Science.gov

Sample records for abductive diagnostic procedure

  1. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

  2. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

  3. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

  4. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

  5. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

  6. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

  7. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

  8. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

  9. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

  10. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States....

  11. Diagnostic Procedures in Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Mankiewicz, E.; Kurti, V.; Béland, J.

    1971-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients suspected of having sarcoidosis were examined by means of available diagnostic procedures and the results of the examinations were compared. While Kveim tests and/or lymphocyte transformation tests gave the most significant results in cases of less than two years' standing, a combination of these and organ biopsies is required for the diagnosis of cases of more than two years' duration. An interpretation of the immunological deviations observed in sarcoidosis is attempted on the basis of observations made on leukocyte cultures and on isolations of mycobacteriophages from patients with sarcoidosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5550375

  12. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  13. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomi?, Martina; Salopek-Rabati?, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

  14. 40 CFR 85.2222 - Onboard diagnostic test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Onboard diagnostic test procedures. 85.2222...Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2222 Onboard diagnostic test procedures. The test...readiness evaluation indicates that any onboard tests are not complete, the...

  15. Using Model-based Assurance to Strengthen Diagnostic Procedures

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Using Model-based Assurance to Strengthen Diagnostic Procedures Robyn Lutz Jet Propulsion Lab procedures are instructions used to isolate failures during operations. Assuring such procedures manually independent perspective helped in assuring the procedures' adequacy and quality. Finally, the paper discusses

  16. 20 CFR 404.1519m - Diagnostic tests or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519m Diagnostic tests or procedures....

  17. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

  18. Seeking Explanations: Abduction in Logic,

    E-print Network

    Koolen, Marijn

    Seeking Explanations: Abduction in Logic, Philosophy of Science and Artifical Intelligence Atocha Aliseda­LLera #12; Seeking Explanations: Abduction in Logic, Philosophy of Science and Artifical Intelligence #12; ILLC Dissertation Series 1997­4 institute for logic, language and computation For further

  19. Diagnostic Procedures for Detecting Nonlinear Relationships between Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Baldasaro, Ruth E.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation models are commonly used to estimate relationships between latent variables. Almost universally, the fitted models specify that these relationships are linear in form. This assumption is rarely checked empirically, largely for lack of appropriate diagnostic techniques. This article presents and evaluates two procedures that can…

  20. Cardiovascular procedures/diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tilkian, A.G.; Daily, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the technical and therapeutic aspects of cardiovascular procedures in immense detail. There are large and appropriate diagrams and tables. The topics of the chapters are tools for catheterization, venous access, arterial access, hemodynamic monitoring, cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography, ergonovine provocation testing for coronary artery spasm, pulmonary angiography, endomyocredial biopsy, electrophysiologic studies, pericardiocentesis and drainage, intraaortic balloon pumping, direct current cardioversion and defibrilaltion, pacemaker implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, coronary angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, transluminal catheter extraction and resolution of intracardiac catheter knots, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, contrast media toxicity and allergic reactions, radiation hazards, and medicolegal concerns. An appendix and index follow these chapters. In general, each chapter covers historical aspects, indications, complications, techniques, and preoperative and postoperative care.

  1. Diagnostic procedures for autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Yadav, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    Oral soft tissues are affected by numerous pathologic conditions of variable etiology and hence their appropriate management relies on their accurate diagnosis. Clinical identification of intact vesicle and bulla in the oral cavity is really a challenge due to the regular irritation and the friable nature of oral mucosa. Rupture of these lesions leads to erosions or ulcerations on the surface, hence making the diagnosis of vesiculobullous (VB) lesions is even more difficult due to the fact that the differential diagnosis along with VB lesions will also include ulcerative, immunological-mediated diseases, and neoplasms and systemic diseases. Hence, knowledge of the clinical presentation of these disorders and the relevant diagnostic procedures is important not just for dermatologists, but also for general practitioners and dentists. In this article, the various procedures have been explained that can be used for the diagnostic purpose of VB lesions. PMID:25948994

  2. Inference of Gene Relations from Microarray Data by Abduction

    E-print Network

    Sergot, Marek

    Inference of Gene Relations from Microarray Data by Abduction Irene Papatheodorou, Antonis Kakas- iments. We develop an ALP theory that provides a simple and general model of how gene interactions can cause changes in observable expres- sion levels of genes. Input to the procedure are the observed

  3. Abducted/Missing/Runaway Person Worksheet Establish Abducted, Missing or Runaway

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    the person run away? Abducted: Description of Suspect Name _________________________________ Sex _________________________________ Sex _________________________________ Race _________________________________ Height _________________________________ Sex _________________________________ Race _________________________________ Height

  4. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

  5. 78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures AGENCY..., on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is... for Diagnostic X-rays,'' which was released in October 1976. The recommendations contained in...

  6. Neonatal Cholestasis – Differential Diagnoses, Current Diagnostic Procedures, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Götze, Thomas; Blessing, Holger; Grillhösl, Christian; Gerner, Patrick; Hoerning, André

    2015-01-01

    Cholestatic jaundice in early infancy is a complex diagnostic problem. Misdiagnosis of cholestasis as physiologic jaundice delays the identification of severe liver diseases. In the majority of infants, prolonged physiologic jaundice represent benign cases of breast milk jaundice, but few among them are masked and caused by neonatal cholestasis (NC) that requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a prolonged neonatal jaundice, longer than 2?weeks after birth, must always be investigated because an early diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. To rapidly identify the cases with cholestatic jaundice, the conjugated bilirubin needs to be determined in any infant presenting with prolonged jaundice at 14?days of age with or without depigmented stool. Once NC is confirmed, a systematic approach is the key to reliably achieve the diagnosis in order to promptly initiate the specific, and in many cases, life-saving therapy. This strategy is most important to promptly identify and treat infants with biliary atresia, the most common cause of NC, as this requires a hepatoportoenterostomy as soon as possible. Here, we provide a detailed work-up approach including initial treatment recommendations and a clinically oriented overview of possible differential diagnoses in order to facilitate the early recognition and a timely diagnosis of cholestasis. This approach warrants a broad spectrum of diagnostic procedures and investigations including new methods that are described in this review. PMID:26137452

  7. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of this section— (i) Radiology services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and...

  8. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  9. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  10. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  11. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  12. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665... § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665... § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665... § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665... § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a...

  17. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

  18. [List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Spoljar, Sanja

    2013-10-01

    Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future clarification. Ankle brachial pressure index, color duplex sonography, plethysmography, MSCT and MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, phlebography, angiography, x-ray, and capillaroscopy in lupus erythematosus are indicated. Except for bacteriologic analyses of wound biopsies, there is no test to provide specific information on the wound condition. PMID:24371972

  19. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  20. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  2. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  3. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  4. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (2) For purposes of this section— (i) Radiology services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii)...

  5. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2) For purposes of this section— (i) Radiology services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii)...

  6. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2) For purposes of this section— (i) Radiology services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii)...

  7. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of the Act and establishes the method for determining Medicare payments...diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii)...

  8. Implication of Abduction: Complexity without Organized Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiura, Moto

    2010-11-01

    Abduction, which is articulated by C.S. Peirce, is one of the forms of inference. Abduction has been researched not only in philosophy but also in artificial intelligence and information science. Finlay and Dix's representation of abduction (1996) has almost the same meaning which is given by Peirce. On the other hand, Sawa and Gunji (2010) express three types of inference as operations of arrows on a simple triangular diagram. In the present paper, we show that Sawa-Gunji's representation of abduction is consistent with Finlay-Dix's one, and synthesize the two representations. Both parameter estimation and abduction occupy a similar position on the synthesized representation, but they are not completely corresponding. We present "incomplete" parameter estimation as a sort of "simulated abduction", since abduction has an intrinsic incompleteness, which means that abduction is formally equivalent to "the logical fallacy affirming the consequent". In other words, a numerical aspect of abduction (i.e. the simulated abduction) is formalized as incomplete parameter estimation. The concept of simulated abduction is applied to parameter estimation of auto-regressive models, and the effects of it is investigated. As a result of the numerical analyses, the distribution of the incompletely estimated parameter shows a power law of the slop -2 in the tail, although conventionally estimated parameter is normally distributed. The power law of the incompletely estimated parameter is based on the structure of ratio distribution. In other words, this result shows that the power law can arise when system observers premise a linearity of input and output data which are too small to estimate the system structure. We call the premise of the system observers "linearity bias". As an example of the cause of power law distributions, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been known. These distributions are based on the mechanisms of the systems themselves, which have some organized interaction between their elements. On the other hand, power law distribution which is derived from the incomplete parameter estimation and the linearity bias is not based on a mechanism of system itself but on relationship between data on the system and observer of the data. Consequently, our research suggests that complexity expressed by a power law distribution can be derived from the incomplete parameter estimation which is a numerical aspect of abduction and is different from SOC mechanisms.

  9. Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory’s predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored “while-loops” over “for-loops” in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks. PMID:24082090

  10. Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction.

    PubMed

    Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2013-10-15

    We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory's predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored "while-loops" over "for-loops" in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks. PMID:24082090

  11. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure

    PubMed Central

    Maarsingh, Otto R; Dros, Jacquelien; van Weert, Henk C; Schellevis, François G; Bindels, Patrick J; van der Horst, Henriette E

    2009-01-01

    Background Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients in general practice. Methods We conducted a Delphi procedure with a panel of 16 national and international experts of all relevant medical specialities in the field of dizziness. A selection of 36 diagnostic tests, based on a systematic review and practice guidelines, was presented to the panel. Each test was described extensively, and data on test characteristics and methodological quality (assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, QUADAS) were presented. The threshold for in- or exclusion of a diagnostic test was set at an agreement of 70%. Results During three rounds 21 diagnostic tests were selected, concerning patient history (4 items), physical examination (11 items), and additional tests (6 items). Five tests were excluded, although they are recommended by existing practice guidelines on dizziness. Two tests were included, although several practice guidelines question their diagnostic value. Two more tests were included that have never been recommended by practice guidelines on dizziness. Conclusion In this study we successfully combined empirical evidence with expert opinion for the development of a set of diagnostic tests for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients. This comprehensive set of tests will be evaluated in a cross-sectional diagnostic study. PMID:19200395

  12. Policy and Procedure Manual Diagnostic Services Department of Radiology Diagnostic Division

    E-print Network

    to Diagnostic Radiology (#51 or #000 pages). If they call you via the phone in need of help for a code, please have been instituted. 5. Inform the receptionist's area that a Code Blue has been called and where Teams to the area or room. The supervisor or his designee from each area will report to the following

  13. Policy and Procedure Manual Diagnostic Services Department of Radiology Diagnostic Division

    E-print Network

    adverse event, which means an event that significantly compromises clinical outcomes or one for which. PROCEDURE: ACR guidelines for submission are as follows: 1. All unresolved serious consumer complaints must

  14. Policy and Procedure Manual Diagnostic Services Department of Radiology Diagnostic Division

    E-print Network

    . Defective RPE must be collected by EHS for disposal. All defective equipment will be taken out of service SUBJECT/TITLE: INTEGRITY OF RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT PURPOSE: Define procedure to ensure integrity of radiation protection equipment. DEFINITION: Radiation Protection Equipment (RPE) includes lead aprons

  15. Policy and Procedure Manual Diagnostic Services Radiology DS-R-05.52

    E-print Network

    such as KUB, flat and upright views of the abdomen, lumbosacral spine examination and limited intravenous of the abdomen and pelvis, and diagnostic or interventional procedures involving lengthy fluoroscopy with multiple filming of the pelvis and abdomen(5) (See Appendices B & C). It is important to keep in mind

  16. Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Procedures following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation – How Much Is Acceptable?

    PubMed Central

    Battiwalla, Minoo; Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Jain, Natasha A; Klotz, Jeffrey K.; Pophali, Priyanka A; Draper, Debbie; Haggerty, Janice; McIver, Zachariah; Jelinek, James; Chawla, Kamna; Ito, Sawa; Barrett, John

    2014-01-01

    Patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) can remain acutely sick for many weeks and incur repeated diagnostic radiology procedures which may significantly increase radiation exposure. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the cumulative radiation dose from diagnostic studies following SCT. Sixty-four consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies in a single tertiary care institution underwent total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning followed by 6/6 HLA-identical sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The median follow up was three years. The cumulative effective dose in mSv from diagnostic radiologic studies in the peri-transplant period from day ?30 to day +200 was calculated for each patient and its impact on overall survival and nonrelapse mortality was determined. The median cumulative radiation exposure from diagnostic radiologic procedures was 92 mSv (range 1.2–300), representing about 30× the normal annual background radiation for the population and 10% of the 1200cGy total body irradiation (TBI) dose used in conditioning. Sixty-five percent of the cumulative radiation exposure was delivered between day +1 and day 100 and CT scans contributed 88%. While radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures did not impact clinical outcomes the risk of second cancers in long term survivors is likely to be increased. Our results indicate that patients who are acutely ill for prolonged periods can receive clinically significant radiation doses during their hospital care. Our findings should prompt attempts to limit radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures in post-SCT recipients. PMID:24094072

  17. 42 CFR 414.506 - Procedures for public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test. 414.506 Section 414.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR... FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414.506 Procedures for public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory...

  18. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  19. Delaying diagnostic procedure significantly increases mortality in patients with invasive mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Un; Song, Young Goo; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Min Joo

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon but increasing life-threatening fungal infection. The present study investigated clinical characteristics and mortality among patients diagnosed as invasive mucormycosis infection. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 24 histologically proven cases of invasive mucormycosis at two tertiary care referral hospitals between November 2005 and February 2014. Overall survival was 50% (n = 12). The time between onset of symptom and diagnostic procedure proved to be associated with mortality (P = 0.009). In addition, preexisting renal failure and thrombocytopenia demonstrated trends toward a poor outcome in our study (P = 0.089 and 0.065, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, delayed diagnostic procedure (more than 16 days after the onset of symptoms) was an independent predictor of mortality (OR= 12.34, 95% CI, 1.43-10.64; P = 0.022). Mucormycosis is a destructive fungal infection that is associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 40% to 100% depending on the form of disease. When a clinician suspects invasive mucormycosis infection, an early diagnostic procedure performed within 16 days from the onset of symptom and early initiation of antifungal therapy will lead to successful management of this highly fatal disease. PMID:26565066

  20. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 Model-Based Assurance of Diagnostic Procedures

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 1 Model-Based Assurance of DTV to assure fifteen of the procedures developed for diagnosing problems in an electrical power procedures. This approach can therefore contribute to assuring the correctness of diagnostic procedures

  1. ECIL-3 classical diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in patients with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, M C; Bille, J; Dannaoui, E; Ruhnke, M; Heussel, C-P; Kibbler, C

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy. Diagnosis of IFD is difficult, with the sensitivity of the gold standard tests (culture and histopathology) often reported to be low, which may at least in part be due to sub-optimal sampling or subsequent handling in the routine microbiological laboratory. Therefore, a working group of the European Conference in Infections in Leukaemia was convened in 2009 with the task of reviewing the classical diagnostic procedures and providing recommendations for their optimal use. The recommendations were presented and approved at the ECIL-3 conference in September 2009. Although new serological and molecular tests are examined in separate papers, this review focuses on sample types, microscopy and culture procedures, antifungal susceptibility testing and imaging. The performance and limitations of these procedures are discussed and recommendations are provided on when and how to use them and how to interpret the results. PMID:22231461

  2. Procedures To Study The Impact Of PACS On The Logistics Within A Diagnostic Imaging Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Haar Romeny, B. M.; Achterberg, A. J.; Binkhuysen, F. H. B.; Andriessen, J. H.; Zuiderveld, K. J.; Raymakers, J. A.; van Waes, P. F. G. M.; Stut, W. J. J.; Scharnberg, B.; de Valk, J. P. J.

    1988-06-01

    The Dutch PACS project is a cooperation of the Utrecht University Hospital, BAZIS Hospital Information Systems group, and Philips. In this paper the impact on the organization of logistic procedures within a diagnostic imaging department will be described, as a part of the Dutch PACS project at the Utrecht University Hospital, the clinical evaluation (as described previously in SPIE proc. #767 and #626). A detailed analysis was carried out regarding image logistics, object flow (patients, images, request forms etc.) and working procedures of all personal involved. Goal is to compare the results of these studies with similar data after the introduction of a complete PACS working procedure for the target ward and to find design parameters for the intrinsic image management system. Furthermore, the data are used to establish the efficiency of the new situation. The results of this study are described in detail per parameter.

  3. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  4. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  5. Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning El-Sayed M. El to utilize heuristic search and machine learning approaches, including neural networks. This paper proposes accuracy. Abductive machine learning automatically selects only effective model inputs and builds

  6. A Simple Approach to Abductive Inference using Conceptual Graphs

    E-print Network

    Pagnucco, Maurice

    '' was first coined by Charles Sanders Peirce who distin­ guished it as a fundamental form of logical inference. 1 Introduction The philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce was the first person to distinguish three but only recently has Peirce's theory of abduction[2] begun to attract interest. Abductive reasoning (or

  7. [Automated procedures for radiation protection and quality controls in conventional diagnostic radiology].

    PubMed

    Tofani, A; Bechini, M; Del Corona, A; Imbordino, P; Lecci, A; Manetti, F

    1998-10-01

    To comply with regulations on radiation protection and quality controls is a difficult task when operating in large hospitals. This leads to the need of defining more efficient protocols and of making procedures as automated as possible. The procedure described in this paper is based on a multimeter controlled by a portable PC, and on a spreadsheet program for data processing. Multimeter data are automatically imported and processed, in order to assess the compliance of measured parameters with the reference regulations (IEC recommendations, radiation safety rules, etc.). The spreadsheet is permanently linked to a data base. It is therefore possible to perform the controls and to store the corresponding results in a shorter time (one hour per machine, approximately). By using a properly chosen quality index, monitoring the efficiency of the diagnostic equipment is also possible, which allows to prevent the onset of severe failures. PMID:9972221

  8. Determining and Managing Fetal Radiation Dose from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. Materials and Methods We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Conclusion Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion. PMID:26576117

  9. Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Susan A; McNally, Richard J; Schacter, Daniel L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Pitman, Roger K

    2002-08-01

    False memory creation was examined in people who reported having recovered memories of traumatic events that are unlikely to have occurred: abduction by space aliens. A variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese. 1959; H. L. Roediger III & K. B. McDermott, 1995) was used to examine false recall and false recognition in 3 groups: people reporting recovered memories of alien abduction. people who believe they were abducted by aliens but have no memories, and people who deny having been abducted by aliens. Those reporting recovered and repressed memories of alien abduction were more prone than control participants to exhibit false recall and recognition. The groups did not differ in correct recall or recognition. Hypnotic suggestibility, depressive symptoms, and schizotypic features were significant predictors of false recall and false recognition. PMID:12150421

  10. Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

    2000-04-01

    The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. PMID:10840926

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Procedure to Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a procedure to measure diagnostic-reasoning and problem-solving skills taught in predoctoral orthodontic education were studied using 68 second year dental students. The procedure includes stimulus material and 33 multiple-choice items. It is a feasible way of assessing problem-solving skills in dentistry education…

  12. Highly Reliable Procedural Teams: The Journey to Spread the Universal Protocol in Diagnostic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Julie; Wolf, Debby; Reece, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Joint Commission’s Universal Protocol has been widely implemented in surgical settings since publication in 2003. The elements improved patient safety in operating rooms, and the same rigor is being applied to procedures occurring in other health care arenas, in particular, diagnostic imaging. Objective: In 2011, Kaiser Permanente West Los Angeles’s Diagnostic Imaging Department desired to adapt previous work on Universal Protocol implementation to improve patient safety in interventional radiology and mammography procedures. Design: The teams underwent human factors training and then adapted key interventions used in surgical suites to their workflows. Time-out posters, use of whiteboards, “glitch books,” and regular audits provided structure to overcome the risks that human factors present. Main Outcome Measures: Staff and physician perceptions of the teamwork and safety climates in their modalities were measured using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire at baseline and at 18 months after training. Unusual Occurrence Reports were also reviewed to identify events and near misses that could be prevented. Implementation of key process changes were identified as process measures. Results: Perception of the safety climate improved 25% in interventional radiology and 4.5% in mammography. Perception of the teamwork climate decreased 5.4% in interventional radiology and 16.6% in mammography. Unusual occurrences were underreported at baseline, and there is ongoing reluctance to document near misses. Conclusion: This work provides important considerations of the impact of departmental cultures for the implementation of the Universal Protocol in procedural areas. It also reveals unexpected challenges, and requires long-term effort and focus. PMID:24626070

  13. Subacute cadmium intoxication in jewelry workers: an evaluation of diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Baker, E L; Peterson, W A; Holtz, J L; Coleman, C; Landrigan, P J

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of cadmium intoxication in a jewelry factory provided an opportunity for evaluating the usefulness of diagnostic procedures used to evaluate human cadmium toxicity. Blood cadmium levels in workers exposed to cadmium were higher (.93 micrograms/100ml vs .38 micrograms/100 ml) than in unexposed workers. A dose-response relationship was noted between blood cadmium level and symptom prevalence in four symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, dysuria, and dizziness). Segmental hair analysis revealed highest cadmium levels (up to 19 micrograms/gm) in segments formed prior to cadmium exposure, suggesting that extrinsic contamination was the primary source of cadmium in the hair. beta2-microglobulin levels were within normal limits. No significant renal or pulmonary dysfunction was noted. Symptoms ceased after a cadmium-containing brazing alloy used in jewelry production was replaced, yet urine cadmium levels remained persistently elevated in four workers. Blood cadmium determinations were found to be useful in evaluating symptoms potentially related to cadmium intoxication. PMID:222221

  14. Medical physicists' implication in radiological diagnostic procedures: results after 1 y of experience.

    PubMed

    Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

    2015-04-01

    Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

  15. Quantifying 'normal' shoulder muscle activity during abduction.

    PubMed

    Wickham, James; Pizzari, Tania; Stansfeld, Katie; Burnside, Amanda; Watson, Lyn

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to obtain electromyographic (EMG) activity from a sample of healthy shoulders to allow a reference database to be developed and used for comparison with pathological shoulders. Temporal and intensity shoulder muscle activation characteristics during a coronal plane abduction/adduction movement were evaluated in the dominant healthy shoulder of 24 subjects. Surface and intramuscular fine wire electrodes recorded EMG activity from 15 shoulder muscles (deltoid x 3, trapezius x 3, subscapularis x 2, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, serratus anterior and rhomboids) at 2000 Hz for 10s whilst each subject performed 10 dynamic coronal plane abduction/adduction movements from 0 degrees to 166 degrees to 0 degrees with a light dumbbell. Results revealed that supraspinatus (-.102 s before movement onset) initiated the movement with middle trapezius (-.019 s) and middle deltoid (-.014 s) also activated before the movement onset. Similar patterns were also found in the time of peak amplitude and %MVC with a pattern emerging where the prime movers (supraspinatus and middle deltoid) were among the first to reach peak amplitude or display the highest %MVC values. In conclusion, the most reproducible patterns of activation arose from the more prime mover muscle sites in all EMG variables analysed and although variability was present, there emerged 'invariant characteristics' that were considered 'normal' for this group of non pathological shoulders. The authors believe that the methodology and certain parts of the analysis in this study can be duplicated and used by future researchers who require a reference database of muscle activity for use as a control group in comparisons to their respective pathological shoulder group. PMID:19625195

  16. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department. PMID:24146357

  17. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip...

  18. Abductive Logic Programming 1 Department of Computer Science,

    E-print Network

    Toni, Francesca

    Kallipoleos Street, Nicosia P.O. Box 537, Cyprus. antonis@saturn.cca.ucy.cy R.A. Kowalski, F. Toni Department abduction as the \\probational adoption of a hypothesis" as expla- nation for observed facts (results

  19. Bone marrow aspiration in north Sudan: the procedure, indications and the diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Noor, Sufian K; Bushara, Sarra O; Almobarak, Ahmed O; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is a common and useful investigation tool in clinical practice to obtain information about both hematological and non-hematological disorders. The aim of the work was to identify the main indications for BMA in Atbara city, north Sudan and to determine the common diagnoses encountered. Methods All reports of BMA carried out during a 6-year period from 2009 to 2014, in the Modern Specialized Laboratory (the only site where BMA is conducted in Atbara) were reviewed. The information extracted included the main indications for performing this procedure, age groups involved, and the most common diagnoses established. A specially designed form was used for this purpose and the data were analyzed using SPSS computer program. Results A total number of 112 cases were subjected to bone marrow aspiration. The most frequent indications were: pancytopenia 43(38.4%), anemia 39 (34.8%), and suspected leukemia 13 (11.6%). In 86(76.8%) cases, BMA provided either the diagnosis or diagnostic clues to the disease process, while 26 (23.2%) of the aspirates revealed a normally functioning marrow. Conclusion Bone marrow aspiration is an important investigation for establishing the diagnosis in many medical conditions. The most common indication for this procedure in our study was pancytopenia and the most common finding was aplastic anemia. PMID:26715923

  20. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs. PMID:7960296

  1. 78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1064; FRL-9797-6] Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic...

  2. The Abduction of Children by Strangers and Nonfamily Members: Estimating the Incidence Using Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used a national survey of households with children, a national survey of police records, and an analysis of FBI homicide data to estimate the incidence of nonfamily abductions of children. Offers a definition of abduction, analyzes problems in compiling abduction statistics, and discusses public policy on prevention and response. (RJM)

  3. Parental Abduction from the Perspective of the Victims: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Mary Jo L.

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that examined parental abductions from the perspective of the abductee. The results will help counseling professionals better to understand the psychological consequences of parental abduction, coping mechanisms that were used by the abducted children and counseling techniques and strategies that helped the children…

  4. Three Abductive Solutions to the Meno Paradox--with Instinct, Inference, and Distributed Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Sami; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes three approaches to resolving the classical Meno paradox, or its variant, the learning paradox, emphasizing Charles S. Peirce's notion of abduction. Abduction provides a way of dissecting those processes where something new, or conceptually more complex than before, is discovered or learned. In its basic form, abduction is a…

  5. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  6. Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

  7. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign...

  8. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign...

  9. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign...

  10. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign...

  11. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign...

  12. Abductive Science Inquiry Using Mobile Devices in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Sohaib; Parsons, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in digital technology have attracted the interest of educators and researchers to develop technology-assisted inquiry-based learning environments in the domain of school science education. Traditionally, school science education has followed deductive and inductive forms of inquiry investigation, while the abductive form of…

  13. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  18. Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures; Federal Guidance Report No. 14

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal Guidance Report No. 14 provides federal facilities that use diagnostic and interventional x-ray equipment with updated recommendations for keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable without compromising the quality of patient care, This guidance is an update of Federal...

  19. Applications of Exploratory Q-Matrix Discovery Procedures in Diagnostic Classification Models

    E-print Network

    Fall, Emily C.

    2009-12-10

    Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM) use a Q-matrix to determine which skills are required to correctly answer items on large-scale assessments. DCMs are fit under the assumption that the Q-matrix is correctly specified. Misspecification of the Q-matrix...

  20. For life science research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    is fully compatible with DTT and EDTA. cOmplete His-Tag Purification Resin Truly compatible with DTT and EDTA Your protein remains safe, even beyond DTT and EDTA. cOmplete His-Tag Purification Resin has even containing EDTA. #12;Published by Roche Diagnostics GmbH Sandhofer Straße 116 68305 Mannheim Germany © 2013

  1. Measuring the Academic Skills of University Students: Evaluation of a Diagnostic Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erling, Elizabeth J.; Richardson, John T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the Academic Skills of University Students is a procedure developed in the 1990s at the University of Sydney's Language Centre to identify students in need of academic writing development by assessing examples of their written work against five criteria. This paper reviews the literature relating to the development of the procedure with…

  2. Evolving American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures on use of infrared (IR) imaging devices for building diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Development of standard practices for the utilization of infrared (IR) imaging devices for the in-situ evaluation of building insulation systems is discussed. The work to date has concentrated on bounding the problem and prioritizing the needs for standard procedures and has concentrated on a very specific utilization of infrared (IR) imaging as a qualitative instrument for building retrofit insulation inspections. White papers on equipment specifications and interpretation of imagery were generated as guides to writing the first draft of a standard practice document on this insulation retrofit inspection problem. The first draft describes the knowledge level of the inspector, the procedures for the inspection, and the instrumentation required for various levels of diagnostics. Care has been taken to insure compatibility with ASHRAE Draft Standard 101P and to insure that the document will serve the user community as a guide to proper application of infrared in this infrared (IR) applications area.

  3. [Value of diagnostic laparoscopy and minimal invasive procedures in acute abdomen].

    PubMed

    Waclawiczek, H W; Schneeberger, V; Bekk, A; Dinnewitzer, A; Sungler, P; Boeckl, O

    1997-01-01

    During the last three years 172 diagnostic laparoscopies (DL) were performed at our department in patients with an acute abdomen of unclear causes. This corresponds to 17% of all patients who underwent operation due to an acute abdomen in the same period. Always the indication for a diagnostic laparoscopy arose then, when the cause or the localization of the acute abdomen could not be found by conventional diagnostic methods. The advantages of DL were either the confirmation (93%) or the exclusion (7%) of the diagnosis "acute abdomen", the exact localization and simultaneously a definitive operative treatment of the cause by minimal invasive interventions (n = 109/65%). In these patients with acute abdomen the main causes were acute inflammations of gallbladder (n = 48) and appendix (n = 29), ulcus perforations (n = 9) and ileus (n = 9). The conversion rate amounted to 2.7%, the postoperative complication rate to 11% and the lethality rate to 1.8% in these patients. A new indication is the so-called "bedside laparoscopy" as means to control the postoperative course of mesenteric embolism (n = 9) and diffuse peritonitis (n = 3) in order to avoid the stress of a second-look operation for these seriously ill patients or to secure the indication for relaparotomy. PMID:9499536

  4. From War to Classroom: PTSD and Depression in Formerly Abducted Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nina; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schalinski, Inga; Ovuga, Emilio; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trained local screeners assessed the mental-health status of male and female students in Northern Ugandan schools. The study aimed to disclose potential differences in mental health-related impairment in two groups, former child soldiers (n?=?354) and other war-affected youth (n?=?489), as well as to separate factors predicting mental suffering in learners. Methods: Participants were randomly selected. We used the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for potential depression the respective section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist with a locally validated cut-off. Results: Almost all respondents had been displaced at least once in their life. 30% of girls and 50% of the boys in the study reported past abduction history. Trauma exposure was notably higher in the group of abductees. In former child soldiers, a PTSD rate of 32% was remarkably higher than that for non-abductees (12%). Especially in girls rates of potential depression were double those in the group of former abductees (17%) than in the group of non-abductees (8%). In all groups, trauma exposure increased the risk of developing PTSD. A path-analytic model for developing PTSD and potential depression revealed both previous trauma exposure as well as duration of abduction to have significant influences on trauma-related mental suffering. Findings also suggest that in Northern Ugandan schools trauma spectrum disorders are common among war-affected learners. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested the school context should be used to provide mental-health support structures within the education system for war-affected youth at likely risk of developing war-related mental distress. PMID:25788887

  5. Procedures to minimize diagnostic x-ray exposure of the human embryo and fetus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The recommendations published here are intended for the attending physician, the radiologist, the technologist, and the patient, delineating their respective roles in optimizing the x-ray exposure of pregnant or potentially pregnant women. These recommendations emphasize the necessity for attending physicians to determine whether or not their patients might be pregnant and to use this information in deciding on the need for an x-ray examination. The recommendations also stress the need to reduce x-ray exposure throughout gestation, and suggest ways in which this can be accomplished. X-ray exposure of the developing embryo and fetus has been a matter of concern for many years. Several national and international organizations have developed guidelines or policy statements on the subject. The BRH recommendations are expansions of the conceptual foundations provided by these other organizations, and they clarify the ways in which medical radiation exposure can be minimized without compromising the medical care of the mother. These recommendations are based on the principle that unnecessary or unproductive medical radiation exposure should be avoided or reduced to the extent possible, while preserving and improving the anticipated benefits of radiological diagnostic information. As with all medical applications of ionizing radiation, the physician's decision to obtain a diagnostic x-ray examination of a pregnant or potentially pregnant patient should be based on the judgment that the medical information obtained is likely to be important for appropriate patient management.

  6. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work. PMID:22088163

  7. Characterization of amorphous thermoluminescence dosimeters for patient dose measurement in X-ray diagnostic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, N. N. H.; Salleh, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Zulkifli, M. I.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; M. Noor, N.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the use of novel Ge-doped amorphous silica flat fibers as thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in verifying patient entrance surface-dose (ESD) in diagnostic examinations. Selected fibers with established dosimetric characteristics (including energy dependence, linearity, reproducibility, and fading) were loaded into plastic capsules in groups of six. The fibers have been calibrated against a parallel plate ionization chamber, use being made of x-rays generated at 70 kVp, accessing a Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) facility. The fiber characterization measurements were made using a Toshiba X-ray machine operating within the nominal energies range 40 kVp to 150 kVp, for doses in the range 0.02 mGy up to 3 mGy. For doses from 2 mGy up to 150 mGy, the flat fibers exhibit linearity between TL yield and dose, reproducible to better than 3% standard deviation following repeat measurements (n=3). A marked energy-dependent response is observed for photons generated at potentials from 40 kVp to 150 kVp. From present results, it is concluded that Ge-doped fibers represent a viable system for use in diagnostic dosimetry, corrections being made for the various factors influencing TL yield.

  8. Rapid sandwich ELISA-based in vitro diagnostic procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of human fetuin A.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2015-05-15

    A rapid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based in vitro diagnostic (IVD) procedure has been developed for human fetuin A (HFA), an important disease biomarker for inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies. In this simplified and cost-effective procedure, the EDC-activated anti-HFA antibody (Ab) was admixed with 1% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in 1:1 (v/v) and dispensed in a KOH-pretreated microtiter plate (MTP). APTES formed a stable complex with the capture antibody that was in turn covalently bonded on the KOH-treated surface in 30 min. The resulting immunoassay (IA) format detects HFA with a dynamic range of 0.1-243 ng mL(-1), and a limit of detection (LOD) and analytical sensitivity of 0.3 ng mL(-1) and 1.0 ng mL(-1), respectively. For the determination of HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum, and HFA in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma of patients, the obtained analytical precision is similar to that of the conventional sandwich ELISA. The anti-HFA Ab-bound MTPs, stored at 4 °C in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4, retained its biological activity for 8 weeks, thereby demonstrating excellent storage stability. This generic sandwich ELISA procedure can be extended for rapid, simplified and cost-effective detection of other disease biomarkers. PMID:25022575

  9. 42 CFR 414.506 - Procedures for public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test. 414...OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414...public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test....

  10. For life science research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. FOR IN VITRO USE ONLY.

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . No. 1 734 334 40 mg Store at 15 to 25° C Product description Preparation Casein from cow milk, resorufin-labeled (w/v) in redist. water. II. Incubation buffer 0.2 M Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.02 M CaCl2. III Tris-HCl, pH 8.8. Assay procedure Wavelength: 574 nm (absorbance); 584 nm (emission) Light path: 1 cm

  11. Transhepatic vascular access for diagnostic and interventional procedures: techniques, outcome, and complications.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, Makram R

    2007-03-01

    Early or multiple cardiac catheterizations may result in occlusion of the femoral veins prohibiting their use. The internal jugular or sub-clavian approach may be an appropriate alternative. However, these approaches may not be suitable in patients with surgical interruption of the superior vena cava. In other patients, they may not allow easy access to certain areas of the heart. The transhepatic approach is an important alternative route for performing cardiac catheterization and interventions. Depending on the planned procedure, it may be the preferred route to perform the cardiac catheterization even in the presence of patent femoral veins. The indications, technical details and potential complications of this approach are discussed. PMID:17152092

  12. Smart on-board diagnostic decision trees for quantitative aviation equipment and safety procedures validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ali H.; Markarian, Garik; Tarter, Alex; Kölle, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    The current trend in high-accuracy aircraft navigation systems is towards using data from one or more inertial navigation subsystem and one or more navigational reference subsystems. The enhancement in fault diagnosis and detection is achieved via computing the minimum mean square estimate of the aircraft states using, for instance, Kalman filter method. However, this enhancement might degrade if the cause of a subsystem fault has some effect on other subsystems that are calculating the same measurement. One instance of such case is the tragic incident of Air France Flight 447 in June, 2009 where message transmissions in the last moment before the crash indicated inconsistencies in measured airspeed as reported by Airbus. In this research, we propose the use of mathematical aircraft model to work out the current states of the airplane and in turn, using these states to validate the readings of the navigation equipment throughout smart diagnostic decision tree network. Various simulated equipment failures have been introduced in a controlled environment to proof the concept of operation. The results have showed successful detection of the failing equipment in all cases.

  13. [The syndrome of increased upper airways resistance: What are the clinical features and diagnostic procedures?].

    PubMed

    M'saad, S; Yangui, I; Feki, W; Abid, N; Bahloul, N; Marouen, F; Chakroun, A; Kammoun, S

    2015-12-01

    The upper airway resistance syndrome "UARS" is a poorly defined entity, often described as a moderate variant of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. It is associated with respiratory effort-related arousal, absence of obstructive sleep apnea, and absence of significant desaturation. It is a relatively common condition that predominantly affects non-obese young adults, with no predominance in either sex. The degree of upper airway collapsibility during sleep of patients with UARS is intermediate between that of normal subjects and that of patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea syndrome. Craniofacial and palatal abnormalities are often noted. Patients frequently complain of a functional somatic syndrome, especially daytime sleepiness and chronic fatigue. Polysomnography with esophageal pressure measurements remains the gold standard diagnostic test. The absence of any neurological abnormality gives UARS a good prognosis and it is potentially reversible if treated early. However, some studies suggest that untreated UARS has an increased risk of arterial hypertension. It can also evolve into obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26525135

  14. Bride Abduction in Post-Soviet Central Asia: Marking a Shift Towards Patriarchy through Local Discourses of Shame and Tradition 

    E-print Network

    Werner, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    bride abduction are thus anchored in contested memories of fomer marriage practices. The historical context of bride abduction The Kazakhs are descendants of nomadic Turkic and Mongol tribes who formerly occupied the Eurasian steppes. Islam was first...

  15. Abduction of children by their parents: a survey of the problem.

    PubMed

    Hegar, R L; Greif, G L

    1991-09-01

    On the basis of a survey of a non-representative national sample of 371 parents who sought help from missing children's organizations, this article provides a profile of families in which children were abducted by one of the parents. Abductors were described as less educated and less likely to be employed than searching parents. In this survey, three-fourths of abducted children were younger than seven years of age; most abductions involved a single child. Although the abducting parents tended to be male (55 percent, n = 205), the proportion of female abductors was higher than in previous research. Mothers whose children were kidnapped by the father described more violence in their marriages, more fault-related reasons for divorce, and more force used in the abduction than did fathers whose children were kidnapped by the mother. The different family and social experiences of these men and women are discussed, and implications for social work practice are explored. PMID:1925704

  16. Simple cellular automata to mimic foraging ants submitted to abduction

    E-print Network

    Tejera, F

    2015-01-01

    Many species of ants forage by building up two files: an outbound one moving from the nest to the foraging area, and a nestbound one, returning from it to the nest. Those files are eventually submitted to different threats. If the danger is concentrated at one point of the file, one might expect that ants returning to the nest will pass danger information to their nestmates moving in the opposite direction towards the danger area. In this paper, we construct simple cellular automata models for foraging ants submitted to localized abduction, were danger information is transmitted using different protocols, including the possibility of no transmission. The parameters we have used in the simulations have been estimated from actual experiments under natural conditions. So, it would be easy to test our information-transmission hypothese in real experiments. Preliminary experimental results published elsewhere suggest that the behavior of foraging ants of the species Atta insularis is best described using the hypot...

  17. Data-Driven Abductive Discovery in the Earth Sciences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional pathways to discovery in the Earth sciences rely on inductive and deductive approaches, by which patterns and phenomena in nature are discovered first, and observations and modeling to test causal hypotheses follow. These powerful methods have proven successful in documenting and comprehending many aspects of the natural world, but they are inherently less efficient at discovering new complex patterns that require synthesis of diverse types of data. Consequently, such gradual global processes as plate tectonics and climate change required decades of integrated data synthesis preceding discovery of critical Earth phenomena. Vast but largely untapped Earth science data resources offer a potentially revolutionary alternative 'abductive' approach to investigate Earth's co-evolving geo- and biospheres--a systematic data-driven search for accelerated discovery of hidden patterns in the data resources of a dozen different disciplines. Today's Earth science enterprises generate terabytes per day of new data, yet these vast resources are woefully underutilized because they are not linked into a single platform. We advocate the implementation of data infrastructure and interrogation strategies that link existing and new data resources and methods in mineralogy, paleontology, proteomics, irreversible thermodynamics, geodynamics, and geochronology, coupled with newly adapted statistical analysis and visualization capabilities--a new kind of open-access 'scientific instrument' that could transform the Earth sciences. Recent 'brute force' studies of variations in minerals of beryllium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum through deep time demonstrate the potential of this concept as a means to search for critical resources; generate insights regarding the co-evolution of ocean chemistry and microbial metabolism; uncover evidence for the timing and rates of near-surface oxygenation; and document subtle ongoing feedbacks between terrestrial life, weathering, soils, and climate. Abductive discovery could thus become a model for a 21st-century, data-driven science that exploits the tremendous opportunities represented by the vast and growing explosion of Earth science data.

  18. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Monitoring Intravascular Ultrasound Nuclear Stress Test Nuclear Ventriculography Optical Coherence Tomography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress Echocardiography Transesophageal Echocardiography ...

  19. QUAWDS: A Composite Diagnostic System for Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Michael A.; Bylander, Tom

    1989-01-01

    QUAWDS is a system for analyzing human gait. QUAWDS integrates associational and qualitative models of knowledge into a diagnostic system, taking advantage of the tasks each kind of model can determine efficiently and effectively. An abductive assembler is used to coordinate the different models. The result is a diagnostic solution that is “locally best,” i.e, no single change to the answer will produce a better solution. We believe QUAWDS' architecture is suitable for many complex domains.

  20. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:20093196

  1. Promoting convergence: The Phi spiral in abduction of mouse corneal behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jerry; Nejad, Talisa Mohammad; Comets, Olivier; Flannery, Sean; Gulsoy, Eine Begum; Iannaccone, Philip; Foster, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Why do mouse corneal epithelial cells display spiraling patterns? We want to provide an explanation for this curious phenomenon by applying an idealized problem solving process. Specifically, we applied complementary line-fitting methods to measure transgenic epithelial reporter expression arrangements displayed on three mature, live enucleated globes to clarify the problem. Two prominent logarithmic curves were discovered, one of which displayed the ? ratio, an indicator of an optimal configuration in phyllotactic systems. We then utilized two different computational approaches to expose our current understanding of the behavior. In one procedure, which involved an isotropic mechanics-based finite element method, we successfully produced logarithmic spiral curves of maximum shear strain based pathlines but computed dimensions displayed pitch angles of 35° (? spiral is ?17°), which was altered when we fitted the model with published measurements of coarse collagen orientations. We then used model-based reasoning in context of Peircean abduction to select a working hypothesis. Our work serves as a concise example of applying a scientific habit of mind and illustrates nuances of executing a common method to doing integrative science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity 20: 22–38, 2015 PMID:25755620

  2. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  3. An economic evaluation of the use of rare earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic X-ray procedures in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, G M; Schlesinger, T; Ben-Shlomo, A; Kushilevsky, A; Margaliot, M; Oren, M; Finkleman, M; Friedman, A; Handlesman, M; Lev, B

    1998-04-01

    In Israel the diffusion of rare earth screen technology has been limited. These screens could halve the radiation dose to the patient from diagnostic X-ray radiography, with little managerial effort and without being detrimental to the quality of the diagnostic image. We estimated the total effective dose from diagnostic film radiography capable of reduction by the use of rare earth screens, based on the number of hospital and ambulatory diagnostic X-ray procedures. This number was multiplied by the computed radiation dose per body site for a series of diagnostic procedures. The annual dose was approximately 0.53 mSv per head, approximately half of which could be averted by the introduction of rare earth screen technology. Based on a fatality risk of 3% Sv-1, it is estimated that the adoption of rare earth screen technology might reduce the annual incidence of cancer by some 93 cases, half of which would be fatal after an average latency period of 18.4 years. The cost of purchasing rare earth screens on a nationwide basis is approximately $3.0 million. This cost is outweighed by a saving of $9.6 million in X-ray tube replacement costs over the period 1997-2006. Government legislation enforcing the use of rare earth screens is essential, because of the lack of prestige associated with acquiring rare earth technology, as well as institutional reluctance to accept the external benefits of reduced morbidity and mortality and/or to extend budgetary time horizons. PMID:9659134

  4. Phase A: Initial Development of an Advanced Diagnostic Procedure for Air-Side Retrofits in Commercial Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Reddy, T. A.; Kissock, J. K.; Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a diagnostic approach that involves analyzing monitored whole-building cooling and heating energy use in large commercial buildings in order to determine the effectiveness of air-side energy retrofits...

  5. Agape: Peirce's Abduction Concerning the Growth of Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staab, Janice Marie

    Is the metaphysical articulation of the unity between science and sentiment either possible or desirable? Assuming an affirmative answer to both of these questions, this dissertation contends that the notion of agape may provide such a unity. Though agape has historical roots in the Christian notion of divine love, Charles S. Peirce considered this "law of Love" to be the fundamental principle giving coherence to the otherwise random, spontaneous evolution of the physical and psychical universe. The ability of agape to accomplish this unification is based upon the connection which Peirce drew between it and the logic of abduction, or hypothesis formation. By explicating the way in which agape acts as Peirce's primary evolutionary hypothesis, agape will be shown to act as a bridge between continuous evolutionary processes and discrete evolutionary events. As a similar debate is currently being explored regarding the evolution of quantum mechanical systems, this dissertation has the corollary purpose of indicating precisely how Peirce's notion of agape speaks to questions posed by contemporary quantum theorists.

  6. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  7. A three-dimensional model of vocal fold abductionÕadduction

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.; Alipour, Fariborz

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional biomechanical model of tissue deformation was developed to simulate dynamic vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model was made of 1721 nearly incompressible finite elements. The cricoarytenoid joint was modeled as a rocking–sliding motion, similar to two concentric cylinders. The vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle’s fiber characteristics were implemented as a fiber–gel composite made of an isotropic ground substance imbedded with fibers. These fibers had contractile and/or passive nonlinear stress–strain characteristics. The verification of the model was made by comparing the range and speed of motion to published vocal fold kinematic data. The model simulated abduction to a maximum glottal angle of about 31°. Using the posterior-cricoarytenoid muscle, the model produced an angular abduction speed of 405° per second. The system mechanics seemed to favor abduction over adduction in both peak speed and response time, even when all intrinsic muscle properties were kept identical. The model also verified the notion that the vocalis and muscularis portions of the thyroarytenoid muscle play significantly different roles in posturing, with the muscularis portion having the larger effect on arytenoid movement. Other insights into the mechanisms of abduction/adduction were given. PMID:15101653

  8. Increased hip abduction in high body mass index subjects during sit-to-stand.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Kyle D; Sanford, Brooke A; Zucker-Levin, Audrey R; Williams, John L; Mihalko, William M

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation. Differences in kinematics and kinetics at the hip during activities of daily living such as sit-to-stand (STS) may contribute to this risk. Nine high body mass index (BMI) subjects (mean BMI 31.2) and ten normal BMI control subjects (mean BMI 22.1) were analyzed using force plates and an optoelectronic motion capture camera system during controlled STS movement. Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation angles and moments at the hip and knee were calculated using a musculoskeletal model. No differences were found at the knee. Peak hip abduction angles were on average 50% greater in the high BMI group compared to the normal group (p=0.038). The hip was roughly 50% more abducted throughout the entire STS cycle in the high BMI group. Peak normalized hip abduction moments were approximately twice as large in the high BMI group (p=0.005). Further research is required to determine if this increase in abduction angle and moment observed during STS is a contributor to risk for complications following THA in obese subjects. PMID:25655834

  9. NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ?0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ?0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of Evidence: 2A PMID:24567857

  10. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1998-02-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum.

  11. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  12. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  13. Reliability and Validity of a Procedure To Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

    Preliminary psychometric data assessing the reliability and validity of a method used to measure the diagnostic reasoning and problem-solving skills of predoctoral students in orthodontia are described. The measurement approach consisted of sets of patient demographic data and dental photos and x-rays, accompanied by a set of 33 multiple-choice…

  14. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  15. Puumala Hantavirus-Induced Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Must Be Considered across the Borders of Nephrology to Avoid Unnecessary Diagnostic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kitterer, Daniel; Segerer, Stephan; Alscher, M. Dominik; Braun, Niko; Latus, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is caused by Puumala virus and is characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Methods A cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 adult patients with serologically confirmed NE was performed. Results Of the 456 investigated patients, 335 had received inpatient treatment. At time of admission to hospital, 72% of the patients had still an AKI and thrombocytopenia was present in 64% of the patients. The 335 patients were treated in 29 different hospitals and 6 of which had nephrology departments. 10 out of 335 patients received treatment in university hospitals and 63% of patients admitted themselves to hospital. Initially, the patients were admitted to 12 different clinical departments (29% of the patients were referred to a nephrology department) and during the course of the disease, 8% of the patients were transferred to another department in the same hospital and 3% were transferred to a nephrology department at another hospital. Regarding diagnostic procedures, in 28% of the inpatients computed tomography to exclude pulmonary embolism or due to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, lumbar puncture to exclude meningitis, magnetic resonance tomography of the brain owing to suspected stroke because of visual disorders, gastroscopy, or colonoscopy due to gastrointestinal symptoms was performed at time of admission to hospital. Conclusions NE must be considered by physicians across the borders of nephrology to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures especially in areas where NE is endemic. PMID:26650941

  16. Entonox® inhalation to reduce pain in common diagnostic and therapeutic outpatient urological procedures: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Young, A; Ismail, M; Papatsoris, AG; Barua, JM; Calleary, JG; Masood, J

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Entonox® (50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen; BOC Healthcare, Manchester, UK) is an analgesic and anxiolytic agent that is used to successfully reduce pain and anxiety during dental, paediatric and emergency department procedures. In this article we review the application and efficacy of Entonox® in painful local anaesthesia urological procedures by performing a systematic review of the literature. METHODS A MEDLINE® search was performed using the terms ‘nitrous oxide’, ‘Entonox’, ‘prostate biopsy’, ‘flexible cystoscopy’ and ‘extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy’. English language publications of randomised studies were identified and reviewed. RESULTS The search yielded five randomised studies that investigated the clinical efficacy of Entonox® as an analgesic for day case urological procedures. Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigated Entonox® in transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy. All three reported significant reductions in pain score in the Entonox® versus control groups. One RCT reported significant reduction in pain during male flexible cystoscopy in the Entonox® group compared with the control group. One RCT, which examined the use of Entonox® during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, found its use significantly decreased the pain score compared with the control group and this was comparable to intravenous pethidine. CONCLUSIONS Evidence from varied adult and paediatric procedures has shown Entonox® to be an effective, safe and patient acceptable form of analgesia. All published studies of its use in urological day case procedures have found it to significantly reduce procedural pain. There is huge potential to use this cheap, safe, effective analgesic in our current practice. PMID:22524905

  17. Examining the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Delivery Models to Teach Children Abduction Prevention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seckinger-Bancroft, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all children receive abduction prevention training. Most traditional education programs increase the learner's knowledge, but often fail to produce concomitant behavior change. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a multi-component, behavior-based training strategy with empirical support demonstrating its effectiveness in teaching children…

  18. Using Abduction for Video-Text Coreference Jerry R. Hobbs and Rutu Mulkar-Mehta

    E-print Network

    Hobbs, Jerry R.

    Using Abduction for Video-Text Coreference Jerry R. Hobbs and Rutu Mulkar-Mehta Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California Marina del Rey, California hobbs@isi.edu,rutu@isi-Tacitus, to interpret the combination of video and audio streams of news broadcasts, aiming at a coherent interpretation

  19. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Phil Seok

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

  20. Efficacy of the Stranger Safety Abduction-Prevention Program and Parent-Conducted in Situ Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…

  1. Abduction? Deduction? Induction? Is There a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho

    The philosophical notions introduced by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) are helpful for researchers in understanding the nature of knowledge and reality. In the Peircean logical system, the logic of abduction and deduction contribute to our conceptual understanding of a phenomenon, while the logic of induction adds quantitative details to the…

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Performance Improvements in Abductive Network Classifiers with Problem Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    : Classifiers, Abductive Networks, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Problem Decomposition, Divide and Conquer-and-conquer strategies have been proposed to improve the performance and realization of neural network solutions eleventh of the training time. Performance is comparable with a neural network solution using the same

  3. Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student's abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of…

  4. Recorded gonorrhoea rates in Denmark, 1900–2010: the impact of clinical testing activity and laboratory diagnostic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Inga; Hoffmann, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the relations between recorded gonorrhoea rates and clinical testing activity and disposable diagnostic tests. Methods In Denmark, two sources of information on the epidemiology of gonorrhoea are available: (1) a mandatory clinical notification system (since 1867) comprising summary information about geographic distribution, season, age group and gender; in 1994, more detailed anonymous individualised epidemiological information was included; (2) a voluntary countrywide laboratory surveillance system for culture-confirmed cases (since 1957) comprising information about patient's age and gender, infected anatomical sites and medical setting attended. Results Both surveillance systems showed marked simultaneous changes in gonorrhoea rates, although periodically considerable under-reporting or under-diagnosing was demonstrated. The annual incidence of notified cases peaked in 1919 (474/100?000), in 1944 (583/100?000) and in 1972 (344/100?000). Since 1995, the incidence has been at a low endemic level (1.5–10/100?000) and the total male/female incidence ratios were from 3 to 7 times higher than previously recorded. Among approximately 2 million persons tested during 1974–1988 78?213 men and 63?143 women with culture-confirmed gonorrhoea were identified. During this period, pharyngeal sampling was performed in 36% of men and 25% of women with gonorrhoea; pharyngeal gonorrhoea was found in 10% and 16%, respectively; 40% and 30% of these patients had no concomitant urogenital gonorrhoea. Among men with gonorrhoea, 34% were sampled from the rectum; 9% had rectal gonorrhoea, among whom the rectum was the only infected site in 67%. Conclusions Crucial factors for case finding are clinical sampling tradition and appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities. When case finding is insufficient, a reservoir of asymptomatic rectal or pharyngeal gonorrhoea remains unrecognised. PMID:26621510

  5. Follow-up study of persons who had iodine-131 and other diagnostic procedures during childhood and adolescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.M.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Kaczmarek, R.G.

    1989-08-01

    A prospective study of 3,503 children and adolescents who received diagnostic doses of iodine-131 was conducted to evaluate the risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasia. The exposed group was followed for a total of 93,442 person-years. Thyroid doses received by the exposed group ranged from less than 10 rads to slightly more than 2,000 rads. The majority received less than 100 rads. A group of 2,594 children and adolescents who were not exposed to radioactive iodine comprised the control group for the study. Members of the control group were followed for a total of 66,797 person-years. An elevated risk of malignant thyroid tumors was observed in the exposed group. An increased risk of benign thyroid conditions was also noted in the exposed group. The results described above failed to fulfill the requirements for statistical significance because of the small number of cases but are suggestive of a radiation effect.

  6. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ercole, Loredana; Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola; Klersy, Catherine; Bocchiola, Milena; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea; Lisciandro, Francesco; Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Farhad; Shariatpanahi, Elnaz; Jahanshahi, Javane; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM) has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear. Results The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear – the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures – were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery. Conclusion According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology. PMID:26167935

  8. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  9. Real-time feedback on knee abduction moment does not improve frontal-plane knee mechanics during jump landings.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M L; Palmieri-Smith, R M

    2014-08-01

    Excessive knee abduction loading is a contributing factor to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a double-leg landing training program with real-time visual feedback improves frontal-plane mechanics during double- and single-leg landings. Knee abduction angles and moments and vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) of 21 recreationally active women were quantified for double- and single-leg landings before and after the training program. This program consisted of two sessions of double-leg jump landings with real-time visual feedback on knee abduction moments for the experimental group and without real-time feedback for the control group. No significant differences were found between training groups. In comparison with pre-training data, peak knee abduction moments decreased 12% post-training for both double- and single-leg landings; whereas peak vertical GRF decreased 8% post-training for double-leg landings only, irrespective of training group. Real-time feedback on knee abduction moments, therefore, did not significantly improve frontal-plane knee mechanics during landings. The effect of the training program on knee abduction moments, however, transferred from the double-leg landings (simple task) to single-leg landings (more complex task). Consequently, ACL injury prevention efforts may not need to focus on complex tasks during which injury occurs. PMID:23347094

  10. Effect of cup abduction angle and head lateral microseparation on contact stresses in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sariali, Elhadi; Stewart, Todd; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2012-01-10

    A finite elements model was developed in order to evaluate the combined influence of the head lateral microseparation and the cup abduction angle on the contact pressure in Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty. The model's parameters were those used on the Leeds II hip simulator. A 32 mm head diameter and a 30 ?m radial clearance was used. The cup was positioned with an abduction angle ranging from 45° to 90°. The medio-lateral microseparation varied from 0 to 500 ?m. A load of 2500 N was applied through the head centre. For 45° abduction angle, edge loading appeared above a medial-lateral separation of 30 ?m. Complete edge loading was obtained for a 60 ?m medial-lateral separation. Under edge loading conditions, the contact area was found to be elliptical. For 45° abduction angle, as the head lateral separation increased, the maximal contact pressure increased from 66 MPa and converged to an asymptotic value of 205 MPa. Both cup abduction and lateral microseparation displacement induced a large increase in the stresses in Ceramic-on-Ceramic THA. However, this increase in contact pressure induced by higher abduction angle, became negligible as the lateral separation increased. PMID:22119582

  11. Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

  12. An epidemiological survey of therapy and diagnostic procedures used by Norwegian small animal practitioners in cases of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bredal, W P

    1998-09-01

    Forty per cent of the members of the Norwegian Small Animal Veterinary Association (NSAVA) returned a questionnaire regarding the treatment and diagnosis of canine nasal mite infection in their practices in 1996. A total of 2392 dogs were treated for this infection by 156 NSAVA members in clinical practice in that year, averaging 15.3 treated dogs per veterinarian. An estimated minimum of 6000 Norwegian dogs were treated for nasal mite infection in 1996, at an estimated cost of treatment exceeding 3.3 million NOK. Fifty-nine per cent of the practitioners included at least a case history and clinical examination as diagnostic criteria prior to initiating treatment for nasal mite infection. Fewer than 10% routinely performed more thorough diagnostic procedures, and only 1.8% of the diagnoses were verified prior to treatment. A total of 27 different treatment regimens, involving either subcutaneously injected ivermectin or orally administered milbemycin oxime, were routinely used by NSAVA veterinarians to treat these dogs. Seventy-two (53%) of the veterinarians used ivermectin exclusively, 14 (10%) used milbemycin oxime exclusively, while 50 (37%) used both ivermectin and milbemycin oxime. No other drugs were used. Evaluation of treatment was made by assessing resolution of the clinical signs following treatment, and 97% of the veterinarians were satisfied with the effect of the treatment regimen they used. Adverse side-effects following treatment for nasal mite infection in 1996 were seen on 9 occasions; 4 following ivermectin administration and 2 following milbemycin oxime treatment, while in 3 cases no information on the drug used was provided. The risk of adverse reactions to treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs was 0.4%. PMID:9810635

  13. Reconstruction of an infrared band of meteorological satellite imagery with abductive networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Harvey A.; Cockayne, John E.; Versteegen, Peter L.

    1995-01-01

    As the current fleet of meteorological satellites age, the accuracy of the imagery sensed on a spectral channel of the image scanning system is continually and progressively degraded by noise. In time, that data may even become unusable. We describe a novel approach to the reconstruction of the noisy satellite imagery according to empirical functional relationships that tie the spectral channels together. Abductive networks are applied to automatically learn the empirical functional relationships between the data sensed on the other spectral channels to calculate the data that should have been sensed on the corrupted channel. Using imagery unaffected by noise, it is demonstrated that abductive networks correctly predict the noise-free observed data.

  14. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27) or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31) participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n?=?31) were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n?=?27). There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were ?6 degrees (affected side), 9 (contralateral side) and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side) and 10 degrees (contralateral side). Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within ?6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter the reproducibility of testing. The use of a tri axial gyroscope is a simple non invasive and reproducible method for the recording of shoulder anteflexion and abduction. Movements have to be repeated twice for reproducible results. PMID:22846646

  15. Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than an hour. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses computer-generated radio waves and a powerful magnetic field ... signal at different angles within the body. A computer processes this resonance into either a three-dimensional ...

  16. Advances in diagnostic interventional pulmonology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubaidi, Nassar; Soubani, Ayman O.

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in diagnostic pulmonary procedures have revolutionized the evaluation of abnormal thoracic findings including lung nodules and masses, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural diseases. Bronchoscopies with endobronchial ultrasonography and electromagnetic navigation are examples of new technology that has significantly improved the specificity and sensitivity of these procedures in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer without the need for more invasive procedures. This report describes the different diagnostic pulmonary interventions providing a description of the procedures, their indications, diagnostic yield and drawback. PMID:26229756

  17. Geometric pattern of the hominoid hallucal tarsometatarsal complex. Quantifying the degree of hallux abduction in early hominids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berillon, Gilles

    1999-05-01

    The degree of hallux abduction in extant and fossil hominoids is analysed in terms of geometric relationships between the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform and quantified by angular data, in relation to grasping ability and locomotor pattern. The 'australopithecine' pattern corresponds to an abducted first podal ray with some grasping abilities and seems to be derived from a ' Proconsul-like' pattern rather than a 'living African great ape-like' pattern. The Olduvai Hominid 8 condition closely resembles that of the modern human which corresponds to a full bipedalism.

  18. Robust textual inference via learning and abductive reasoning Rajat Raina, Andrew Y. Ng and Christopher D. Manning

    E-print Network

    Manning, Christopher

    of logical theorem proving. We give experimental results from the recent PASCAL RTE 2005 challenge compe to the one used by (Harabagiu et al., 2000). An abductive theorem prover then tries to find the minimum of the above text processing applications (PASCAL RTE Challenge, PASCAL Recogniz­ ing Textual Entailment

  19. Robust textual inference via learning and abductive reasoning Rajat Raina, Andrew Y. Ng and Christopher D. Manning

    E-print Network

    Manning, Christopher

    to the one used by (Harabagiu et al., 2000). An abductive theorem prover then tries to find the minimum "cost the ro- bustness and scalability of learning with the preciseness and elegance of logical theorem proving. We give experimental results from the recent PASCAL RTE 2005 challenge compe- tition on recognizing

  20. How Can Teachers Help Students Formulate Scientific Hypotheses? Some Strategies Found in Abductive Inquiry Activities of Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Phil Seok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find how the teacher could help students formulate scientific hypotheses. Data came from two microteaching episodes in which two groups of pre-service secondary science teachers taught high school students as they were engaged in abductive inquiry activities of earth science. Multiple data sources including video…

  1. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in situ Feedback to Protect Children with Autism from Abduction Lures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…

  2. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  3. Abduction, Deduction and Induction: Can These Concepts Be Used for an Understanding of Methodological Processes in Interpretative Case Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åsvoll, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…

  4. Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves. PMID:12292476

  5. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sponsorship Opportunities Login Diagnostic Laparoscopy Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon Diagnostic ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  6. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  7. The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

    Cancer.gov

    An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

  8. After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ?1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ?1 reintegration program were not significantly different from those who self-reintegrated (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Over 40% of female abductees in this sample had accessed a reintegration program, however significant differences in mental health were not observed between those who accessed a reintegration program and those who self-reintegrated. The successful reintegration of combatants and abductees into their recipient community is a complex process and these results support the need for gender-specific services and ongoing evaluation of reintegration programming. PMID:24855489

  9. Visuomotor Correction is a Robust Contributor to Force Variability During Index Finger Abduction by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Brian L.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Welsh, Seth J.; Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined aging-related differences in the contribution of visuomotor correction to force fluctuations during index finger abduction via the analysis of two datasets from similar subjects. Study (1) Young (N = 27, 23 ± 8 years) and older adults (N = 14, 72 ± 9 years) underwent assessment of maximum voluntary contraction force (MVC) and force steadiness during constant-force (CF) index finger abduction (2.5, 30, 65% MVC). For each trial, visual feedback of the force (VIS) was provided for 8–10 s and removed for 8–10 s (NOVIS). Visual gain of the force feedback at 2.5% MVC was high; 12- and 26-fold greater than the 30 and 65% MVC targets. Mean force, standard deviation (SD) of force, and coefficient of variation (CV) of force was calculated for detrended (<0.5 Hz drift removed) VIS and NOVIS data segments. Study (2) A similar group of 14 older adults performed discrete, randomly-ordered VIS or NOVIS trials at low target forces (1–3% MVC) and high visual gain. Study (1) For young adults the CV of force was similar between VIS and NOVIS for the 2.5% (4.8 vs. 4.3%), 30% (3.2 vs. 3.2%) and 65% (3.5 vs. 4.2%) target forces. In contrast, for older adults the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS for 2.5% MVC (6.6 vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001), but not for the 30% (2.4 vs. 2.4%) and 65% (3.1 vs. 3.3%) target forces. At 2.5% MVC, the increase in CV of force for VIS compared with NOVIS was significantly greater (age × visual condition p = 0.008) for older than young adults. Study (2) Similarly, for older adults performing discrete, randomly ordered trials the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS (6.04 vs. 3.81%, p = 0.01). When visual force feedback was a dominant source of information at low forces, normalized force variability was ~58% greater for older adults, but only 11% greater for young adults. The significant effect of visual feedback for older adults was not dependent on the order of presentation of visual conditions. The results indicate that impaired processing of visuomotor information underlies the greater motor variability observed in older adults during lab-based isometric contractions of a hand muscle. PMID:26696881

  10. Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5–9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1–17.9 years). Results: The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10–20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°–140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13–25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°–180°, P < .0003). Conclusion: The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder. PMID:23308301

  11. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p?=?0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences, both overall and by gender. The analysis further revealed that young northern Ugandans in general are in desperate need of education, skills development, and support for victims of sexual violence. Conclusions This study persuasively demonstrates that all young people in northern Ugandan have been similarly affected by HIV infection during war and displacement. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore abandon rudimentary targeting practices based on abductees as a high-profile category. Instead, they must develop evidence-based HIV interventions that are commensurate with young people’s specific needs. As such programmes will be less stigmatizing, more oriented to self-selection, and more inclusive, they will effectively reach the most vulnerable young people in northern Uganda. PMID:23919329

  12. Comparison of Isokinetic Hip Abduction and Adduction Peak Torques and Ratio Between Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G.; Mullineaux, David R.; Palmer, Thomas G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate hip abductor and adductor peak torque outputs and compare their ratios between sexes. Design A cross-sectional laboratory-controlled study. Setting Participants visited a laboratory and performed an isokinetic hip abductor and adductor test. All participants performed 2 sets of 5 repetitions of concentric hip abduction and adduction in a standing position at 60 degrees per second. Gravity was determined as a function of joint angle relative to the horizontal plane and was corrected by normalizing the weight of the limb on an individual basis. Participants A total of 36 collegiate athletes. Independent Variable Sex (20 females and 16 males). Main Outcome Measures Bilateral peak hip abductor and adductor torques were measured. The 3 highest peak torque values were averaged for each subject. Results Independent t tests were used to compare sex differences in hip abductor and adductor peak torques and the abductor:adductor peak torque ratios. Males demonstrated significantly greater hip abductor peak torque compared with females (males 1.29 ± 0.24 Nm/kg, females 1.13 ± 0.20 Nm/kg; P = 0.03). Neither hip adductor peak torque nor their ratios differed between sexes. Conclusions Sex differences in hip abductor strength were observed. The role of weaker hip abductors in females deserves further attention and may be a factor for higher risk of knee pathologies. PMID:24905541

  13. Determination of radioisotopes in gamma-ray spectroscopy using abductive machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, R. E.; Al-Haddad, M. N.

    1997-02-01

    An algorithmic approach has been adopted for many years for identifying and quantifying radioisotopes in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra. Complexity of the technique, particularly when used with lower resolution detectors, warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only during training, while actual sample analysis is greatly simplified. This should be advantageous in developing simple portable systems for fast online analysis of large numbers of samples, particularly in situations where accuracy can be traded off for speed and simplicity. Solutions based on neural networks have been reported in the literature. This paper describes the use of abductive networks which offer shorter training times and a simpler and more automated approach to model synthesis. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for determining isotopes in both single-and multiple-isotope samples represented by spectra from an NaI (Tl) detector. Inspite of a 50-fold poorer resolution for the AIM spectral data, AIM results are adequate, with average errors ranging between 11.8% and 20.5% for a number of simulated multi-isotope cocktails. AIM is a Registered Trademark of AbTech Corporation, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

  14. Measuring children's retention of skills to resist stranger abduction: use of the simulation technique.

    PubMed

    Fryer, G E; Kraizer, S K; Miyoshi, T

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation which builds upon an earlier project to measure actual behavioral change in the form of reduction of vulnerability to abduction and abuse by strangers; change attributable to participation in a primary prevention program. Simulations, life-like scenarios previously described, were used to address three key questions: Did children who had demonstrated mastery of prevention skills acquired six months earlier retain those skills? Would reteaching the prevention program result in mastery for those children who failed to demonstrate required skills after the first presentation of the prevention program? Could the experimental group results of the first project be repeated with the previous control group? Several findings validated the earlier work and enhanced the understanding of what can be accomplished through prevention programing. Thirty of the original 44 children who participated six months earlier were again available to take part in the final simulation. Of those, all of the previous experimental group children who had performed successfully when participating in the simulation upon completion of the first project were again successful six months later in resisting the invitation of a stranger to leave their school. Each of the previous control group children were successful in the final simulation after participation in the program. But reteaching of the prevention program was successful for just two of the four children who had earlier failed following participation in the program. These findings document the immediate and continued benefits which may accrue from experientially based prevention programing and suggest an important research agenda to facilitate the further evolution of prevention programing and evaluation. PMID:3594278

  15. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Manny

    1994-05-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) ? and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given ? and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

  16. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and ... and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  17. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Faye, S A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced.

  18. A Rare Orbital Complication of Eye Exodeviation With Limited Abduction During Monobloc Le Fort III Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Firdaus; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Bin Abdul; Ramasamy, Sundrarajan Naidu; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2015-07-01

    Monobloc Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis allows superior skeletal advancement in treating severe syndromic craniosynostosis. We report a rare orbital complication in a 3-year-old boy with Crouzon syndrome who developed right-eye exodeviation with limited abduction during the intradistraction period following this surgery. Images from a computed tomography scan confirmed direct impingement of the distracted right lateral orbital wall to the lateral rectus muscle. The impingement was surgically relieved via lateral orbital wall osteotomy. Ten months postdistraction, a review showed normal eye movement. A lateral orbital osteotomy cut for a monobloc Le Fort III distraction should be designed near the rim to prevent this complication. PMID:25007030

  19. Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Report from the Committee on Foreign Relations (To Accompany Treaty Doc. 99-11). 99th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

    The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, an international law whose purpose is to establish uniform rules to be applied in cases of international child abduction, is described. The Hague Convention requires that children wrongfully removed or retained abroad in connection with parental custody disputes be…

  20. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  1. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads...

  2. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section...on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad...genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads...

  3. Angiomia Imaging and Diagnostics, Angiography and Functional MRI

    MedlinePLUS

    ... future diagnostic procedures. Other Diagnostic Tools – PET, SPECT, MEG, EEG, Ultrasound There are a host of other ... Given these limitations, fMRI is almost always preferable. MEG and EEG measure the electrical activity of the ...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1380 - Diagnostic condensing lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 886.1380 Diagnostic condensing lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic condensing lens is a device used in binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (a procedure that produces an inverted or reversed direct magnified image of the eye)...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1380 - Diagnostic condensing lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 886.1380 Diagnostic condensing lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic condensing lens is a device used in binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (a procedure that produces an inverted or reversed direct magnified image of the eye)...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1380 - Diagnostic condensing lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 886.1380 Diagnostic condensing lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic condensing lens is a device used in binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (a procedure that produces an inverted or reversed direct magnified image of the eye)...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1380 - Diagnostic condensing lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 886.1380 Diagnostic condensing lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic condensing lens is a device used in binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (a procedure that produces an inverted or reversed direct magnified image of the eye)...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1380 - Diagnostic condensing lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 886.1380 Diagnostic condensing lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic condensing lens is a device used in binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (a procedure that produces an inverted or reversed direct magnified image of the eye)...

  9. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers and Cardiovascular Technologists, Technicians, Including Vascular Technologists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before, during, and after procedures. <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Diagnostic imaging workers may ... to lift or turn patients who are disabled. Work Schedules Most diagnostic imaging workers work full time. ...

  10. Human rather than ape-like orbital morphology allows much greater lateral visual field expansion with eye abduction

    PubMed Central

    Denion, Eric; Hitier, Martin; Levieil, Eric; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    While convergent, the human orbit differs from that of non-human apes in that its lateral orbital margin is significantly more rearward. This rearward position does not obstruct the additional visual field gained through eye motion. This additional visual field is therefore considered to be wider in humans than in non-human apes. A mathematical model was designed to quantify this difference. The mathematical model is based on published computed tomography data in the human neuro-ocular plane (NOP) and on additional anatomical data from 100 human skulls and 120 non-human ape skulls (30 gibbons; 30 chimpanzees / bonobos; 30 orangutans; 30 gorillas). It is used to calculate temporal visual field eccentricity values in the NOP first in the primary position of gaze then for any eyeball rotation value in abduction up to 45° and any lateral orbital margin position between 85° and 115° relative to the sagittal plane. By varying the lateral orbital margin position, the human orbit can be made “non-human ape-like”. In the Pan-like orbit, the orbital margin position (98.7°) was closest to the human orbit (107.1°). This modest 8.4° difference resulted in a large 21.1° difference in maximum lateral visual field eccentricity with eyeball abduction (Pan-like: 115°; human: 136.1°). PMID:26190625

  11. Predictive Coding Integer-Based Wavelet Transform Approach to Diagnostically Lossless Medical Image Volume Compression

    E-print Network

    Qi, Xiaojun

    Predictive Coding Integer-Based Wavelet Transform Approach to Diagnostically Lossless Medical Image sets. This paper presents a diagnostically lossless medical image volume compression algorithm preprocessing procedure to remove noise outside the diagnostic region in medical image volumes. This volume

  12. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (4) The procedures are limited to— (i) Skeletal films involving the extremities, pelvis, vertebral column, or skull; (ii) Chest or abdominal films that do not involve the use of contrast media; and (iii) Diagnostic mammograms...

  13. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3) The procedures are limited to— (i) Skeletal films involving the extremities, pelvis, vertebral column, or skull; (ii) Chest or abdominal films that do not involve the use of contrast media; and (iii) Diagnostic mammograms...

  14. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (3) The procedures are limited to— (i) Skeletal films involving the extremities, pelvis, vertebral column, or skull; (ii) Chest or abdominal films that do not involve the use of contrast media; and (iii) Diagnostic mammograms...

  15. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (4) The procedures are limited to— (i) Skeletal films involving the extremities, pelvis, vertebral column, or skull; (ii) Chest or abdominal films that do not involve the use of contrast media; and (iii) Diagnostic mammograms...

  16. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (3) The procedures are limited to— (i) Skeletal films involving the extremities, pelvis, vertebral column, or skull; (ii) Chest or abdominal films that do not involve the use of contrast media; and (iii) Diagnostic mammograms...

  17. Arguing at Play in the Fields of the Lord; or, Abducting Charles Peirce's Rhetorical Theory in "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that the ideas of "play" and "abduction" in Charles Peirce's work represent an inventive theory of argument that opens up the kinds of activities that can be called "arguments" and avoids some of the struggles over imposed beliefs with which recent argument theory has grappled. (Contains 12 notes.)

  18. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ? 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N) to 202 N (p<0.001) while on the left, the recorded results improved from 158 N to 223 N (p<0.001). Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications. PMID:23031635

  19. A parental report on the long-term consequences for children of abduction by the other parent.

    PubMed

    Greif, G L

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term impact on the child of abduction by a parent. Children who had been kidnapped by one of their parents and hidden for an average of 2.7 years have been followed for a decade through contact with the parent who recovered them. This study reports on the most recent series of interviews. It was hypothesized that children who were now late teens and young adults would, on the whole, be progressing satisfactorily into young adulthood and that relationships with their parents would be non-problematic. According to 32 parental reports gleaned both from a telephone interview with open-ended and closed-ended questions and from a brief mailed questionnaire with closed-ended questions, a significant minority of the children continue to suffer emotionally and may be having more physical ailments than their peers. Relations with recovering parents were non-problematic. PMID:11033929

  20. A comparison of the reliability of make versus break testing in measuring palmar abduction strength of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Lim, J X; Toh, R X; Chook, S K H; Sebastin, S J; Karjalainen, T

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have established the role of quantitative measurements of palmar abduction strength of the thumb (PAST). This study compares the reliability of the 'make' versus the 'break' test in measuring PAST in healthy volunteers. In a 'make' test, the body part being tested is positioned at the start of its range of motion and the participant is asked to exert his/her maximal force. In a 'break' test, increasing force is applied to a body part after it has completed its range of motion, until the joint being tested gives way. PAST was measured in both hands in 100 healthy volunteers using a handheld device. Two examiners measured PAST using both the 'make' and 'break' test to determine inter-rater reliability. The tests were repeated in 30 volunteers 6 weeks after the initial testing to determine intra-rater reliability. Our results showed that the 'make' test has better inter and intra-rater reliability. PMID:24876683

  1. A diagnostic procedure for multivariate quality control 

    E-print Network

    Keserla, Adhinarayan A.

    1993-01-01

    There are many instances in which the quality of a product or stability of a process is determined by several variables. Most often there exist correlations among the variables monitored. In such situations one wishes to take advantage...

  2. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  3. Three-Dimensional Rotations of the Scapula During Arm Abduction: Evaluation of the Acromion Marker Cluster Method in Comparison With a Model-Based Approach Using Biplanar Radiograph Images.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Sonia; Billuart, Fabien; Sah, Sungjin; Ohl, Xavier; Robert, Thomas; Skalli, Wafa; Wang, Xuguang

    2015-10-01

    Noninvasive methods enabling measurement of shoulder bone positions are paramount in clinical and ergonomics applications. In this study, the acromion marker cluster (AMC) method is assessed in comparison with a model-based approach allowing scapula tracking from low-dose biplanar radiograph images. Six healthy male subjects participated in this study. Data acquisition was performed for 6 arm abduction positions (0°, 45°, 90°, 120°, 150°, 180°). Scapula rotations were calculated using the coordinate systems and angle sequence was defined by the ISB. The comparison analysis was based on root mean square error (RMSE) calculation and nonparametric statistical tests. RMSE remained under 8° for 0° to 90° arm abduction and under 13.5° for 0° to 180° abduction; no significant differences were found between the 2 methods. Compared with previous works, an improved accuracy of the AMC approach at high arm abduction positions was obtained. This could be explained by the different sources of data used as the "gold standard." PMID:26099159

  4. Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging.

  5. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  6. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

  7. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  8. Performance Benchmarks for Diagnostic Mammography

    Cancer.gov

    In the United States, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation requires limited auditing of clinical outcomes for all screening and diagnostic mammography examinations that have been assessed as either suspicious for malignancy or highly suggestive of malignancy. More comprehensive auditing is performed by many mammography facilities in both the United States and other countries. Auditing is thought to be a useful quality assurance procedure, providing performance feedback to both mammography facilities and individual interpreting radiologists.

  9. Innovations in diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H. )

    1989-01-01

    The current status and future applications of various diagnostic imaging procedures are discussed in this volume. The focus is on research and development, in particular the potential they hold for further development and clinical application in various specialties. Those concerned with the academic growth of radiology as a discipline, such as basic scientists, young clinicians in training, and chairmen responsible for department planning, will be especially interested in the trends presented here. The subject matter includes magnetic resonance imaging, interventional radiology, ultrasound, image analysis and management, positron emission tomography, and research training programs. The volume emphasizes the multidisciplinary direction of medical imaging; both basic scientists and clinicians in a wide variety of medical research areas should be aware of this tendency and the opportunities which will be available in the future.

  10. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  11. Activation of the gluteus medius according to load during horizontal hip abduction in a one-leg stance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Yeong-Ju; Koo, Hyun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study researched the influences of different loads on muscle activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius in a one-leg standing position. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adult men participated in this study. [Methods] All participants performed the one-leg standing position under four conditions: the standard no-load condition, in which the non-weight-bearing leg was lifted and kept parallel to the back and then pelvic or lumbar rotation was performed without thorax rotation, and the 0?kg, 1?kg, and 3?kg load conditions, in which horizontal shoulder abduction was performed with a load of 0?kg, 1?kg, or 3?kg added to the hand. The electromyographic activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius was measured using a wireless surface electromyography under all conditions. The electromyographic activity of each muscle under the four conditions during the one-leg stance was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The electromyographic activity of the posterior fiber of the gluteus medius was significantly increased under the 3?kg load condition compared with the no-load, 0?kg load, and 1?kg load conditions. [Conclusion] These findings indicated that muscle activation is affected by increases in load in the one-leg standing position. The load on the upper extremity influences the muscle activity of the contralateral lower extremity. PMID:26356544

  12. Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberry, Phillip A.

    1991-01-01

    The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

  13. A Framework to Debug Diagnostic Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodal, Anuradha; Robinson, Peter; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics is an important concept in system health and monitoring of space operations. Many of the existing diagnostic algorithms utilize system knowledge in the form of diagnostic matrix (D-matrix, also popularly known as diagnostic dictionary, fault signature matrix or reachability matrix) gleaned from physical models. But, sometimes, this may not be coherent to obtain high diagnostic performance. In such a case, it is important to modify this D-matrix based on knowledge obtained from other sources such as time-series data stream (simulated or maintenance data) within the context of a framework that includes the diagnostic/inference algorithm. A systematic and sequential update procedure, diagnostic modeling evaluator (DME) is proposed to modify D-matrix and wrapper logic considering least expensive solution first. This iterative procedure includes conditions ranging from modifying 0s and 1s in the matrix, or adding/removing the rows (failure sources) columns (tests). We will experiment this framework on datasets from DX challenge 2009.

  14. The rat Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay: a physiological model for assessing botulinum neurotoxin-induced skeletal muscle paralysis.

    PubMed

    Broide, Ron S; Rubino, John; Nicholson, Gregory S; Ardila, Maria C; Brown, Meenakshi S; Aoki, K Roger; Francis, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are approved for a number of therapeutic indications, including blepharospasm, cervical dystonia and hyperhidrosis, and have also shown efficacy in a variety of pain disorders. The potency of any given BoNT preparation can be routinely assessed by using the Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay, which measures the local muscle weakening efficacy of BoNT following injection into mouse hindlimb muscle. While most studies have employed mice to assess BoNT efficacy in the DAS, few have utilized rats. In this study, we applied the DAS assay to a rat model and compared the potency of IM-BOTOX(®) (onabotulinumtoxinA) injections between two separate hind limb muscles, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior (TA). The results demonstrated that the DAS assay can be performed on rats with similar criteria and parameters as for mice. Moreover in the rat, BoNT can be injected into either the gastrocnemius or TA muscle to elicit similar DAS scoring responses. Interestingly, onabotulinumtoxinA potency in the rat DAS was ?3-fold higher following TA injections than gastrocnemius injections. Additionally, our data showed that the durational kinetics of onabotulinumtoxinA in the rat DAS are approximately twice as long as in the mouse DAS. These results position the rat DAS as a more flexible model for examining the mechanisms of BoNT diffusion and muscle paralysis, while mouse DAS can be used for physiological screening of BoNT because of the potential for higher throughput. Overall, these data confirm the utility of the DAS assay for characterizing the physiological potency of BoNT and related compounds. PMID:23707612

  15. Relationships among performance of lateral cutting maneuver from lateral sliding and hip extension and abduction motions, ground reaction force, and body center of mass height.

    PubMed

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Ide, Daishi; Kokubu, Masahiro; Nakaoji, Tetsu

    2013-07-01

    Basketball players have to move laterally and quickly change their movement directions, especially during defensive moves. This study aimed to investigate how frontal and sagittal plane hip movements relate to fastness and quickness of lateral cutting maneuvers from sliding. Three-dimensional biomechanical data were obtained for 28 female college basketball players while they performed lateral cutting maneuvers using their left leg after 2 lateral sliding steps. The lateral cutting index (LCIndex) expressing fastness and quickness of lateral cutting maneuvers, peak hip abduction and extension velocities immediately before foot contact, hip abduction and extension velocities at foot contact, peak horizontal ground reaction force, frontal plane ground reaction force angle, and sacrum center of mass position were calculated. Simple and stepwise regression analyses were conducted to predict LCIndex. The former showed that greater maximum hip extension velocity (p = 0.03) and lesser hip abduction velocity (p = 0.04) as well as smaller ground reaction force angle (p = 0.001) and lower sacrum center of mass position (p = 0.001) at foot contact led to better LCIndex. The latter showed that sacrum center of mass position at foot contact and hip extension velocity explained 35.3% (p < 0.01) and 7.3% (p = 0.088) of variance in LCIndex, respectively. Our results did not suggest that hip abductor function is important for lateral sliding moves, instead suggesting that faster hip extension motions to kick the ground and lowering the body center of mass are crucial for better lateral deceleration-acceleration motions. PMID:23085969

  16. Examination of the torque required to passively palmar abduct the thumb CMC joint in a pediatric population with hemiplegia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Ahmad, Mona Qureshi; Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Correia, Annette

    2015-12-16

    Many activities of daily living involve precision grasping and bimanual manipulation, such as putting toothpaste on a toothbrush or feeding oneself. However, children afflicted by stroke, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury may have lost or never had the ability to actively and accurately control the thumb. To translate insights from adult rehabilitation robotics to innovative therapies for hand rehabilitation in pediatric care, specifically for thumb deformities, an understanding of the torque needed to abduct the thumb to assist grasping tasks is required. Participants (n=16, 10 female, 13.2±3.1 years) had an upper extremity evaluation and measures were made of their passive range of motion, anthropometrics, and torques to abduct the thumb for both their affected and non-affected sides. Torque measures were made using a custom wrist orthosis that was adjusted for each participant. The torque to achieve maximum abduction was 1.47±0.61inlb for the non-affected side and 1.51±0.68inlb for the affected side, with a maximum recorded value of 4.87inlb. The overall maximum applied torque was observed during adduction and was 5.10inlb. We saw variation in the applied torque, which could have been due to the applied torques by the Occupational Therapist or the participant actively assisting or resisting the motion rather than remaining passive. We expect similar muscle and participant variation to exist with an assistive device. Thus, the data presented here can be used to inform the specifications for the development of an assistive thumb orthosis for children with "thumb-in-palm" deformity. PMID:26542786

  17. Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State the pattern of disease problem in the turf on the turf (check as many as apply): Leaf Spot Frog eye/Dead areas Other Bleached Patches

  18. [Diagnostic tests of Lyme borreliosis].

    PubMed

    Steffen, I; Hirsch, H H

    2005-11-01

    The diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi subspecies (sensu lato) in Europe does not allow to simply adopt the US definitions and tests which were established for B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Routine detection of Borrelia-specific antibodies now includes specific antigens of the subspecies B. afzelii and B. garinii. Thus, the 2-step serology of screening by ELISA and confirmation by immunoblot remains the most important diagnostic test of lyme borreliosis. The detection of borrelia by PCR or culture is of lesser importance due to the limited sensitivity, despite of the high specificity. In clinical practice, the risk of exposure to ticks and the stage of the clinical presentation guide the choice of appropriate diagnostic procedures and their interpretation. PMID:16350536

  19. Ratite diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Williams, J

    1998-11-01

    Diagnostic imaging of ratite species is a challenge, even to the specialist. A portable radiography unit is frequently inadequate to penetrate the coelomic cavity of large birds, but should provide diagnostic quality radiographs of the extremities. Ultrasonography allows visualization of the coelomic structures, but will not penetrate gas or air. Use of both technologies often provides diagnostic information helpful to the clinician. PMID:10098235

  20. [Cytopathology in the diagnostics of hematological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kreipe, H H

    2015-11-01

    Whereas in many fields of surgical pathology examination of cytological smears and analysis of histological tissue sections provide alternative methods which are chosen according to the clinical requirements, in hematopathology both types of morphological investigation are routinely applied in parallel and simultaneously. This procedure improves the diagnostic precision and safety. Unlike other European countries in Germany both procedures are performed by different specialties. Cytology is the responsibility of hematologists whereas histology is carried out by pathologists, which interferes with an integrative diagnostic approach unless intense communication takes place. Ideally, in the diagnosis of hematological disorders histology of bone marrow trephines should be studied in conjunction with smears of peripheral blood and bone marrow. In many instances, further complementary investigations, such as flow cytometry, cytogenetics and increasingly molecular pathological studies are necessary to guarantee an adequate modern state of diagnostics in hematopathology. PMID:26432799

  1. A Construct Validation of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Theodore B.

    In November 1996, the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) approved the revision of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory (ADI), the diagnostic procedure conducted in their assessment center. To assist the NAESP in the use of the ADI for the assessment of current and prospective school principals, the construct validity…

  2. DIAGNOSTIC OF MELANOMAS VIA IMAGE PROCESSING 0. Hochmuth, Beate Meffert

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    DIAGNOSTIC OF MELANOMAS VIA IMAGE PROCESSING 0. Hochmuth, Beate Meffert Department of Electrical in dermatology as diagnostic method for malignant melanomas and other skin deseases [1,2,3]. The method helps of the melanoma is shown in Fig. 2. The approximation is possible by different procedures, e. g. by a harmonic

  3. Posterior Capsular Plication Constrains the Glenohumeral Joint by Drawing the Humeral Head Closer to the Glenoid and Resisting Abduction

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael T.; Patel, Nehal; Walley, Kempland C.; Harlow, Ethan R.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Masoudi, Aidin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J.; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common problem, with 30% to 50% of the American population affected annually. While the majority of these shoulder problems improve, there is a high rate of recurrence, as 54% of patients experience persistent symptoms 3 years after onset. Purpose: Posterior shoulder tightness has been shown to alter glenohumeral (GH) kinematics. Clinically, posterior shoulder contractures result in a significant loss of internal rotation and abduction (ABD). In this study, the effect of a posterior capsular contracture on GH kinematics was investigated using an intact cadaveric shoulder without violating the joint capsule or the rotator cuff. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Glenohumeral motion, humeral load, and subacromial contact pressure were measured in 6 fresh-frozen left shoulders during passive ABD from 60° to 100° using an automated robotic upper extremity testing system. Baseline values were compared with the experimental condition in which the full thickness of posterior tissues was plicated without decompressing the joint capsule. Results: Posterior soft tissue plication resulted in increased compression between the humeral head and the glenoid (axial load) at 90° of ABD. Throughout ABD, the posterior contracture increased the anterior and superior moment on the humeral head, but it did not change the GH kinematics in this intact model. As a result, there was no increase in the subacromial contact pressure during ABD with posterior plication. Conclusion: In an intact cadaveric shoulder, posterior contracture does not alter GH motion or subacromial contact pressure during passive ABD. By tightening the soft tissue envelope posteriorly, there is an increase in compressive load on the articular cartilage and anterior/superior force on the humeral head. These findings suggest that subacromial impingement in the setting of a posterior soft tissue contracture may result from alterations in scapulothoracic motion, not changes in GH kinematics. Clinical Relevance: This investigation demonstrates that posterior capsular plication increases the axial load on the shoulder joint during ABD. While a significant difference from baseline was observed in the plicated condition, posterior capsular plication did not change GH motion or subacromial contact pressure significantly. PMID:26535390

  4. A layered abduction model of perception: Integrating bottom-up and top-down processing in a multi-sense agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josephson, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.

  5. Children and young mothers' agency in the context of conflict: a review of the experiences of formerly abducted young people in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ochen, Eric Awich

    2015-04-01

    This paper critically examines the experiences of formerly abducted young women during their captivity with the Lord Resistance Army rebels and in the resettlement and reintegration period. Special attention is given to their exercise of agency and choices. Using a qualitative design, narrative interviews were conducted with child mothers (N=21), local and civic actors (N=17), and the general community through focus groups (N=10). Data transcripts were analyzed using template analysis methods to derive meanings and increase understanding of the situation. Abducted children faced significant difficulties during their captivity and also during their resettlement and reintegration process, yet they continued to exhibit strong agency to cope with the new realities. Despite these difficulties, opportunities existed which were utilized by the young people, albeit to different degrees depending on each young person's ability and initiative (agency). Situational factors limiting the child mothers' agency were identified as embedded within the latter's environment. This study raises the importance of appreciation of the young women's agency in both the bush-captivity experience and resettlement and reintegration processes within the community, post-conflict. PMID:25641049

  6. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  7. BEAM SIMULATIONS USING VIRTUAL DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DRIVER LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. York; X. Wu; Q. Zhao

    2011-12-21

    End-to-end beam simulations for the driver linac have shown that the design meets the necessary performance requirements including having adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances. However, to achieve reliable operational performance, the development of appropriate beam diagnostic systems and control room procedures are crucial. With limited R&D funding, beam simulations provide a cost effective tool to evaluate candidate beam diagnostic systems and to provide a critical basis for developing early commissioning and later operational activities. We propose to perform beam dynamic studies and engineering analyses to define the requisite diagnostic systems of the driver linac and through simulation to develop and test commissioning and operational procedures.

  8. Kindergarten Screening Procedures: Early Identification or Merely Early Labeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerich, Robert L.

    Concern about typical early identification procedures used with kindergarten children to predict potential reading failure is expressed in this paper. A diagnostic procedure for screening kindergarten children and then prescribing an individualized program for each child is described. The screening battery--Prediction with Diagnostic Qualities…

  9. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  10. The Bayesian approach to evaluation of diagnostic data.

    PubMed

    Scandellari, C

    1991-01-01

    Following review of the basic principles of Bayes' theorem, its application to diagnostic procedures is discussed. It is asserted that Bayes' theorem can be applied to clinical diagnostics, provided that disease prior probabilities can be calculated and it can be assumed that a particular patient and those included in the calculation of prior probabilities represent two samples of the same homogeneous population. Problems associated with both these requirements are briefly reviewed. With the aid of some clinical examples, the usefulness of Bayes' theorem is detailed in: (a) evaluating the information obtained through the results of diagnostic studies, (b) evaluating the level of diagnostic reliability achieved with obtained data and (c) a priori evaluation, i.e. before knowing the result, of what kind of information a test can supply. It is concluded that Bayes' theorem is a powerful tool in the rational control and improvement of diagnostic procedures, if not relevant in the formulation of the diagnosis of a single patient. PMID:1809057

  11. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  12. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  13. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  14. [The diagnostic dilemma of acute thoracic pain].

    PubMed

    Kleinfeldt, T; Ince, H; Rehders, T C; Nienaber, C A

    2007-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is gaining recognition in Western societies, and is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. New diagnostic imaging modalities, longer life expectancy in general, as well as the increase in the number of hypertension patients have all contributed to the growing awareness of aortic dissections. Compared with acute coronary syndrome and lung embolism, aortic dissection is among the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening conditions involving chest pain. Here we report the case of a 59 year old patient suffering from hypertension and discuss the latest diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the setting of acute chest pain. PMID:17111157

  15. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  16. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  17. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  18. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  19. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  20. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  1. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  2. [Capillaroscopy. Procedure and nomenclature].

    PubMed

    Sander, O; Sunderkötter, C; Kötter, I; Wagner, I; Becker, M; Herrgott, I; Schwarting, A; Ostendorf, B; Iking-Konert, C; Genth, E

    2010-05-01

    Capillaroscopy has high diagnostic and prognostic value in autoimmune connective tissue diseases, in particular systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our working group has developed a consensus on nomenclature, technical equipment, procedure, and diagnostic interpretation of results. The following are required: binocular microscopes with at least 20-/50- and 160-/200-fold magnification and digital archiving. Documentation of defined findings is mandatory. The simultaneous occurrence of, e.g. caliber variations, ectasia, ramifications, elongation (length > 350 microm), torsion (at least two crossing segments per capillary loop), sludge, hemorrhage, and edema is of pathological significance. The isolated occurrence of bushy capillaries (multiple ramifications), thrombosis, giant capillary (capillary lumen > 50 microm), and avascular areas also indicates disease. The latter two findings are highly specific for SSc. Other findings are consistent with connective tissue diseases. These standardized definitions increase quality and comparability of nailfold capillaroscopy in Germany. PMID:20309697

  3. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  4. An Ankle-Foot Orthosis With a Lateral Extension Reduces Forefoot Abduction in Subjects With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Neville, Christopher; Bucklin, Mary; Ordway, Nathaniel; Lemley, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory, repeated measures. Background Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common musculoskeletal problem that includes tendon degeneration and collapse of the medial arch of the foot (flatfoot deformity). Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) typically are used to correct flatfoot deformity. Correction of flatfoot deformity involves increasing forefoot adduction, forefoot plantar flexion, and hindfoot inversion. Objectives To test whether a foot orthosis with a lateral extension reduces forefoot abduction in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction while walking. Methods The gait of 15 participants with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was evaluated under 3 conditions: a standard AFO, an AFO with a lateral extension, and a shoe-only control condition. Kinematic variables of interest were evaluated at designated time points in the gait cycle and included hindfoot inversion/eversion, forefoot plantar flexion/dorsiflexion, and forefoot abduction/adduction. A 3-by-4, repeated-measures analysis of variance (brace condition by gait phase) was used to compare variables across conditions. Results The AFO with a lateral extension resulted in a significantly greater change in forefoot adduction compared to the standard AFO (2.6°, P = .02) and shoe-only conditions (4.1°, P<.01) across all phases of stance. Forefoot plantar flexion was significantly increased when comparing the standard AFO and AFO with a lateral extension to the shoe-only condition. The AFO with the lateral extension also demonstrated significantly increased hindfoot inversion during the loading response and terminal stance phases. Conclusion Off-the-shelf and standard AFOs have been shown to improve forefoot plantar flexion and hindfoot eversion, but not forefoot adduction. A lateral extension added to a standard AFO along the forefoot significantly improved forefoot adduction in participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction while walking. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(1):26-33. Epub 11 Dec 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5618. PMID:26654572

  5. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  6. Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang · tight environment · high radiation area · non-serviceable area · passive components · optics only, no active electronics · transmit image through flexible fiber bundle #12;New imaging fiber bundle Core size: 12 µm, diameter: 1/8" Optical Diagnostics Total fiber counts ~50

  7. Assessment of building diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    The building diagnostics requirements for in-situ or field measurements on energy consumption in conditioned spaces and on heat gain and loss in residential and nonresidential buildings are evaluated. Energy audit programs, energy performance monitoring, energy flow in buildings, and use of computer technology are considered. A diagnostics program is outlined.

  8. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-print Network

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  9. Surgical Procedures. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beverly; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains 13 units of instruction for a course that will prepare students with the entry-level competencies needed by a surgical technologist. The course covers the following topics: introduction to surgical procedures; diagnostic procedures; general surgery; gastrointestinal surgery; obstetrics and gynecological surgery;…

  10. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  11. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

  12. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  13. Diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Fahrettin; Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Gumus, Hatice; Unal, Ozlem; Kantarci, Mecit; Yilmaz, M Halit

    2012-08-01

    Contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging is a modality that is frequently used into the breast radiologist's daily clinical practice. MRI examination should have optimal technical proficiency in order to attain diagnostic quality avoiding false positive and negative diagnoses. Furthermore, due to increasing usage fields of the examinations uniting with high sensitivity phenomenon, excessive usage and excision/interventional procedures are inevitable. Therefore, we hope to highlight the appropriate usage of the MRI technique and it's clinical applications. PMID:25610219

  14. Total cholesterol performance of Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC’s Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network?

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W.; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC’s reference values. Methods AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ?3% and total coefficient of variation ?3% qualified an analytical system for certification. Results In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka) = 1.000x (CDC) + 0.032 (n = 619, R2 = 1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. Conclusions The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. PMID:25818239

  15. Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally A; Beed, Fen D; Harmon, Carrie Lapaire

    2009-01-01

    Emerging, re-emerging and endemic plant pathogens continue to challege our ability to safeguard plant health worldwide. Further, globalization, climate change, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution have combined to increase the spread of invasive plant pathogens. Early and accurate diagnoses and pathogen surveillance on local, regional, and global scales are necessary to predict outbreaks and allow time for development and application of mitigation strategies. Plant disease diagnostic networks have developed worldwide to address the problems of efficient and effective disease diagnosis and pathogen detection, engendering cooperation of institutions and experts within countries and across national borders. Networking maximizes impact in the face of shrinking government investments in agriculture and diminishing human resource capacity in diagnostics and applied pathology. New technologies promise to improve the speed and accuracy of disease diagnostics and pathogen detection. Widespread adoption of standard operating procedures and diagnostic laboratory accreditation serve to build trust and confidence among institutions. Case studies of national, regional, and international diagnostic networks are presented. PMID:19385729

  16. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Global efforts to control malaria are more complex than those for other infectious diseases, in part because of vector transmission, the complex clinical presentation of Plasmodium infections, >1 Plasmodium species causing infection, geographic distribution of vectors and infection, and drug resistance. The World Health Organization approach to global malaria control focuses on 2 components: vector control and diagnosis and treatment of clinical malaria. Although microscopy performed on peripheral blood smears remains the most widely used diagnostic test and the standard against which other tests are measured, rapid expansion of diagnostic testing worldwide will require use of other diagnostic approaches. This review will focus on the malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) for detecting malaria parasitemia, both in terms of performance characteristics of MRDTs and how they are used under field conditions. The emphasis will be on the performance and use of MRDTs in regions of endemicity, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, where most malaria-related deaths occur. PMID:22550113

  17. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  18. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  19. Civil Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews the historical development of civil procedure (the rules that dictate how a civil case can proceed through the courts) and identifies some of its main components. Discusses procedures such as subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, venue, discovery, motions practice, pleadings, pretrial conference, and trials. (MJP)

  20. A case study of the abductive reasoning processes of pre-service elementary education students in a role playing setting concerning a mock senate hearing on global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Michael Eugene

    Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science education.

  1. Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, M.; Morgan, P.; Stamp, M.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Dunai, D.; Meszaros, B.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Szabolics, T.; Zoletnik, S.; Lupelli, I.; Marsen, S.; Melson, T. F.; Silva, C. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

  2. A Predictive Model to Estimate Knee-Abduction Moment: Implications for Development of a Clinically Applicable Patellofemoral Pain Screening Tool in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Foss, Kim D. Barber; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prospective measures of high external knee-abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at increased risk of patellofemoral pain (PFP). A clinically applicable screening protocol is needed. Objective: To identify biomechanical laboratory measures that would accurately quantify KAM loads during landing that predict increased risk of PFP in female athletes and clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures of increased KAM status for use in a clinical PFP injury-risk prediction algorithm. We hypothesized that we could identify clinical correlates that combine to accurately determine increased KAM associated with an increased risk of developing PFP. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescent female basketball and soccer players (n = 698) from a single-county public school district. Main Outcome Measure(s): We conducted tests of anthropometrics, maturation, laxity, flexibility, strength, and landing biomechanics before each competitive season. Pearson correlation and linear and logistic regression modeling were used to examine high KAM (>15.4 Nm) compared with normal KAM as a surrogate for PFP injury risk. Results: The multivariable logistic regression model that used the variables peak knee-abduction angle, center-of-mass height, and hip rotational moment excursion predicted KAM associated with PFP risk (>15.4 NM of KAM) with 92% sensitivity and 74% specificity and a C statistic of 0.93. The multivariate linear regression model that included the same predictors accounted for 70% of the variance in KAM. We identified clinical correlates to laboratory measures that combined to predict high KAM with 92% sensitivity and 47% specificity. The clinical prediction algorithm, including knee-valgus motion (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.63), center-of-mass height (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26), and hamstrings strength/body fat percentage (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.16) predicted high KAM with a C statistic of 0.80. Conclusions: Clinical correlates to laboratory-measured biomechanics associated with an increased risk of PFP yielded a highly sensitive model to predict increased KAM status. This screening algorithm consisting of a standard camcorder, physician scale for mass, and handheld dynamometer may be used to identify athletes at increased risk of PFP. PMID:24762234

  3. Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Bell Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  4. Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Davis Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  5. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  6. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  7. Studies and analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine: SSME failure data review, diagnostic survey and SSME diagnostic evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, R. C.; Kelley, B. A.; Tischer, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) failure data for the period 1980 through 1983 are presented. The data was collected, evaluated, and ranked according to procedures established during this study. A number of conclusions and recommendations are made based upon this failure data review. The results of a state-of-the-art diagnostic survey are also presented. This survey covered a broad range of diagnostic sensors and techniques and the findings were evaluated for application to the SSME. Finally, a discussion of the initial activities for the on-going SSME diagnostic evaluation is included.

  8. [Diagnostic DNA probes].

    PubMed

    Fey, M F

    1990-05-19

    Advances in molecular biology have had a tremendous impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders, tumours and infectious diseases. It is anticipated that recombinant DNA technology will gradually assume an important role as a diagnostic tool in medicine, since at least some of the techniques are now ready for routine use in the clinical laboratory. The most lucrative application (and hence the most competitive market) for DNA probes will be the detection of bacteria, viruses and other microbiological organisms by nucleic acid hybridization techniques. The value of recombinant DNA technology for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection in genetic disorders is now firmly established. Analysis of DNA and RNA obtained from tumours may provide diagnostic information of practical relevance in carefully selected cases. It is, however, unlikely to challenge the established value of the more "traditional" diagnostic tools such as histopathology and immunophenotyping. PMID:2190309

  9. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests. PMID:26362326

  10. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  11. ORION laser target diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  12. Cosmetic Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    Explore Cosmetic Procedures Dental Implants Dental implants replace the roots of lost teeth. A dental implant–along with a ... positions and what future movement is possible. Your cosmetic dentist now has many options available, from conventional ...

  13. Ultrasound-guided gradual reduction using flexion and abduction continuous traction for developmental dysplasia of the hip: a new method of treatment.

    PubMed

    Fukiage, K; Futami, T; Ogi, Y; Harada, Y; Shimozono, F; Kashiwagi, N; Takase, T; Suzuki, S

    2015-03-01

    We describe our experience in the reduction of dislocation of the hip secondary to developmental dysplasia using ultrasound-guided gradual reduction using flexion and abduction continuous traction (FACT-R). During a period of 13 years we treated 208 Suzuki type B or C complete dislocations of the hip in 202 children with a mean age of four months (0 to 11). The mean follow-up was 9.1 years (five to 16). The rate of reduction was 99.0%. There were no recurrent dislocations, and the rate of avascular necrosis of the femoral head was 1.0%. The rate of secondary surgery for residual acetabular dysplasia was 19.2%, and this was significantly higher in those children in whom the initial treatment was delayed or if other previous treatments had failed (p = 0.00045). The duration of FACT-R was significantly longer in severe dislocations (p = 0.001) or if previous treatments had failed (p = 0.018). This new method of treatment is effective and safe in these difficult cases and offers outcomes comparable to or better than those of standard methods. PMID:25737526

  14. Psychotherapeutic procedure with religious cult devotees.

    PubMed

    Spero, M H

    1982-06-01

    The literature dealing with the cult devotee has been primarily descriptive, offering phenomenological reports of psychological characteristics and symptomatology but few reports of specific assessment and psychotherapeutic procedures for management of this unique patient population. The present paper offers a brief review of previous literature and describes specific assessment and interventive procedures which have been successfully applied to an outpatient clinic population of 65 cult devotees. Diagnostic impressions based on psychological testing are reported. Discussion focuses on the contribution of diagnostic and clinical findings to the conceptualization of cultic religiosity as a regressive phenomenon. PMID:7077308

  15. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wyeth, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  16. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  17. Diagnostic Lessons as Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Barbara J.

    Embedded in a sensitive instructional context rather than a stifling testing atmosphere, diagnostic lessons provide assessment that is reliable, practical, valid, and efficient. In this type of assessment, there are several determiners of instructional placement: (1) students' propensity to adapt strategies as a result of specified instruction,…

  18. Diagnostics of Severe PCVAD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 2 years ago case reports in Eastern Canada described a syndrome of an acute onset of high mortality in finishing age pigs. Within a year this syndrome had spread westward in Canada and was reported in several states in the U.S. Although diagnostic investigations into these cases have detecte...

  19. MEDICAL IMAGING (DIAGNOSTIC RADIOGRAPHY)

    E-print Network

    Buckling, Angus

    1 MEDICAL IMAGING (DIAGNOSTIC RADIOGRAPHY) UNDERGRADUATE SUBJECT BROCHURE 2016 #12;2 #12;1 We aim and evidence-informed patient care. The BSc Medical Imaging programme at the University of Exeter on the Medical Imaging programme are taught on a campus with students studying medicine and medical sciences

  20. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  1. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  2. Childhood Depression: Diagnostic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews existing definitions of childhood depression and their implications for diagnosis. Evaluates better known self-report inventories, parent rating scales, psychiatric interviewing schedules, and peer nomination techniques. Addresses diagnostic issues associated with reliability, validity, consistency across raters, settings, and time and…

  3. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  4. 21 CFR 660.53 - Controls for serological procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.53 Controls for serological procedures. Red blood cells sensitized with complement shall be tested with appropriate positive and negative control antisera. All...

  5. ASSESSING THE USE OF A STANDARDIZED DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC TERMINOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel M.; Stark, Paul C.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.; Ramoni, Rachel B.; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E.; Kimmes, Nicole S.; Tavares, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), have been in use in medicine for over a century, in the dental profession, efforts to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology - the ‘EZcodes’ terminology was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental practices and schools in the United States and Europe have implemented the ‘EZcodes’. In this paper we report on the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes at three of the dental schools that have adopted this standardized dental diagnostic terminology. Electronic data on the use of procedure codes with diagnostic terms from the three schools over a one-year period between July 2010 and June 2011 were aggregated. The diagnostic term and procedure code pairs were adjudicated by three calibrated dentists. Analyses were conducted to gain insight into the utilization and valid entry of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology in the one-year period extending from 7/1/2010 through 6/30/2011. Error proportions in the entry of diagnostic term (and by diagnostic category) were also computed. Within the twelve-month period included in the analysis, a total of 29,965 diagnostic terms and 249,411 procedure codes were entered at the three institutions resulting in a utilization proportion of 12%. Caries and periodontics were the more frequently used categories. More than 1000 of the available 1321 diagnostic terms were never used at the three institutions. Overall, 60.5% of the EZcodes entries were found to be valid. In summary, our results demonstrate low utilization of EZ codes in an electronic dental record and raise the need for specific training of dental providers on the importance of using dental diagnostic terminology and specifically how to use the terms within the EHR. This will serve to increase the use/correct use of the EZcodes diagnostic terminology and ultimately create a reliable platform for undertaking clinical, outcomes and quality improvement-related research. PMID:23314462

  6. Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility/State_____________________________________ Zip___________________________ Plant common or scientific name____________________________________________________ Variety__________________________________________________________________ Planting date, age of plant

  7. Isolation of Legionella anisa using an amoebic coculture procedure.

    PubMed

    La Scola, B; Mezi, L; Weiller, P J; Raoult, D

    2001-01-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests for legionellosis were negative for a 61-year-old immunocompromised man with pneumonia. However, coculture of a sputum sample with Acanthamoeba polyphaga amoebae led to the recovery of Legionella anisa. This procedure may be a sensitive and convenient diagnostic method, especially for non-Legionella pneumophila species infections that can be diagnosed only by culture. PMID:11136802

  8. What is this thing called Integrated Diagnostics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.

    Integrated Diagnostics (ID), a system management/engineering discipline which improves readiness, increases testability, and decreases life cycle cost of the system is discussed. ID involves the detection and isolation of one hundred percent of the sets of faults identified, through analysis and/or experience, as known or expected to occur. The three maintenance levels of ID: organizational, intermediate, and depot are described. ID is applied only to a system that is in the conceptual phase and some of the factors to be considered for its application include: time-to-test, dollar constraints, new technologies, and skill level retention. ID uses diagnostic technologies (built-in test, off-line automatic test equipment, and manual procedures), forming the mix best suited for each application, to achieve its objective and meet the user's requirements and constraints.

  9. Projection display metrology at NIST: measurements and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Paul A.; Kelley, Edward F.; Libert, John M.

    2004-05-01

    With the advent of digital cinema, medical imaging, and other applications, the need to properly characterize projection display systems has become increasingly more crucial. Several standards organizations have developed or are presently developing measurement procedures (including ANSI, IEC, ISO, VESA, and SMPTE). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has played an important role by evaluating standards and procedures, developing diagnostics, and providing technical and editorial input, especially where unbiased technical expertise is needed to establish credibility and to investigate measurement problems.

  10. Diagnostic techniques in chronic sinusitis: endoscopy, sinusomanometry.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Collet, S; Betsch, C; Rombaux, P; Eloy, P

    1997-01-01

    The first endoscope was conceived as early as 1806. Since then successive technical advances led endoscopy of the nose and paranasal sinuses to a routine procedure. From the rediscovery of the rigid telescopes by Hopkins in the fifties, progress has stemmed essentially from the quality of the more powerful cold lights and the improvement in the light output of the fiber optics. Exam procedures of the nose and sinuses are conducted under general as well as local anesthesia, and are commonly combined with concomitant diagnostic procedures: measure of the mucociliary clearance with indicators, biopsies, smear sampling for bacterial and fungal examinations, and sinusomanometry which can help to estimate the patency of the maxillary ostium and of the nasofrontal duct. Sinus endoscopy has been widely used to correlate efficiency of other diagnostic techniques such as plain X-rays, CT scanners, A and B mode ultrasonography. A similar work should be done for MRI. Endoscopic exploration is the key to the management of chronic pathology as it brings precise information on the quality of the naso-sinus mucosa, the presence of secretions and, combined with sinusomanometry, the functional state of the ostia or ducts. PMID:9444374

  11. 40 CFR 85.2222 - Onboard diagnostic test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mode $01, PID $01 request in accordance with 40 CFR 86.1806 to determine the OBD evaluation status. The... evaluation for applicable monitors in accordance with the requirements and specifications in 40 CFR 86.1806... with 40 CFR 86.1806 to determine the stored DTCs. The system shall repeat this cycle until the...

  12. A biopsymeter to support the diagnostic procedure of skin samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Valeria; Chandrashekar, Shailendra; Brandhoff, Lukas; Pucciarelli, Daniela; van den Driesche, Sander; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hafner, Christine; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    We present an infrared biopsymeter to assist pathologists in the diagnosis of melanoma presence in skin biopsies. The designed and realized system combines the features of visual inspection and physical sensing to reduce false positives and false negatives occurring during standard histopathological analyses. The biopsymeter determines the CH2-stretch ratio by infrared absorbance measurements of skin biopsies. Investigations conducted with the biopsymeter shows that malignant melanomas and melanoma metastases have higher CH2-stretch ratio values compared to healthy skin tissues.

  13. Collective effective dose from diagnostic radiology in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Stadnyk, L; Shalopa, O; Nosyk, O

    2015-07-01

    The frequencies and effective doses for the most common X-ray diagnostic examinations in Ukraine were assessed in the frame of the European Commission (EC) Study on European Population Doses from Medical Exposure (Dose Datamed 2). The average effective doses for all radiographic procedures were estimated using the ODS-60 software (Finland). The estimation of the effective doses for the chest film fluorography was carried out from the results of own representative measurements with thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry and a standard Alderson-Rando phantom. The effective doses for fluoroscopy procedures were assessed using the Russian guidelines for estimation of effective doses. For all other X-ray examinations and procedures [computed tomography (CT), angiography and interventional procedures], typical effective dose values were taken from the EC Guidance RP154. The most frequently performed in Ukraine is chest film fluorography, with 389 examinations per 1000 population annually, reflecting in the greatest contribution to the total collective effective dose (CED) of 428 mSv per 1000 population (44 %). The total frequency and CED from all X-ray diagnostic examinations and procedures were estimated to be 1218 examinations and 1060 mSv per 1000 populations, respectively. The expected additional cancer risk from X-ray diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures is 2680 cases per year, with 1200 of them due to the contribution of chest fluorography. The main important action in radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology is the organisation of the monitoring of patient doses for different types of X-ray diagnostic examinations and replacement of chest film fluorography with digital X-ray systems. PMID:25848100

  14. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  15. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  16. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Racsa, Lori D; Kraft, Colleen S; Olinger, Gene G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-15

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  17. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  18. Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

  19. Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

  20. [Surprise in abrasion diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kellner, U; Kellner, A; Cirkel, U

    2015-05-01

    Typical localizations of gynecological squamous cell carcinomas are the cervix, vulva and vagina and are therefore not uncommonly diagnosed in curettages. A differentiation from reactive hyperplastic alterations with a possible invasiveness in samples taken from the surface of the special type of well-differentiated verrucous squamous cell carcinoma can be difficult. This pitfall of such a tumor is presented in the case described here with corresponding diagnostic difficulties. PMID:25941098

  1. Patient radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology examinations: an overview. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    The report surveys the published data on entrance skin exposure received by patients during diagnostic radiology examinations. It provides a reference source to aid radiology facilities in determining whether the amount of exposure received by their patients is appropriate for the diagnostic procedures employed.

  2. BUILDING HVAC/FOUNDATION DIAGNOSTICS FOR RADON MITIGATION INSCHOOLS, PART 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a case study of radon diagnostics andmitigation procedures performed in a school researched by the U.S.EPA in New York State. t discusses building construction details,radon diagnostic measurements, mitigation system details, andpost-mitigation radon levels. l...

  3. Assessing Disease Class-Specific Diagnostic Ability: A Practical Adaptive Test Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Frank J.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    Measures of the robustness of disease class-specific diagnostic concepts could play a central role in training programs designed to assure the development of diagnostic competence. In the pilot study, the authors used disease/sign-symptom conditional probability estimates, Monte Carlo procedures, and artificial intelligence (AI) tools to create…

  4. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

  5. Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Fahrettin; Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Gumus, Hatice; Unal, Ozlem; Kantarci, Mecit; Yilmaz, M. Halit

    2012-01-01

    Contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging is a modality that is frequently used into the breast radiologist’s daily clinical practice. MRI examination should have optimal technical proficiency in order to attain diagnostic quality avoiding false positive and negative diagnoses. Furthermore, due to increasing usage fields of the examinations uniting with high sensitivity phenomenon, excessive usage and excision/interventional procedures are inevitable. Therefore, we hope to highlight the appropriate usage of the MRI technique and it’s clinical applications. PMID:25610219

  6. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  7. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  8. ITER Diagnostic First Wal

    SciTech Connect

    G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

    2012-09-21

    The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

  9. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the expression of the flexor synergy in the paretic arm in chronic stroke is dependent on shoulder abduction loading

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Drogos, Justin; Veltink, Fleur; Anderson, Caitlyn; Concha Urday Zaa, Janny; Hanson, Laura Imming; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Reaching ability of the paretic upper extremity in individuals with stroke decreases with increased shoulder abduction (SABD) loads. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been implemented to improve movement ability following stroke. However, results from previous studies vary, perhaps due to the influence of impairment level and the type of motor tasks that were used to study the effects of tDCS. This study specifically examines the impact of SABD loading on the effects of tDCS in 9 individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke. In 3 different sessions, participants repeated a reaching assessment with various SABD loads (supported on a haptic table, 25%, and 50% of maximum voluntary SABD torque) in random order, pre and post one of the following 15-min tDCS protocols: anodal stimulation of lesioned M1, cathodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1, or anodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1. Sham stimulation was also conducted preceding one of the tDCS sessions. The averaged maximum reaching distance over valid trials was calculated for each condition. We observed significant interactions between SABD load, tDCS protocol and time (i.e., pre or post-tDCS). Post hoc test showed that anodal stimulation of the lesioned M1 caused a clear trend (p = 0.058) of increasing the reaching ability at a medium level of SABD loading (25%), but not for higher loads (50%). This suggests that anodal stimulation increases residual corticospinal tract activity, which successfully increases reaching ability at moderate loads; however, is insufficient to make significant changes at higher SABD loads. We also found that cathodal stimulation of the non-lesioned M1 significantly (p = 0.018) decreased the reaching distance at a high level of SABD loading (50%). This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of tDCS on the reaching ability is dependent on SABD loads in individuals with moderate to severe stroke. PMID:26029081

  10. Role of specific similarity in a medical diagnostic task.

    PubMed

    Brooks, L R; Norman, G R; Allen, S W

    1991-09-01

    Three experiments are reported showing that diagnosis of skin disorders by medical residents and general practitioners was facilitated by similar cases previously seen in the same context. Diagnosis of similar cases was facilitated more than that of dissimilar cases in the same diagnostic category, demonstrating that facilitation was not solely due to activation of the diagnostic category as a whole. Because diagnosis was posed in a multiple-choice format that always included the correct diagnosis, the relative disadvantage of dissimilar items was not due to the unavailability of the category name. The similarity effect also occurred with 2-week delay between the initial case and the test cases. Variations in diagnostic procedure, ranging from giving a quick first impression to arguing for given alternative diagnoses before selection, did not interact with the effect of similarity. This result suggests that the similarity effect is not strongly dependent on a particular diagnostic strategy. PMID:1836491

  11. Microwave techniques for diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S

    1993-01-01

    Microwaves (MWs) were first introduced as a method of fixation just over 20 years ago. In recent years their use has extended far beyond that of a safe, clean and rapid method of fixation of tissue blocks and large specimens, including brains. MWs accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives and can greatly accelerate the various stages of tissue processing to produce a paraffin block in 30 min. An extensive range of ultrafast MW-stimulated special stains has been developed, and immunohistochemical procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing MWs. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by MWs than by conventional cross-linking fixatives. Also, the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman's solution is clearly improved. MWs can similarly be applied for fixation and staining of preparations for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and they also greatly accelerate polymerisation of resins. In the current climate of cost containment, this wide range of applications makes the MW oven an invaluable addition to the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:8287207

  12. [Priapism : Current diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Bschleipfer, T; Schwindl, B; Klotz, T

    2015-11-01

    Priapism is characterized by involuntary persistent penile erection after or independent of sexual stimulation. The diagnostic clarification, including patient history, physical findings, duplex ultrasonography and analysis of blood gases is decisive for the underlying pathophysiology and the appropriate therapeutic procedure. Non-hypoxic and non-acidotic blood gas parameters enable a conservative approach, hypoxic, hypercarbic and acidotic parameters may lead to fibrosis of the corpora cavernosa and, in turn, to a loss of penile function. Low-flow or ischemic (veno-occlusive) priapism is an emergency situation and can lead to irreversible erectile dysfunction within 4 h. Treatment consists of blood aspiration and possibly intracavernosal injection of sympathomimetic drugs. A distal shunt is necessary in the case of treatment failure (in rare cases a proximal shunt). Management of recurrent priapism (stuttering) includes self-injection of sympathomimetic drugs and preventive long-term administration of erection inhibitory and erection promoting substances. This concept still needs to be validated. High-flow or non-ischemic priapism does not necessitate immediate treatment measures and should be kept under observation. In cases of a detectable fistula selective artery embolization is often a successful option. PMID:26573674

  13. Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Wang, ShuQi; Wang, Lin; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-15

    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (?PADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC. PMID:24333570

  14. Maintenance of arytenoid abduction following carbon dioxide laser debridement of the articular cartilage and joint capsule of the cricoarytenoid joint combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty in horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J F; Couetil, L; Miller, M A

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate CO2 laser debridement of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty to prevent post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction in seven horses. Horses were assigned to either laser debridement of the left CAJ and laryngoplasty (laser treated, n=5) or control laryngoplasty (sham, n=2), and were evaluated with endoscopic examinations and measurement of right to left angle quotients (RLQ) to assess maintenance of arytenoid abduction. The animals were euthanased at intervals after surgery and larynges were harvested for post-mortem testing, including determination of translaryngeal flow, pressure, impedance and RLQ. Measurements were obtained under increasing vacuum-generated negative pressure with laryngoplasty sutures intact and with the knot/crimp of the laryngoplasty sutures removed. Following post-mortem testing the cricoarytenoid joints were examined histologically. Post-operative endoscopic examinations revealed no significant differences between RLQ measurements calculated for day 1 following surgery to the termination date of the study for the seven horses. Post-mortem RLQ at airflows of 10 and 60 L/s was significantly higher in sham than in laser treated horses both before and after knot/crimp removal. Translaryngeal impedance at 10 and 60 L/s was not statistically different between groups. Histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of articular cartilage in the laser treated horses. The lymphoid cell infiltration subsided but joint capsule and periarticular fibrosis increased over the course of the study. Post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction after laryngoplasty can be minimized with CO2 laser debridement of the CAJ joint. PMID:24405681

  15. Policy and Procedure Manual Diagnostic Services Department of Radiology Diagnostic Division

    E-print Network

    Management of Adverse Patient Events: 10/98, 07/4, 10/04, 1/10 SUBJECT/TITLE: MANAGEMENT OF ADVERSE PATIENT and this notification must be documented in the EMR. #12;Management of Adverse Patient Events Page 2 of 3 5. If patient or supervisor. #12;Management of Adverse Patient Events Page 3 of 3 #12;

  16. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the prediction error. The constrained adaptive lifting diagnostic algorithm is validated using data collected from the University of Maryland Transmission Test Rig and the results are discussed.

  17. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  18. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture.

  19. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table.

  20. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  1. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  2. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  3. [Over diagnostic imaging in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Carpeggiani, Clara

    2014-03-01

    Medical imaging is one of the major cause of rising health care costs. Diagnostic imaging has increased more rapidly than any other component of medical care. About 5 billion imaging tests are performed worldwide each year. According to recent estimates, at least one-third of all examinations are partially or totally inappropriate. Two out of 3 imaging tests employ ionizing radiations with radiology or nuclear medicine. The medical use of radiation is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Medical X-rays and ?-rays are a proven human carcinogen. The attributable long-term extra-risk of cancer due to diagnostic testing is around 10% in industrialized countries. Cardiologists prescribe and/or directly perform >50% of all imaging examinations, accounting for about two-thirds of the total effective dose given to patients. The dose of common cardiological examinations may be significant: 500 chest X-rays= a stress scintigraphy with sestamibi, 750 chest X-rays= a Multislice Computed Tomography, 1,000 chest X-rays= a coronary angiography and stenting. Unfortunately, few doctors are aware of the level of radiation their patients are exposed to during radiological tests and more intensive use of ionizing testing was not associated with greater awareness. Also as a consequence of unawareness, the rate of inappropriate examinations is unacceptably high in cardiology, even for procedures with high radiation load. Higher exposure doses correspond to higher long-term risks; there are no safe doses, and all doses add up in determining the cumulative risks over a lifetime. Doctors should make every effort so that «each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose», as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration in the 2010 initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. This is best obtained through a systematic implementation of the "3 A's strategy" proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2010: audit (of true delivered dose); appropriateness (since at least one-third of examinations are inappropriate); awareness (since the knowledge of doses and risks is largely). The regular application of "3 A's strategy" is usually not facilitated by a health system that pays for volumes, not for appropriateness. PMID:24675449

  4. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  6. Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

  7. NIO1 diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniol, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.

    2015-04-01

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm2. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  8. Diagnostic radiography and adult acute myeloid leukaemia: an interview and medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Pogoda, J M; Nichols, P W; Ross, R K; Stram, D O; Thomas, D C; Preston-Martin, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aetiology of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not well understood, perhaps because of its distinct subtypes. High-dose ionising radiation is a known risk factor, but less is known about risk from low-dose exposure such as from diagnostic radiography. Methods: Subjects were 412 matched case-control pairs. Ten-year subject histories of diagnostic radiography were based on interview and medical records. Results: There was no convincing association between AML risk and ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging procedures, either for AML overall or for any AML subtype. Conclusion: The association between diagnostic radiography and AML risk remains uncertain. PMID:21522150

  9. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewinson, Ryan T.; Wiley, J. Preston; Humble, R. Neil; Worobets, Jay T.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI) is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110). Setting Biomechanics laboratory and community. Patients Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed. Interventions Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI), as well as predictors of pain reduction. Main Outcome Measures Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks. Results Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33%) were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697). When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease), again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146). Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030), after adjusting for baseline pain levels. Conclusion The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP. Clinical Relevance Altering KAAI should be a focus of future PFP research. Lateral wedges should be studied further as an alternative therapy to medial wedges for management of PFP. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01332110 PMID:26230399

  10. FIRE Diagnostics Kenneth M. Young

    E-print Network

    Tests and Operation Magnetic Diagnostics Design Mechanical Fabrication ElectronicsDesign Mechanical Fabrication Electronics Thermocouples Fixed probes Ion gauges Fast pressure gauges Glow discharge Residual gas

  11. Procedural knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.

  12. Test procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures required to evaluate the performance of the Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) are described. This level of testing involves the design evaluation of signal levels, timing, and signal-to-noise (S/N) performance. The tests are to be comprehensive in order to provide data on the operational characteristics of the SL/BIU. The evluation tests are designed to accomplish the following determinations as a minimum for component level testing of the SL/BIU: (1) the baseline operation parameters for comparison to ICD 2-05301 requirements; (2) the influence of serial data line parameter variation on the operation of SL/BIU; (3) the effects of noise on discrete and serial data lines (S/N ratio); and (4) the effects of cable length variation.

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid ?-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. PMID:25678154

  14. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  15. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  16. [Diagnostic errors in angiomas].

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, R; Hundeiker, M

    1977-11-01

    A comparison of clinical statements and histologic findings reveals a lower diagnostic success in angiomas, compared with other benign tumours. Cavernous forms of angiomas are very often not discerned. Capillary angiomas are misdiagnosed as cavernous ones, and teleangiectatic nevi as angiomas. Mistakes and their incidences are pointing not at real difficulties of differentialdiagnosis, but at wrong information of physicians as to the cause of errors. According to this supposition, a great part of textbooks in different medical disciplines offer no correct representation of this object. Our results reveal problems concerning the representation of some aspects of skin diseases outside of Dermatology. The diagnosis of angiomas, with special regard to the therapeutic consequences of the fundamental distinction of angiomas from angiectatic nevi by proliferation of endothelial cells, and of cavernous from capillary angiomas by vascular structure imitating arteries or veins, demands more attention in medical education. PMID:930226

  17. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  18. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  19. [Hiccup, a diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Pankl, Sonia; Quezel, Mariano A; Bruetman, Julio E; Finn, Bárbara C; Young, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Hiccup is a spasmodic involuntary contraction of the diaphragm which triggers a sudden inspiration and an abrupt closure of the glottis with a characteristic sound. Regarding its duration, it is classified as hiccup attack, persistent hiccup or rebellious or intractable hiccup. We present the case of a 75 old male with rebellious hiccup which prevented him to fall asleep by day or by night, associated with belches lasting for three years, refractory to chlorpromazine. An extensive evaluation led to the diagnosis of right ethmoid sinus tumor. The tumor resection was performed and after subsequent local radiotherapy the hiccup disappeared. We consider this a rare cause of rebellious hiccup that generated a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PMID:24561843

  20. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  3. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  4. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may furnish services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  5. Piezo-sensor self-diagnostics using electrical impedance measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G. H.; Farrar, C. R.; Rutherford, A. C.; Robertson, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper present the piezoelectric sensor self-diagnostic procedure that performs in-situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric materials (PZT) used for sensors and actuators in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The use of active-sensing piezoelectric materials has received considerable attention in the SHM community. A critical aspect of the piezoelectric active-sensing technologies is that usually large numbers of distributed sensors and actuators are needed to perform the required monitoring process. The sensor/actuator self-diagnostic procedure, where the sensors/actuators are confirmed to be functioning properly during operation, is therefore a critical component to successfully complete the SHM process and to minimize the false indication regarding the structural health. The basis of this procedure is to track the changes in the capacitive value of piezoelectric materials resulting from the sensor failure, which is manifested in the imaginary part of the measured electrical admittances. Furthermore, through the analytical and experimental investigation, it is confirmed that the bonding layer between the PZT and a host structure significantly contributes to the measured capacitive values. Therefore, by monitoring the imaginary part of the admittances, one can quantitatively assess the degradation of the mechanical/electrical properties of the PZT and its attachment to a host structure. This paper concludes with an experimental example to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sensor-diagnostic procedure.

  6. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of Diagnostics Research is to provide tools to simplify diagnosis of the causes of biological impairment, in support of State and Tribe 303(d) impaired waters lists. The Diagnostics Workgroup has developed conceptual models for four major aquatic stressors that cause im...

  7. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  8. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  9. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  10. Periodontal Treatments and Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Love the Gums You're With ... Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Love the Gums You're With ...

  11. Covariate-adjusted reference intervals for diagnostic data.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Alex

    2003-05-01

    The analysis of extreme diagnostic measurements in clinical trials relies on reference intervals that help drug developers quickly determine whether a particular value is typical or atypical. The distribution of diagnostic variables is often greatly influenced by various covariates and it is important to properly account for this influence in the analysis of extreme measurements. This paper discusses three approaches to constructing covariate-adjusted reference intervals for quantitative diagnostic data: global quantile smoothing, local quantile smoothing, and stepwise quantile approximations based on recursive partitioning. A detailed review of methods for optimizing the quantile estimation procedures is provided. The paper presents algorithms for selecting the degree of a polynomial approximation in global smoothing, bandwidth parameter in local smoothing, and number of strata in recursive partitioning. The described methods for computing covariate-adjusted reference intervals are applied to the analysis of electrocardiographic data. PMID:12729389

  12. 42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

  13. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  14. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  15. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  16. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  17. Measurement of patient radiation doses in certain urography procedures.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A; Barakat, H; Zailae, A; Abuderman, A; Theodorou, K

    2015-07-01

    Patients are exposed to significant radiation doses during diagnostic and interventional urologic procedures. This study aimed to measure patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and to estimate the effective dose during intravenous urography (IVU), extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and ascending urethogram (ASU) procedures. ESAK was measured in patients using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 179 procedures were investigated. 27.9 % of the patients underwent IVU procedures, 27.9 % underwent ESWL procedures and 44.2 % underwent ASU procedures. The mean ESAK was 2.1, 4.18 and 4.9 mGy for IVU, ESWL, and ASU procedures, respectively. Differences in patient ESAK for the same procedure were observed. The mean ESAK values were comparable with those in previous studies. PMID:25899610

  18. [Diagnostic problems in skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1979-09-15

    Several starting-points for improvement of diagnostic accuracy in skin tumors are illustrated by examples: Frequencies and direction of diagnostic errors, as well as the value of diagnostic criteria need further investigations. Frequent "customary" diseases need more attention in medical textbooks, compared with less frequent "interesting" syndromes. Erroneous denominations and historical false classifications which are handed down in the literature demand correction. The possibility continues, that apparently clearly defined entities may decay; they may be replaced by new entities in consequence of new perceptions. PMID:539026

  19. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thaysa B. F.; Osório, Flávia L.; Loureiro, Sonia R.

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6–12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems. PMID:26113840

  20. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

  2. Digital signal processing for ionospheric propagation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rino, Charles L.; Groves, Keith M.; Carrano, Charles S.; Gunter, Jacob H.; Parris, Richard T.

    2015-08-01

    For decades, analog beacon satellite receivers have generated multifrequency narrowband complex data streams that could be processed directly to extract total electron content (TEC) and scintillation diagnostics. With the advent of software-defined radio, modern digital receivers generate baseband complex data streams that require intermediate processing to extract the narrowband modulation imparted to the signal by ionospheric structure. This paper develops and demonstrates a processing algorithm for digital beacon satellite data that will extract TEC and scintillation components. For algorithm evaluation, a simulator was developed to generate noise-limited multifrequency complex digital signal realizations with representative orbital dynamics and propagation disturbances. A frequency-tracking procedure is used to capture the slowly changing frequency component. Dynamic demodulation against the low-frequency estimate captures the scintillation. The low-frequency reference can be used directly for dual-frequency TEC estimation.

  3. Acne inversa: difficulties in diagnostics and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hadasik, Karolina; Brzezi?ska-Wcis?o, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    Acne inversa (hidradenitis suppurativa) is a potentially severe and chronic inflammatory disease with a significant negative influence on the quality of life. Usually, lesions are located in the areas of skin folds and it is characterized by the presence of painful nodules and fistulas with a tendency to tissue fibrosis. Currently, it is suggested that follicular occlusion by infundibular hyperkeratosis plays a crucial role in pathogenesis and an occupation of apocrine sweat glands is a secondary phenomenon. Most often, it refers to men after puberty. This article tries to present the latest theory concerning the etiology of inverted acne and methods of its treatment. It also describes the most common errors in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are mainly connected with repeated and long antibiotic therapy and not radical surgical treatment. PMID:26366155

  4. Diagnostic rhyme test statistical analysis programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, A.; Bain, R.; Belyavin, A. J.; Pratt, R. L.

    1991-08-01

    The statistical techniques and associated computer programs used to analyze data from Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) are described. The DRT is used extensively for assessing the intelligibility of military communications systems and became an accepted NATO standard for testing linear predictive coders. The DRT vocabulary comprises ninety six minimally contrasting rhyming word pairs, the initial consonants of which differ only by a single acoustic feature, or attribute. There are six such attributes: voicing, nasality, sustention, silibation, graveness, and compactness. The attribute voicing is present when the vocal cords are excited: in the word pair 'veal-feel', the consonant 'v' is voiced, but the constant 'f' is unvoiced. The procedure for the implementation of the DRT is presented. To ensure the stability of the results, tests using not less than eight talkers and eight listeners are conducted.

  5. Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

  6. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies. PMID:11015270

  7. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  8. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  9. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. PMID:26668438

  10. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  11. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  12. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. PMID:26668438

  13. Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  14. Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

  15. Best practice guidelines for the use of next-generation sequencing applications in genome diagnostics: a national collaborative study of Dutch genome diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Marjan M; Van der Zwaag, Bert; Jongbloed, Jan D H; Vogel, Maartje J; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H; Mook, Olaf; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon A; van den Wijngaard, Arthur; Waisfisz, Quinten; Nelen, Marcel R; van der Stoep, Nienke

    2013-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods are being adopted by genome diagnostics laboratories worldwide. However, implementing NGS-based tests according to diagnostic standards is a challenge for individual laboratories. To facilitate the implementation of NGS in Dutch laboratories, the Dutch Society for Clinical Genetic Laboratory Diagnostics (VKGL) set up a working group in 2012. The results of their discussions are presented here. We provide best practice guidelines and criteria for implementing and validating NGS applications in a clinical setting. We introduce the concept of "diagnostic yield" as the main performance characteristic for evaluating diagnostic tests. We recommend that the laboratory procedures, including the tested genes, should be recorded in a publicly available document describing the complete "diagnostic routing." We also propose that laboratories should use a list of "core disease genes" for specific genetic diseases. This core list contains the essential genes for each disease, and they should all be included in a diagnostic test to establish a reliable and accurate molecular diagnosis. The guidelines will ensure a clear and standardized quality of care provided by genetic diagnostic laboratories. The best practice guidelines and criteria that are presented here were adopted by the VKGL in January 2013. PMID:23776008

  16. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of section 354 of the Public Health Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  17. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of section 354 of the Public Health Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

  19. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  20. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  1. From miniature to nano robots for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Pensabene, Virginia; Dario, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as a process of convergence of technologies coming from different fields and involving different disciplines. In particular, it illustrates how modern surgery evolved thanks to fundamental biology knowledge; thus, with the introduction of imaging techniques intra-operatively and with the introduction of robotics, surgical procedures became much more predictable, precise and effective. Finally, the recent developments of optics (with CMOS and CCD technologies, and with the introduction of fiber optic technologies) allowed to "see" inside the human body, thus reducing the invasiveness of surgical procedures and making diagnostic procedures adequate for an effective early discovery of pathologies. Nowadays, we are assisting to a concrete merging between microrobotics technologies and bioengineering, with the potential to bring therapeutic tools where requested and when requested, with high precision and with very limited side effects. Furthermore, nanotechnology offers the possibility to fully implement this merging, thanks to the development of dedicated theranostic nanotools suitably fitting the considered convergence scenario. PMID:21097006

  2. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  3. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  4. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    PubMed Central

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  5. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26442283

  6. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha

    2014-08-01

    Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

  8. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  9. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. PMID:24534658

  10. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  11. Subscribe Log In Quest Diagnostics, University to Develop Diagnostic Tools

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    to package this genetic data with family history information and tests like magnetic- resonance-imaging scans type, a practice known as personalized medicine. The market for diagnostic tests and services related Confession Will Change your Investing Strategy www.MarketTrendSignal.com Texas Oil Boom USA $50k Min

  12. Common Dermatologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shelley; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Procedures are an essential component of dermatology practice. There is a wide variety of dermatologic procedures, including biopsies, excisions, curettage, cryosurgery, Mohs surgery, and more. This article reviews common dermatologic procedures, with a focus on the skin biopsy, a fundamental skill for all physicians who manage skin conditions. Common pitfalls, preoperative preparation, postoperative care, and select cosmetic procedures are also covered. PMID:26476254

  13. Analyzing paired diagnostic studies by estimating the expected benefit.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

    2015-05-01

    When the efficacy of a new medical drug is compared against that of an established competitor in a randomized controlled trial, the difference in patient-relevant outcomes, such as mortality, is usually measured directly. In diagnostic research, however, the impact of diagnostic procedures is of an indirect nature as test results do influence downstream clinical decisions, but test performance (as characterized by sensitivity, specificity, and the predictive values of a procedure) is, at best, only a surrogate endpoint for patient outcome and does not necessarily translate into it. Not many randomized controlled trials have been conducted so far in diagnostic research, and, hence, we need alternative approaches to close the gap between test characteristics and patient outcomes. Several informal approaches have been suggested in order to close this gap, and decision modeling has been advocated as a means of obtaining formal approaches. Recently, the expected benefit has been proposed as a quantity that allows a simple formal approach, and we take up this suggestion in this paper. We regard the expected benefit as an estimation problem and consider two approaches to statistical inference. Moreover, using data from a previously published study, we illustrate the possible insights to be gained from the application of formal inference techniques to determine the expected benefit. PMID:25810239

  14. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses. PMID:26602680

  15. Diagnostic values of clinical diagnostic tests in subacromial impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calis, M.; Akgun, K.; Birtane, M.; Karacan, I.; Calis, H.; Tuzun, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a frequent cause of shoulder pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of clinical diagnostic tests, in patients with SIS.?METHODS—72 female, 48 male patients with shoulder pain were included in the study. Five had bilateral shoulder pain, so 125 painful shoulders were evaluated. Details were recorded about the patients' ages and sexes, as well as characteristics of pain and related problems. Detailed physical examination and routine laboratory tests were performed. Conventional radiography and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder region of all patients were performed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the results of subacromial injection test, a reference standard test for SIS. Test positive patients constituted SIS group and test negative patients the non-SIS group. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of some clinical diagnostic tests such as Neer, Hawkins, horizontal adduction, painful arc, drop arm, Yergason and Speed tests for SIS were determined by using 2 × 2 table.?RESULTS—The most sensitive diagnostic tests were found to be Hawkins test (92.1%), Neer test (88.7%) and horizontal adduction test (82.0%). Tests with highest specificity were drop arm test (97.2%), Yergason test (86.1%) and painful arc test (80.5%) consecutively.?CONCLUSION—The highly sensitive tests seem to have low specificity values and the highly specific ones to have low sensitivity values. Although this finding suggests that these diagnostic tests are insufficient for certain diagnosis, it is suggested they play an important part in clinical evaluation.?? PMID:10627426

  16. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-05-27

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems. PMID:26410329

  17. Bayesian design of plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.

    2006-10-15

    A framework for diagnostics design based on Bayesian probability theory is introduced. The design is assessed in figures of an expected utility which measures the information gain from measurements. The approach is applied on design studies for a multichord interferometer for Wendelstein 7-X.

  18. Clinical use of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    McClure, E A

    1987-01-01

    Case histories are presented to illustrate a cross-section of work undertaken by optometrists in the Visual Assessment Department at the Tennent Institute of Ophthalmology. The clinical value of ocular diagnostic tests is emphasized, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis in cases of optic atrophy. PMID:3502656

  19. Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

  20. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  1. Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics The Sun is a strong radio source (one of the first objects detected by radio telescopes) and radio observations can provide information on structures throughout the solar atmosphere. Radio techniques allow high--quality im­ ages with arcsecond resolution to be achieved

  2. Axial diagnostic package for Z

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed and fielded an axial diagnostic package for the 20 MA, 100 ns, z-pinch driver Z. The package is used to diagnose dynamic hohlraum experiments which require an axial line of sight. The heart of the package is a reentrant cone originally used to diagnose ion-beam-driven hohlraums on PBFA-H. It has one diagnostic line of sight at 0 degrees, 4 at 6 degrees, and 4 at 9 degrees. In addition it has a number of viewing, alignment, and vacuum feedthrough ports. The front of the package sits approximately 5 feet from the pinch. This allows much closer proximity to the pinch, with inherently better resolution and signal, than is presently possible in viewing the pinch from the side. Debris that is preferentially directed along the axis is mitigated by two apertures for each line of sight, and by fast valves and imaging pinholes or cross slits for each diagnostic. In the initial run with this package they fielded a time resolved pinhole camera, a five-channel pinhole-apertured x-ray diode array, a bolometer, a spatially resolved time-integrated crystal spectrometer, and a spatially and temporally resolved crystal spectrometer. They present data obtained from these diagnostics in the dynamic hohlraum research conducted on Z.

  3. Statistical modelling and diagnostic aids.

    PubMed

    Morton, B A; Teather, D; du Boulay, G H

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problems involved in constructing operational aids for diagnosis. A collaborative approach is proposed which involves utilisation of the expertise of clinician and statistician, working jointly on the analysis of hard data for a particular diagnostic application. The application of this approach to a problem involving cerebral disease diagnosis based on CT scan data is described. PMID:6394945

  4. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  5. ABSTRACTABSTRACT Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX

    E-print Network

    ABSTRACTABSTRACT Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) will investigate the equilibrium and stability of a high-beta plasma confined in a dipolar magnetic field created by a levitated will be found by iteratively fitting the Grad- Shafranov equation to the magnetic measurements obtained from

  6. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-board diagnostic test if they fail to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 85.2207, at a minimum. Failure of... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... procedure described in 40 CFR 85.2222, at a minimum. This inspection may be used in lieu of tailpipe,...

  7. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-board diagnostic test if they fail to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 85.2207, at a minimum. Failure of... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... procedure described in 40 CFR 85.2222, at a minimum. This inspection may be used in lieu of tailpipe,...

  8. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  9. Clinical and diagnostic utility of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid: ?a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Lazaro Alessandro Soares; Mussavira, Sayeeda; Bindhu, Omana Sukumaran

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review presents the latest trends in salivary research and its applications in health and disease. Among the large number of analytes present in saliva, many are affected by diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Further, the non-invasive, easy and cost-effective collection methods prompt an interest in evaluating its diagnostic or prognostic utility. Accumulating data over the past two decades indicates towards the possible utility of saliva to monitor overall health, diagnose and treat various oral or systemic disorders and drug monitoring. Advances in saliva based systems biology has also contributed towards identification of several biomarkers, development of diverse salivary diagnostic kits and other sensitive analytical techniques. However, its utilization should be carefully evaluated in relation to standardization of pre-analytical and analytical variables, such as collection and storage methods, analyte circadian variation, sample recovery, prevention of sample contamination and analytical procedures. In spite of all these challenges, there is an escalating evolution of knowledge with the use of this biological matrix. PMID:26110030

  10. R&D ERL: Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

  11. Diagnostics in the Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brink, James R.; Storey, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE) is a real-time computer network consisting of commercially available hardware and software components to support systems level integration, modifications, and enhancement to weapons systems. The EISE approach offers substantial potential savings by eliminating unique support environments in favor of sharing common modules for the support of operational weapon systems. An expert system is being developed that will help support diagnosing faults in this network. This is a multi-level, multi-expert diagnostic system that uses experiential knowledge relating symptoms to faults and also reasons from structural and functional models of the underlying physical model when experiential reasoning is inadequate. The individual expert systems are orchestrated by a supervisory reasoning controller, a meta-level reasoner which plans the sequence of reasoning steps to solve the given specific problem. The overall system, termed the Diagnostic Executive, accesses systems level performance checks and error reports, and issues remote test procedures to formulate and confirm fault hypotheses.

  12. Salivary Biomarkers: Toward Future Clinical and Diagnostic Utilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Schafer, Christopher A.; Schafer, Jason J.; Farrell, James J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  13. Salivary biomarkers: toward future clinical and diagnostic utilities.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Janice M; Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Farrell, James J; Paster, Bruce J; Wong, David T W

    2013-10-01

    The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  14. Interventional MSK procedures: the hip.

    PubMed

    Dodré, Emilie; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Cockenpot, Eric; Chastanet, Patrick; Cotten, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous musculoskeletal procedures are widely accepted as low invasive, highly effective, efficient and safe methods in a vast amount of hip pathologies either in diagnostic or in therapeutic management. Hip intra-articular injections are used for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. Peritendinous or intrabursal corticosteroid injections can be used for the symptomatic treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and anterior iliopsoas impingement. In past decades, the role of interventional radiology has rapidly increased in metastatic disease, thanks to the development of many ablative techniques. Image-guided percutaneous ablation of skeletal metastases provides a minimally invasive treatment option that appears to be a safe and effective palliative treatment for localized painful lytic lesion. Methods of tumour destruction based on temperature, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryotherapy, are performed for the management of musculoskeletal metastases. MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery provides a non-invasive alternative to these ablative methods. Cementoplasty is now widely used for pain management and consolidation of acetabular metastases and can be combined with RFA. RFA is also used to treat benign tumours, namely osteoid osteomas. New interventional procedures such as percutaneous screw fixation are also proposed to treat non-displaced or minimally displaced acetabular roof fractures. PMID:26317896

  15. Finite Elements Modeling in Diagnostics of Small Closed Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, J; Mrzyg?ód, M; Grzegorowska, O

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic pneumothorax still remains to be a serious clinical problem and requires a comprehensive diagnostic and monitoring during treatment. The aim of this paper is to present a computer method of modeling of small closed pneumothorax. Radiological images of 34 patients of both sexes with small closed pneumothorax were taken into consideration. The control group consisted of X-rays of 22 patients treated because of tension pneumothorax. In every single case the model was correlated with the clinical manifestations. The procedure of computational rapid analysis (CRA) for in silico analysis of surgical intervention was introduced. It included implementation of computerize tomography images and their automatic conversion into 3D finite elements model (FEM). In order to segmentize the 3D model, an intelligent procedure of domain recognition was used. In the final step, a computer simulation project of fluid-structure interaction was built, using the ANSYS\\Workbench environment of multi-physics analysis. The FEM model and computer simulation project were employed in the analysis in order to optimize surgical intervention. The model worked out well and was compatible with the clinical manifestations of pneumothorax. We conclude that the created FEM model is a promising tool for facilitation of diagnostic procedures and prognosis of treatment in the case of small closed pneumothorax. PMID:26022905

  16. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  17. Alzheimer's Disease: Observing the Diagnostic Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Alzheimer's Disease: Observing the Diagnostic Evaluation Program Goals: Offered by the University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Alzheimer's Disease: Observing the Diagnostic Evaluation, and to experience and understand current research in the field of Alzheimer's disease. This program enhances

  18. A Prospective Study of Medical Diagnostic Radiography and Risk of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Preston, Dale; Simon, Steven L.; Melo, Dunstana; Miller, Jeremy; Freedman, D. Michal; Linet, Martha S.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Although diagnostic x-ray procedures provide important medical benefits, cancer risks associated with their exposure are also possible, but not well characterized. The US Radiologic Technologists Study (1983–2006) is a nationwide, prospective cohort study with extensive questionnaire data on history of personal diagnostic imaging procedures collected prior to cancer diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to estimate thyroid cancer risks related to the number and type of selected procedures. We assessed potential modifying effects of age and calendar year of the first x-ray procedure in each category of procedures. Incident thyroid cancers (n = 251) were diagnosed among 75,494 technologists (1.3 million person-years; mean follow-up = 17 years). Overall, there was no clear evidence of thyroid cancer risk associated with diagnostic x-rays except for dental x-rays. We observed a 13% increase in thyroid cancer risk for every 10 reported dental radiographs (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.26), which was driven by dental x-rays first received before 1970, but we found no evidence that the relationship between dental x-rays and thyroid cancer was associated with childhood or adolescent exposures as would have been anticipated. The lack of association of thyroid cancer with x-ray procedures that expose the thyroid to higher radiation doses than do dental x-rays underscores the need to conduct a detailed radiation exposure assessment to enable quantitative evaluation of risk. PMID:23529772

  19. Human factoring administrative procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-11-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following.

  20. Diagnostic Teaching of the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Paul C.

    This book is based on the premise that learning can best be facilitated when the teacher takes a diagnostic view of the instructional process. To further this end, each chapter contains materials, models, and techniques designed to implement diagnostic teaching in the language arts program. The seven chapters are "Foundations for Diagnostic

  1. Leukemia diagnostics with ow G. Ciuperca1

    E-print Network

    Louvet, Violaine

    for diagnosis and classication of acute myeloid leukemia #12;Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca and classication of acute myeloid leukemia #12;Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G. Ciuperca, M. Mafouz, C of acute myeloid leukemia Hematopoiesis and leukemias #12;Leukemia diagnostics with ow cytometry G

  2. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminli, Tovuz

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  3. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  4. [New molecular methods in prenatal invasive diagnostics].

    PubMed

    ?aczma?ska, Izabela; Stembalska, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    New diagnostic techniques employed in laboratories all over the world enable to create new tests for prenatal genetic diagnosis. They include cytogenetics, molecular-cytogenetics and molecular methods. Chromosomal numerical aberrations (aneuploidies) remain to be the most frequent genetic changes diagnosed prenatally Therefore, our paper presents the latest methods used mainly in prenatal diagnosis of the most common chromosome numerical changes, as well as other methods applicable in detecting chromosome structural changes or gene mutations. One of the main advantages of these new approaches is the short period of time needed to obtain a result. Some of these techniques are used world-wide: QF-PCR (Fluorescence Quantitive Polymerase Chain Reaction)--based on the analysis of the short polymorphic sequences characteristic for each individual; MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification)--based on the probes ligation to complementary genomic fragments in patient DNA; microarray CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization)--based on genomic hybridization to microarray, which enables analysis of the entire genome. Other new methods are also gradually introduced to invasive prenatal diagnosis: NGS (Next-generation DNA sequencing)--for the analysis of the whole genome at the DNA level; BoBs (BACS-on-Beads)--molecular-cytogenetic technique based on hybridization of probes immobilized on polystyrene microspheres with fetal DNA. Nowadays, rapid diagnosis of the most common chromosomal aneuploidies is not a standard procedure in Poland, as opposed to cytogenetics (karyotyping). However, for specific clinical indications, fast and reliable methods of genetic analysis present are likely to become standard procedures in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24273910

  5. Endocervical adenocarcinoma: selected diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-01-01

    Endocervical adenocarcinomas can be classified into two main types of tumors, namely, those related to high-risk human papillomavirus and those unrelated to high-risk human papillomavirus. The former, representing the vast majority, are referred to as endocervical adenocarcinomas of usual type and the latter are dominated by the gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinomas. Commonly encountered diagnostic problems concerning these endocervical adenocarcinomas include: (1) diagnosing invasion for endocervical adenocarcinomas of usual type, particularly superficial forms which must be distinguished from extensive endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ; (2) distinguishing high-risk human papillomavirus-related endocervical adenocarcinomas from endometrial endometrioid carcinomas; and (3) distinguishing benign/hyperplastic mucinous endocervical glandular proliferations from gastric-type mucinous endocervical adenocarcinomas, particularly minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. The current review provides practical points and numerous illustrative examples to guide pathologists in addressing these diagnostic challenges in routine practice. PMID:26715171

  6. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50?% of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  7. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26439718

  8. AEDC arc column diagnostic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, W. E., III; Horn, D. D.

    In order to better understand the electrogasdynamic processes in the arc column of an electric arc air heater, diagnostic measurement techniques were developed at the Arnold Engineering Development Center. A water cooled window segment was installed at different axial locations in the bore of an electric arc heater to allow motion pictures of the arc inside the bore of the arc heater to be recorded. The window survived and excellent photographs of the arc were obtained. Two methods were devised to measure the gas resistance inside of a segmented type arc heater. These methods are discussed and the measurements obtained are compared with analytical calculations. These diagnostic measurement techniques will allow further insight into the nature of the arc process.

  9. Battery diagnostic method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bil, R.J.; Lewis, R.H.

    1982-11-30

    This specification discloses a method and apparatus for testing batteries in which a diagnostic cycle includes a discharge cycle and a charge cycle of five charging pulses and another discharge cycle. The discharge cycle durations are respectively one and twenty seconds. A typical duration for the charge cycle is 80 milliseconds. A plurality of voltages measured during this diagnostic cycle are used to evaluate five arithmetic functions. The results of the evaluation of three of the functions are compared against predetermined limits to determine battery quality. Additionally, the results of the evaluation of the remaining two functions are compared with one another to establish whether or not the battery is defective. This test provides a substantial advantage over prior art tests in that the test is substantially independent of battery temperature and battery size.

  10. Hebephilia: quintessence of diagnostic pretextuality.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hebephilia is an archaic term used to describe adult sexual attraction to adolescents. Prior to the advent of contemporary sexually violent predator laws, the term was not found in any dictionary or formal diagnostic system. Overnight, it is on the fast track toward recognition as a psychiatric condition meriting inclusion in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This article traces the sudden emergence and popularity of hebephilia to pressure from the legal arena and, specifically, to the legal mandate of a serious mental abnormality for civil commitment of sex offenders. Hebephilia is proposed as a quintessential example of pretextuality, in which special interests promote a pseudoscientific construct that furthers an implicit, instrumental goal. Inherent problems with the construct's reliability and validity are discussed. A warning is issued about unintended consequences if hebephilia or its relative, pedohebephilia, make their way into the DSM-5, due out in 2013. PMID:21110392

  11. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  12. Diagnostic Tests and Criterion-Referenced Assessments: Their Contribution to the Resolution of Pupil Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mary; Arnold, Brian

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that failure to learn is often the result of inappropriateness of level of instruction and deficiencies in instructional procedures and educational strategies, and differentiates between the functions of criterion referenced tests and diagnostic tests. Results are reported from two studies of the teaching of osmosis and photosynthesis.…

  13. FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS RECEIVING DIAGNOSTIC DOSES OF 131 IODINE DURING CHILDHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the data collection methodology and procedures of a follow-up survey conducted of persons under 16 years old who received diagnostic Iodine 131 for evaluation of thyroid function at nine clinical centers prior to December 31, 1960. The intent of this data col...

  14. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with…

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics for solar ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Mohan, Anita

    1995-01-01

    We present new calculations for several solar ions in the temperature range 10(exp 5) is less than T is less than 10(exp 6) K and discuss their diagnostic applications with the help of available observational data. In particular, we rediscuss the plasma density and temperature in the source region of the solar wind. We also study the variation of relative elemental abundances in the solar atmosphere and compare them with previous studies.

  16. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  17. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David; Lewis, Jay

    2010-10-08

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  18. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:26614075

  19. Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-10-01

    The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

  20. Properties of plasma radiation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Oona, H.

    1996-06-01

    A number of diagnostics utilizing the radiation emitted from high-temperature plasmas have been developed at Los Alamos. Photoemissive x-ray diodes with photon energy bandpass filters provide time resolved rough spectral data from bout 6 eV to > 10 keV photon energy. Filtered silicon photodiodes can be used down to 1 eV and offer the advantages of nominally flat response and ability to operate in poor vacuum conditions. Both types of diodes will provide a rough time resolved spectrum and both are relatively inexpensive, reliable, and passive (i.e. no synchronization problems). For higher energy resolution bent crystal spectrographs are used in the x-ray region. With the addition of streak cameras or gated microchannel plates these systems provide data with high energy and high time resolution. To measure the total energy output a thin foil bolometer is used that measures the change in foil resistance as it is heated by the plasma radiation. Information on the physical location of the plasma is provided by a suite of visible framing cameras and x-ray pinhole cameras. By combining these diagnostics into a complementary set good diagnostic information can be guaranteed on any plasma experiment.

  1. Malaria Diagnostics in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean C.; Shott, Joseph P.; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R.; Stewart, V. Ann

    2013-01-01

    Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484

  2. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  3. Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

    2007-07-26

    We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

  4. Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

  5. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tyurikova, O.; Dembitskaya, Y.; Yashin, K.; Mishchenko, M.; Vedunova, M.; Medyanik, I.; Kazantsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  6. Microwave diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, David

    Plasma treatment of biological tissues has tremendous potential due to the wide range of applications. Most plasmas have gas temperatures which greatly exceed room temperature. These are often utilized in electro-surgery for cutting and coagulating tissue. Another type of plasma, referred to as cold atmospheric plasma, or CAP, is characterized by heavy particle temperatures which are at or near room temperature. Due to this lack of thermal effect, CAP may provide less invasive medical procedures. Additionally, CAP have been demonstrated to be effective at targeting cancer cells while minimizing damage to the surrounding tissue. A recently fabricated Microwave Electron Density Device (MEDD) utilizes microwave scattering on small atmospheric plasmas to determine the electron plasma density. The MEDD can be utilized on plasmas which range from a fraction of a millimeter to several centimeters at atmospheric pressure when traditional methods cannot be applied. Microwave interferometry fails due to the small size of the plasma relative to the microwave wavelength which leads to diffraction and negligible phase change; electrostatic probes introduce very strong perturbation and are associated with difficulties of application in strongly-collisional atmospheric conditions; and laser Thomson scattering is not sensitive enough to measure plasma densities less than 1012 cm-3. The first part of this dissertation provides an overview of two types of small atmospheric plasma objects namely CAPs and plasmas utilized in the electro-surgery. It then goes on to describe the fabrication, testing and calibration of the MEDD facility. The second part of this dissertation is focused on the application of the MEDD and other diagnostic techniques to both plasma objects. A series of plasma images that illustrate the temporal evolution of a discharge created by an argon electrosurgical device operating in the coagulation mode and its behavior was analyzed. The discharge of the argon electrosurgical system was studied using an Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD) and the MEDD. The plasma density was measured and found to be in the range of (7.5-9.5) x 1015 cm-3 for applied powers of 15-60 Watts. The discharge can be classified as a glow discharge of alternating current with a contracted positive column. The discharge ignites every half-wave of the driving voltage when voltage increases above the breakdown threshold of about 300 Volts and is interrupted at the end of each half-wave when the voltage approaches zero. Additionally, it was shown that the plasma discharges on the target object during the positive half-wave of the voltage. The power distribution was also analyzed. It was found that 60-70% of the input power is delivered into the tissue and the remaining 30-40% is consumed by the plasma column between the electrosurgical probe and tissue. The application of the MEDD to a helium CAP revealed the temporal dynamics of the discharge. It was observed that streamer development associated with the measured plasma density peak is developing on the decaying part of the main inter-electrode discharge. The third part of the dissertation focuses on the simulation of a helium CAP. A one-dimensional model of a helium CAP was used to simulate twenty-one oxygen, helium, and nitrogen species. One hundred and forty reactions were successfully used. The predicted maximum and average densities of the species were tabulated. Graphs of the species densities were presented showing the change in densities with respect to the radius of the CAP. The plasma bullets can be seen via these graphs, with most species displaying maximum densities at a radius which is not the center of the CAP. This shows that the plasma bullets are a disk-like structure at the moment of time presented. Values of E/p were varied from 20 -- 30 volts/cm Torr. Based on experimental results of moments in time with which the maximum plasma density occurs, this data can be used to predict the actual E/p values for future experiments.

  7. Pleural procedural complications: prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Wrightson, John M.; Hallifax, Robert J.; Rahman, Najib M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural disease is common with a rising case frequency. Many of these patients will be symptomatic and require diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Patients with pleural disease present to a number of different medical specialties, and an equally broad range of clinicians are therefore required to have practical knowledge of these procedures. There is often underestimation of the morbidity and mortality associated with pleural interventions, even those regarded as being relatively straightforward, with potentially significant implications for processes relating to patient safety and informed consent. The advent of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has had a major influence on patient safety and the number of physicians with the necessary skill set to perform pleural procedures. As the variety and complexity of pleural interventions increases, there is increasing recognition that early specialist input can reduce the risk of complications and number of procedures a patient requires. This review looks at the means by which complications of pleural procedures arise, along with how they can be managed or ideally prevented. PMID:26150919

  8. 42 CFR 410.33 - Independent diagnostic testing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... . The following diagnostic tests that are payable under the...Administration. (ii) Diagnostic tests personally furnished by a qualified...Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services personally...instructions. (iv) Diagnostic tests (as established...

  9. 42 CFR 410.33 - Independent diagnostic testing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... . The following diagnostic tests that are payable under the...Administration. (ii) Diagnostic tests personally furnished by a qualified...Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services personally...instructions. (iv) Diagnostic tests (as established...

  10. 42 CFR 410.33 - Independent diagnostic testing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... . The following diagnostic tests that are payable under the...Administration. (ii) Diagnostic tests personally furnished by a qualified...Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services personally...instructions. (iv) Diagnostic tests (as established...

  11. 42 CFR 410.33 - Independent diagnostic testing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... . The following diagnostic tests that are payable under the...Administration. (ii) Diagnostic tests personally furnished by a qualified...Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services personally...instructions. (iv) Diagnostic tests (as established...

  12. 42 CFR 410.33 - Independent diagnostic testing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... The following diagnostic tests that are payable under the...Administration. (ii) Diagnostic tests personally furnished by a qualified...Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services personally...instructions. (iv) Diagnostic tests (as established...

  13. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device used mainly...

  14. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device used mainly...

  15. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device used mainly...

  16. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device used mainly...

  17. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850 Diagnostic muscle stimulator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic muscle stimulator is a device used mainly...

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831

  19. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  20. 78 FR 22546 - Hearing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Hearing Procedures AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...Council (Council) has adopted amendments to its hearing procedures (Council Hearing Procedures) for hearings conducted by the...

  1. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart?i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiologic criterion. PMID:11480424

  2. Evaluations of gonad and fetal doses for diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Tung, C J; Tsai, H Y

    1999-07-01

    A national survey of patient doses for diagnostic radiology was planned in the Republic of China. We performed a pilot study for this survey to develop a protocol of the dose assessments. Entrance skin doses and organ (including ovary, testicle and uterus) doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations for several diagnostic procedures. We derived a formula and used the RadComp software for the computation of entrance skin doses. This formula involves several factors, such as kVp, mAs, the focus-to-skin-distance and aluminum filtration. RadComp software was applied to obtain free-air entrance exposures which were converted to entrance skin doses by considering the backscattering radiation from the body. Organ doses were measured using a RANDO phantom and calculated using a mathematical phantom for several diagnostic examinations. Genetically significant doses were calculated from ovary and testicle doses for the evaluation of hereditary effects. Embryo/fetal doses were determined from the uterine doses by considering the increase in uterus size with gestational age. We found that the patient doses studied in this work were all below the reference doses recommended by the National Radiological Protection Board of the U.K. PMID:10492891

  3. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema). PMID:26208413

  4. Diagnostically Challenging "Fatty" Retroperitoneal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A variety of benign and malignant retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions may have a component of adipose tissue, including entities such as lipoma, myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, genital stromal tumors, and well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Although definitive diagnosis is usually straightforward on the complete resection specimen, it is often more difficult to workup these lesions on small biopsy samples. This review focuses on challenging diagnostic scenarios of retroperitoneal lesions with a "fatty" component and provides major differential diagnoses for commonly encountered morphologic patterns, clinicopathologic features of the various entities, and strategy for use of ancillary techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic studies. PMID:26297062

  5. [Referral guidelines in diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Pärtan, G; Kainberger, F; Frühwald, F

    2008-03-01

    This article describes the causes and motivations for the introduction of referral guidelines for diagnostic radiology. Guidelines are not intended to serve as directives, but as a concept for good practice and as a basis for discussion and communication between prescribers and practitioners of radiological examinations. Although not all questions about the most effective way of implementation have been solved, it has been shown that referral guidelines serve as a means of avoiding unnecessary x-ray examinations and therefore represent an important tool within a comprehensive concept of radiation protection. PMID:18259723

  6. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  7. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest. PMID:21909808

  8. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Gynecologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coates, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is helpful in the assessment of many common gynecological conditions from early teens to the late postmenopause. Female pelvic anatomy and pathology are readily imaged through a distended urinary bladder. In gynecologic cancer, examination of peritoneal cavity, kidneys and liver can suggest metastatic spread, which aids tumor staging. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5aFIGURE 5bFIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9FIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12FIGURE 13FIGURE 14FIGURE 15FIGURE 16FIGURE 17FIGURE 18FIGURE 19FIGURE 20FIGURE 21FIGURE 22 PMID:21283449

  9. Assessment of biosafety precautions in Khartoum state diagnostic laboratories, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elduma, Adel Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the biosafety precautions that applied by diagnostic laboratories in Khartoum state, 2009. Methods A total number of 190 laboratories were surveyed about their compliance with standard biosafety precautions. These laboratories included 51 (27%) laboratories from government, 75 (39%) from private sectors and 64 (34%) laboratories belong to organization providing health care services. Results The study found that 32 (16.8%) of laboratories appointed biosafety officers. Only, ten (5.2%) participated in training about response to fire emergency, and 28 (14.7%) reported the laboratory accident occurred during work. 45 (23.7%) laboratories had a written standard operation procedures (SOPs), and 35 (18.4%) had written procedures for the lean-up of spills. Moreover, biosafety cabinet was found in 11 (5.8%) laboratories, autoclave in 28 (14.7%) and incinerator in only two (1.1%) laboratories. Sharp disposable containers were found in 84 (44.2%). Fire alarm system was found in 2 (1.1%) laboratories, fire extinguisher in 39 (20.5%) laboratories, and fire emergency exit found in 14 (7.4%) laboratories. Furthermore, 19 (10%) laboratories had a hepatitis B virus vaccination programme, 5 (6.2%) applied BCG vaccine, and 2 (1.1%0) vaccinated the staff against influenza. Conclusion The study concluded that the standards biosafety precautions adopted by the diagnostic laboratories in Khartoum state was very low. Further, the laboratory personnel awareness towards biosafety principles implementation was very low too. PMID:22514753

  10. Portable Knowledge-Based Diagnostic And Maintenance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, John; Olson, Noreen S.

    1989-03-01

    It is difficult to diagnose faults and maintain weapon systems because (1) they are highly complex pieces of equipment composed of multiple mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic assemblies, and (2) talented maintenance personnel are continuously being lost through the attrition process. To solve this problem, we developed a portable diagnostic and maintenance aid that uses a knowledge-based expert system. This aid incorporates diagnostics, operational procedures, repair and replacement procedures, and regularly scheduled maintenance into one compact, 18-pound graphics workstation. Drawings and schematics can be pulled up from the CD-ROM to assist the operator in answering the expert system's questions. Work for this aid began with the development of the initial knowledge-based expert system in a fast prototyping environment using a LISP machine. The second phase saw the development of a personal computer-based system that used videodisc technology to pictorially assist the operator. The current version of the aid eliminates the high expenses associated with videodisc preparation by scanning in the art work already in the manuals. A number of generic software tools have been developed that streamlined the construction of each iteration of the aid; these tools will be applied to the development of future systems.

  11. Pyroshock prediction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    2002-05-01

    Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

  12. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  13. Diagnostic techniques for measuring temperature transients and stress transients in the first wall of an ICF reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, N.T.; Taylor, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary challenge in the design of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power reactor is to make the first wall survive the frequent explosions of the pellets. Westinghouse has proposed a dry wall design consisting of steel tubes coated with tantalum. This report describes the design of a test chamber and two diagnostic procedures for experimentally determining the reliability of the Westinghouse design. The test chamber simulates the x-ray and ion pulse irradiation of the wall due to a pellet explosion. The diagnostics consist of remote temperature sensing and surface deformation measurements. The chamber and diagnostics can also be used to test other first-wall designs.

  14. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25?nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  15. [Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2013-09-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented. PMID:23793393

  16. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nema, Vijay

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

  17. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  18. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. PMID:26235865

  19. New portable noninvasive spectrophotometric apparatus for clinical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedukova, M. V.; Dmitriev, M. A.; Mustafaeva, D. M.; Kolbas, Yu. Y.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Bychenkov, Oleg A.; Polyakov, Pavel Y.

    2004-08-01

    Today the noninvasive (in vitro, in situ) and real-time methods of diagnostics are desirable for general clinical practice. One of such promising technique is the optical multi-wave diffusion and absorption spectrophotometry. It allows a doctor to measure a number of important medical and biological (M&B) parameters such as the blood microcirculation parameters into the soft tissues, contents of the hemoglobin fractions into the periphery blood, etc. The use of the new components of the microelectronics and optics and development of new approaches to the diagnostic data processing makes it possible to design a number of small and effective devices for this purpose. The basic principle of work of them in means of hardware function is the multi-wave light scanning of the tested tissue"s area and detecting a backscattered light. In means of software function the basic principle of work of them is the inverse optical task solution when the optical and corresponding M&B parameters of the tested medium are calculated from the measured backscattered spectral optical data. This report presents one of such designed portable apparatus "Spectrotest" developed in cooperation with Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute of "MONIKI". This device allows a doctor to register the index of melanin pigmentation of the skin, the volume of the blood in the tested tissue and the average hemoglobin saturation of the peripheral blood. All this parameters are available for a doctor to see them on the monitor screen in real-time mode directly during any diagnostic or treatment procedure. For that a new modified light scattering theory with the analytical solution of the main equations has been developed. Analytical solution allows the software to calculate and indicate the measured M&B parameters on the computer"s monitor screen during less than one second. Today the developed diagnostic system "Spectrotest" is used in real clinical practice in "MONIKI" and in the Oncology Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Science for the medical research aims. The general hardware and software composites of this diagnostic apparatus and examples of the application of it for the functional diagnostic tests are presented in this report as well.

  20. Improving Model Performance through Process-Based Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Bauer, M. P.; Oloso, A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models -- most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted. We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  1. Biorisk Assessment of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. Methods A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. Results The results showed the presence of an isolated unit for microbiological work, leak-proof working benches, self-closing doors, emergency exits, fire extinguisher(s), autoclaves, and hand washing sinks in 21.3%, 71.3%, 15.0%, 1.3%, 11.3%, 82.5%, and 67.5%, respectively, of all laboratories surveyed. It was observed that public diagnostic laboratories were significantly more likely to have an isolated unit for microbiological work (p = 0.001), hand washing sink (p = 0.003), and an autoclave (p ? 0.001) than private ones. Routine use of hand gloves, biosafety cabinet, and a first aid box was observed in 35.0%, 20.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, of all laboratories examined. Written standard operating procedures, biosafety manuals, and biohazard signs on door entrances were observed in 6.3%, 1.3%, and 3.8%, respectively, of all audited laboratories. No biosafety officer(s) or records of previous spills, or injuries and accidents, were observed in all diagnostic laboratories studied. Conclusion In all laboratories (public and private) surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated. PMID:23961333

  2. The microcomputer and image analysis in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, L R

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a snapshot view of the influence and direction of microcomputer technology for image analysis techniques in diagnostic pathology. Microcomputers have had considerable impact in bringing image analysis to wider application. Semi-automated tracing techniques are a simple means of providing objective data and assist in a wide range of diagnostic problems. From the common theme of reducing subjectivity in diagnostic assessment, an extensive body of research has accrued. Some studies have addressed the need for quality control for reliable, routine application. Video digitizer cards bring digital image analysis within the reach of laboratory budgets, providing powerful tools for investigation of a wide range of cellular and tissue features. The use of staining procedures compatible with quantitative evaluation has become equally important. As well as assisting scene segmentation, cytochemical and immunochemical staining techniques relate the data to biological processes. With the present state of the art, practical use of microcomputer based image analysis is impaired by limitations of information extraction and specimen throughput. Recent advances in colour video imaging provide an extra dimension in the analysis of multi-spectral stains. Improvements will also be felt with predictable increase in speed of microprocessors, and with single chip devices which deliver video rate processing. If the full potential of this hardware is realized, high-speed, routine analysis becomes feasible. In addition, a microcomputer imaging system can play host to companion functions, such as image archiving and transmission. With this outlook, the use of microcomputers for image analysis in diagnostic pathology is certain to increase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1638050

  3. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  4. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology Immunohistochemistry Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Animal Health Diagnostic Center Histology ­ Immunohistochemistry Laboratory Page 1 of 1 Document Antibodies Prepared/Reviewed by: Martin Slade, Technical Service Supervisor, Histology Laboratory Joy Cramer

  5. Lecture Notes on Langmuir Probe Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Chen, Francis F.

    Lecture Notes on Langmuir Probe Diagnostics Francis F. Chen Electrical Engineering Department.............................................................................................. 1 I. The Probe Characteristic ..................................................................................... 5 E. Space potential

  6. Radiation shielding for TFTR DT diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.P.; Johnson, D.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    The authors illustrate the designs of radiation shielding for the TFTR DT diagnostics using the ACX and TVTS systems as specific examples. The main emphasis here is on the radiation transport analyses carried out in support of the designs. Initial results from the DT operation indicate that the diagnostics have been functioning as anticipated and the shielding designs are satisfactory. The experience accumulated in the shielding design for the TFTR DT diagnostics should be useful and applicable to future devices, such as TPX and ITER, where many similar diagnostic systems are expected to be used.

  7. Electrostatic diagnostics of nanosecond pulsed electron beams in a Malmberg-Penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, B.; Bettega, G.; Maero, G.; Rome, M.; Norgia, M.; Pesatori, A.; Svelto, C.

    2010-06-15

    A fast electrostatic diagnostic and analysis scheme on nanosecond pulsed beams in the keV energy range has been developed in the Malmberg-Penning trap ELTRAP. Low-noise electronics has been used for the detection of small induced current signals on the trap electrodes. A discrete wavelet-based procedure has been implemented for data postprocessing. The development of an effective electrostatic diagnostics together with proper data analysis techniques is of general interest in view of deducing the beam properties through comparison of the postprocessed data with the theoretically computed signal shape, which contains beam radius, length, and average density as fit parameters.

  8. Virtual humans and formative assessment to train diagnostic skills in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla, Joana; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Carrying out a diagnostic interview requires skills that need to be taught in a controlled environment. Virtual Reality (VR) environments are increasingly used in the training of professionals, as they offer the most realistic alternative while not requiring students to face situations for which they are yet unprepared. The results of the training of diagnostic skills can also be generalized to any other situation in which effective communication skills play a major role. Our aim with this study has been to develop a procedure of formative assessment in order to increment the effectiveness of virtual learning simulation systems and then to assess their efficacy. PMID:24875685

  9. Deletion in the gene BruAb2_0168 of Brucella abortus strains: diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dean, A S; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Kulo, A E; Boukaya, G A; Pilo, P; Raoult, D

    2014-01-01

    Three Brucella abortus strains were isolated from joint hygromas from cows in northern Togo. Two deletions in the 5? side of the gene BruAb2_0168 were identified. As this gene is used for species identification, these deletions have consequences for diagnostic procedures. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was therefore performed for species identification. The strains showed unique VNTR profiles, providing some of the first genotypic data from West Africa. More molecular and epidemiological data are needed from the region, in order to better understand transmission patterns and develop suitable diagnostic assays. PMID:24450581

  10. A technique for routine calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeters in the diagnostic energy range.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T J; Bencomo, J A; Marsh, L; Finn, D; Hidalgo-Salvatierra, O

    1986-01-01

    Four different techniques for calibrating lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters were compared at two beam qualities in the diagnostic energy range. The techniques included in-air, saturation backscatter, and Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH) test stand geometry with and without an ionization chamber. The results indicate that there are no statistical differences between any of the calibration techniques evaluated. Hence, the technique using the BRH test stand with an ionization chamber is a simple and reproducible calibration procedure which may be used in a routine diagnostic radiology quality assurance program. PMID:3724698

  11. A balanced diagnostic system compatible with a barotropic prognostic model. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.; Yangarber, V.

    1977-01-01

    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, for a barotropic primitive-equation model of large-scale atmospheric flow is derived. Attention is given to the classical balance equation and its ellipticity condition. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system are presented, including examples of cases of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type and cases with non-zero divergence. Procedures for implementing such a system are outlined, along with a review of factors in using the technique for operational numerical weather prediction.

  12. Civilizing Civil Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticcioni, Daniel A.

    1981-01-01

    A "Civil Litigation Exercise" (a litigation simulation) conducted during the second semester of a first year procedure course at the New England School of Law is described. The purpose of the exercise is to simulate the real world of adversary pleading and practice. The Civil Procedure Litigation exercises are appended. (MLW)

  13. Coombs' Type Response Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Roger A.

    This paper provides substantial evidence in favor of the continued use of conventional objective testing procedures in lieu of either the Coombs' cross-out technique or the Dressel and Schmid free-choice response procedure. From the studies presented in this paper, the tendency is for the cross-out and the free choice methods to yield a decrement…

  14. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  15. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  16. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy to diagnose intraabdominal pathology in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Adriano; Matano, Stefania; Manca, Giuseppe; Zagli, Giovanni; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Cianchi, Giovanni; Pasquini, Andrea; Batacchi, Stefano; Di Filippo, Alessandro; Anichini, Valentina; Nicoletti, Paola; Benemei, Silvia; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Delayed diagnosis of intraabdominal pathology in the intensive care unit (ICU) increases rates of morbidity and mortality. Intraabdominal pathologies are usually identified through presenting symptoms, clinical signs, and laboratory and radiological results; however, these could also delay diagnosis because of inconclusive laboratory tests or imaging results, or the inability to safely transfer a patient to the radiology room. In the current study we evaluated the safety and accuracy of bedside diagnostic laparoscopy to confirm the presence of intraabdominal pathology in an ICU setting. Methods This retrospective study, carried out between January 2006 and June 2008, evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of bedside diagnostic laparoscopy performed on patients with a suspicion of ongoing intraabdominal pathology. Clinical indications for bedside diagnostic laparoscopy were: ultrasonography (US) images of gallbladder distension or wall thickening of more than 3 to 4 mm, with or without pericholecystic fluid; elevation of laboratory tests (bilirubin, transaminases, myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase); high level of lactate/metabolic acidosis; CT images inconclusive for intraabdominal pathology; or inability to perform a CT scan. Patients did not undergo bedside diagnostic laparoscopy if they presented clear indications for open surgery, coagulopathy, abdominal wall infection or high intraabdominal pressure. Results Thirty-two patients underwent bedside diagnostic laparoscopy (Visiport Plus, Autosuture, US), 14 of whom had been admitted to the ICU for major trauma, 12 for sepsis of unknown origin and 6 for complications after cardiac surgery. The procedure was performed on an average of eight days after ICU admission (95% confidence interval = 5 to 15 days) and mean procedure duration was 40 minutes. None of the procedures resulted in complications. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy was diagnostic for intraabdominal pathology in 15 patients, who subsequently underwent surgery, except in two cases of diffuse gut hypoperfusion. Diagnosis of cholecystitis was obtained in seven cases: two were treated with laparotomic cholecystectomy and five with percutaneous gallbladder drainage positioning. Conclusions Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy represents a safe and accurate technique for diagnosing intraabdominal pathology in an ICU setting and should be taken into consideration when patient transfer to radiology or the operating room is considered unsafe, or when routine radiological examinations are not conclusive enough to reach a definite diagnosis. PMID:19243621

  17. Estimating diagnostic accuracy of raters without a gold standard by exploiting a group of experts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhen; Albert, Paul S

    2012-12-01

    In diagnostic medicine, estimating the diagnostic accuracy of a group of raters or medical tests relative to the gold standard is often the primary goal. When a gold standard is absent, latent class models where the unknown gold standard test is treated as a latent variable are often used. However, these models have been criticized in the literature from both a conceptual and a robustness perspective. As an alternative, we propose an approach where we exploit an imperfect reference standard with unknown diagnostic accuracy and conduct sensitivity analysis by varying this accuracy over scientifically reasonable ranges. In this article, a latent class model with crossed random effects is proposed for estimating the diagnostic accuracy of regional obstetrics and gynaecological (OB/GYN) physicians in diagnosing endometriosis. To avoid the pitfalls of models without a gold standard, we exploit the diagnostic results of a group of OB/GYN physicians with an international reputation for the diagnosis of endometriosis. We construct an ordinal reference standard based on the discordance among these international experts and propose a mechanism for conducting sensitivity analysis relative to the unknown diagnostic accuracy among them. A Monte Carlo EM algorithm is proposed for parameter estimation and a BIC-type model selection procedure is presented. Through simulations and data analysis we show that this new approach provides a useful alternative to traditional latent class modeling approaches used in this setting. PMID:23006010

  18. Target Diagnostics Supports NIF's Path to Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R

    2011-12-07

    The physics requirements derived from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental campaigns are leading to a wide variety of target diagnostics. Software development for the control and analysis of these diagnostics is included in the NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Diagnostic Control System and Data Visualization. These projects implement the configuration, controls, data analysis and visual representation of most of these diagnostics. To date, over 40 target diagnostics have been developed to support NIF experiments. In 2011 diagnostics were developed or enhanced to measure Ignition performance in a high neutron yield environment. Performance is optimized around four key variables: Adiabat (a) which is the strength and timing of four shocks delivered to the target, Velocity (V) of the imploding target, Mix (M) is the uniformity of the burn, and the Shape (S) of the imploding Deuterium Tritium (DT) hot spot. The diagnostics used to measure each of these parameters is shown in figure 1. Adiabat is measured using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic consisting of three streak cameras. To provide for more accurate adiabat measurements the VISAR streak cameras were enhanced in FY11 with a ten comb fiducial signal controller to allow for post shot correction of the streak camera sweep non-linearity. Mix is measured by the Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) and Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostics. To accommodate high neutron yield shots, NTOF diagnostic controls are being modified to use Mach Zehnder interferometer signals to allow the digitizers to be moved from near the target chamber to the neutron shielded diagnostic mezzanine. In December 2011 the first phase of RAGS diagnostic commissioning will be completed. This diagnostic will analyze the tracers that are added to NIF target capsules that undergo nuclear reactions during the shot. These gases are collected and purified for nuclear counting by the RAGS system. Three new instrument controllers were developed and commissioned to support this diagnostic. A residual-gas analyzer (RGA) instrument measures the gas content at various points in the system. The Digital Gamma Spectrometer instrument measures the radiological spectrum of the decaying gas isotopes. A final instrument controller was developed to interface to a PLC based Gas collection system. In order to support the implosion velocity measurements an additional Gated X-ray Detector (GXD) diagnostic was tested and commissioned. This third GXD views the target through a slit contained in its snout and allows the other GXD diagnostics to be used for measuring the shape on the same shot. In order to measure the implosion shape in a high neutron environment, Actide Readout In A Neutron Environment (ARIANE) and Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostics were commissioned. The controls for ARIANE, a fixed port gated x-ray imager, contain a neutron shielded camera and micro channel plate pulser with its neutron sensitive electronics located in the diagnostic mezzanine. The NI diagnostic is composed of two Spectral Instruments SI-1000 cameras located 20M from the target and provides neutron images of the DT hot spot for high yield shots. The development and commissioning of these new or enhanced diagnostics in FY11 have provided meaningful insight that facilitates the optimization of the four key Ignition variables. In FY12 they will be adding three new diagnostics and enhancing four existing diagnostics in support of the continuing optimization series of campaigns.

  19. The SPEAR 3 Diagnostic Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Mok, W.Y.; Ringwall, A.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    SPEAR 3 has two diagnostic beam lines: an x-ray pinhole camera and a visible/UV laboratory. The pinhole camera images {approx}8 keV dipole radiation on a phosphor screen with a remote computer to capture digital images and a parallel video signal to the control room. The visible/UV beam line features an 8 mm high GlidCop ''cold finger'' to remove the x-ray core of the beam. The remaining light is deflected horizontally onto an optical bench where it is focused via reflective (Cassegrain) or refractive optics. The visible beam can be split into branch lines for a variety of experimental applications. This paper describes the experimental set up and projected use of both systems.

  20. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466