule. A spherical target capsule is irradiated uniformly by a laser beam (direct irradiation) or x-rays from a high Z enclosure (hohlraum) that is irradiated by laser or ion beams (indirect irradiation). Then high-pressure ablation of the surface causes the fuel to be accelerated inward. Thermonuclear fusion reactions begin in the center region of the capsule as it is heated to sufficient temperature (10 keV) by the converging shocks (hot spot formation). During the stagnation of the imploded shell, the fuel in the shell region is compressed to high density ({approx} 10{sup 3} times solid density in fuel region). When these conditions are established, energy released by the initial nuclear reactions in center ''hot-spot'' region can heat up the cold ''fuel'' region and cause ignition. They are developing advanced nuclear diagnostics for imploding plasmas of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is a 1.8MJ, 192-beam glass laser system that is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One objective of the NIF is to demonstrate ignition and gain in an inertial confinement fusion plasma. Extreme physical conditions characterize the imploded plasmas on the NIF. First, the thickness of the plasma, expressed by areal density (plasma density times radius), is large, up to {approx} 1 g/cm{sup 2}. Highly penetrating probes such as energetic neutrons, hard x-rays, or {gamma} rays are required to see deep inside the plasma. Second, the implosion time is quite short. The implosion process takes {approx} 20 ns and the duration of the fusion reaction is on the order of 100 picoseconds. To observe the time history of the nuclear reactions, time resolution better than 10 ps is required. Third, the size of the imploded plasma is quite small ({approx} 100 {micro}m). To see the shape of burning region, a spatial resolution of {approx} 5 {micro}m is required for imaging systems. Fourth, the diagnostics operate in a harsh background. In implosion experiments, strong bursts of electromagnetic pulses, x-rays, neutrons, and neutron-induced radioactivity are produced. Therefore the diagnostics have to be designed to survive in these backgrounds. In addition, to prevent materials ablated from diagnostic components close to the target from being deposited on the laser optics, these components are excluded from a zone around the target with a radius in the range of 0.5 m to 5 m. This exclusion zone has a large impact on diagnostic design.

Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

2001-10-18

273

Bariatric Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... banana. The Procedure This procedure works by several mechanisms. First, the new stomach pouch holds a considerably ... the food. The gastric bypass works by several mechanisms. First, similar to most bariatric procedures, the newly ...

274

Contract and Procedure  

E-print Network

This paper examines both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical picture of procedural contracts. Procedural contracts may be understood as contracts in which parties regulate not merely their commercial relations but also the procedures...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2011-01-01

275

[Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].  

PubMed

Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and ?-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2010: audit (of true delivered dose); appropriateness (since at least one-third of examinations are inappropriate); awareness (since the knowledge of doses and risks is largely). The regular application of "3 A's strategy" is usually not facilitated by a health system that pays for volumes, not for appropriateness. PMID:24675449

Carpeggiani, Clara

2014-03-01

276

Planetary Transmission Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the prediction error. The constrained adaptive lifting diagnostic algorithm is validated using data collected from the University of Maryland Transmission Test Rig and the results are discussed.

Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

2004-01-01

277

FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module  

SciTech Connect

Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table.

Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

1980-11-01

278

Radiation hardening of diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10{sup 16} neutrons per second because of spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

Siemon, R.E.

1991-01-01

279

Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism  

PubMed Central

Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-01-01

280

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

281

Diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan system disease that often presents insidiously. The diagnosis is often made fortuitously upon routine chest radiography or that done for other reasons. Blacks are more commonly affected than whites and age of onset is typically adolescents to young adults. Lung involvement is common and symptoms may include cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Extrapulmonary symptoms may include the skin, joint and eye findings. Bilateral hilar adenopathy is the classic finding on chest radiograph. Anemia or other cell line deficiencies, elevated liver enzymes, hypercalciuria, and EKG abnormalities may also be present. Angiotensin converting enzyme levels may be elevated but are not diagnostic. Histopathological confirmation of noncaseating granulomas is essential for diagnosis. It is generally performed through a biopsy of the most peripheral site possible, although transbronchial biopsy is commonly required. Finally, other possible etiologies must be evaluated and differentiated with a particular emphasis on tuberculosis due to the multiple overlapping symptoms and findings. Newer techniques such as proteomics and transcriptional gene signatures may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of sarcoidosis, and may even serve as diagnostic tools in the future. PMID:24424172

Heinle, Robert; Chang, Christopher

2014-01-01

282

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

283

Newer diagnostic tools in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB) cause high mortality. There are obstacles to the diagnosis of TB due to lack of accurate, cost effective and rapid diagnostic tools. The delay in diagnostic process is an unresolved bottleneck impeding access to treatment. Presently available diagnostic tools for TB except some liquid culture and molecular tests take long time. TB culture and drug susceptibility test (DST) need specialized laboratory setup and are also very expensive. The New Diagnostics Working Group (NDWG) on TB is supporting development of new tools and also provides information to World Health Organization (WHO) for endorsement. Globally, TB control programmes need rapid and accurate diagnostic tools, which are to be implemented in peripheral health centers as well. In this review, we describe development of newer diagnostic tools, their endorsement status and usage in TB diagnosis. PMID:25145058

Anbarasu, S; Selvakumar, N; Vanaja, Kumar

2012-09-01

284

Candle and Incense Policy Procedure ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

Candle and Incense Policy Procedure ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/19/2011 CANDLE AND INCENSE POLICY outdoors on campus or the Salameno Spiritual Center that include the use of flame lighted candles shall be acceptable provided the following precautions are followed: · Only "dripless" candles are used · Drip

Rainforth, Emma C.

285

Rapid Turfgrass Diagnostic Service UF Plant Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

/reliability Growth regulator and frequency: Recent fertility schedule List fungicide applications for the past monthRapid Turfgrass Diagnostic Service UF Plant Diagnostic Center Building 1291, 2570 Hull Road Phone/MAIL/EMAIL To :Grower Submitter ( ) ) ( TURF SPECIES, CULTIVAR, PLANTING TYPE GREEN OR FIELD NUMBER, IDENTIFIER Check

Watson, Craig A.

286

What is the risk of diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography before cholecystectomy?  

PubMed

Many surgeons prefer to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) before cholecystectomy, specifically in patients at significant risk of having biliary pathology. However, a preoperative diagnostic ERCP, without the use of an endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy, remains controversial. This is the result of the risk of either performing an unnecessary procedure and/or the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). We performed a retrospective review of all surgeon-performed ERCPs at our institution between July 2011 and May 2013. This was done to examine patients who had pericholecystectomy ERCP. We had 550 ERCPs performed at our institution during this time period, 169 of which were pericholecystectomy procedures. We divided the 169 patients who had a diagnostic procedure (Diagnostic group) from those who had known biliary pathology before intervention (Therapeutic group). As a result, 34 patients (20.1%) were placed in the Diagnostic group and 135 patients (79.9%) in the Therapeutic group. Of the 34 Diagnostic patients, four (11.8%) developed PEP. Fifteen (44.1%) had unnecessary procedures, two of which had PEP (2.9%). Of the 135 ERCPs in the Therapeutic group, 18 patients (13.4%) developed PEP. Five of the 11 who had unnecessary procedures developed PEP. Based on the low incidence of complications, diagnostic ERCP has an acceptable rate of pancreatitis and/or unnecessary procedures when performed in highly selected patients and before cholecystectomy when compared with patients undergoing therapeutic ERCP. However, more aggressive use of diagnostic imaging before ERCP should be adopted given the number of unnecessary procedures performed. PMID:25105391

Jones, Wesley B; Blackwell, Joseph; McKinley, Brian; Trocha, Steven

2014-08-01

287

Rig Diagnostic Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

2008-01-01

288

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.

1993-03-01

289

[Hiccup, a diagnostic challenge].  

PubMed

Hiccup is a spasmodic involuntary contraction of the diaphragm which triggers a sudden inspiration and an abrupt closure of the glottis with a characteristic sound. Regarding its duration, it is classified as hiccup attack, persistent hiccup or rebellious or intractable hiccup. We present the case of a 75 old male with rebellious hiccup which prevented him to fall asleep by day or by night, associated with belches lasting for three years, refractory to chlorpromazine. An extensive evaluation led to the diagnosis of right ethmoid sinus tumor. The tumor resection was performed and after subsequent local radiotherapy the hiccup disappeared. We consider this a rare cause of rebellious hiccup that generated a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PMID:24561843

Pankl, Sonia; Quezel, Mariano A; Bruetman, Julio E; Finn, Bárbara C; Young, Pablo

2014-01-01

290

3.3 Diagnostic Radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.3 Diagnostic Radiology' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

Kramer, H.-M.; Moores, B. M.; Stieve, F.-E.

291

High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable

James R. Luke; Douglas N. Goddard; Jay Lewis; David Thomas

2010-01-01

292

CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of Diagnostics Research is to provide tools to simplify diagnosis of the causes of biological impairment, in support of State and Tribe 303(d) impaired waters lists. The Diagnostics Workgroup has developed conceptual models for four major aquatic stressors that cause im...

293

DIAGNOSTICS AND EXTRAPOLATION MACHINE LEARNING  

E-print Network

the problems of diagnostics and extrapolation in machine learning. I present a suite of tools for understandingDIAGNOSTICS AND EXTRAPOLATION IN MACHINE LEARNING a dissertation submitted to the department and compatible with any machine learning algorithm. iv #12;Acknowledgments I owe too many thanks to too many

Keinan, Alon

294

Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma by optical emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The procedure for diagnostics of laser induced plasma (LIP) by optical emission spectroscopy technique is described. LIP was generated by focusing Nd:YAG laser radiation (1.064 nm, 50 mJ, 15 ns pulse duration) on the surface of pellet containing among other elements lithium. Details of the experimental setup and experimental data processing are presented. High speed plasma photography was used to study plasma evolution and decay. From those images optimum time for plasma diagnostics is located. The electron number density, Ne, is determined by fitting profiles of Li I lines while electron temperature, Te, was determined from relative intensities of Li I lines using Boltzmann plot (BP) technique. All spectral line recordings were tested for the presence of self-absorption and then if optically thin, Abel inverted and used for plasma diagnostic purposes.

Cveji?, M.

2014-12-01

295

Cardiac diagnostic testing: what bedside nurses need to know.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease affects more than 385000 persons annually and continues to be a leading cause of death in the United States. Recently, the number of available noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests has increased substantially. Nurses should be knowledgeable about available noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing. The common noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing procedures used to diagnose coronary heart disease are transthoracic echocardiography, stress testing (exercise, pharmacological, and nuclear), multidetector computed tomography, coronary artery calcium scoring (with electron beam computed tomography or computed tomographic angiography), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Objectives include (1) describing available methods for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease, (2) identifying which populations each test is most appropriate for, (3) discussing advantages and limitations of each method of testing, (4) identifying nursing considerations when caring for patients undergoing various methods of testing, and (5) describing outcome findings of various methods. PMID:24882826

Ramos, Lupe M

2014-06-01

296

9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2014-01-01

297

9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2010-01-01

298

9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2013-01-01

299

9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2012-01-01

300

9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that perform diagnostic procedures on poultry must examine all submitted cases of unexplained respiratory disease, egg production drops, and mortality for avian influenza by both an approved serological test and an approved antigen detection...

2011-01-01

301

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2010-10-01

302

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2011-10-01

303

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2012-10-01

304

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2013-10-01

305

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2014-10-01

306

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Oct 24,2014 If you've had a heart attack, you may have already had certain procedures to ... artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

307

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

1989-01-01

308

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

E-print Network

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi^2 merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within n*sigma(c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi^2 merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the n*sigma(c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi^2, Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Y. K. Ng

1998-03-30

309

Verification of Loop Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

2014-01-01

310

[Diagnostic imaging of lying].  

PubMed

Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future. PMID:23888745

Lass, Piotr; S?awek, Jaros?aw; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

2013-01-01

311

Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations  

PubMed Central

While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

2009-01-01

312

Graphical presentation of diagnostic information  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

2008-01-01

313

[Typical patient radiation doses in diagnostic imaging].  

PubMed

Radiologists should be able to appreciate the radiation dose delivered to patients for routine diagnostic procedures. The radiology report should include data necessary to calculate the patient dose in Gray. Using the effective dose, it is possible to compare with other source of radiation exposure. Simple formulas, taking into account different anatomical regions, derived from dose-area product (conventional radiography) or dose-length product (CT) are provided to calculate the effective dose in Sievert. For conventional (non-interventional) radiography, the effective dose for a given exam is inferior or equal to the yearly background radiation. For CT, the effective dose corresponds to 1 to 10 years of yearly background radiation. PMID:21178891

Chateil, J-F; Aubert, B; Brisse, H

2010-11-01

314

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

315

[Diagnostic arthroscopy in injuries of the knee joint].  

PubMed

Diagnostic arthroscopy is indicated, if other methods of diagnosis have reached their limits. It has become indispensable to proper assessment of injuries of the menisci, cartilage, synovial folds, and plicae and for suspicion of isolated cruciate knee ligament rupture. The practicability or impracticability of an arthroscopic operation in a given case, of course, has bearings upon indication for diagnostic arthroscopy. Patients are usually examined in general anaesthesia, with the joint filled with liquid, using a 30-degree widle-angle lens and a video system. Probing of intra-articular structures is absolutely necessary. The following two specific groups of indications have gained particular importance in knee injuries: Acute arthroscopy is imperative in any case of hemarthrosis with unknown aetiology (ligament injuries were found in 67 per cent of these patients), and it is the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of choice in acute locking of the knee. Diagnostic arthroscopy should be followed by re-arthroscopy, if the further clinical course cannot be explained by the findings already recorded or in case of new symptoms or additional symptoms in the wake of arthroscopic operation or if major symptoms persist. In the latter case, re-arthroscopy should be performed not later than four to six months from first treatment. Re-arthroscopy revealed a need for another arthroscopic operation after earlier diagnostic arthroscopy in 48 per cent of all cases and after previous arthroscopic operation in 63 per cent. PMID:2686286

Glinz, W

1989-01-01

316

Diagnostics data management on MTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) is a magnetic fusion energy research experiment to explore electron cyclotron heating using a free electron laser operating in the microwave range. The diagnostic data from MTX is acquired and processed by a distributed, multivendor, computer network. Each shot of the experiment produces data files containing up to 15 megabytes of data. Typically half-second shots are taken every 5 minutes with 50 to 60 shots taken on a single day. As many as 80 full data shots have been taken on a good day. Data files are created on Hewlett-Packard (HP) computers running Unix, HP computers running BASIC, and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXcluster running VMS. A small portion of the data acquired on the HP systems is immediately stored in a data system on the VAXcluster, but most data is held and processed on the computer on which it was acquired. A commercial database program running on the VAXcluster maintains a history of the data files created for each shot. During the night, data files on all computers are compressed to about one-third their original size and the files on the HP computers are transferred to the VAXcluster. When enough data has accumulated, all data files that have not been previously archived are archived to 8 mm magnetic tape. Once the data is on the VAXcluster, a single defined procedure call may be used to obtain data that was taken on any of the computers in the network. Data that has been archived to tape is maintained on disk for a few days. Users may specify that certain shots be designated 'goodshots', whose data files will be maintained on disk for a longer period of time. If a user requests data for a shot that is no longer on disk, retrieval processes on the VAXcluster determine which tapes contain the data, request the computer operator to load the tapes if necessary, and retrieve the files from the tapes. The data is then available for processing by programs running on any computer in the network.

Butner, D. N.; Brown, M. D.; Casper, T. A.; Meyer, W. H.; Moller, J. M.

1991-09-01

317

Diagnostic Imaging in COPD  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a pathologic pulmonary condition characterized by expiratory airflow obstruction due to emphysematous destruction of the lung parenchyma and remodeling of the small airways. While spirometry is a very useful diagnostic tool for screening large groups of smokers, it cannot readily differentiate the etiologies of COPD and thus has limited utility in characterizing subjects for clinical and investigational purposes. There has been a longstanding interest in thoracic imaging and its role in the in-vivo characterization of smoking related lung disease. Research in this area has spanned readily available modalities such as chest x-ray and computed tomography to more advanced imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. While chest x-ray is almost universally available, it lacks sensitivity in detecting both airway disease and mild emphysema, and is not generally amenable to objective analysis. Computed tomography has become the standard modality used for objective visualization of disease. It can provide useful measures of emphysema, airway disease, and more recently pulmonary vascular disease for clinical correlation. It does, however, face limitations in standardization across brands and generations of scanners, and the ionizing radiation associated with image acquisition is of concern to both patient and health care provider. Newer techniques such as OCT and MRI offer exciting in-vivo insight into lung structure and function that was previously available only in necropsy specimens and physiology labs. Given the more limited availability of these techniques, they are at present viewed as adjuncts to CT imaging. PMID:20496297

Washko, George R.

2014-01-01

318

System diagnostic builder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

1992-01-01

319

Fundamentals of diagnostic ultrasonography.  

PubMed

Diagnostic ultrasonography uses acoustical waves in the frequency range of 1 to 20 MHz. These waves obey Snell's law of reflection and refraction, which are rules ordinary to wave behavior. In ultrasound, the analogy to momentum is acoustic impedance. The acoustic impedance, Z, is equal to the density, p, times velocity, v. The ultrasound transducer converts electrical energy into ultrasound energy and vice versa. The transducer usually consists of a piezoelectric crystal composed of such ceramic materials as barium titanate, lead titanate, zirconate, or lead metaniobate. Five basic ultrasonic scanning modes play the major roles in clinical applications. A-mode, or amplitude-mode, scanning measures the tissue discontinuity along the scan axis. B-mode scanning produces a two-dimensional image of the tissue under study by combining A-mode signals from various directions through mechanical transducer scanning. M-mode, or time motion scanning, is an extension of the A-mode approach in which a single stationary transducer is used. The depth of the echo is displayed on the vertical axis; the brightness of the oscilloscope display is modulated by the echo amplitude. Real-time scanning, or rapid B-scanning, techniques provide continuous data acquisition at a rate sufficient to give the impression of the instantaneous motion of moving structures. Doppler scanning relies on the presence of motion. The Doppler effect occurs when there is relative motion between the source of sound and the receiver of the sound, causing a change in the detected frequency of the sound source. PMID:2261584

Noce, J P

1990-01-01

320

Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

Barker, Dennis

1988-01-01

321

Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In order for ITER to meet its operational and programmatic goals, it will be necessary to measure a wide range of plasma parameters. Some of the required parameters e.g., neutron yield, fusion power and power density, ion temperature profile in the core plasma, and characteristics of confined and escaping alpha particle populations are best measured by fusion product diagnostic techniques. To make these measurements, ITER will have dedicated diagnostic systems, including radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron and gamma ray spectrometers, internal and external fission chambers, a neutron activation system, and diagnostics for confined and escaping alpha particles. Engineering integration of many of these systems is in progress, and other systems are under investigation. This paper summarizes the present state of design of fusion product diagnostic systems for ITER and discusses expected measurement capability.

Sadler, G.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abindgon (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1997-10-01

322

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium diagnostics.  

PubMed

We propose two diagnostics for the statistical assessment of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. One diagnostic is the posterior probability of the complement of the smallest highest posterior density credible region that includes points in the parameter space consistent with the hypothesis of equilibrium. The null hypothesis of equilibrium is to be rejected if this probability is less than a pre-selected critical level. The second diagnostic is the proportion of the parameter space occupied by the highest posterior density credible region associated with the critical level. These Bayesian diagnostics can be interpreted as analogues of the classical types I and II error probabilities. They are broadly applicable: they can be computed for any hypothesis test, using samples of any size generated according to any distribution. PMID:12408944

Rogatko, André; Slifker, Michael J; Babb, James S

2002-11-01

323

FEL-accelerator related diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

2007-08-02

324

Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

2012-01-01

325

Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

Salstein, David A.

1997-01-01

326

Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. PMID:21094724

Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

2010-01-01

327

Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

328

78 FR 22546 - Hearing Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Hearing Procedures AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...Council (Council) has adopted amendments to its hearing procedures (Council Hearing Procedures) for hearings conducted by the...

2013-04-16

329

[Diagnostics for endophthalmitis].  

PubMed

Infectious endophthalmitis is a serious complication of intraocular surgery, perforating injury, or septic dissemination. Detection of the causative microorganisms is essential for effective treatment. Published positive culture rates vary from 24 to 95 %. To achieve a high positive rate of detection of microorganisms all material necessary to set up a culture has to be available in the operation theatre. Important is a variety of appropriate culture media: we use Columbia, Hematin, ENDO and yeast-cysteine blood plates as well as a nutrient solution. Samples may be brought into the culture media directly within the operation theatre. If no immediate transport to a specialised laboratory is possible, media may be cultured in the eye hospital under optimal conditions. Concurrently, undiluted samples should be used for eubacterial PCR. While standard PCR can only detect the causative microorganism, standard culture procedures provide additional information regarding resistance to anti-microbiologic therapies. In the case of presumed fungal endophthalmitis the collected vitrectomy fluid has to be centrifuged and thereafter cultured. In presumed endogenous endophthalmitis also extraocular samples should be examined (e. g., blood culture and smears from other sites of infection). With this approach a high detection rate can be achieved in patients with endophthalmitis. PMID:18236369

Ness, T; Serr, A

2008-01-01

330

Not so rapid progression of peripheral vascular disease after diagnostic angiography.  

PubMed

It was recently reported that peripheral vascular disease may progress so rapidly after diagnostic angiography that most likely the diagnostic procedure is in some way responsible. Because flow-limiting arterial stenoses often become complete occlusions within hours or days of the diagnostic procedure, it was recommended that angioplasty be performed immediately after diagnostic angiography to avoid this complication. The authors attempted to confirm these findings before implementing this recommendation. In fact, they did not confirm the findings. Among 96 flow-limiting stenoses considered for angioplasty, the procedure was performed in 31 on the same day. Among the remaining 65 cases, in 64 the stenosis did not occlude and angioplasty was successfully performed. Only one stenosis was discovered to have thrombosed, and this occurred 3 weeks after diagnostic angiography. These results indicate that there is not such rapid progression of peripheral vascular disease after diagnostic angiography. It is not necessary to perform angioplasty of stenotic lesions emergently, and treatment is not impaired by electively scheduling the patient for the next available day. PMID:1530759

Naidich, J B; Crystal, K S; Stein, H L

1992-01-01

331

Soft tissue procedures.  

PubMed

Soft tissue procedures for PTT dysfunction and adult acquired flat foot improve function and preserve joint motion. These procedures can only be applied to patients who have correctable deformities. The durability of these procedures, without the addition of bone realignment procedures, has been questioned and needs to be investigated further. Reconstruction of the spring ligament complex corrects the flat foot in cadavers but has not been studied clinically. There is still much to be learned in this condition so we are able to provide optimal care for our patients. PMID:14560902

Sitler, David F; Bell, S Josh

2003-09-01

332

Mathematical simulation as a key point of the laser fluorescence diagnostic technique in oncology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, it is real the use of the laser fluorescence diagnostic systems and procedures for optical noninvasive clinical diagnostic testing of oncologic, burn, suppurative and other destructive-inflammatory processes in tissues and organs. A lot of pathology cases are accompanied by the laser induced backfluorescing flux from soft tissues. And the intensity of that can provide a medical information of disorder's state. But it can be shown, that without mathematical calculations the correct biomedical informations can't be obtained because a number of phenomena answer for increasing of intensity of backfluorescence light. So, the mathematical inverse optical task solution has to be applied in medical fluorescence diagnostic systems.

Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tchernyi, Vladimir V.

1999-12-01

333

Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

1990-01-01

334

Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools

Tansel Halic; Sinan Kockara; Coskun Bayrak; Richard Rowe

2010-01-01

335

Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain  

PubMed Central

Background Despite numerous methodological flaws in previous study designs and the lack of validation in primary care populations, clinical tests for identifying acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain are widely utilised without concern for such issues. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ACJ tests and to compare their accuracy with other clinical examination features for identifying a predominant ACJ pain source in a primary care cohort. Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain were recruited prospectively from primary health care clinics. Following a standardised clinical examination and diagnostic injection into the subacromial bursa, all participants received a fluoroscopically guided diagnostic block of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride (XylocaineTM) into the ACJ. Diagnostic accuracy statistics including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for traditional ACJ tests (Active Compression/O’Brien’s test, cross-body adduction, localised ACJ tenderness and Hawkins-Kennedy test), and for individual and combinations of clinical examination variables that were associated with a positive anaesthetic response (PAR) (P?0.05) defined as 80% or more reduction in post-injection pain intensity during provocative clinical tests. Results Twenty two of 153 participants (14%) reported an 80% PAR. None of the traditional ACJ tests were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and combinations of traditional tests were not able to discriminate between a PAR and a negative anaesthetic response (AUC 0.507; 95% CI: 0.366, 0.647; P>0.05). Five clinical examination variables (repetitive mechanism of pain onset, no referred pain below the elbow, thickened or swollen ACJ, no symptom provocation during passive glenohumeral abduction and external rotation) were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and demonstrated an ability to accurately discriminate between an PAR and NAR (AUC 0.791; 95% CI 0.702, 0.880; P<0.001). Less than two positive clinical features resulted in 96% sensitivity (95% CI 0.78, 0.99) and a LR- 0.09 (95% CI 0.02, 0.41) and four positive clinical features resulted in 95% specificity (95% CI 0.90, 0.98) and a LR+ of 4.98 (95% CI 1.69, 13.84). Conclusions In this cohort of primary care patients with predominantly subacute or chronic ACJ pain of non-traumatic onset, traditional ACJ tests were of limited diagnostic value. Combinations of other history and physical examination findings were able to more accurately identify injection-confirmed ACJ pain in this cohort. PMID:23634871

2013-01-01

336

Information Incident Response Procedure  

E-print Network

Information Incident Response Procedure Authority The Information Incident Response Procedure (IIRP) is authorized under the UWM Information Security Policy S59; section III-D (http://www4.uwm Information Security Office, and UWM Internal Audit. This document will be reviewed and updated annually

Saldin, Dilano

337

Basic Planning Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure described herein entails the use of an educational planning consultant, statements of educational and service problems to be solved by proposed construction, a site plan, and architect selection. Also included in the outline of procedures is a tentative statement of specifications, tentative cost estimates and matrices for conducting…

Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

338

The diagnostic value of pedobarography.  

PubMed

Pedobarography can quantify static and dynamic foot pressure. Despite an increase in the clinical use of pedobarography, the results and the clinical diagnosis do not always correlate, leading to confusion and misdiagnosis. The authors evaluated the potential of pedobarography to diagnose several diseases associated with abnormal pressure across the plantar surface. The study included 72 patients (96 cases) between January 2009 and August 2012 with symptoms of excessive plantar pressure. The average age was 50.9 years (range, 18-92). Patients had the lesion for an average of 17 months (range, 8-29). Pedobarographic measurements were used to evaluate the compatibility between the highest pressure on pedobarography and the clinical peak pressure with plantar ulcers or calluses. Maximal peak pressure was evaluated by static and dynamic measurements using numeric and graphic measurements in pedobarography. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was analyzed by comparing clinical peak pressure and pedobarographic measurements. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was 17.7% to 51% for static measurement and 13.5% to 49% for dynamic measurement. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was low for intractable plantar keratosis and metatarsal head callus associated with metatarsophalangeal dislocation in rheumatoid arthritis. However, it was 57% to 100% for Charcot arthropathy with midfoot ulcers. When used to compare numeric pressure and graphic peak pressure for each part of the foot, pedobarography showed low diagnostic correlation. Based on the study results, the diagnostic validity of pedobarography is low. PMID:25437079

Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Jong Min; Ahn, Ji Yong

2014-12-01

339

Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly saliva can reflect the physiological state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations and provides a source for the monitoring of oral and also systemic health. This review presents the current status of saliva diagnostics and delves into their applications to the discovery of biomarkers for cancer detection and therapeutic applications. Translating scientific findings of nucleic acids, proteins and metabolites in body fluids to clinical applications is a cumbersome and challenging journey. Our research group is pursuing the biology of salivary analytes and the development of technologies in order to detect distinct biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The avenue of saliva diagnostics incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings will enable us to connect salivary molecular analytes to monitor therapies, therapeutic outcomes, and finally disease progression in cancer. PMID:21122035

Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T.

2010-01-01

340

Molecular tools for companion diagnostics.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous nature of cancer results in highly variable therapeutic responses even among patients with identical stages and grades of a malignancy. The move towards personalised medicine in cancer therapy has therefore been motivated by a need to customise therapy according to molecular features of individual tumours. Companion diagnostics serves to support early drug development, it can provide surrogate markers in clinical trials, and also guide selection of individual therapies and monitoring of responses in routine clinical care. The era of companion diagnostics can be said to have begun with the introduction of the HercepTest - a first-of-a-kind diagnostic tool developed by DakoCytomation in 1998 to select patients for therapy with the anticancer drug Herceptin (trastuzumab). Herceptin and the paired test proved that companion diagnostics can help guide patient-tailored therapies. We will discuss herein technologies to analyse companion diagnostics markers at the level of DNA, RNA or protein, focusing on a series of methods developed in our laboratory that can facilitate drug development and help stratify patients for therapy. PMID:22634023

Zieba, Agata; Grannas, Karin; Söderberg, Ola; Gullberg, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Landegren, Ulf

2012-09-15

341

Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology.  

PubMed

The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of "population images" that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures. Key Points • New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment. PMID:22699871

Krestin, G P; Grenier, P A; Hricak, H; Jackson, V P; Khong, P L; Miller, J C; Muellner, A; Schwaiger, M; Thrall, J H

2012-11-01

342

The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni’s correction when necessary. Overall diagnostic yield was 90.6% for all 309 lesions (bone 91.6% vs. soft tissue 89.3%, p?=?0.5125). The diagnostic accuracy of the 185 core needle biopsies, which were confirmed by definitive surgical biopsies, was 84.3% (bone 88.9% vs. soft tissue 79.1%, p?=?0.0669). The yields of homogenous bone tumours (96.8%) were not significantly higher than those of bone tumours with a heterogenic architecture (86.4%, p?=?0.0794). The difference between accuracies for homogenous bone tumours (89.1%) and heterogenous bone tumours (85.0%) was not significant (p?=?0.6930). However, for soft tissue tumours, homogenous tumours had a significantly higher diagnostic yield than heterogenous tumours (97.5% vs. 81.4%, p?=?0.0036). Diagnostic accuracy for homogenous tumours was also significantly higher than that for heterogenous soft tissue tumours (94.4% vs. 60.6%, p?procedure if it is performed selectively in soft tissue tumours with homogenous architectures. PMID:19655141

Sung, Ki-Sun; Shon, Min-Soo

2009-01-01

343

First Wall and Operational Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

2006-06-19

344

[The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].  

PubMed

Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease. PMID:25069217

Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V

2014-01-01

345

PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY The Plant Diagnostic Laboratory is a  

E-print Network

, and Garden Yellow - Golf and Landscape Turf Pink - Commercial Growers Blue - Insect and Tick Identification. DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES · Disease and Insect Pest Diagnosis · Plant and Weed Identification · Insect Identification · Fungus and Mold Identification · Nematode Assays · Acremonium Endophyte Screening · Fungicide

Goodman, Robert M.

346

[300 videothoracoscopy procedures--personal experience].  

PubMed

Videothoracoscopy and video-assisted thoracic surgery are by now already standard therapeutic procedures in thoracic surgery. The authors submit their experience with the method after 300 thoracoscopic operation at the surgical clinic of the Faculty Hospital in Plzen from the end of 1993 to the beginning of 2000. The main indications for this mini-invasive procedure is the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax, diagnostic biopsy in pulmonary dissemination of obscure etiology, diagnosis and treatment of pleural exudates and elimination of minor peripheral pulmonary lesions. The authors discuss different surgical procedures in the most frequent diagnoses, their advantages and risks, indication criteria, complications. Attention is also paid to the causes of 10% conversions. In case of treatment of a spontaneous pneumothorax the authors consider videothoracoscopy as the method of first choice, while in case of primary carcinoma of the lungs they recommend the classical procedure. Other possibilities for the wider application of thoracoscopy and its development in their own department include in particular traumatic thoracic surgery. PMID:11192786

Vodicka, J; Spidlen, V; Klecka, J; Simánek, V

2000-10-01

347

MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

1998-04-01

348

Reduction of Radiation Doses in Cardiac Imaging, Part I: Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoroscopically guided minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures constitute an essential component\\u000a of the contemporary practice in medicine. Such procedures are however associated with radiation exposure and its attendant\\u000a hazards. Given the exponential increase in both the type and number of various cardiovascular procedures over the past few\\u000a decades, radiation exposure has become a critical parameter mandating periodic evaluation.

Sony Jacob; Preeti Ramappa; Sidakpal S. Panaich; Kashish Goel; Kim Allan Williams

2011-01-01

349

Procedure for reporting bugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present procedure for reporting bugs in the Starlink Software Collection is thought by many to be unsatisfactory. The purpose of this document is to outline the procedures to be followed by the person discovering the bug, the Starlink Software Librarian and the person to whom the bug is reported. In the past, bug reports have seemed to disappear down a black hole, with a fix (maybe) appearing, without warning, sometime later. This was generally due to a lack of communication on all parts and it is hoped that the procedures outlined below will keep all users informed of the progress of a bug through the system.

Rawlinson, D. J.

350

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

351

Secondary Procedures in Replantation  

PubMed Central

The success of replantation surgery is not judged by survival of the replanted part, but by the functional outcome attained. Hence, primary repair of all injured structures is the preferred aim. At times, constraints induced by the ischemia time and nature of injury preclude primary repair. In such situations, secondary procedures are inevitable. Secondary procedures are also frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the replanted extremity. The incidence of secondary procedures will vary with the level of replantation and the type of patient population. Secondary procedures are difficult because they carry risk of injury to the vital neurovascular structures that now lay at nonanatomical locations. Nevertheless, when indicated and performed with caution they could significantly raise the functional status of the individuals. PMID:24872769

Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bhardwaj, Praveen

2013-01-01

352

Expression: #[compound-procedure  

E-print Network

(ls) (cddr ls) ) ) ( define menu '(chicken soup ice-cream) ) ( regroup menu ) 1]=>;Value 8: ((chicken soup) (ice-cream)) Summer 2000 5 CSC324 - Scheme De#12;ning Procedures ('cond...) We can also give

Stevenson, Suzanne

353

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

Guo, Ting

354

Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

355

Selected microgravity combustion diagnostic techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During FY 1989-1992, several diagnostic techniques for studying microgravity combustion have moved from the laboratory to use in reduced-gravity facilities. This paper discusses current instrumentation for rainbow schlieren deflectometry and thermophoretic sampling of soot from gas jet diffusion flames.

Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.

1993-01-01

356

When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

2013-01-01

357

Diagnostics of cutting arc plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An over-view of several remote and invasive diagnostics to characterize cutting arcs at the nozzle exit-anode gap as well as inside the nozzle is reported. A briefly description of the experimental set-ups, together with the main results obtained in a 30 A high-energy density cutting torch (including the calculation assumptions) are given.

Prevosto, L.; Kelly, H.

2014-05-01

358

Coherent scatter in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent scatter is often ignored in diagnostic radiology because its cross section is relatively small, and because it is assumed to be indistinguishable from primary radiation. Single-scatter calculations, however, show that coherently scattered photons diverge sufficiently from the primary ray to degrade image contrast, and that they account for a significant fraction of the total scattered energy fluence at the

P. C. Johns; M. J. Yaffe

1983-01-01

359

[Laboratory diagnostics of urogenital clamidiosis].  

PubMed

Laboratory diagnostic tools of urogenital clamidiosis--PCR, ELISA (IgG and IgM) and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)--were comparatively analyzed. The positive PCR result was checked by another PCR test with a different primer; 5 false positive responses were registered (specificity 99.6%). As against PCR, the sensitivity of ELISA made 53%, its specificity -75.5%, the diagnostic value of positive result -58%, the diagnostic value of negative result -71.6% and the diagnostics accuracy -66.7%. The respective DIF parameters were as follows: 36%, 90%, 81.5%, 54.2% and 60.9%. A high rate of detection (above 90%) of the conditionally pathogenic microflora associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (above 110 microbe cells/ml) was pointed out. Hardnerelli and ureaplasms were more often found in female smears, staphylococci and enterococci--in male sperm. It is underlined as important to hold complex examinations for Chlamidia (PCR, ELISA and DIC as an additional test) combined with bacteriological quantification of the conditionally pathogenic microflora and determination of its resistance to antibiotics. PMID:15804100

Churakov, A A; Kulichenko, A N; Kzakova, E S; Serebrianik, N E; Suvorov, A P; Kutyrev, V V; Glybochko, P V

2005-02-01

360

Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

Fennel, Francis

1991-01-01

361

Statistical simulation procedures  

E-print Network

and applied to two probIems, one practical, the other theoretical. This procedure Is shown to be more precise than simple Monte Carlo simula- t. i on. numerical method proposed by Soserville [12j is also extended to the multivariate case, and compared... to the Strati fied Monte Carlo procedure. The first of two illustrative problems considered involves estimation of the parameters of a television amplifier circuit; while the second problem requi res estimation of the distribution and mean of a stochastic...

Tremelling, Robert Norman

1970-01-01

362

Semiconductor Fluorescent Quantum Dots: Efficient Biolabels in Cancer Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss results and features related to the synthesis of water-soluble semiconductor quantum dots and their application as fluorescent biomarkers in cancer diagnostics. We have prepared and applied different core-shell quantum dots, such as cadmium telluride-cadmium sulfide, CdTe-CdS, and cadmium sulfide-cadmium hydroxide, CdS/Cd(OH)2, in living healthy and neoplastic cells and tissues samples. The CdS/Cd(OH)2 quantum dots presented the best results, maintaining high levels of luminescence as well as high photostability in cells and tissues. Labeled tissues and cells were analyzed by their resulting fluorescence, via conventional fluorescence microscopy or via laser scanning confocal microscopy. The procedure presented in this work was shown to be efficient as a potential tool for fast and precise cancer diagnostics.

Farias, Patricia M. A.; Santos, Beate S.; Fontes, Adriana

363

Diagnostics in the Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE) is a real-time computer network consisting of commercially available hardware and software components to support systems level integration, modifications, and enhancement to weapons systems. The EISE approach offers substantial potential savings by eliminating unique support environments in favor of sharing common modules for the support of operational weapon systems. An expert system is being developed that will help support diagnosing faults in this network. This is a multi-level, multi-expert diagnostic system that uses experiential knowledge relating symptoms to faults and also reasons from structural and functional models of the underlying physical model when experiential reasoning is inadequate. The individual expert systems are orchestrated by a supervisory reasoning controller, a meta-level reasoner which plans the sequence of reasoning steps to solve the given specific problem. The overall system, termed the Diagnostic Executive, accesses systems level performance checks and error reports, and issues remote test procedures to formulate and confirm fault hypotheses.

Brink, James R.; Storey, Paul

1988-01-01

364

Salivary Biomarkers: Toward Future Clinical and Diagnostic Utilities  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Schafer, Christopher A.; Schafer, Jason J.; Farrell, James J.; Paster, Bruce J.

2013-01-01

365

The diagnostic path, a useful visualisation tool in virtual microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background The Virtual Microscopy based on completely digitalised histological slide. Concerning this digitalisation many new features in mircoscopy can be processed by the computer. New applications are possible or old, well known techniques of image analyses can be adapted for routine use. Aims A so called diagnostic path observes in the way of a professional sees through a histological virtual slide combined with the text information of the dictation process. This feature can be used for image retrieval, quality assurance or for educational purpose. Materials and methods The diagnostic path implements a metadata structure of image information. It stores and processes the different images seen by a pathologist during his "slide viewing" and the obtained image sequence ("observation path"). Contemporary, the structural details of the pathology reports were analysed. The results were transferred into an XML structure. Based on this structure, a report editor and a search function were implemented. The report editor compiles the "diagnostic path", which is the connection from the image viewing sequence ("observation path") and the oral report sequence of the findings ("dictation path"). The time set ups of speech and image viewing serve for the link between the two sequences. The search tool uses the obtained diagnostic path. It allows the user to search for particular histological hallmarks in pathology reports and in the corresponding images. Results The new algorithm was tested on 50 pathology reports and 74 attached histological images. The creation of a new individual diagnostic path is automatically performed during the routine diagnostic process. The test prototype experienced an insignificant prolongation of the diagnosis procedure (oral case description and stated diagnosis by the pathologist) and a fast and reliable retrieval, especially useful for continuous education and quality control of case description and diagnostic work. Discussion The Digital Virtual Microscope has been designed to handle 1000 images per day in the daily routine work of a pathology institution. It implies the necessity of an automatic mechanism of image meta dating. The non – deterministic correlation between the oral statements (case report) and image information content guides the image meta dating. The presented software opens up new possibilities for a content oriented search in a virtual slide, and can successfully support medical education and diagnostic quality assurance. PMID:17092352

Schrader, Thomas; Niepage, Sonja; Leuthold, Thomas; Saeger, Kai; Schluns, Karsten; Hufnagl, Peter; Kayser, Klaus; Dietel, Manfred

2006-01-01

366

Systematic diagnostics of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two kinds of diagnostics for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) system, laser device diagnostics and laser beam diagnostics. In this paper, we only discussed systematically the former. We divide them into several diagnostic subsystems such a flow diagnostic, oxygen-iodine flow mixing diagnostic, gain medium diagnostic and resonator diagnostic. In flow diagnostic, we selected some independent and easy-measured physical variables

Xiangwan Du; Jianxiang Wang

1998-01-01

367

LBNL -42691 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing  

E-print Network

LBNL - 42691 1 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer of or agreement with these findings, nor that of any CIEE sponsor. #12;LBNL - 42691 2 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant).......................................................................................................................................... 11 2. DUCT SEALANTS AND LONGEVITY TESTING

368

FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS RECEIVING DIAGNOSTIC DOSES OF 131 IODINE DURING CHILDHOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the data collection methodology and procedures of a follow-up survey conducted of persons under 16 years old who received diagnostic Iodine 131 for evaluation of thyroid function at nine clinical centers prior to December 31, 1960. The intent of this data col...

369

Diagnostic Tests and Criterion-Referenced Assessments: Their Contribution to the Resolution of Pupil Learning Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that failure to learn is often the result of inappropriateness of level of instruction and deficiencies in instructional procedures and educational strategies, and differentiates between the functions of criterion referenced tests and diagnostic tests. Results are reported from two studies of the teaching of osmosis and photosynthesis.…

Simpson, Mary; Arnold, Brian

1983-01-01

370

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

371

Monte Carlo simulation of the scattered radiation distribution in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo techniques were employed to evaluate the point spread function (PSF) of scattered radiation in diagnostic radiology. The Monte Carlo procedure is described and shown to compare well with Monte Carlo scatter analysis of other authors. The intensity and distribution of the PSF are described independently. The effects of object thickness, air gap, and beam spectra are examined. An

John M. Boone; J. A. Seibert

1988-01-01

372

Crossing the Great Divide: Adoption of New Technologies, Therapeutics and Diagnostics at Academic Medical Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…

DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg

2007-01-01

373

Cleaning of the first mirrors and diagnostic windows by YAG laser on HL2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser cleaning system for HL-2A tokamak first mirrors and diagnostic windows has been developed recently. A detailed description of the laser cleaning procedure is presented. The optical transmission performance measured before and after the laser cleaning of the impurity film deposited on the optical elements is investigated. HL-2A deposited layers on metal mirrors and glass windows with thicknesses of

Y. Zhou; L. Zheng; H. Gao; G. Zhao; Y. G. Li; L. C. Li; Y. M. Jiao

2009-01-01

374

[Traumatic damage to the lower cervical spine--a diagnostic problem?].  

PubMed

Even today fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine are usually not recognized, or the interpretation of the results of the diagnostic procedures is not correct. These diagnostic failures are often caused by an incomplete representation of the cervical spine in the conventional radiograms, particularly in the lateral projection. Beyond that, the interpretation of the results of the neurological examination of patients with motoric or sensoric deficits after spine injury can be incorrect. Ignorance of the distribution of the segmental innervation of the upper extremities could lead to the wrong diagnosis of paraplegia in a tetraplegic patient. Two patients with injuries of the lower cervical spine are reported, in whom these problems led to an incorrect diagnosis. With regard to these cases we propose a standard diagnostic procedure for the clinical and radiological emergency examination of patients with neurological deficits after spine injury. The technical possibilities of obtaining correct radiographs of the lower cervical spine are described in detail. PMID:8928015

Volkmann, R; Badke, A; Winter, E; Höntzsch, D

1996-07-01

375

Validating Student Score Inferences with Person-Fit Statistic and Verbal Reports: A Person-Fit Study for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to investigate the usefulness of person-fit analysis in validating student score inferences in a cognitive diagnostic assessment. In this study, a two-stage procedure was used to evaluate person fit for a diagnostic test in the domain of statistical hypothesis testing. In the first stage, the person-fit statistic, the…

Cui, Ying; Roberts, Mary Roduta

2013-01-01

376

Translucent Procedures, Abstraction without Opacity  

E-print Network

This report introduces TRANSLUCENT PROCEDURES as a new mechanism for implementing behavioral abstractions. Like an ordinary procedure, a translucent procedure can be invoked, and thus provides an obvious way to capture ...

Rozas, Guillermo J.

1993-10-01

377

[Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in mediastinal fibromatosis. Case report].  

PubMed

Mediastinal fibromatosis is a very rare mesenchymal tumor originated from fibrous tissue. A case of 26-year old men with mediastinal tumor causes respiratory insufficiency and dysphagia is described. This sympthoms occured due to esophageal impression and infiltration with occlusion of main left bronchus by mediastinal tumor. Ethiology of the tumor was established based on histopathology assesment of the tissue samples taken during explorative thoracotomy after 3 years and many other diagnostic procedures undertaken. The authors describe difficulties in diagnosis of mediastinal tumors, especially those rare observed. PMID:25577536

Wojty?, Ma?gorzata Edyta; Alchimowicz, Jacek; Waloszczyk, Piiotr; Wójcik, Norbert; Grodzki, Tomasz

2015-01-01

378

High energy laser diagnostics - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DF CW laser system is used as an example to illustrate the requirements for HEL diagnostics. The laser device performance parameters are identified, with primary diagnostics being near field power, near field irradiance, wavelength, angular beam jitter, and beam quality. A variety of component\\/subsystem diagnostics are reviewed, for the gain generator, optical resonator, diffuser\\/ejector and fluid supply subsystems. Methods

F. H. White; G. A. Needham

1982-01-01

379

What Do Diagnostic Reading Tests Really Diagnose?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of nine reading tests, including both group and individually-administered measures, which are claimed to be chiefly diagnostic. Instruments analyzed were the following: Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests (Bond, Balow, and Hoyt), Botel Reading Inventory, Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests,…

Winkley, Carol K.

380

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

381

Using SNMP for creating distributed diagnostic tools  

E-print Network

In this paper we describe how SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) can be extended to do control system diagnostics. Our solution consists of a SNMP agent for LynxOS and a configurable MIB (Management Information Base) browser. We have reused diagnostic modules from the existing diagnostic system and integrated our development into a commercial network management product.

Reisacher, O; Christiansen, H P

1995-01-01

382

Novette diagnostic support. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

1985-02-01

383

Information engineering for molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed Central

Clinical laboratories are beginning to apply the recent advances in molecular biology to the testing of patient samples. The emerging field of Molecular Diagnostics will require a new Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory Information System which handles the data types, samples and test methods found in this field. The system must be very flexible in regards to supporting ad-hoc queries. The requirements which are shaping the developments in this field are reviewed and a data model developed. Several queries which demonstrate the data models ability to support the information needs of this area have been developed and run. These results demonstrate the ability of the purposed data model to meet the current and projected needs of this rapidly expanding field. PMID:7949937

Sorace, J. M.; Ritondo, M.; Canfield, K.

1994-01-01

384

Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Standard bronchoscopy has limited ability to accurately localise and biopsy pulmonary lesions that cannot be directly visualised. The field of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is rapidly evolving due to advances in electronics and miniaturisation. Bronchoscopes with smaller outer working diameters, coupled with miniature radial and convex ultrasound probes, allow accurate central and peripheral pulmonary lesion localisation and biopsy while at the same time avoiding vascular structures. Increases in computational processing power allow three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic raw data to enable virtual bronchoscopy (VB), providing the bronchoscopist with a preview of the bronchoscopy prior to the procedure. Navigational bronchoscopy enables targeting of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) via a “roadmap”, similar to in-car global positioning systems. Analysis of lesions on a cellular level is now possible with techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy (CM). All these tools will hopefully allow earlier and safer lung cancer diagnosis and in turn better patient outcomes. This article describes these new bronchoscopic techniques and reviews the relevant literature. PMID:24163743

Shaipanich, Tawimas; Lam, Stephen; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

385

Different diagnostic tools in nonfunctional overreaching.  

PubMed

The current diagnosis of overreaching and overtraining is based on exclusion. In the present paper, four possible confirmative tools have been examined in three female speed skaters between 16 and 19 years old. A nonfunctional overreached (NFO) athlete, an athlete who was recovering from NFO and a healthy athlete were examined. The NFO athlete showed high stress and low regeneration levels at the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The recovering athlete showed a more favorable profile, although she still showed higher stress and lower recovery than the control athlete. On the Profile of Mood States, the NFO athlete showed an unfavorable profile. The control athlete showed the typical iceberg profile. The recovering athlete showed a profile similar to sedentary individuals. Results on a reaction time task showed decreased performance under pressure for the NFO but not for the control and the recovering athlete. Hormonal reactions to two maximal exercise bouts also differed between the three subjects with an overreaction after the second exercise bout of the NFO athlete as the most remarkable finding. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, reaction times and hormonal reactions to exercise showed to be possible tools that can be used in the diagnostic procedure. PMID:18050061

Nederhof, E; Zwerver, J; Brink, M; Meeusen, R; Lemmink, K

2008-07-01

386

Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

2007-07-26

387

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

388

Thoracic melioidosis: A diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of melioidosis can be difficult, and it is frequently described as "the great mimicker". We report a case of thoracic melioidosis presenting as a mediastinal mass with impending superior vena cava obstruction. With the presumptive diagnosis of mediastinal tumor, the patient underwent surgery for tissue sampling, and a purulent collection was found. The clinical syndromes of melioidosis and the diagnostic dilemma are discussed. PMID:24585290

Ashraf, Omer; Iyer, Anand; Krishnan, Ramya; Yadav, Sumit

2015-02-01

389

Quetiapine Dosage Across Diagnostic Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate quetiapine doses used across diagnosis categories in a sample of psychiatric\\u000a inpatients. Methods Discharge letters of all adult inpatients who had received quetiapine between 1999 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed.\\u000a Logistic regressions were carried-out to assess links between quetiapine discharge dosage (?800 mg\\/day vs. <800 mg\\/day), diagnostic\\u000a categories, substance abuse or dependence,

Yasser Khazaal; Anne Chatton; Riaz Khan; Daniele Zullino

2009-01-01

390

Properties of plasma radiation diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

A number of diagnostics utilizing the radiation emitted from high-temperature plasmas have been developed at Los Alamos. Photoemissive x-ray diodes with photon energy bandpass filters provide time resolved rough spectral data from bout 6 eV to > 10 keV photon energy. Filtered silicon photodiodes can be used down to 1 eV and offer the advantages of nominally flat response and ability to operate in poor vacuum conditions. Both types of diodes will provide a rough time resolved spectrum and both are relatively inexpensive, reliable, and passive (i.e. no synchronization problems). For higher energy resolution bent crystal spectrographs are used in the x-ray region. With the addition of streak cameras or gated microchannel plates these systems provide data with high energy and high time resolution. To measure the total energy output a thin foil bolometer is used that measures the change in foil resistance as it is heated by the plasma radiation. Information on the physical location of the plasma is provided by a suite of visible framing cameras and x-ray pinhole cameras. By combining these diagnostics into a complementary set good diagnostic information can be guaranteed on any plasma experiment.

Idzorek, G.C.; Oona, H.

1996-06-01

391

Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

2004-01-26

392

High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David [AEgis Technologies Group, 10501 Research Rd SE, Suite D, Albuquerque, NM 87123, 505-938-9221 (United States); Lewis, Jay [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-10-08

393

Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

2003-10-01

394

Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT.  

PubMed

The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

Larheim, T A; Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

2015-01-01

395

Malaria Diagnostics in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484

Murphy, Sean C.; Shott, Joseph P.; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R.; Stewart, V. Ann

2013-01-01

396

Improving Diagnostic Reasoning to Improve Patient Safety  

PubMed Central

Both clinicians and patients rely on an accurate diagnostic process to identify the correct illness and craft a treatment plan. Achieving improved diagnostic accuracy also fulfills organizational fiscal, safety, and legal objectives. It is frequently assumed that clinical experience and knowledge are sufficient to improve a clinician's diagnostic ability, but studies from fields where decision making and judgment are optimized suggest that additional effort beyond daily work is required for excellence. This article reviews the cognitive psychology of diagnostic reasoning and proposes steps that clinicians and health care systems can take to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22058672

Rajkomar, Alvin; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

2011-01-01

397

Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

2011-03-01

398

Diversifying Procedural Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the main characteristics of procedural discourse are well known, less is known about its various subtypes. Most of the data for the present paper are taken from Category E (skills, trades, and hobbies) in the Brown and LOB corpora, supplemented with examples from computer manuals and a manual for drivers. Following a survey of previous…

Wikberg, Kay

399

Pediatric Procedural Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

2006-01-01

400

Simulating Laboratory Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

Baker, J. E.; And Others

1986-01-01

401

Acoustic Neuroma Procedure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2007 00:00:08 ANNOUNCER: Welcome to ProHealth Care Waukesha Memorial Hospital. Over the next hour we ... procedure. Michael McCrea, PhD, Executive Director of ProHealth Care's Neuroscience Center, will moderate. Acoustic neuromas are benign ...

402

Multifactor Screener: Scoring Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

403

Myonecrosis After Revascularization Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the occurrence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities after revascularization procedures have been the subject of recent controversy. This report represents an effort to achieve a consensus among a group of researchers with data on this subject. Creatine kinase (CK) or CK-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) elevations occur in 5% to 30% of patients after a

Robert M. Califf; Alaa E. Abdelmeguid; Richard E. Kuntz; Jeffrey J. Popma; Charles J. Davidson; Eric A. Cohen; Neal S. Kleiman; Kenneth W. Mahaffey; Eric J. Topol; Carl J. Pepine; Ray J. Lipicky; Christopher B. Granger; Robert A. Harrington; Barbara E. Tardiff; Brian S. Crenshaw; Robert P. Bauman; Bram D. Zuckerman; Bernard R. Chaitman; John A. Bittl; E. Magnus Ohman

1998-01-01

404

Procedures and Policies Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

Davis, Jane M.

2006-01-01

405

Student Discipline: Procedural Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter's discussion of student discipline stresses a student's right to due process when he or she is faced with suspension or expulsion from school. To determine procedural requirements, the paper states, a school must examine both the statutes of the state and the requirements imposed by state and federal constitutions. The major topic of…

Phay, Robert E.

406

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES WHO TO CONTACT (select one) · Follow your local guidelines · Federal Protective Service (FPS) Police 1-877-4-FPS-411 (1-877-437-7411) · 911 Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act quickly, but remain calm and obtain

Boyce, Richard L.

407

Biosecurity Precautions: Disinfecting Procedures  

E-print Network

1 Biosecurity Precautions: Disinfecting Procedures M tt G D b Mill d A d D ffMatt Gray, Debra Personal Protective Equipment Non-porous or disposable #12;3 Animal Care Disinfected ContainersContainers Multiple Individuals Plastic Bags Minimize Disturbance Release Near Capture Disinfecting Equipment Scrape

Gray, Matthew

408

Evaluating Interview Evaluation Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess interview evaluation procedures, university placement centers (N=35) completed a survey. Campus recruiters (N=296) also completed surveys. Results indicated a need for a standardized evaluation form and suggested that the use of evaluation forms should protect the identity of recruiters. (RC)

Marshall, Ann

1982-01-01

409

Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

1981-01-01

410

The Diagnosticity of Color for Emotional Objects  

PubMed Central

Object classification can be facilitated if simple diagnostic features can be used to determine class membership. Previous studies have found that simple shapes may be diagnostic for emotional content and automatically alter the allocation of visual attention. In the present study, we analyzed whether color is diagnostic of emotional content and tested whether emotionally diagnostic hues alter the allocation of visual attention. Reddish-yellow hues are more common in (i.e., diagnostic of) emotional images, particularly images with positive emotional content. An exogenous cueing paradigm was employed to test whether these diagnostic hues orient attention differently from other hues due to the emotional diagnosticity. In two experiments, we found that participants allocated attention differently to diagnostic hues than to non-diagnostic hues, in a pattern indicating a broadening of spatial attention when cued with diagnostic hues. Moreover, the attentional broadening effect was predicted by self-reported measures of affective style, linking the behavioral effect to emotional processes. These results confirm the existence and use of diagnostic features for the rapid detection of emotional content. PMID:24659831

McMenamin, Brenton W.; Radue, Jasmine; Trask, Joanna; Huskamp, Kristin; Kersten, Daniel; Marsolek, Chad J.

2012-01-01

411

Selective posterior rhizotomy and soft-tissue procedures for the treatment of cerebral diplegia.  

PubMed

The results of selective posterior rhizotomy in fifty patients (group I) and of soft-tissue procedures in fifty patients (group II), all 100 of whom had cerebral diplegia and were seen in a private office, were reviewed retrospectively. No effort was made to randomize the treatment, as the selection criteria for the two procedures are different. We evaluated the range of motion and the ability and quality of walking preoperatively and postoperatively as well as the need for additional operative intervention in the two groups. The average age of the patients in both groups was five years (range, three to twelve years in group I and one to thirteen years in group II). The average duration of follow-up in both groups was four years (range, one to six years in group I and one to seven years in group II). Thirty-two patients (64 percent) in group I and forty-one patients (82 percent) in group II were able to walk independently at the latest follow-up examination. Both groups had an over-all improvement in the ranges of abduction of the hips and dorsiflexion of the ankles, a decrease in the flexion contractures of the hips, and more normal popliteal angles; however, with the numbers available, there were no significant differences in these measurements between the two groups at the 0.05 percent confidence level. Despite the overall improvement in range of motion, thirty-one patients in the rhizotomy group subsequently had soft-tissue releases, and twenty-two patients in the soft-tissue-release group had additional operative intervention. PMID:7744896

Marty, G R; Dias, L S; Gaebler-Spira, D

1995-05-01

412

Progressive ROI coding and diagnostic quality for medical image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the delicate problem of lossy compression of medical images. More specifically, a selective allocation of coding resources is introduced based on the concept of 'diagnostic interest' and an interactive methodology based on a new measure of 'diagnostic quality'. The selective allocation of resources is made possible by a selection a priori of regions of specific interest for diagnostic purpose. The idea is to change the precision of representation in a transformed domain of region of particular interest, through a weighting procedure by an on- line user-defined quantization matrix. The overall compression method is multi-resolution, provides for an embedded generation of the bit-stream and guarantees for a good rate-distortion trade-off, at various bit-rates, with spatially varying reconstruction quality. This work also analyzes the delicate issue of a professional usage of lossy compression in a PACS environment. The proposed compression methodology gives interesting insights in favor of using lossy compression in a controlled fashion by the expert radiologist. Most of the ideas presented in this work have been confirmed by extensive experimental simulations involving medical expertise.

Signoroni, Alberto; Leonardi, Riccardo

1998-01-01

413

Applications of competitor RNA in diagnostic reverse transcription-PCR.  

PubMed

Detection of RNA viruses by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR has proven to be a useful approach for the diagnosis of infections caused by many viral pathogens. However, adequate controls are required for each step of the RT-PCR protocol to ensure the accuracies of diagnostic test results. Heterologous competitor RNA can be used as a control for a number of different aspects of diagnostic RT-PCR. Competitor RNA can be applied to assessments of the efficiency of RNA recovery during extraction procedures, detection of endogenous RT-PCR inhibitors that could lead to false-negative results, and quantification of viral template in samples used for diagnosis; competitor RNA can also be used as a positive control for the RT-PCR. In the present study, heterologous competitor RNA was synthesized by a method that uses two long oligonucleotide primers containing primer binding sites for RT-PCR amplification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus or West Nile virus. Amplification of the competitor RNA by RT-PCR resulted in a product that was easily distinguished from the amplification product of viral RNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. Assessment of a variety of RNA samples prepared from routine submissions to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory found that either partial or complete inhibition of the RT-PCR could be demonstrated for approximately 20% of the samples. When inhibition was detected, either dilution of the sample or RNA extraction by an alternative protocol proved successful in eliminating the source of inhibition. PMID:12734248

Kleiboeker, Steven B

2003-05-01

414

Status of the JET LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LIDAR Thomson scattering concept was proposed in 1983 and then implemented for the first time on the JET tokamak in 1987. A number of modifications were performed and published in 1995, but since then no major changes were made for almost 15 years. In 2010 a refurbishment of the diagnostic was started, with as main goals to improve its performance and to test the potential of new detectors which are considered as candidates for ITER. During the subsequent years a wide range of activities was performed aimed at increasing the diagnostic's light throughput, improvement of signal to noise ratio and amendment of the calibration procedures. Previously used MA-2 detectors were replaced by fast GaAsP detectors with much higher average QE. After all the changes were implemented, a significant improvement of the measured data was achieved. Statistical errors of measured temperature and density were reduced by a factor of 2 or more, depending on plasma conditions, and comfortably surpassed the values requested for ITER Core Thomson Scattering (10% for Te and 5% for ne). Excellent agreement with other diagnostics (conventional High Resolution Thomson Scattering, ECE, Reflectometer) was achieved over a wide range of plasma conditions. It was demonstrated that together with long term reliability and modest access port requirements, LIDAR can provide measurements of a quality similar to a conventional imaging Thomson Scattering instrument.

Maslov, M.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Kempenaars, M.; Flanagan, J.

2013-11-01

415

Diagnostic studies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical-radiological diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis comprises severe hypoxemia assessed by arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of less than 200 and bilateral infiltrate on a chest radiograph in the absence of left atrial hypertension. The sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis vary based on the underlying etiology for ARDS. Except for presence of bilateral infiltrate on chest radiograph and severe hypoxemia on arterial blood gas, most diagnostic studies are used to exclude mimics of ARDS and potentially modify treatment. Computerized tomography of the chest is helpful in understanding the extent of the disease and is more sensitive in identifying pneumomediastinum and pneumothoraces seen frequently in patients with ARDS, which can be missed on a chest radiograph, especially if they are small in size. Measurements of alveolar dead space ventilation fraction can be helpful in determining the prognosis in individuals with ARDS. Bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy, and open lung biopsies can be safely performed in patients with ARDS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with ARDS shows neutrophil predominance with increased edema fluid to serum protein ratio. Diffuse alveolar damage, a pathognomic of ARDS, is seen on histopathology on transbronchial lung biopsy or open lung biopsy. Most common complications of these procedures include transient hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and pneumothorax with occasional persistent air leak. The potential risk of diagnostic studies should be balanced against the possible foreseeable benefits of the diagnostic studies. PMID:16766246

Terminella, Luigi; Sharma, Gulshan

2006-01-01

416

Diagnostics of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: A Sequencing Capture Approach  

PubMed Central

Primary Immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetically inherited disorders characterized by defects of the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infection. Due to the variety of clinical symptoms and the complexity of current diagnostic procedures, accurate diagnosis of PID is often difficult in daily clinical practice. Thanks to the advent of “next generation” sequencing technologies and target enrichment methods, the development of multiplex diagnostic assays is now possible. In this study, we applied a selector-based target enrichment assay to detect disease-causing mutations in 179 known PID genes. The usefulness of this assay for molecular diagnosis of PID was investigated by sequencing DNA from 33 patients, 18 of which had at least one known causal mutation at the onset of the experiment. We were able to identify the disease causing mutations in 60% of the investigated patients, indicating that the majority of PID cases could be resolved using a targeted sequencing approach. Causal mutations identified in the unknown patient samples were located in STAT3, IGLL1, RNF168 and PGM3. Based on our results, we propose a stepwise approach for PID diagnostics, involving targeted resequencing, followed by whole transcriptome and/or whole genome sequencing if causative variants are not found in the targeted exons. PMID:25502423

Moens, Lotte N.; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Asplund, A. Charlotta; Bernatowska, Ewa; Smith, C. I. Edvard; Nilsson, Mats

2014-01-01

417

Managing utilization of new diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

In appropriate utilization of laboratory testing has been estimated to range from 10% to 50% of the volume encountered in hospital laboratories. Many strategies to control utilization of laboratory testing have been reported, including redesigning test requisitions, changing standing orders, the use of provider order entry, physician profiling, and educational initiatives. The major motivation to reduce utilization of unnecessary testing is financial, although other benefits also may be observed, such as reducing false-positive results stemming from testing patients in low prevalence populations, eliminating unnecessary follow-up procedures, avoiding iatrogenic anemia, and potentially lowering hospital length of stay resulting from the need to track down the significance of falsely abnormal tests. The majority of utilization control efforts have focused on reducing routine laboratory tests such as chemistry profiles and automated blood counts. In many hospitals novel diagnostic tests, especially in molecular genetics and oncology, are the major driver behind increasing laboratory costs. Traditional methods to control utilization of routine testing are usually ineffective in controlling testing of novel diagnostic methods. In most cases, test requests originate from a small group of physician specialists who typically are more knowledgeable in their area of expertise than is the clinical pathologist. For this reason, a different approach is generally required. It is particularly important to establish an institutional structure authorized to review and approve new laboratory tests. The clinical pathologist usually takes the lead in this effort because laboratory-based physicians are familiar with new tests being requested by physicians across a spectrum of medical specialties. To be successful, the laboratory physician must identify potential utilization issues, acquire and analyze data, function on interdepartmental teams, and develop strategies to satisfy the needs of clinicians while at the same time preventing introduction of inappropriate technologies into the laboratory. This article will give a perspective on approaches to laboratory test utilization and offer specific examples of initiatives we have undertaken in our institution. The examples will illustrate how the pathologist can use knowledge of medicine and the clinical laboratory in conjunction with organizational and team building skills. In the final analysis, the process is more of an art than a science. PMID:14692073

Lewandrowski, Kent

2003-01-01

418

Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent advances in neuroimaging and immune diagnostic methods have enhanced its accuracy for the diagnosis of NCC. PMID:23265554

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2012-09-01

419

Assessment of biosafety precautions in Khartoum state diagnostic laboratories, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to evaluate the biosafety precautions that applied by diagnostic laboratories in Khartoum state, 2009. Methods A total number of 190 laboratories were surveyed about their compliance with standard biosafety precautions. These laboratories included 51 (27%) laboratories from government, 75 (39%) from private sectors and 64 (34%) laboratories belong to organization providing health care services. Results The study found that 32 (16.8%) of laboratories appointed biosafety officers. Only, ten (5.2%) participated in training about response to fire emergency, and 28 (14.7%) reported the laboratory accident occurred during work. 45 (23.7%) laboratories had a written standard operation procedures (SOPs), and 35 (18.4%) had written procedures for the lean-up of spills. Moreover, biosafety cabinet was found in 11 (5.8%) laboratories, autoclave in 28 (14.7%) and incinerator in only two (1.1%) laboratories. Sharp disposable containers were found in 84 (44.2%). Fire alarm system was found in 2 (1.1%) laboratories, fire extinguisher in 39 (20.5%) laboratories, and fire emergency exit found in 14 (7.4%) laboratories. Furthermore, 19 (10%) laboratories had a hepatitis B virus vaccination programme, 5 (6.2%) applied BCG vaccine, and 2 (1.1%0) vaccinated the staff against influenza. Conclusion The study concluded that the standards biosafety precautions adopted by the diagnostic laboratories in Khartoum state was very low. Further, the laboratory personnel awareness towards biosafety principles implementation was very low too. PMID:22514753

Elduma, Adel Hussein

2012-01-01

420

How do gut feelings feature in tutorial dialogues on diagnostic reasoning in GP traineeship?  

PubMed

Diagnostic reasoning is considered to be based on the interaction between analytical and non-analytical cognitive processes. Gut feelings, a specific form of non-analytical reasoning, play a substantial role in diagnostic reasoning by general practitioners (GPs) and may activate analytical reasoning. In GP traineeships in the Netherlands, trainees mostly see patients alone but regularly consult with their supervisors to discuss patients and problems, receive feedback, and improve their competencies. In the present study, we examined the discussions of supervisors and their trainees about diagnostic reasoning in these so-called tutorial dialogues and how gut feelings feature in these discussions. 17 tutorial dialogues focussing on diagnostic reasoning were video-recorded and transcribed and the protocols were analysed using a detailed bottom-up and iterative content analysis and coding procedure. The dialogues were segmented into quotes. Each quote received a content code and a participant code. The number of words per code was used as a unit of analysis to quantitatively compare the contributions to the dialogues made by supervisors and trainees, and the attention given to different topics. The dialogues were usually analytical reflections on a trainee's diagnostic reasoning. A hypothetico-deductive strategy was often used, by listing differential diagnoses and discussing what information guided the reasoning process and might confirm or exclude provisional hypotheses. Gut feelings were discussed in seven dialogues. They were used as a tool in diagnostic reasoning, inducing analytical reflection, sometimes on the entire diagnostic reasoning process. The emphasis in these tutorial dialogues was on analytical components of diagnostic reasoning. Discussing gut feelings in tutorial dialogues seems to be a good educational method to familiarize trainees with non-analytical reasoning. Supervisors need specialised knowledge about these aspects of diagnostic reasoning and how to deal with them in medical education. PMID:25186609

Stolper, C F; Van de Wiel, M W J; Hendriks, R H M; Van Royen, P; Van Bokhoven, M A; Van der Weijden, T; Dinant, G J

2014-09-01

421

Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

422

Diagnostic enhancements for plasma processing  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Funds obtained under this project were used to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of the plasma-processing program in the Physics Division at LANL and include successful development and implementation of in-situ Raman spectroscopy and infrared emission spectroscopy. These methods were used to detect the presence and nature of ground-state and electronically excited molecular oxygen formed in an atmospheric-pressure, nonthermal plasma source used for environmental, industrial and decontamination applications.

Selwyn, G.S.; Henins, I.

1998-12-31

423

[Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].  

PubMed

Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest. PMID:21909808

Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

2012-03-01

424

Procedural Quantum Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While classical computing science has developed a variety of methods and programming languages around the concept of the universal computer, the typical description of quantum algorithms still uses a purely mathematical, non-constructive formalism which makes no difference between a hydrogen atom and a quantum computer. This paper investigates, how the concept of procedural programming languages, the most widely used classical formalism for describing and implementing algorithms, can be adopted to the field of quantum computing, and how non-classical features like the reversibility of unitary transformations, the non-observability of quantum states or the lack of copy and erase operations can be reflected semantically. It introduces the key concepts of procedural quantum programming (hybrid target architecture, operator hierarchy, quantum data types, memory management, etc.) and presents the experimental language QCL, which implements these principles.

Ömer, Bernhard

2002-09-01

425

The Hartmann procedure revisited.  

PubMed

The results of 37 consecutive cases of Hartmann's procedure over a 5-year period (1985-1990) were reviewed. The series consisted of 27 emergency procedures (11 diverticular disease, 13 carcinoma, two trauma and one sigmoid volvulus) and ten elective procedures (nine carcinoma and one peridiverticular abscess). The indications for emergency procedures were obstruction and perforation. All patients presented with faecal peritonitis owing to colonic perforation. The mean (range) age was 79.4 (34-90) years. The postoperative mortality rate was 30 per cent overall (11 of 37), 33 per cent (four of 12) in the diverticulitis group, 23 per cent (five of 22) in the carcinoma group, and 100 per cent in the iatrogenic trauma group. Death was mainly due to sepsis (82 per cent). Postoperative complications were mainly wound infections, which occurred in 43 per cent (16 of 37) cases. In 25 per cent of the surviving patients, re-establishment of continuity was performed in three of 17 (18 per cent) of the carcinoma group and three of seven (43 per cent) of the diverticulitis group. No attempt at restoration of intestinal continuity was made in six cases due to medical risk in two, extensive carcinoma in two and local recurrence with metastatic disease in two. Three patients refused all further intervention. There were no postoperative deaths after the restoration of continuity. This series reflects the severity of the pathology in this high risk group of patients. However, the operation can be life-saving for a selected group of patients and offers good palliation for advanced colorectal tumours. PMID:8237229

Totté, E; Creve, U; Hubens, A

1993-01-01

426

Science Buddies: Experimental Procedure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Buddies website aims to promote deep understanding of scientific research through student science fair projects. This segment of the website provides explicit help in preparing an experimental design. It includes key information about: 1) Setting up experimental and control groups, 2) Sample materials lists, 3) How to write a detailed procedure, 4) The meaning of reliability and how it is impacted by sample size.

2013-09-18

427

Biorisk Assessment of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. Methods A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. Results The results showed the presence of an isolated unit for microbiological work, leak-proof working benches, self-closing doors, emergency exits, fire extinguisher(s), autoclaves, and hand washing sinks in 21.3%, 71.3%, 15.0%, 1.3%, 11.3%, 82.5%, and 67.5%, respectively, of all laboratories surveyed. It was observed that public diagnostic laboratories were significantly more likely to have an isolated unit for microbiological work (p = 0.001), hand washing sink (p = 0.003), and an autoclave (p ? 0.001) than private ones. Routine use of hand gloves, biosafety cabinet, and a first aid box was observed in 35.0%, 20.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, of all laboratories examined. Written standard operating procedures, biosafety manuals, and biohazard signs on door entrances were observed in 6.3%, 1.3%, and 3.8%, respectively, of all audited laboratories. No biosafety officer(s) or records of previous spills, or injuries and accidents, were observed in all diagnostic laboratories studied. Conclusion In all laboratories (public and private) surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated. PMID:23961333

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

2013-01-01

428

Atherosclerosis diagnostic imaging by optical spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerosis is traditionally viewed as a disease of uncontrolled plaque growth leading to arterial occlusion. More recently, however, occlusion of the arterial lumen is being viewed as an acute event triggered by plaque rupture and thrombosis. An atheromatous plaque becomes vulnerable to sudden activation and/or rupture when a constellation of processes are activated by various trigger mechanisms. There is growing evidence that the vulnerability (i.e. susceptibility to rupture) and thrombogenic nature of the plaque need to be taken into account in the planning and treatment of the disease. X-ray fluoroscopy and intravascular ultrasound, the current clinical diagnostic tools are not capable of the providing a complete histological picture of the plaque region. Intravascular diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by optical means to assess plaque, patient risk and assist in planning treatment strategies represents the future in angioplasty treatment by interventional cardiologists. The techniques which will enable a clinically acceptable and reliable intravascular diagnostic platform are currently being investigated and compared to the clinical standard of histology. Currently, we are investigating the use of a number of optical and imaging techniques for biochemical analysis of arterial tissue including Raman, near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Biochemical imaging will provide compositional information on collagen, elastin, lipid and thrombogenic by-products as well as gauging inflammation and tissue remodeling activity levels. To complement the functional biochemical imaging, optical coherence tomography will be provide structural morphological imaging. The synergistic combination of functional and structural imagery will provide the interventional cardiologist with a complete clinical picture of the atherosclerotic plaque region. The clinician can use this diagnostic information to plan a personalized treatment procedure based on the entire clinical presentation.

Hewko, M. D.; Choo-Smith, L. P.; Ko, A. C. T.; Smith, M. S. D.; Kohlenberg, E. M.; Bock, E. R.; Leonardi, L.; Sowa, M. G.

2006-02-01

429

Flamedoctor™: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor™, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor™ burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor™ is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

2003-08-01

430

Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved. PMID:18541293

Schlafer, D H

2008-08-01

431

[Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].  

PubMed

Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented. PMID:23793393

Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

2013-09-01

432

Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

Nema, Vijay

2012-07-01

433

New portable noninvasive spectrophotometric apparatus for clinical diagnostic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the noninvasive (in vitro, in situ) and real-time methods of diagnostics are desirable for general clinical practice. One of such promising technique is the optical multi-wave diffusion and absorption spectrophotometry. It allows a doctor to measure a number of important medical and biological (M&B) parameters such as the blood microcirculation parameters into the soft tissues, contents of the hemoglobin fractions into the periphery blood, etc. The use of the new components of the microelectronics and optics and development of new approaches to the diagnostic data processing makes it possible to design a number of small and effective devices for this purpose. The basic principle of work of them in means of hardware function is the multi-wave light scanning of the tested tissue"s area and detecting a backscattered light. In means of software function the basic principle of work of them is the inverse optical task solution when the optical and corresponding M&B parameters of the tested medium are calculated from the measured backscattered spectral optical data. This report presents one of such designed portable apparatus "Spectrotest" developed in cooperation with Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute of "MONIKI". This device allows a doctor to register the index of melanin pigmentation of the skin, the volume of the blood in the tested tissue and the average hemoglobin saturation of the peripheral blood. All this parameters are available for a doctor to see them on the monitor screen in real-time mode directly during any diagnostic or treatment procedure. For that a new modified light scattering theory with the analytical solution of the main equations has been developed. Analytical solution allows the software to calculate and indicate the measured M&B parameters on the computer"s monitor screen during less than one second. Today the developed diagnostic system "Spectrotest" is used in real clinical practice in "MONIKI" and in the Oncology Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Science for the medical research aims. The general hardware and software composites of this diagnostic apparatus and examples of the application of it for the functional diagnostic tests are presented in this report as well.

Fedukova, M. V.; Dmitriev, M. A.; Mustafaeva, D. M.; Kolbas, Yu. Y.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Bychenkov, Oleg A.; Polyakov, Pavel Y.

2004-08-01

434

Diagnostic Accuracy of Fractional Flow Reserve From Anatomic CT Angiography  

PubMed Central

Context Coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography is a noninvasive anatomic test for diagnosis of coronary stenosis that does not determine whether a stenosis causes ischemia. In contrast, fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a physiologic measure of coronary stenosis expressing the amount of coronary flow still attainable despite the presence of a stenosis, but it requires an invasive procedure. Noninvasive FFR computed from CT (FFRCT) is a novel method for determining the physiologic significance of coronary artery disease (CAD), but its ability to identify ischemia has not been adequately examined to date. Objective To assess the diagnostic performance of FFRCT plus CT for diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. Design, Setting, and Patients Multicenter diagnostic performance study involving 252 stable patients with suspected or known CAD from 17 centers in 5 countries who underwent CT, invasive coronary angiography (ICA), FFR, and FFRCT between October 2010 and October 2011. Computed tomography, ICA, FFR, and FFRCT were interpreted in blinded fashion by independent core laboratories. Accuracy of FFRCT plus CT for diagnosis of ischemia was compared with an invasive FFR reference standard. Ischemia was defined by an FFR or FFRCT of 0.80 or less, while anatomically obstructive CAD was defined by a stenosis of 50% or larger on CT and ICA. Main Outcome Measures The primary study outcome assessed whether FFRCT plus CT could improve the per-patient diagnostic accuracy such that the lower boundary of the 1-sided 95% confidence interval of this estimate exceeded 70%. Results Among study participants, 137 (54.4%) had an abnormal FFR determined by ICA. On a per-patient basis, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FFRCT plus CT were 73% (95% CI, 67%–78%), 90% (95% CI, 84%–95%), 54% (95% CI, 46%–83%), 67% (95% CI, 60%–74%), and 84% (95% CI, 74%–90%), respectively. Compared with obstructive CAD diagnosed by CT alone (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.62–0.74), FFRCT was associated with improved discrimination (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75–0.86; P<.001). Conclusion Although the study did not achieve its prespecified primary outcome goal for the level of per-patient diagnostic accuracy, use of noninvasive FFRCT plus CT among stable patients with suspected or known CAD was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy and discrimination vs CT alone for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant CAD when FFR determined at the time of ICA was the reference standard. PMID:22922562

Min, James K.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Pencina, Michael J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Koo, Bon-Kwon; van Mieghem, Carlos; Erglis, Andrejs; Lin, Fay Y.; Dunning, Allison M.; Apruzzese, Patricia; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cole, Jason H.; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Leon, Martin B.; Malpeso, Jennifer; John Mancini, G. B.; Park, Seung-Jung; Schwartz, Robert S.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Mauri, Laura

2014-01-01

435

Summary Report on Synchronization, Diagnostics and Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings of Working Group 4 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) workshop are summarized. Working Group 4 dealt with the challenging topic of beam diagnostics for ERL machines. Energy Recovery Linacs represent a challenge for beam diagnostics from several perspectives; invasive versus non-invasive diagnostics, longitudinal and transverse beam diagnostics, overall machine timing/synchronization and machine protection. Beam diagnostics for an ERL can benefit strongly from the experience at third generation light sources, recirculating linacs and presently operating ERLs. During the workshop there were presentations from all these communities, representing a large range operation experience in beam diagnostics. A brief summary Working Group 4 discussion is presented in this paper.

Arne Freyberger

2005-03-19

436

Deletion in the gene BruAb2_0168 of Brucella abortus strains: diagnostic challenges  

PubMed Central

Three Brucella abortus strains were isolated from joint hygromas from cows in northern Togo. Two deletions in the 5? side of the gene BruAb2_0168 were identified. As this gene is used for species identification, these deletions have consequences for diagnostic procedures. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was therefore performed for species identification. The strains showed unique VNTR profiles, providing some of the first genotypic data from West Africa. More molecular and epidemiological data are needed from the region, in order to better understand transmission patterns and develop suitable diagnostic assays. PMID:24450581

Dean, A S; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Kulo, A E; Boukaya, G A; Pilo, P; Raoult, D

2014-01-01

437

[Clinical studies beyond the German Drug Law. Studies for evaluating diagnostic tests].  

PubMed

The evaluation of diagnostic tests (DT) or procedures is not subject to uniform regulations. However, a thorough evaluation of DT which are intended for use in routine medical practice is advisable or even indispensible for economic, medical, and ethical reasons. This article addresses some important aspects of this evaluation: the facets of "evaluating a DT", common validity measures for qualitative and quantitative DT, the applicability and generalizability of estimates of diagnostic accuracy, objectives and design of studies for evaluating DT, as well as specific methodological problems of theses studies. PMID:19326057

Abel, U; Jensen, K

2009-04-01

438

Electrostatic diagnostics of nanosecond pulsed electron beams in a Malmberg-Penning trap  

SciTech Connect

A fast electrostatic diagnostic and analysis scheme on nanosecond pulsed beams in the keV energy range has been developed in the Malmberg-Penning trap ELTRAP. Low-noise electronics has been used for the detection of small induced current signals on the trap electrodes. A discrete wavelet-based procedure has been implemented for data postprocessing. The development of an effective electrostatic diagnostics together with proper data analysis techniques is of general interest in view of deducing the beam properties through comparison of the postprocessed data with the theoretically computed signal shape, which contains beam radius, length, and average density as fit parameters.

Paroli, B.; Bettega, G.; Maero, G.; Rome, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and I.N.F.N. Sezione di Milano, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Norgia, M.; Pesatori, A.; Svelto, C. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione del Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2010-06-15

439

[Human dirofilariasis: clinical and diagnostic signs and diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

The clinical and diagnostic signs caused by the tissue location and migration of adult Dirofilaria in the human body determine the use of different methods for the diagnosis of dirofilariasis. During their investigations, the authors modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR): they chose and synthesized primers and selected amplification regimens for them and obtained agarose gel bands that corresponded to PCR fragment length nucleotide sequences that were equal to 245 bp for D. (N.) repens and 656 bp for D. immitis. There was 100% agreement in the results of PCR and microscopic examination of sera from 32 dogs and 1 female patient with low parasitemia and in the blood nucleotide sequence characteristic of D. repens. PMID:25296420

Morozov, E N; Supriaga, V G; Rakova, V M; Morozova, L F; Zhukova, L A

2014-01-01

440

MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment) plasma diagnostic system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a general overview of the MTX plasma diagnostics system is given. This includes a description of the MTX machine configuration and the overall facility layout. The data acquisition system and techniques for diagnostic signal transmission are also discussed. In addition, the diagnostic instruments planned for both an initial ohmic-heating set and a second FEL-heating set are described. The expected range of plasma parameters along with the planned plasma measurements will be reviewed. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Rice, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.; Brooksby, C.A.

1987-10-07

441

NSTX Diagnostics and Operation: Status and Plans  

SciTech Connect

The low aspect ratio and low magnetic field of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) create many challenges for plasma diagnostics and control, as well as opportunities for studying new plasma phenomena. This paper describes the diagnostics now installed for studies of confinement, stability and edge plasma phenomena, and some of the diagnostic developments planned for the near future. The design of the plasma control system and plans for its development are also presented.

M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; and the NSTX Research Team

2001-08-30

442

Unmet diagnostic needs in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases (ID). New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed ID physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

Blaschke, Anne J; Hersh, Adam L; Beekmann, Susan E; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M; Hanson, Kimberly E

2015-01-01

443

Applying the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) diagnostic method to verification of space conditioning equipment models used in whole-building energy simulation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of building energy simulation programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques. An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. This procedure

J Neymark; R Judkoff; G Knabe; H.-T Le; M Dürig; A Glass; G Zweifel

2002-01-01

444

Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is no consistent definition of burnout. It is neither a defined diagnosis in ICD-10 nor in DSM-IV. Yet it is diagnosed by office-based doctors and clinicians. Mainly due to reimbursement reasons, diagnoses like depression are used instead of burnout diagnoses. Therefore burnout has a very high individual, social and economic impact. Objectives How is burnout diagnosed? Which criteria are relevant? How valid and reliable are the used tools? What kind of disorders in case of burnout are relevant for a differential diagnosis? What is the economic effect of a differential diagnosis for burnout? Are there any negative effects of persons with burnout on patients or clients? Can stigmatization of burnout-patients or -clients be observed? Methods Based on a systematic literature research in 36 databases, studies in English or German language, published since 2004, concerning medical and differential diagnoses, economic impact and ethical aspects of burnout, are included and evaluated. Results 852 studies are identified. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria and after reviewing the full texts, 25 medical and one ethical study are included. No economic study met the criteria. The key result of this report is that so far no standardized, general and international valid procedure exists to obtain a burnout diagnosis. At present, it is up to the physician’s discretion to diagnose burnout. The overall problem is to measure a phenomenon that is not exactly defined. The current available burnout measurements capture a three dimensional burnout construct. But the cutoff points do not conform to the standards of scientifically valid test construction. It is important to distinguish burnout from depression, alexithymia, feeling unwell and the concept of prolonged exhaustion. An intermittent relation of the constructs is possible. Furthermore, burnout goes along with various ailments like sleep disturbance. Through a derogation of work performance it can have also negative effects on significant others (for example patients). There is no evidence for stigmatization of persons with burnout. Discussion The evidence of the majority of the studies is predominantly low. Most of the studies are descriptive and explorative. Self-assessment tools are mainly used, overall the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Objective data like medical parameters, health status, sick notes or judgements by third persons are extremely seldomly included in the studies. The sample construction is coincidental in the majority of cases, response rates are often low. Almost no longitudinal studies are available. There are insufficient results on the stability and the duration of related symptoms. The ambiguity of the burnout diagnosis is regularly neglected in the studies. Conclusions The authors conclude, that (1) further research, particularly high-quality studies are needed, to broaden the understanding of the burnout syndrome. Equally (2) a definition of the burnout syndrome has to be found which goes beyond the published understanding of burnout and is based on common scientific consent. Furthermore, there is a need (3) for finding a standardized, international accepted and valid procedure for the differentiated diagnostics of burnout and for (4) developing a third party assessment tool for the diagnosis of burnout. Finally, (5) the economic effects and implication of burnout diagnostics on the economy, the health insurances and the patients have to be analysed. PMID:21289882

Korczak, Dieter; Huber, Beate; Kister, Christine

2010-01-01

445

A self diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for determining the mounting conditions of a piezoelectric accelerometer is presented. This technique electrically stimulates the piezoelectric element in the 'diagnostic' frequency band measuring the electrical frequency response characteristics across a capacitive load impedance. The diagnostic frequency band is tipically much higher than the operating bandwidth of the accelerometer. The resonant frequencies of the accelerometer are included in the diagnostic band. By monitoring the shift in these resonant frequencies, via electrical stimulation techniques, certain diagnostic conditions including mounting conditions can be determined. Experimental data from a compression mode accelerometer is used to demonstrate this technique.

Atherton, William J.; Flanagan, Patrick M.

1989-01-01

446

Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-07-20

447

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology ­ Immunohistochemistry Laboratory Page 1 of 1 Document Antibodies Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Joy Cramer

Pawlowski, Wojtek

448

Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

2002-03-26

449

Patient doses from fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures in pediatrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infants and children are a higher risk population for radiation cancer induction compared to adults. Although some values on pediatric patient doses for cardiac procedures have been reported, data to determine reference levels are scarce, especially when compared to those available for adults in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this study is to make a new contribution to the scarce published data in pediatric cardiac procedures and help in the determination of future dose reference levels. This paper presents a set of patient dose values, in terms of air kerma area product (KAP) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), measured in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory equipped with a biplane x-ray system with dynamic flat panel detectors. Cardiologists were properly trained in radiation protection. The study includes 137 patients aged between 10 days and 16 years who underwent diagnostic catheterizations or therapeutic procedures. Demographic data and technical details of the procedures were also gathered. The x-ray system was submitted to a quality control programme, including the calibration of the transmission ionization chamber. The age distribution of the patients was 47 for <1 year; 52 for 1-<5 years; 25 for 5-<10 years and 13 for 10-<16 years. Median values of KAP were 1.9, 2.9, 4.5 and 15.4 Gy cm2 respectively for the four age bands. These KAP values increase by a factor of 8 when moving through the four age bands. The probability of a fatal cancer per fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedure is about 0.07%. Median values of ESAK for the four age bands were 46, 50, 56 and 163 mGy, which lie far below the threshold for deterministic effects on the skin. These dose values are lower than those published in previous papers.

Martinez, L. C.; Vano, E.; Gutierrez, F.; Rodriguez, C.; Gilarranz, R.; Manzanas, M. J.

2007-08-01

450

Energy Metering Audit Procedure  

E-print Network

Energy Meterilg Audtt Procedure Wiliam S Whitaker Engineering Specialist T X E INC. laPorte Texas INTROOUCI'ION This paper describes the recent audit of the utility distriooticn meters in a petrochanica1 plant. These meters measure the steam..., cx:ndensate, natural gas, water, nitrogen and air flCMS to the different process units within the plant. This audit started as an attellPt to resolve discrepan::ies between the 650 PSIG steam distriootion and supply meters. Theoretically the sum...

Whitaker, W. S.

451

Statistical quality control procedures.  

PubMed

The right quality control (QC) should ensure the detection of important errors. Statistical QC (SQC) should be included in all QC plans. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) C24A3 provides guidance for the application of SQC in medical laboratories. It describes a QC planning process and provides an SQC selection tool that relates the sigma-metric of a testing process to the medically important systematic error and the rejection characteristics of different SQC procedures. Once the right SQC has been selected, the laboratory must implement SQC right. CLSI C24A3 also provides guidance for establishing run length and control limits. PMID:23331732

Westgard, James O

2013-03-01

452

Revisiting the Boyne procedure  

PubMed Central

Background The technique involving the free grafting of the mandibular condyle with a vertical ramus osteotomy was described by Philip Boyne in 1987 along with a series of 15 cases where a patient presented with a markedly displaced fracture dislocation of the mandibular condyle. Method Twenty-one cases (25 condylar fractures) were treated with a modified Boyne technique. Results Results showed that we had a complication rate of 12% (8% resorption, 4% fracture of the plate). Conclusion The Boyne procedure should be thought of as a mainstream treatment method for the displaced fractured mandibular condyle. PMID:24623914

Hammond, Douglas; Arafat, Adnan; Bainton, Roger

2012-01-01

453

Clarification Procedure for Gels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure developed to obtain transparent gels with consistencies suitable for crystal growth, by replacing sodium ions in silicate solution with potassium ions. Clarification process uses cation-exchange resin to replace sodium ions in stock solution with potassium ions, placed in 1M solution of soluble potassium salt. Slurry stirred for several hours to allow potassium ions to replace all other cations on resin. Supernatant solution decanted through filter, and beads rinsed with distilled water. Rinsing removes excess salt but leaves cation-exchange beads fully charged with potassium ions.

Barber, Patrick G.; Simpson, Norman R.

1987-01-01

454

Target Diagnostics Supports NIF's Path to Ignition  

SciTech Connect

The physics requirements derived from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental campaigns are leading to a wide variety of target diagnostics. Software development for the control and analysis of these diagnostics is included in the NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Diagnostic Control System and Data Visualization. These projects implement the configuration, controls, data analysis and visual representation of most of these diagnostics. To date, over 40 target diagnostics have been developed to support NIF experiments. In 2011 diagnostics were developed or enhanced to measure Ignition performance in a high neutron yield environment. Performance is optimized around four key variables: Adiabat (a) which is the strength and timing of four shocks delivered to the target, Velocity (V) of the imploding target, Mix (M) is the uniformity of the burn, and the Shape (S) of the imploding Deuterium Tritium (DT) hot spot. The diagnostics used to measure each of these parameters is shown in figure 1. Adiabat is measured using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic consisting of three streak cameras. To provide for more accurate adiabat measurements the VISAR streak cameras were enhanced in FY11 with a ten comb fiducial signal controller to allow for post shot correction of the streak camera sweep non-linearity. Mix is measured by the Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) and Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostics. To accommodate high neutron yield shots, NTOF diagnostic controls are being modified to use Mach Zehnder interferometer signals to allow the digitizers to be moved from near the target chamber to the neutron shielded diagnostic mezzanine. In December 2011 the first phase of RAGS diagnostic commissioning will be completed. This diagnostic will analyze the tracers that are added to NIF target capsules that undergo nuclear reactions during the shot. These gases are collected and purified for nuclear counting by the RAGS system. Three new instrument controllers were developed and commissioned to support this diagnostic. A residual-gas analyzer (RGA) instrument measures the gas content at various points in the system. The Digital Gamma Spectrometer instrument measures the radiological spectrum of the decaying gas isotopes. A final instrument controller was developed to interface to a PLC based Gas collection system. In order to support the implosion velocity measurements an additional Gated X-ray Detector (GXD) diagnostic was tested and commissioned. This third GXD views the target through a slit contained in its snout and allows the other GXD diagnostics to be used for measuring the shape on the same shot. In order to measure the implosion shape in a high neutron environment, Actide Readout In A Neutron Environment (ARIANE) and Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostics were commissioned. The controls for ARIANE, a fixed port gated x-ray imager, contain a neutron shielded camera and micro channel plate pulser with its neutron sensitive electronics located in the diagnostic mezzanine. The NI diagnostic is composed of two Spectral Instruments SI-1000 cameras located 20M from the target and provides neutron images of the DT hot spot for high yield shots. The development and commissioning of these new or enhanced diagnostics in FY11 have provided meaningful insight that facilitates the optimization of the four key Ignition variables. In FY12 they will be adding three new diagnostics and enhancing four existing diagnostics in support of the continuing optimization series of campaigns.

Shelton, R

2011-12-07

455

Diagnostic Bayesian Networks auto-construction and diagnostic strategy design based on multi-signal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on multi-signal model, a novel diagnostic Bayesian networks auto-construction method is proposed in this paper. Combined with information entropy theory, a diagnostic strategy with the ability of sequential fault diagnosis, multi-fault diagnosis and coupling faults diagnosis is designed. In order to deal with uncertain problems and increase diagnostic accuracy, the self adjustment method of diagnostic Bayesian networks (DBN) is

Zhang Shigang; Hu Zheng

2010-01-01

456

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

457

The Evolution of Procedural Knowledge  

E-print Network

A focus on planning and debugging procedures underlies the enhanced proficiency of recent programs which solve problems and acquire new skills. By describing complex procedures as constituents of evolutionary sequences of ...

Miller, Mark L.

1975-01-16

458

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

459

Diagnostic studies of climate variability  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the progress on the first year of the diagnostic studies of climate variability project. The objectives were as follows: to initiate studies of long-term climatic variability, using long instrumental data sets, and proxy records; to examine regional changes of temperature and precipitation over the past century in relation to changes at the hemispheric and global scale; and to produce a map-based archive of monthly and seasonal temperature, precipitation and pressure data fore display on PCs. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas. This paper summarizes results of the work accomplished. Part A summarizes results of the work accomplished. Part A summarizes the work accomplished primarily at the University of Massachusetts. Part B summarizes work primarily conducted at NOAA/ERL. A list of papers published, in press, or in preparation then follows. Appendix 1 is a description of the proposed research in 1992--93, and a proposed budget.

Bradley, R.S. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States)); Diaz, H.F. (National Oceanic and Administration, Boulder, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

460

Postnatal pyomyoma: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Pyomyoma is a rare, yet potentially fatal complication of uterine leiomyoma. Clinically difficult to diagnose as a result of non-specific symptoms, its presentation is commonly confused with fibroid degeneration. Late diagnosis has severe implications, with the mortality of the condition remaining high. Despite the availability of powerful antibiotics, surgical intervention is frequently required for the curative treatment of the critically ill patient. Here, we report a case of postpartum pyomyoma developing after a complicated antenatal course of placenta praevia resulting in recurrent antepartum haemorrhage, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes and eventual emergency caesarean section for cord prolapse. We highlight the diagnostic difficulty and delay in definitive surgical intervention. Using this case, we have emphasised the importance of strong clinical suspicion when faced with a triad of pain, sepsis without an obvious source and a known diagnosis of leiomyoma to prevent fatalities. PMID:24177458

Sirha, Ravneet; Miskin, Aditi; Abdelmagied, Amin

2013-01-01

461

Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

2014-01-01

462

[Vasculitis - Diagnostic and therapeutic advances].  

PubMed

Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels walls. It represents a heterogeneous group of conditions, whose etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Although uncommon, with an annual incidence of 40-54 cases per 1.000.000 persons, this is an important cause of multiorganic dysfunction and premature mortality. Depending on the affected vessels, it can cause diverse clinical presentations, which makes difficult its recognition. It is therefore a challenge for any clinician. This paper reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the most common forms of vasculitis, in order to optimize the approach and management of this clinical entity. We have conducted a search in Medline database on articles written in English, published for the last 10 years using the keywords: vasculitis, epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment. To minimize the impact of vasculitis it is essential an early diagnosis, allowing a timely institution of the appropriate treatment. The diagnosis depends on the integration of clinical, laboratory, imaging and histopathologic data. According to the clinical condition, it may be indicated the removal of the offending antigen, the treatment of the underlying disease or specific treatment of the primary vasculitis. The introduction of immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide has revolutionized the prognosis of these patients but, despite its efficacy, it is associated with frequent relapses and significant toxicity. The study of the pathogenesis has been providing more effective and safer diagnostic and therapeutic options, for example B-cell depleting agents, but additional studies are needed to confirm the potential of these alternatives. PMID:25596397

De Albuquerque, R; Machado, Filipa

2015-01-01

463

Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW): a web server for diagnostic array data storage, sharing and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microarrays are becoming a very popular tool for microbial detection and diagnostics. Although these diagnostic arrays are much simpler when compared to the traditional transcriptome arrays, due to the high throughput nature of the arrays, the data analysis requirements still form a bottle neck for the widespread use of these diagnostic arrays. Hence we developed a new online data

Joy Scaria; Aswathy Sreedharan; Yung-fu Chang

2008-01-01

464

Elementary Instructional Program Procedures Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for the Duval County Public Schools (Jacksonville, Florida), this manual gives elementary school teachers information on instructional program procedures. Section one is about the reading program and deals with placement procedures and criteria for kindergarten and first grade students, initial placement procedures for grades two-six,…

Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

465

Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

2013-01-01

466

How to appraise a diagnostic test.  

PubMed

Urologists frequently encounter problems in making a clinical diagnosis whose resolution requires the use of diagnostic tests. With an ever increasing choice of investigations being available, the urologist often has to decide which diagnostic test(s) will best resolve the patient's diagnostic problem. In this article, we aim to help the urologist understand how to critically appraise studies on diagnostic tests and make a rational choice. This article presents the guiding principles in scientifically assessing studies on diagnostic tests by proposing a clinical scenario. The authors describe a standardized protocol to assess the validity of the test and its relevance to the clinical problem that can help the urologist in decision making. The three important issues to be considered when evaluating the validity of the study are to identify how the study population was chosen, how the test was performed and whether there is a comparison to the gold standard test so as to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Then, the urologist would need to know the probability of the test in providing the correct diagnosis in an individual patient in order to decide about its utility in solving the diagnostic dilemma. By performing the steps described in this article, the urologist would be able to critically appraise diagnostic studies and draw meaningful conclusions about the investigations in terms of validity, results and its applicability to the patient's problem. This would provide a scientific basis for using diagnostic tests for improving patient care. PMID:22279321

Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N

2011-10-01

467

Diagnostic Validity of Wechsler Substest Scatter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive subtest scatter has often been considered to be diagnostically significant. The current study tested the diagnostic validity of four separate operationalizations of WISC-III subtest scatter: (a) range of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (b) variance of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (c) number of subtests…

Watkins, Marley W.

2005-01-01

468

Bed Bugs In Wisconsin Diagnostic Lab Note  

E-print Network

Bed Bugs In Wisconsin Diagnostic Lab Note Phil Pellitteri-U.W. Insect Diagnostic Lab For most bug problems worldwide and in Wisconsin in the last 10 years. The human bed bug has become very. Human bed bugs Bed bugs are flat, oval shaped, up to 3/16 inch long, reddish- brown insects. Nymphs

Balser, Teri C.

469

Mechanical Diagnostics System Engineering in IMD HUMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goodrich Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics Health and Usage System (IMD-HUMS) mechanical diagnostics functionality is the integration of disparate subsystems. When the aircraft is in the appropriate capture window, the primary processing unit (PPU), commands the vibration processing unit (VPU) to capture vibration data and a tachometer reference. This time domain data is processed by standard and proprietary algorithms to generate

Eric Bechhoefer; Eric Mayhew

2006-01-01

470