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1

The CIFF Proof Procedure for Abductive Logic Programming with Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new proof procedure for abductive logic pro- gramming and present two soundness results. Our procedure extends that of Fung and Kowalski by integrating abductive reasoning with constraint solving and by relaxing the restrictions on allowed inputs for which the procedure can operate correctly. An implementation of our proof pro- cedure is available and has been applied successfully

Ulrich Endriss; Paolo Mancarella; Fariba Sadri; Giacomo Terreni; Francesca Toni

2004-01-01

2

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2010-04-01

3

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2011-04-01

4

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2012-04-01

5

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2014-04-01

6

22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7...LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States....

2013-04-01

7

Abductive Logic Programming with CIFF: System Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: IntroductionAbduction has long been recognised as a powerful mechanism for hypotheticalreasoning in the presence of incomplete knowledge. Here, we discuss the implementationof a novel abductive proof procedure, which we call CIFF, as itextends the IFF proof procedure [7] by dealing with Constraints, as in constraintlogic programming. The procedure also relaxes the strong allowedness restrictionson abductive logic programs imposed by

Ulrich Endriss; Paolo Mancarella; Fariba Sadri; Giacomo Terreni; Francesca Toni

2004-01-01

8

Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... which uses magnets and electrical charges to study human anatomy. The following list of available procedures—in ... or are asked to open and close the eyes, or to change breathing patterns. The electrodes transmit ...

9

Alien Abductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

Nickell, Joe

2000-03-01

10

[Benefit assessment of diagnostic procedures: quo vadimus?].  

PubMed

Not only therapeutic procedures, but also diagnostic procedures, have to demonstrate their patient-relevant benefits if they are to be reimbursed by public health insurance. Randomized trials comparing two diagnostic procedures allow us to assess these benefits directly if appropriate outcomes are used. However, owing to the widespread lack of such studies, it is now necessary to use the "linked evidence" approach as well, trying to predict the patient-relevant benefits from the results of comparative accuracy studies. Such a prediction is based on explicitly specifying our expectations with regard to the consequences of a change in diagnosis at the level of a single patient. We discuss the basic properties of these two approaches, which are relevant to the understanding of their possible role in the benefit assessment of diagnostic procedures. We try to predict the future roles of the two approaches and outline some of the issues on which a consensus is required to allow their successful use in benefit assessment. Furthermore, we indicate some of the developments related to the paradigm of individualized care that may influence the use of benefit assessments for diagnostic studies in the future. PMID:25633469

Vach, Werner; Gerke, Oke

2015-03-01

11

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

12

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

13

Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye  

PubMed Central

Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomi?, Martina; Salopek-Rabati?, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

2013-01-01

14

Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.  

PubMed

In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs. PMID:18834282

Forrest, David V

2008-01-01

15

Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures  

PubMed Central

The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

2012-01-01

16

A diagnostic procedure for multivariate quality control  

E-print Network

of the correlations among the variables by monitoring all the variables simultaneously using a single control procedure rather than monitoring the variables on an individual basis. Multivariate control procedures are commonly used for monitoring such process...

Keserla, Adhinarayan A.

1993-01-01

17

20 CFR 404.1519m - Diagnostic tests or procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519m Diagnostic tests or procedures....

2013-04-01

18

20 CFR 416.919m - Diagnostic tests or procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919m Diagnostic tests or procedures....

2012-04-01

19

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Paul A. Martin; Douglas Edwards

1988-01-01

20

Cardiovascular procedures/diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the technical and therapeutic aspects of cardiovascular procedures in immense detail. There are large and appropriate diagrams and tables. The topics of the chapters are tools for catheterization, venous access, arterial access, hemodynamic monitoring, cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography, ergonovine provocation testing for coronary artery spasm, pulmonary angiography, endomyocredial biopsy, electrophysiologic studies, pericardiocentesis and drainage, intraaortic balloon pumping, direct current cardioversion and defibrilaltion, pacemaker implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, coronary angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, transluminal catheter extraction and resolution of intracardiac catheter knots, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, contrast media toxicity and allergic reactions, radiation hazards, and medicolegal concerns. An appendix and index follow these chapters. In general, each chapter covers historical aspects, indications, complications, techniques, and preoperative and postoperative care.

Tilkian, A.G.; Daily, E.K.

1986-01-01

21

Diagnostic Procedures for Detecting Nonlinear Relationships between Latent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation models are commonly used to estimate relationships between latent variables. Almost universally, the fitted models specify that these relationships are linear in form. This assumption is rarely checked empirically, largely for lack of appropriate diagnostic techniques. This article presents and evaluates two procedures that can…

Bauer, Daniel J.; Baldasaro, Ruth E.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

2012-01-01

22

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii) Other diagnostic procedures are those identified by CMS, and do not include...

2014-10-01

23

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii) Other diagnostic procedures are those identified by CMS, and do not include...

2013-10-01

24

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii) Other diagnostic procedures are those identified by CMS, and do not include...

2010-10-01

25

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii) Other diagnostic procedures are those identified by CMS, and do not include...

2011-10-01

26

42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...services include diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, nuclear medicine, CAT scan procedures, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and other imaging services; and (ii) Other diagnostic procedures are those identified by CMS, and do not include...

2012-10-01

27

Abductive Logic Programming with CIFF: Implementation and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system implementing a novel extension of Fung and Kowalski's IFF abductive proof procedure which we call CIFF, and its application to realise intelligent agents that can construct (partial or complete) plans and react to changes in the environment. CIFF ex- tends the original IFF procedure in two ways: by dealing with constraint predicates and by dealing with

U. Endriss; P. Mancarella; F. Sadri; G. Terrreni; F. Toni

2004-01-01

28

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning El-Sayed M. El-860-1930 Fax: +(966) 3-860-2174 #12;Abstract Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

29

Abductive Inference in Bayesian Networks: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to serve as a survey for the problem of abductive inference (or belief revision) in Bayesian networks. Thus, the problem is introduced in its two variants: total abduction (or MPE) and partial abduction (or MAP). Also, the problem is formulated in its general case, that is, looking for the K best explanations. Then, a

Jose A. Gamez

30

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2014-01-01

31

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2012-01-01

32

9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for...

2013-01-01

33

Inflammatory bowel diseases: controversies in the use of diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed

The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a genetically, immunologically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of inflammatory bowel disorders classified at present time as ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis (IC). Diagnosis of IBD is based on a non-strictly defined combination of clinical and diagnostic parameters. In order to guide the treatment, patients must be assessed by determining IBD phenotype, disease extension and distribution, extraintestinal manifestations, disease behavior, disease severity and drug responsiveness. Each element of the diagnostic process cannot be looked at alone, but has to be incorporated into general clinical assessment, bearing in mind that different phenotypes and age groups require specific diagnostic solutions. Advances in technology provided the possibility for the assessment of the entire digestive system with endoscopy leading the way. Sophisticated imaging methods made the analysis of the bowel wall with its vascularity and adjacent mesentery possible. The challenge is still the small bowel, where a combination of endoscopy and imaging methods is used. The use of imaging methods should be, among other things, guided by level of irradiation which is especially important in young patients and in patients requiring repeated investigations. Using abdominal ultrasound as a low-cost, noninvasive procedure, one has to take into account that it is very operator-dependent method. In UC, endoscopy is used for the evaluation of the extent and activity of the disease and to assess complications like stricture, dysplasia and cancer. UC is classified by the disease extent into proctitis, left-sided colitis and extensive colitis beyond the splenic flexure. Pediatric patients with UC have more extensive disease than adults with rectal sparing in up to 30% of patients. The severity of mucosal changes are reported as Baron endoscopic score. Endoscopic findings correlate well with clinical activity and are commonly incorporated into Mayo index, combination of clinical Truelove Witts index and Baron score. Complications like strictures require imaging methods as supplement to endoscopy. The incidence of CD, particularly in children and adolescents, has risen during the past decade, with children often having extensive and severe disease The nature of CD requires the use of wide array of endoscopic and imaging methods, placed properly in the diagnostic algorithms for specific disease phenotypes and complications and adapted for specific age groups. Endoscopic features of CD are very variable and can be quantified as Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) or Simple Endoscopic Score for CD (SES-CD). Disease activity is most commonly assessed by CDAI. Perianal disease activity should be measured by PDAI due to low CDAI scores in these patients. The activity of CD in children should be assessed by the Pediatric Activity Index. IC is part of the IBD spectrum where chronic colitis cannot be defined as either UC or CD after sequential colonoscopies and colonic biopsies or at colectomy. PMID:19786751

Vucelic, Boris

2009-01-01

34

[List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].  

PubMed

Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future clarification. Ankle brachial pressure index, color duplex sonography, plethysmography, MSCT and MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, phlebography, angiography, x-ray, and capillaroscopy in lupus erythematosus are indicated. Except for bacteriologic analyses of wound biopsies, there is no test to provide specific information on the wound condition. PMID:24371972

Spoljar, Sanja

2013-10-01

35

A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

2014-01-01

36

Diagnostic procedures and long-term prognosis in bilateral renal cortical necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic procedures and long-term prognosis in bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Thirty-eight patients with bilateral renal cortical necrosis (BRCN) were studied with special reference to etiology, diagnostic procedures and ultimate prognosis. BRCN was of obstetrical origin in 26 patients and more frequent during the third trimester of pregnancy (21%) than earlier (1.5%). Renal biopsy, renal arteriography and hemodynamic data were useful

Dieter Kleinknecht; Jean-pierre Grünfeld; Pedro Cia Gomez; Jean-François Moreau; Romano Garcia-torres

1973-01-01

37

Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

38

A Fast Procedure for Outlier Diagnostics in Large Regression Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a procedure for computing a fast approximation to regression estimates based on the minimization of a robust scale. The procedure can be applied with a large number of independent variables where the usual algorithms require an unfeasible or extremely costly computer time. Also, it can be incorporated in any high-breakdown estimation method and may improve it with just

Daniel Peña; Victor Yohai

1999-01-01

39

[Influence of dry eye syndrome on glaucoma diagnostic procedures].  

PubMed

Approximately 50-60% of primary open angle glaucoma patients suffer from dry eye and ocular surface disease and have a reduced corneal thickness. The measurements by imaging procedures are weakened by signal noise and perimetry procedures are affected by generalized loss of sensitivity. In dry eye patients, possible influences on new perimetry procedures, such as frequency doubling technology (FDT), flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry and pulsar perimetry (PP) potentially result from stray light and reduced contrast sensitivity. In glaucoma patients with ocular surface disturbances, measuring procedures with high sensitivity and low specificity should be carefully checked for plausibility by the examiner. Using these procedures uncritically involves the danger of over interpretation in terms of non-existent glaucoma progression. If necessary, eyes should be pretreated with lubricating eye drops or therapy should be switched to preservative-free pressure lowering drops. Afterwards, new control measurements should be taken to exclude glaucoma pseudoprogression. PMID:23179813

Rüfer, F; Erb, C

2012-11-01

40

Bayesian decision analysis for choosing between diagnostic/prognostic prediction procedures  

PubMed Central

New diagnostic procedures and prognostic markers are continually being developed for a wide range of medical complaints. Medical institutions are therefore regularly faced with the decision as to whether to replace an existing procedure with a new one. The decision to adopt a new method is primarily based on diagnostic/predictive accuracy and cost-effectiveness, but this trade-off is not usually considered in a formal decision-theoretic way. The decision process for diagnostic procedures is complicated by the fact that diagnostic decisions are typically based on thresholding one or more continuous variables. Therefore, a formal decision process should account for uncertainty in the optimal threshold value for each diagnostic procedure. We here propose a Bayesian decision approach based on maximizing expected utility (incorporating accuracy and costs) with respect to diagnostic procedure and threshold level simultaneously. The Bayesian decision approach is illustrated via an application comparing the utility of different bone mineral density (BMD) measurements for determining the need for preventative treatment of osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly patients. PMID:23243483

Kornak, John; Lu, Ying

2010-01-01

41

Implication of Abduction: Complexity without Organized Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abduction, which is articulated by C.S. Peirce, is one of the forms of inference. Abduction has been researched not only in philosophy but also in artificial intelligence and information science. Finlay and Dix's representation of abduction (1996) has almost the same meaning which is given by Peirce. On the other hand, Sawa and Gunji (2010) express three types of inference as operations of arrows on a simple triangular diagram. In the present paper, we show that Sawa-Gunji's representation of abduction is consistent with Finlay-Dix's one, and synthesize the two representations. Both parameter estimation and abduction occupy a similar position on the synthesized representation, but they are not completely corresponding. We present "incomplete" parameter estimation as a sort of "simulated abduction", since abduction has an intrinsic incompleteness, which means that abduction is formally equivalent to "the logical fallacy affirming the consequent". In other words, a numerical aspect of abduction (i.e. the simulated abduction) is formalized as incomplete parameter estimation. The concept of simulated abduction is applied to parameter estimation of auto-regressive models, and the effects of it is investigated. As a result of the numerical analyses, the distribution of the incompletely estimated parameter shows a power law of the slop -2 in the tail, although conventionally estimated parameter is normally distributed. The power law of the incompletely estimated parameter is based on the structure of ratio distribution. In other words, this result shows that the power law can arise when system observers premise a linearity of input and output data which are too small to estimate the system structure. We call the premise of the system observers "linearity bias". As an example of the cause of power law distributions, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been known. These distributions are based on the mechanisms of the systems themselves, which have some organized interaction between their elements. On the other hand, power law distribution which is derived from the incomplete parameter estimation and the linearity bias is not based on a mechanism of system itself but on relationship between data on the system and observer of the data. Consequently, our research suggests that complexity expressed by a power law distribution can be derived from the incomplete parameter estimation which is a numerical aspect of abduction and is different from SOC mechanisms.

Kamiura, Moto

2010-11-01

42

Abduction in Logic Programming Marc Denecker1  

E-print Network

in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main develop] and other problems. In the context of logic programming, the study of abductive inference star- ted

Moraitis, Pavlos

43

Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction.  

PubMed

We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory's predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored "while-loops" over "for-loops" in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks. PMID:24082090

Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

2013-10-15

44

THE SELECTION PROCEDURE OF DIAGNOSTIC INDICATOR OF SUSPENSION FAULT MODES FOR THE RAIL VEHICLES MONITORING  

E-print Network

THE SELECTION PROCEDURE OF DIAGNOSTIC INDICATOR OF SUSPENSION FAULT MODES FOR THE RAIL VEHICLES, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland rme@wt.pw.edu.pl ABSTRACT The monitoring system of a rail vehicle and Evaluation of its Lifespan. The main subsystem of a rail vehicle being the object of on-line monitoring

Boyer, Edmond

45

Limitations of current diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic procedures for porcine cysticercosis. Sera were obtained from 32 pigs reared in commercial farms, 47 pigs before and after experimental infection, 42 carefully necropsied rural pigs and 191 slaughtered pigs from rural communities in which the presence of the Taenia solium metacestode was assessed by tongue dissection. Sera were analyzed

E. Sciutto; J. J. Mart??nez; N. M. Villalobos; M. Hernández; M. V. José; C. Beltrán; F. Rodarte; I. Flores; J. R. Bobadilla; G. Fragoso; M. E. Parkhouse; L. J. S. Harrison; A. S. de Aluja

1998-01-01

46

A dummy orbit for training in diagnostic procedures and laser surgery with enucleated eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

% %PURPOSE: A dummy orbit for enucleated eyes was developed for training residents in diagnostic and surgical procedures.METHODS: Porcine eyes were used to construct the model. The device is made of black anodized metal. The final prototype was tested for ease of use and optical quality. Principal elements are an adjustable eye support, a cylinder, and a removable ring.RESULTS: The

Constantin E. Uhlig; Heinrich Gerding

1998-01-01

47

Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Procedures following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation – How Much Is Acceptable?  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) can remain acutely sick for many weeks and incur repeated diagnostic radiology procedures which may significantly increase radiation exposure. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the cumulative radiation dose from diagnostic studies following SCT. Sixty-four consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies in a single tertiary care institution underwent total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning followed by 6/6 HLA-identical sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The median follow up was three years. The cumulative effective dose in mSv from diagnostic radiologic studies in the peri-transplant period from day ?30 to day +200 was calculated for each patient and its impact on overall survival and nonrelapse mortality was determined. The median cumulative radiation exposure from diagnostic radiologic procedures was 92 mSv (range 1.2–300), representing about 30× the normal annual background radiation for the population and 10% of the 1200cGy total body irradiation (TBI) dose used in conditioning. Sixty-five percent of the cumulative radiation exposure was delivered between day +1 and day 100 and CT scans contributed 88%. While radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures did not impact clinical outcomes the risk of second cancers in long term survivors is likely to be increased. Our results indicate that patients who are acutely ill for prolonged periods can receive clinically significant radiation doses during their hospital care. Our findings should prompt attempts to limit radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures in post-SCT recipients. PMID:24094072

Battiwalla, Minoo; Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Jain, Natasha A; Klotz, Jeffrey K.; Pophali, Priyanka A; Draper, Debbie; Haggerty, Janice; McIver, Zachariah; Jelinek, James; Chawla, Kamna; Ito, Sawa; Barrett, John

2014-01-01

48

Past-Life Identities, Ufo Abductions, and Satanic Ritual Abuse: The Social Construction of Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual Satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured

Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Burgess; Melissa Faith Burgess

1994-01-01

49

Restoring shoulder abduction in children with Erb's palsy: when to add trapezius transfer to a teres major transfer.  

PubMed

A total of 35 children with Erb's palsy and shoulder abduction of < 90° underwent transfer of teres major. In 18 cases (group 1) a trapezius transfer was added (combined procedure). In 17 cases (group 2) teres major transfer was carried out in isolation (single procedure). The mean gain in abduction was 67.2° (60° to 80°) in group 1 and 37.6° (20° to 70°) in group 2, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.001). Group 2 was further divided into those who had deltoid power of < M3 (group 2a) and those with deltoid power ? M3 (group 2b). The difference in improvement of abduction between groups 2a and group 2b was statistically significant (p < 0.001) but the difference between group 2b and group 1 was not (p = 0.07). We recommend the following protocol of management: in children with abduction ? 90° a single procedure is indicated. In children with abduction < 90°: a combined procedure is indicated if deltoid power is < M3 and a single procedure is indicated if deltoid power is ? M3. If no satisfactory improvement is achieved, the trapezius can be transferred at a later stage. PMID:23109642

Abdelaziz, T H; Samir, S; Magdy, W

2012-11-01

50

Laconic discourses and total eclipses: abduction  

E-print Network

1 Laconic discourses and total eclipses: abduction in DICE JON OBERLANDER AND ALEX LASCARIDES 1 the same course of events. (1) Max entered the office. Then, John greeted him with a smile. After that, he showed Max to the seat in front of his desk. He then offered Max a cup of coffee. (2) Max entered

Lascarides, Alex

51

Waiting times for surgical and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals in Mexico.  

PubMed

Objective. A retrospective evaluation of waiting times for elective procedures was conducted in a sample of Mexican public hospitals from the following institutions: the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), the Institute for Social Security and Social Services for Civil Servants (ISSSTE) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). Our aim was to describe current waiting times and identify opportunities to redistribute service demand among public institutions. Materials and methods. We examined current waiting times and productivity for seven elective surgical and four diagnostic imaging procedures, selected on the basis of their relative frequency and comparability with other national health systems. Results. Mean waiting time for the seven surgical procedures in the three institutions was 14 weeks. IMSS and ISSSTE hospitals showed better performance (12 and 13 weeks) than the MoH hospitals (15 weeks). Mean waiting time for the four diagnostic procedures was 11 weeks. IMSS hospitals (10 weeks) showed better average waiting times than ISSSTE (12 weeks) and MoH hospitals (11 weeks). Conclusion. Substantial variations were revealed, not only among institutions but also within the same institution. These variations need to be addressed in order to improve patient satisfaction. PMID:25629277

Contreras-Loya, David; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Puentes, Esteban; Garrido-Latorre, Francisco; Castro-Tinoco, Manuel; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

2015-02-01

52

Patient Radiation Dose in Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures for Intracranial Aneurysms: Experience at a Single Center  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms in a large sample size from a single center. Materials and Methods We studied a sample of 439 diagnostic and 149 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms in 480 patients (331 females, 149 males; median age, 57 years; range, 21-88 years), which were performed in 2012 with a biplane unit. Parameters including fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP), and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Results Mean fluoroscopic time, total mean DAP, and total image frames were 12.6 minutes, 136.6 ± 44.8 Gy-cm2, and 251 ± 49 frames for diagnostic procedures, 52.9 minutes, 226.0 ± 129.2 Gy-cm2, and 241 frames for therapeutic procedures, and 52.2 minutes, 334.5 ± 184.6 Gy-cm2, and 408 frames for when both procedures were performed during the same session. The third quartiles for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were 14.0, 61.1, and 66.1 minutes for fluoroscopy time, 154.2, 272.8, and 393.8 Gy-cm2 for DAP, and 272, 276, and 535 for numbers of image frames in diagnostic, therapeutic, and both procedures in the same session, respectively. The proportions of fluoroscopy in DAP for the procedures were 11.4%, 50.5%, and 36.1%, respectively, for the three groups. The mean DAP for each 3-dimensional rotational angiographic acquisition was 19.2 ± 3.2 Gy-cm2. On average, rotational angiography was used 1.4 ± 0.6 times/session (range, 1-4; n = 580). Conclusion Radiation dose in our study as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames did not differ significantly from other reported DRL studies for cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for embolization. A national registry of radiation-dose data is a necessary next step to refine the dose reference level. PMID:25469098

Chun, Chang Woo; Lee, Cheol Hyoun; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Shin, Yong-Sam

2014-01-01

53

Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: results of the who collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury by a systematic literature search. After screening 38,806 abstracts, we critically reviewed 228 diagnostic studies and accepted 73 (32%). The estimated prevalence of intracranial CT scan abnormalities is 5% in patients presenting to hospital with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and 30% or higher in patients presenting with a

Jörgen Borg; Lena Holm; J. David Cassidy; Paul M. Peloso; Linda J. Carroll; Hans von Holst; Kaj Ericson

2004-01-01

54

Harvard-led study finds diagnostic and invasive procedures common in women with breast-conserving surgery  

Cancer.gov

Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have high rates of diagnostic and invasive breast procedures after treatment with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) according to a study published April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast-conserving surgery is the most common treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ and has proven to be an effective alternative to mastectomy in most women; however, the necessity for and likelihood of further diagnostic mammograms and invasive procedures following BCS are unknown.

55

[Objective re-evaluation procedures in cases of possible diagnostic error].  

PubMed

Auxiliary diagnostic specialists such as clinical pathologists or radiodiagnosticians may be held liable by injured patients for erroneous diagnoses. Nearly always there will be a reconstruction of the situation in which the alleged misstake was made, and relevant facts will be tested against both professional and legal rules. The Court or one of the parties involved frequently ask an expert for re-evaluation of microscopic preparations, X-rays, etc. This objectivating evaluation requires a procedure that does justice to the original diagnostic situation and therefore should not be made by one single expert familiar with the chain of events. The results of the re-evaluation should be interpreted meticulously and their relative importance established by the Court. PMID:10746050

Giard, R W; Broekman, J M

2000-03-18

56

Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

2014-01-01

57

[Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass is a challenge to diagnostic procedures and treatment.  

PubMed

Treatment of severe obesity by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes sustained weight losses and improves health complica-tions. RYGB is, however, also associated with adverse effects. Dumping is a well-known complication causing invalidating symptoms, and lately there have been mounting concerns about post-RYGB hypoglycaemia. This condition is characterized by neuroglycopenia and inappropriately elevated insulin concentration. The mechanism behind this hypoglycaemia is not completely elucidated. Diagnostic procedures and treatment possibilities are discussed in this article. PMID:25352197

Nielsen, Joan Bach; Gribsholt, Sigrid Bjerge; Pedersen, Michael Høgild; Richelsen, Bjørn

2014-06-01

58

Sex Differences in Knee Abduction During Landing  

PubMed Central

Background: Females suffer injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament at rates significantly higher than males. Frontal plane knee motion and load have been identified as major risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury and in turn have been examined extensively. Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, CINHAL, and SportDISCUS was performed (1982–June 2010). Criteria for inclusion were the use of 3-dimensional analyses of frontal plane knee motion and moments during landing between males and females. Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Sixty-three percent of included studies identified sex differences in knee abduction when landing across a variety of landing conditions. Conclusions: Females appear to land with increased knee abduction motion compared with males in most biomechanics studies. PMID:23016030

Carson, Daniel W.; Ford, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

59

Infant hospital abduction: security measures to aid in prevention.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe measures used to prevent abduction of infants from healthcare facilities. According to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 122 infants were abducted from hospitals between 1983 and 2008; characteristics of the abductors have been found to be similar in the majority of infant abductions. The Joint Commission has established security standards, and conducts assessments to identify abduction risk within hospitals. Nurses can contribute to the safety and security of infants by following prevention plans which emphasize these and other actions: educating parents about abduction risks, using identically numbered bands on the baby and parents, taking color photographs of the infant, wearing color photograph ID badges themselves, discouraging parents/families from publishing birth notices in the public media, controlling access to nursery/postpartum unit, and utilizing infant security tags or abduction alarm systems. PMID:19550261

Vincent, Janice L

2009-01-01

60

Alleged Experiences Inside UFOs: An Analysis of Abduction Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six well-documented UFO abductions reported in Spain are re- viewed. Investigation reveals them to be the result of hoax, delusion or psy- chosis. On a global scale, the annual distribution of abductions plotted ac- cording to year of report shows clusters associated with media-related triggers. Abduction narratives seem to proceed from internal sources, repre- senting non-physical experiences of psychological origin

VICENTE-JUAN BALLESTER OLMOS

61

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure to Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of a procedure to measure diagnostic-reasoning and problem-solving skills taught in predoctoral orthodontic education were studied using 68 second year dental students. The procedure includes stimulus material and 33 multiple-choice items. It is a feasible way of assessing problem-solving skills in dentistry education…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

1990-01-01

62

The CIFF Proof Procedure: Definition and Soundness Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new proof procedure for abductive logic pro- gramming and prove two soundness results. Our procedure extends that of Fung and Kowalski by integrating abductive reasoning with constraint solving and by relaxing the restrictions on allowed inputs for which the procedure can operate correctly. An implementation of our proof pro- cedure is available and has been applied successfully

U. Endriss; P. Mancarella; F. Sadri; G. Terreni; F. Toni

2004-01-01

63

21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a)...

2014-04-01

64

21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a)...

2013-04-01

65

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports: Automobiles/Trucks  

E-print Network

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports statutes of the State of Texas, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) has adopted

66

Partial abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks by simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks (BBN) is intended as the process of generating the K most probable configurations given observed evidence. When we are only interested in a subset of the network variables, this problem is called partial abductive inference. Due to the noncommutative behaviour of the two operators (summation and maximum) involved in the computational process of solving

Luis M. De Campos; José A. Gámez; Seraf??n Moral

2001-01-01

67

A need for standardized rabies-virus diagnostic procedures: Effect of cover-glass mountant on the reliability of antigen detection by the fluorescent antibody test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct fluorescent antibody test is a sensitive and specific procedure used in the routine diagnosis of rabies. However, given the critical role of the rabies diagnostic laboratory in patient management and public health decision-making, the use of a standardized national rabies diagnostic procedure is highly recommended. Seemingly small variations in test procedures may have dramatic effects on sensitivity. For

Robert J. Rudd; Jean S. Smith; Pamela A. Yager; Lillian A. Orciari; Charles V. Trimarchi

2005-01-01

68

Medical physicists' implication in radiological diagnostic procedures: results after 1 y of experience.  

PubMed

Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

2015-04-01

69

Use of diagnostic imaging procedures and fetal monitoring devices in the care of pregnant women.  

PubMed

Medical devices and diagnostic imaging procedures such as ultrasound, X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices are used in the medical care of many pregnant women today. The responsibility for the safety and effectiveness of these diagnostic technologies is shared by a number of Public Health Service agencies, one of which is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), a unit within the Food and Drug Administration. The CDRH collaborated with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in conducting a study of recent trends in the uses of diagnostic ultrasound, medical X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices in the medical care of pregnant women. This study used data from the 1980 National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys and the 1987 pretest to the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Hospitals and prenatal care providers of the pregnant women contributed information regarding the use of these medical devices. Between 1980 and 1987, ultrasound use more than doubled, increasing from 33.5 percent of pregnancies in 1980 to 78.8 percent in 1987 (P less than 0.001). More ultrasound examinations were performed earlier in gestation in 1987 than in 1980, with 10.1 percent being performed during the first trimester in 1987, compared with 6.9 percent in 1980 (P less than 0.001). Use of external electronic fetal monitoring devices during delivery also increased significantly between 1980 and 1987, from 33.5 percent to 74.6 percent (P less than 0.001). Use of medical X-rays among women with live births remained relatively unchanged, 15.0 percent in 1980 and 15.3 percent in 1987 (P = .282). The implications of these trends are discussed. PMID:2120723

Moore, R M; Jeng, L L; Kaczmarek, R G; Placek, P J

1990-01-01

70

Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.  

PubMed

The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. PMID:10840926

Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

2000-04-01

71

Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.  

PubMed

Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department. PMID:24146357

Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

2014-04-01

72

Oculo-Oscillo-Dynamography: A Diagnostic Procedure for Recording Ocular Pulses and Measuring Retinal and Ciliary Arterial Blood Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective noninvasive diagnostic procedure permitting continuous registration of ocular arterial pulsation and determination of retinal and ciliary arterial blood pressures is presented. Arterial pulsation of both eyes is recorded using two infrasound transducers which are connected pneumatically with suction cups placed temporally on the sclerae. By means of a suction pump the intraocular pressure (IOP) of both eyes can

Wulff-D. Ulrich; Ch. Ulrich

1985-01-01

73

Can diagnostic and procedural skills required to practice cardiology as a specialist be mastered in 3 years?  

PubMed

Cognitive and procedural skills required of cardiologists have increased in the past 10 years. What is unknown is whether residents consistently meet recommended volumes during training and what their own subjective assessments of their competency are after training. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether current training provides residents with opportunities to develop skills to function independently and (2) identify whether residents perceive gaps in their skills. We surveyed current and recent graduates of adult cardiology programs in Canada. One hundred ten responses from 425 surveys were received. Procedural and diagnostic test interpretation volumes were recorded, as were the optimum number the respondents believed were important to complete to function independently. These volumes were compared with the 2008 American College of Cardiology Core Cardiology Training Symposium (COCATS 3) and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) recommendations for training. The proportion of residents meeting recommended volumes for diagnostic test interpretation ranged from 7% (Holter monitors) to 91% (echocardiograms). For procedures, the range was from 71% (echocardiography) to 100% (cardioversion). The ratio of residents' perceived minimum numbers believed to be required for proficiency for diagnostic test interpretation to those recommended ranged from 14% (electrocardiograms) to 116% (echocardiograms), and for procedures, the ratio was 66% (temporary pacemaker placement) to 116% (echocardiography). Recent graduates' perception of minimum required numbers to achieve competency is underestimated compared with COCATS 3 and CCS recommendations. Few graduates achieved the recommended volume targets suggested for diagnostic test interpretation. PMID:25547557

Yu, Eric H C; Nair, Parvathy; Sibbald, Matthew G; Lee, Douglas S; Dorian, Paul

2015-01-01

74

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1064; FRL-9797-6] Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic...

2013-04-03

75

[Spinal metastases. Value of diagnostic procedures in the initial diagnosis and follow-up].  

PubMed

In this retrospective study plain radiographs, radionuclide bone scans, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRT) examinations of 115 patients with metastatic carcinoma of the spine were analyzed. In 32 patients metastases were proven histologically and in the remainder by follow-up studies. Altogether, 513 vertebrae were evaluated. Forty-one patients had histologically proven breast cancer, 14 renal cell carcinoma, 11 prostate cancer, 8 melanoma. 8 tumors of the gastrointestinal system and 7 bronchial carcinoma. Evaluation of the plain films showed that the initial site of metastasis (n = 463) was the vertebral body in 441 cases and the pedicles in 294 cases. In CT scans most of the lesions confined to one part of the vertebral body (36 of 98) were localized in the posterior part. Twelve percent of the metastases were diagnosed with conventional radiography and 17% of those diagnosed with CT were not detected in skeletal scintigraphy. MRI was rarely used in diagnosing occult vertebral metastases (n = 37); 22% of the metastases demonstrated by MRI were not detected in skeletal scintigraphy. We concluded that only in 63.8% was the pedicle sign the initial site of metastasis on plain films. Bone scans and plain films are the most important diagnostic procedures for detecting and monitoring vertebral metastases. CT and MRI are only needed in patients with neurological symptoms and persistent pain. PMID:7892439

Link, T M; Sciuk, J; Fründt, H; Konermann, W; Schober, O; Peters, P E

1995-01-01

76

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research  

E-print Network

of Interest in Research Page 1 of 3 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic LaboratoryTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research Approved: February 2, 2012 Revised: August 1, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: August 1

77

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 33.04.01.V0.01 Use of Agency Resources for External Employment  

E-print Network

for External Employment Approved: December 28, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: December 28, 2014 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 33.04.01.A0.01 Use of Agency Resources for External Employment Resources for External Employment, and this procedure, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory

78

21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip...

2012-04-01

79

Retrospective Evaluation of Standard Diagnostic Procedures in Identification of the Causes of New-Onset Syndrome of inappropriate Antidiuresis  

PubMed Central

Background: Many diagnostic procedures are conducted in patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). However, the contribution in identification of the cause of SIAD remains unknown. Methods: The study was conducted at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in southern Taiwan. From January 2000 to December 2009, medical records of 439 adult patients hospitalized for new-onset SIAD at a single center were retrospectively collected. All diagnostic procedures during hospitalization were divided into four groups: chest/lung, central nervous system, abdomen, and bone marrow to evaluate their positive rate leading to the cause of SIAD. Factors associated with “procedures leading to the cause” were also analyzed to improve efficacy of survey. Results: Cause of SIAD was identified in 267 (60.8%). Of them, 150 were pulmonary disorders, 44 were drugs, 37 were central nervous system disorders, 32 were malignancy and 4 were post-surgery. Survey for chest/lung, central nervous system, abdomen, and bone marrow were performed in 96.6%, 29.2%, 38.0% and 3.6% of patients, respectively; positive findings leading to the cause of SIAD were 39.6%, 12.5%, 5.3% and 6.3%, respectively. Among the diagnostic procedures, chest x-ray (424/439, 96.6%) was most frequently performed with the highest identification rate of 34.7% (147 cases). Major significant independent factors that associated with “procedure leading to a cause” were: absence of SIAD-associated drug history, presence of fever/chills, and presence of respiratory symptoms. Cause of SIAD became evident later during the follow-up period in 10 of 172 (5.8%) patients who were initially thought to be cause-unknown. Malignancy was the cause for 5 cases and pulmonary tuberculosis was for the other five. Eight of these causes became evident within one year after the diagnosis of SIAD. Conclusions: SIAD with unidentified causes were prevalent. Current diagnostic procedures remain not satisfying in determining the cause of SIAD, but chest radiograph did demonstrate higher diagnostic rate, especially in patients presented with fever, chills, respiratory symptoms, and without SIAD-associated drug history. Patients with unidentified cause should be followed for at least one year when most hidden causes (e.g. malignancy and tuberculosis) become obvious. PMID:24465165

Hsu, Chih-Yang; Chen, Chieh-Liang; Huang, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Po-Tsang; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chou, Kang-Ju

2014-01-01

80

Feasibility and Acceptability of a Structured Curriculum in Teaching Procedural and Basic Diagnostic Ultrasound Skills to Internal Medicine Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Point-of-care ultrasound has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool and is also being increasingly used by clinicians to guide procedures. Many current and future internists desire training, yet no formal, multiple-application, program-wide teaching interventions have been described. Intervention We describe a structured 30-hour ultrasound training course in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound implemented during intern orientation. Internal medicine interns learned basic ultrasound physics and machine skills; focused cardiac, great vessel, pulmonary, and abdominal ultrasound diagnostic examinations; and procedural applications. Results In postcourse testing, learners demonstrated the ability to acquire images, had significantly increased knowledge scores (P?

Schnobrich, Daniel J.; Olson, Andrew P. J.; Broccard, Alain; Duran-Nelson, Alisa

2013-01-01

81

FOXL2 molecular testing in ovarian neoplasms: diagnostic approach and procedural guidelines.  

PubMed

A single, recurrent somatic point mutation (402C?G) in FOXL2 has been described in almost all adult-type granulosa cell tumors but not other ovarian neoplasms. Histopathological features of adult-type granulosa cell tumors can be mimicked by a variety of other tumors, making diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumor challenging. It has been suggested that molecular testing for FOXL2 mutation might be a useful tool in the diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumors. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how testing for the FOXL2 mutation can be used in a gynecological pathology consultation service and to establish clear procedural guidelines for FOXL2 testing. Immunohistochemistry for FOXL2 was done using an anti-FOXL2 polyclonal antiserum. If immunohistochemistry was positive, FOXL2 mutation status was subsequently analyzed using a TaqMan assay. A dilution experiment was done to assess the sensitivity and minimum tumor cellularity requirements for our TaqMan assay. Twenty problematic cases were assessed, where the differential diagnosis after the initial investigations included adult-type granulosa cell tumors. Differential diagnoses included: thecoma, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, juvenile granulosa cell tumor, endometrial stromal sarcoma and others. In all cases, FOXL2 immunohistochemistry was positive and in six samples the FOXL2 mutation was detected, thus confirming a diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumor. The TaqMan assay was able to reliably detect the FOXL2 mutation with input DNA in the range of 2.5-20?ng, and with a minimum of 25% tumor cell nuclei. The analysis of the FOXL2 mutational status in clinical samples is a useful diagnostic tool in situations where the differential diagnosis is between adult-type granulosa cell tumor and other ovarian tumors. The TaqMan assay requires a minimum of 2.5?ng DNA, with optimal assay performance for 5 to 10?ng DNA input. Laser capture or needle-macrodissection should be undertaken to enrich samples with tumor cell content below 25%. PMID:23348906

Kommoss, Stefan; Anglesio, Michael S; Mackenzie, Robertson; Yang, Winnie; Senz, Janine; Ho, Julie; Bell, Lynda; Lee, Sylvia; Lorette, Julie; Huntsman, David G; Blake Gilks, C

2013-06-01

82

NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

2013-03-01

83

A world allergy organization international survey on diagnostic procedures and therapies in drug allergy/hypersensitivity  

E-print Network

, pulmonology, or allergy/immunology10,11), type of allergological practice (private, government practice, clinical or research-based institution), funding mechanisms, accessibility to various types of diagnostic tests, availability of basic versus tertiary...

Thong, Bernard YH; Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

2011-12-15

84

Intercultural caring-an abductive model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of caring from a transcultural perspective and to develop the first outline of a theory. The theoretical perspective includes Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. Texts on caring by the transcultural theorists, including Campinha-Bacote, Kim-Godwin, Leininger and Ray, are analysed using content analysis. The overall theme that resulted from this analysis was that caring is a complex whole. Three main categories of caring emerged: inner caring, outer caring and the goal of caring. Inner caring consists of caring is a relationship, and caring and culture are seen in different dimensions. Outer caring refers to caring affected by educational, administrative and social and other structures. The goal of caring consists of caring leading to change towards health and well-being. The main categories include categories and subcategories that are compared with Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A model for intercultural caring is generated abductively. Caring and culture appear in three dimensions: caring as ontology independent of context; caring as a phenomenon emphasised differently in different cultures; caring as nursing care activities is unique. Caring alleviates suffering and leads to health and well-being. This model describes caring from an intercultural perspective as a mutual but asymmetric relationship between the nurse and the patient, including the patient's family and community. The patient's cultural background and acculturation influence caring. The cultural background, cultural competence and organisation of the nurse also influence caring. Caring is seen as a complex whole. This study integrates Campinha-Bacote's, Kim-Godwin's, Leininger's and Ray's views of caring with Eriksson's caritative caring and presents caring from a transcultural perspective in a new way as a model for intercultural caring, which can benefit nursing care, education, research and administration. PMID:18840233

Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie

2008-09-01

85

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research  

E-print Network

in Research Approved: March 26, 2013 Next Scheduled Review: March 26, 2015 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Participants in Research, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) will comply with all&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research Page 2

86

Abduction-pronation and recession of second (index) metacarpal in thumb agenesis.  

PubMed

Thumb dysplasia imposes a proportionately greater functional deficit than does dysplasia of any other digit. To simulate an opposable unit, the child with but four normal fingers naturally will turn to the next most radial (index) digit and by abducting and pronating will widen his first cleft. When the thumb is absent bilaterally, formal neurovascular pollicization of at least one index digit is the logical choice. The inherent deficiencies in formal pollicization, however, may detract from its use in certain instances, for example, unilateral thumb aplasia or thumb aplasia associated with radial club hand. A simpler procedure performed at age 3 or 4 years avoids many of these deficiencies while still creating a more functional pinch and grasp. Through a small web incision, the index metacarpal is separated from the adjacent metacarpal. The base of the index metacarpal is sectioned and shortened 1.5 cm. The digit is recessed, rotated and abducted radially and palmarly, then immobilized by a K-wire fixation to its base. Since 1960, 17 procedures have been performed with good functional results and acceptable appearance. PMID:845417

Hentz, V R; Littler, J W

1977-03-01

87

The Abduction of Children by Strangers and Nonfamily Members: Estimating the Incidence Using Multiple Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a national survey of households with children, a national survey of police records, and an analysis of FBI homicide data to estimate the incidence of nonfamily abductions of children. Offers a definition of abduction, analyzes problems in compiling abduction statistics, and discusses public policy on prevention and response. (RJM)

Finkelhor, David; And Others

1992-01-01

88

Diagnostic procedures for Trend Monitoring System (TMS) communications. [coaxial cable bus system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype coaxial cable bus communications sytem was developed to support the trend monitoring system (TMS). Troubleshooting procedures are described at the system level. The procedures can be used by repair personnel to isolate a fault in the TMS and to restore the system to operation by swapping out failed components.

Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

1979-01-01

89

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL PEDIATRIC SEDATION FOR DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

with an analgesic benzodiazepine A: short duration minimal cardiovascular effects D: respiratory depression (rate GUIDELINES ADVERSE EFFECTS REVERSAL Chloral hydrate (Noctec® ) sedation only use for nonpainful procedures of long duration active TCE metabolite/ (general CNS depression) A: little respiratory depression

Acton, Scott

90

Theorising and Practitioners in HRD: The Role of Abductive Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which…

Gold, Jeff; Walton, John; Cureton, Peter; Anderson, Lisa

2011-01-01

91

Security challenges and risk management strategies for child abduction.  

PubMed

Infant and child abduction is a serious risk exposure for hospitals. Such a horrific event can impose monumental injury on family members, the facility and its staff, as well as the community. Having the right security plan and liability coverage in place is essential to managing a risk, that, while not statistically common, can become high profile. PMID:18409455

Glasson, Linda; Rozovsky, Fay A; Gaffney, Meg

2008-01-01

92

Abductive reasoning in Bayesian belief networks using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of computational experiments is described in which genetic algorithms are used for abductive reasoning in Bayesian belief networks. It is shown that good solutions and explanations are consistently found with high probabilities. The efficiency of genetic sampling w.r.t. random sampling is shown to increase with increasing complexity of the search space and with increasing complexity of the search

Edzard S. Gelsema

1995-01-01

93

Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

Shanahan, Murray

2005-01-01

94

An object-oriented, abductive interpreter for aircraft flight control  

E-print Network

. Abductive Inference PRELIMINARY WORK Eiffel. . Jet Simulation Project Interfaces. Executive . GUI. Pmgramming X Graphics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eiffel Graphic Library Bugs. Blackboard Interpmcess Communications BSD Unix Communication... Facilities. System V Unix Communication Facilities. X Event Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership Function Tool/Editor, FLIGHT MODE INTERPRETATION. . Decision Confidence Measure: Elementary...

Economides, Gregory Theo

1993-01-01

95

Monitoring of the electrical discharge machining process by abductive networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the use of abductive networks to monitor the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The voltage and current across the gap between the tool and workpiece are fed into the developed networks for the recognition of various pulse types in EDM in a “winner-take-all” fashion. Experimental results have shown that EDM pulses can be clearly classified even with

H. S. Liu; Y. S. Tarng

1997-01-01

96

Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin #  

E-print Network

Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin # http computed answers can be recycled arises. A yes answer could result in sub­ stantial savings of repeated tends to be­ lieve that the answer should be no, since recycling is a form of adding information

Wu, Dekai

97

The Australian experiment: the use of evidence based medicine for the reimbursement of surgical and diagnostic procedures (1998–2004)  

PubMed Central

Background In 1998 a formal process using the criteria of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (evidence based medicine) on the introduction and use of new medical procedures was implemented in Australia. As part of this process an expert panel, the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) was set up. This paper examines the effectiveness of this process based on the original criteria, that is, evidence based medicine. Method The data for this analysis was sourced primarily from that made available in the public domain. The MSAC web site provided Minutes from MSAC meetings; Annual Reports; Assessment and Review reports; Progress status; and Archived material. Results The total number of applications submitted to the MSAC has been relatively low averaging approximately only fourteen per year. Additionally, the source of applications has quickly shifted to the medical devices, equipment and diagnostic industry as being the major source of applications. An overall average time for the processing of an application is eighteen months. Negative recommendations were in most cases based on insufficient clinical evidence rather than clinical evidence that clearly demonstrated a lack of clinical effectiveness. It was rare for a recommendation, either positive or negative, to be based on cost-effectiveness. Conclusion New medical procedures are often the result of a process of experimentation rather than formally conducted research. Affordability and the question of who should pay for the generation, collection and analysis of the clinical evidence is perhaps the most difficult to answer. This is especially the case where the new procedure is the result of a process of experimentation with an old procedure. A cost-effective way needs to be found to collect acceptable levels of evidence proving the clinical effectiveness of these new procedures, otherwise the formal processes of evaluation such as that used by the Australian MSAC since 1998 will continue to run the risk of committing Type II errors, that is, denying access to medical procedures that are beneficial and efficient. PMID:16684362

O'Malley, Sue P

2006-01-01

98

Evaluation of Ebola Virus Inactivation Procedures for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Diagnostics.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is highly endemic in the three most affected countries in the current epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. As EVD and malaria are clinically indistinguishable, both remain part of the differential diagnosis of ill travelers from returning from areas of EVD transmission. We compared the performances of a rapid diagnostic test (BinaxNOW) and real-time PCR with P. falciparum-positive specimens before and after heat and Triton X-100 inactivation, and we documented no loss of sensitivity. PMID:25631810

Lau, Rachel; Wang, Amanda; Chong-Kit, Ann; Ralevski, Filip; Boggild, Andrea K

2015-04-01

99

Calculation of Entrance Exposed Area from Recorded Images in Cardiac Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

detectors need to be placed in the radiation field on the skin of the patient, which may interfere with the procedure. Also, not all radiological practices are equipped with TLD readers (which are expensive) or have staff with the appropriate knowledge and expertise to be able to make use of the TLD. Slow therapeutic films (9) have also been used.

G Bibbo; D Balman

100

Molecular diagnostic procedures for production of pathogen-free propagation material.  

PubMed

Production of disease-free propagation material is a major means of controlling most bacterial diseases of plants, particularly when neither resistant clones nor effective chemical treatments are available. For this purpose sensitive, specific and rapid detection methods are required. The advent of molecular biology and, in particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has opened new ways for the characterization and identification of plant pathogens and the development of disease-management strategies. PCR-based detection methods rely on the development of primers for the specific detection of the pathogen. The use of pathogenicity genes as targets for primer design is the preferred procedure for obtaining specific primers but other procedures may also be useful for this purpose. In the present review we describe four examples of procedures for detecting four important bacterial pathogens in Israel: Erwinia herbicola pv gypsophilae in gypsophila, Xanthomonas campestris pv pelargonii in geranium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens in asters and roses, and Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris in crucifers. Procedures for constructing specific PCR primers for each bacterium are illustrated and discussed as well as the combination of PCR with other methods. PMID:12449531

Manulis, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Dror, Orit; Kleitman, Frida

2002-11-01

101

Effects of diagnostic procedures during fiberoptic bronchoscopy on heart rate, blood pressure, and blood gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To investigate the effects of several endoscopic procedures like introduction of the bronchoscope, removal of the instrument, catheter suction, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy on heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and transcutaneously measured blood gases 77 consecutive patients (age, 20–83 years) were studied. All patients received 10 l O2\\/min via face mask during bronchoscopy. Sedation was performed with midazolam

H.-W. M. Breuer; St. Charchut; H. Worth

1989-01-01

102

A World Allergy Organization International Survey on Diagnostic Procedures and Therapies in Drug Allergy/Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the diagnostic and treatment modalities used in drug allergy/hypersensitivity among members of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Methods A questionnaire comprising 39 questions was circulated electronically to member societies, associate member societies, and regional and affiliate organizations of WAO between June 29, 2009, and August 9, 2009. Results Eighty-two responses were received. Skin testing was used by 74.7%, with only 71.4% having access to penicillin skin test reagents. In vitro–specific IgE tests were used by 67.4%, and basophil activation test was used by 54.4%. Lymphocyte transformation tests were used by 36.8% and patch tests by 54.7%. Drug provocation tests were used by 68.4%, the most common indication being to exclude hypersensitivity where history/symptoms were not suggestive of drug hypersensitivity/allergy (76.9%). Rapid desensitization for chemotherapy, antibiotics, or biologic agents was used by 69.6%. Systemic corticosteroid was used in the treatment of Stevens–Johnson syndrome by 72.3%, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in toxic epidermal necrolysis by 50.8%. Human leukocyte antigen screening before prescription of abacavir was used by 92.9% and before prescription of carbamazepine by 21.4%. Conclusions Results of this survey form a useful framework for developing educational and training needs and for improving access to drug allergy diagnostic and treatment modalities across WAO member societies. PMID:23268453

Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

2011-01-01

103

Towards A Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures  

PubMed Central

We have designed, developed, and evaluated the performance of a multi-degree-of-freedom discretely actuated steerable cannula with shape memory alloy (SMA)actuators. This will enable us to deliver diagnostic as well as therapeutic devices to the target location through the hollow inner core of the cannula. We propose to use SMAs to generate bending forces due to its small size and high power density. We annealed the SMA wires through a customized training process in arc shape and mounted them at discrete locations on the outer surface of the cannula to enable joint motion. A pulse width modulation(PWM)-based control scheme was implemented to control all SMA actuators simultaneously to enable multiple joint motion using a single power supply. The proposed controller was validated through an experiment inside gelatin to mimic the motion of the cannula inside a medium which requires a significant amount of force to move the joints of the cannula. Trajectory planning using a suitable metric and trajectory execution were successfully implemented. To demonstrate the delivery of a diagnostic tool through our cannula, we demonstrate that we can pass an optical coherence tomography probe through the cannula and perform in situ micro-scale imaging. PMID:22639482

Ayvali, Elif; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ho, Mingyen; Chen, Yu; Desai, Jaydev P.

2012-01-01

104

Rapid sandwich ELISA-based in vitro diagnostic procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of human fetuin A.  

PubMed

A rapid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based in vitro diagnostic (IVD) procedure has been developed for human fetuin A (HFA), an important disease biomarker for inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies. In this simplified and cost-effective procedure, the EDC-activated anti-HFA antibody (Ab) was admixed with 1% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in 1:1 (v/v) and dispensed in a KOH-pretreated microtiter plate (MTP). APTES formed a stable complex with the capture antibody that was in turn covalently bonded on the KOH-treated surface in 30min. The resulting immunoassay (IA) format detects HFA with a dynamic range of 0.1-243ngmL(-1), and a limit of detection (LOD) and analytical sensitivity of 0.3ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1), respectively. For the determination of HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum, and HFA in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma of patients, the obtained analytical precision is similar to that of the conventional sandwich ELISA. The anti-HFA Ab-bound MTPs, stored at 4°C in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4, retained its biological activity for 8 weeks, thereby demonstrating excellent storage stability. This generic sandwich ELISA procedure can be extended for rapid, simplified and cost-effective detection of other disease biomarkers. PMID:25022575

Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

2015-05-15

105

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed Central

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities. PMID:1001294

Zimmerman, H J

1976-01-01

106

Endoscopic infrared diaphanoscopy: its use and feasibility in diagnostic and treatment procedure for paranasal sinus diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the upper respiratory tract, a new endoscopic procedure with ultra-thin and miniature fiberoptics (290 micrometers - 2 mm) finds a wide range of application in the differential diagnosis and treatment of pathological changes, especially within the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses. In order to restore the normal condition of ventilation and drainage of the paranasal sinuses or to remove internal inflammation the given foramina or ducts are widened mechanically. In case of the ostium nasomaxillaris `anatomical landmarks' can be used for orientation. But in case of the ostium nasofrontalis ((theta) 1 - 3 mm) or revision surgery where the anatomical conditions are not definitely defined or totally changed, problems can occur due to a lack of orientation. Dangerous complications which can occur due to surgical disorientation are the injury of the optic nerve and the dura mater. This paper presents an endoscopic variation of the infrared idaphanoscopy (IRD), a band-limited cw transillumination method, which enables localization of the foramina or ducts during the endoscopic procedure resulting in a reduction in the risk of disorientation.

Prapavat, Viravuth; Linnarz, Marietta; Hopf, Juergen U. G.; Beuthan, Juergen; Becker, Michael; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Scherer, Hans H.

1994-07-01

107

Monitoring vocal fold abduction through vocal fold contact area.  

PubMed

A number of commercial devices for measuring the transverse electrical conductance of the thyroid cartilage produce waveforms that can be useful for monitoring movements within the larynx during voice production, especially movements that are closely related to the time-variation of the contact between the vocal folds as they vibrate. This paper compares the various approaches that can be used to apply such a device, usually referred to as an electroglottograph, to the problem of monitoring the time-variation of vocal fold abduction and adduction during voiced speech. One method, in which a measure of relative vocal fold abduction is derived from the duty cycle of the linear-phase high pass filtered electroglottograph waveform, is developed in detail. PMID:3172751

Rothenberg, M; Mahshie, J J

1988-09-01

108

Stolen Children: Abduction and Recruitment in Northern Uganda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored and researched by individuals who work for the Human Rights Watch Organization, this 31-page report documents the tragic situation faced by children in Uganda. Since 1986, members of the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda have abducted close to 20,000 children, often forcing them to serve as soldiers, laborers, and sexual slaves. The report estimates that since June of 2002, almost 5,000 children have been abducted. The report is based on field research conducted in February 2003, and includes interviews with eighteen children (who are now young adults), and a number of religious and civic leaders. The authors of the report have divided the work into six primary sections, including a summary of their findings, policy recommendations, background material, and documentation of how the children are recruited into the LRA.

109

Smart on-board diagnostic decision trees for quantitative aviation equipment and safety procedures validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current trend in high-accuracy aircraft navigation systems is towards using data from one or more inertial navigation subsystem and one or more navigational reference subsystems. The enhancement in fault diagnosis and detection is achieved via computing the minimum mean square estimate of the aircraft states using, for instance, Kalman filter method. However, this enhancement might degrade if the cause of a subsystem fault has some effect on other subsystems that are calculating the same measurement. One instance of such case is the tragic incident of Air France Flight 447 in June, 2009 where message transmissions in the last moment before the crash indicated inconsistencies in measured airspeed as reported by Airbus. In this research, we propose the use of mathematical aircraft model to work out the current states of the airplane and in turn, using these states to validate the readings of the navigation equipment throughout smart diagnostic decision tree network. Various simulated equipment failures have been introduced in a controlled environment to proof the concept of operation. The results have showed successful detection of the failing equipment in all cases.

Ali, Ali H.; Markarian, Garik; Tarter, Alex; Kölle, Rainer

2010-04-01

110

[Intraductal ultrasound of the pancreas--a procedure with diagnostic prospects? Initial preclinical experiences].  

PubMed

For the first time, human pancreas specimens (18 autopsy specimens, three resection specimens) were examined with high-resolution, flexible ultrasound catheters (20 MHz; 3.5 F, 4.8 F, 5.0 F and 6.0 F external diameters; mechanical and electronic systems). The ultrasound catheter was easily inserted into the pancreatic duct in all specimens. The sonographic tissue texture was correlated with its histological picture at defined positions. A high resolution was thus achieved in the sonomorphological differentiation of blood vessels, duct system elements, fibrotic tissue, fatty tissue and pancreas tissue with varying lipomatous composition. In a radius of an average of 5.5 mm, structures 0.1 mm large were recognised. Contrast media studies of the ductal system were carried out before and after ultrasound examination. No evidence of trauma due to catheterisation was found either with these studies or by histology. In one case, a 15 mm serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreatic head was found at intraductal examination of the resection specimen. Clinical examinations within the framework of endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography must clarify if the intraductal ultrasonography technique presented here can truly enlarge the diagnostic, repertoire used in the search of tiny focal pancreatic lesions. PMID:8128207

Menzel, J; Foerster, E C; Kerber, S; Keller, R; Domschke, W

1993-12-01

111

From War to Classroom: PTSD and Depression in Formerly Abducted Youth in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background: Trained local screeners assessed the mental-health status of male and female students in Northern Ugandan schools. The study aimed to disclose potential differences in mental health-related impairment in two groups, former child soldiers (n?=?354) and other war-affected youth (n?=?489), as well as to separate factors predicting mental suffering in learners. Methods: Participants were randomly selected. We used the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for potential depression the respective section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist with a locally validated cut-off. Results: Almost all respondents had been displaced at least once in their life. 30% of girls and 50% of the boys in the study reported past abduction history. Trauma exposure was notably higher in the group of abductees. In former child soldiers, a PTSD rate of 32% was remarkably higher than that for non-abductees (12%). Especially in girls rates of potential depression were double those in the group of former abductees (17%) than in the group of non-abductees (8%). In all groups, trauma exposure increased the risk of developing PTSD. A path-analytic model for developing PTSD and potential depression revealed both previous trauma exposure as well as duration of abduction to have significant influences on trauma-related mental suffering. Findings also suggest that in Northern Ugandan schools trauma spectrum disorders are common among war-affected learners. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested the school context should be used to provide mental-health support structures within the education system for war-affected youth at likely risk of developing war-related mental distress. PMID:25788887

Winkler, Nina; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schalinski, Inga; Ovuga, Emilio; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

2015-01-01

112

Neuropathic orofacial pain. Part 2-Diagnostic procedures, treatment guidelines and case reports.  

PubMed

Neuropathic orofacial pain can be difficult to diagnose because of the lack of clinical and radiographic abnormalities. Further difficulties arise if the patient exhibits significant distress and is a poor historian regarding previous diagnostic tests and treatments, such as somatosensory local anaesthetic blockade. Valuable information can be obtained by utilising the McGill Pain Questionnaire that allows the patient to choose words that describe the qualities of his/her pain in a number of important dimensions (sensory and effective). Basal pain intensity should be measured with the visual analogue scale, a simple instrument that can evaluate the efficacy of subsequent treatments. The dentist or endodontist can employ sequential analgesic blockade with topical anaesthetics and perineural administration of plain local anaesthetic to ascertain sites of neuropathology in the PNS. These can be performed in the dental chair and in a patient blinded manner. Other, more specific, tests necessitate referral to a specialist anaesthetist at a multidisciplinary pain clinic. These tests include placebo controlled lignocaine infusions for assessing neuropathic pain, and placebo controlled phentolamine infusions for sympathetically maintained pain. The treatment/management of neuropathic pain is multidisciplinary. Medication rationalisation utilises first-line antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline, and possibly an anticonvulsant such as carbamazepine, sodium valproate, or gabapentin if there are sharp, shooting qualities to the pain. Mexiletine, an antiarrhythmic agent and lignocaine analogue, may be considered following a positive patient response to a lignocaine infusion. All drugs need to be titrated to achieve maximum therapeutic effect and minimum side effects. Topical applications of capsaicin to the gingivae and oral mucosa are a simple and effective treatment in two out of three patients suffering from neuropathic orofacial pain. Temporomandibular disorder is present in two thirds of patients and should be assessed and treated with physiotherapy and where appropriate, occlusal splint therapy. Attention to the patient's psychological status is crucial and requires the skill of a clinical psychologist and/or psychiatrist with pain clinic experience. Psychological variables include distress, depression, expectations of treatment, motivation to improve, and background environmental factors. Unnecessary dental treatment to "remove the pain" with dental extractions is contraindicated and aggravates neuropathic orofacial pain. PMID:11359283

Vickers, E R; Cousins, M J

2000-08-01

113

Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic

G. W. Coutts; M. L. Coon; A. F. Hinz; R. S. Hornady; D. D. Lang; N. P. Lund

1983-01-01

114

Memory Distortion in People Reporting Abduction by Aliens Susan A. Clancy, Richard J. McNally,  

E-print Network

Memory Distortion in People Reporting Abduction by Aliens Susan A. Clancy, Richard J. Mc memories of traumatic events that are unlikely to have occurred: abduction by space aliens. A variant to examine false recall and false recognition in 3 groups: people reporting recovered memories of alien

Schacter, Daniel

115

Subacromial space width changes during abduction and rotation -a 3-D MR imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were to determine systematic changes of the normal subacromial space width during abduction and rotation, and to analyze the spatial relationship of the supraspinatus muscle with the acromion and clavicle. 12 healthy volunteers were imaged by an open MR scanner in 5 different positions of abduction and in 3 positions of rotation. After three

H. Graichen; H. Bonel; T. Stammberger; K. H. Englmeier; M. Reiser; F. Eckstein

1999-01-01

116

Subacromial space width changes during abduction and rotation - a 3-D MR imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine systematic changes of the normal subacromial space width during abduction and rotation, and to analyze the spatial relationship of the supraspinatus muscle with the acromion and clavicle. 12 healthy volunteers were imaged by an open MR scanner in 5 different positions of abduction and in 3 positions of rotation. After three dimensional

H. Graichen; H. Bonel; T. Stammberger; K. H. Englmeier; M. Reiser; F. Eckstein

1999-01-01

117

Partial abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks is the process of generating the K most probable configurations given an observed evidence. When we are only interested in a subset of the network's variables, this problem is called partial abductive inference. Both problems are NP-hard, and so exact computation is not always possible. This paper describes an approximate method based on genetic

Luis M. De Campos; José A. Gámez; Serafín Moral

1999-01-01

118

Situation awareness via abductive reasoning from Semantic Sensor data: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic sensor Web enhances raw sensor data with spatial, temporal, and thematic annotations to enable high-level reasoning. In this paper, we explore how abductive reasoning framework can benefit formalization and interpretation of sensor data to garner situation awareness. Specifically, we show how abductive logic programming techniques, in conjunction with symbolic knowledge rules, can be used to detect inconsistent sensor data

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan; Cory A. Henson; Amit P. Sheth

2009-01-01

119

Abductive inferences to psychological variables: Steiger's question and best explanations of psychopathy.  

PubMed

Abductive inference often involves inference to the best explanation. A focus on the bestness of explanations facilitates a comparative analysis of how abductive inference would differ if approached with four contrasting sets of assumptions about how scientific inference works: positivism, realism, and two kinds of pragmatism. As a thought experiment, one can imagine a situation in which competing models of psychopathy differ in parsimony and fit to the data, but produce a tie when considering both virtues in combination. The thought experiment demonstrates that Steiger's (1990) question about how best to combine competing virtues in scientific inference applies to abductive inference and that the answers depend upon other assumptions about how science works. The comparative analysis helps focus some of the issues that require clarification before abductive inference can enter the Pantheon of standard research methods in psychology. More constructively, the analysis also demonstrates that one need not accept scientific realism to accept and use abductive inference. PMID:18618735

Markus, Keith A; Hawes, Samuel W; Thasites, Rula J

2008-09-01

120

Diagnostic Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... physical examination, doctors will perform some basic tests. First, they may listen to your heart with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation, which means the study of heart sounds. Doctors are sometimes able to diagnose some types ...

121

Hip Abduction Can Prevent Posterior Edge Loading of Hip Replacements  

PubMed Central

Edge loading causes clinical problems for hard-on-hard hip replacements, and edge loading wear scars are present on the majority of retrieved components. We asked the question: are the lines of action of hip joint muscles such that edge loading can occur in a well-designed, well-positioned acetabular cup? A musculoskeletal model, based on cadaveric lower limb geometry, was used to calculate for each muscle, in every position within the complete range of motion, whether its contraction would safely pull the femoral head into the cup or contribute to edge loading. The results show that all the muscles that insert into the distal femur, patella, or tibia could cause edge loading of a well-positioned cup when the hip is in deep flexion. Patients frequently use distally inserting muscles for movements requiring deep hip flexion, such as sit-to-stand. Importantly, the results, which are supported by in vivo data and clinical findings, also show that risk of edge loading is dramatically reduced by combining deep hip flexion with hip abduction. Patients, including those with sub-optimally positioned cups, may be able to reduce the prevalence of edge loading by rising from chairs or stooping with the hip abducted. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1172–1179, 2013. PMID:23575923

van Arkel, Richard J; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew TM; Jeffers, Jonathan RT

2013-01-01

122

Diagnostic reasoning based on a genetic algorithm operating in a Bayesian belief network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of diagnostic reasoning in a Bayesian belief network, based on a genetic algorithm is demonstrated. The reasoning process described here is an example of approximate reasoning. Since exact abduction in a network modelling the “classical diagnostic problem” is NP-hard, inexact or approximate reasoning attracts much attention. The results of the present study indicate that in a given context

Edzard S. Gelsema

1996-01-01

123

Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

Wahlen, Raphaël; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

2015-01-01

124

Abductive learning of quantized stochastic processes with probabilistic finite automata.  

PubMed

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm (GenESeSS) to infer the causal structure of quantized stochastic processes, defined as stochastic dynamical systems evolving over discrete time, and producing quantized observations. Assuming ergodicity and stationarity, GenESeSS infers probabilistic finite state automata models from a sufficiently long observed trace. Our approach is abductive; attempting to infer a simple hypothesis, consistent with observations and modelling framework that essentially fixes the hypothesis class. The probabilistic automata we infer have no initial and terminal states, have no structural restrictions and are shown to be probably approximately correct-learnable. Additionally, we establish rigorous performance guarantees and data requirements, and show that GenESeSS correctly infers long-range dependencies. Modelling and prediction examples on simulated and real data establish relevance to automated inference of causal stochastic structures underlying complex physical phenomena. PMID:23277601

Chattopadhyay, Ishanu; Lipson, Hod

2013-02-13

125

Criminal profiling as a plotting activity based on abductive processes.  

PubMed

In this article the authors analyze the nature and aims of criminal profiling from a theoretical point of view. The need to become increasingly "scientific" has given rise to the modern approaches of profiling, which have been particularly successful in cases of serial homicides and sex crimes, given that compulsive (perverse) acts, because of their ritual nature, have been described as being more easily foreseeable and presumably linkable to the psychological and even personal characteristics of a given criminal. On this basis, the authors analyze profiling from an epistemological point of view and show how, in the concrete activity of profiling, profilers depart from the "certainty" of the scientific models (those that are based on deductive-inductive processes); the epistemological basis of reasoning changes as there is no longer an induction-deduction model but rather an abductive model (as conceived and explained by Peirce) in which the importance of plotting (the weaving of a narrative) becomes greater. PMID:19561134

Verde, Alfredo; Nurra, Antonio

2010-10-01

126

Proposal for a trigonometric method to evaluate the abduction angle of the lower limbs in neonates.  

PubMed

It is difficult to precisely measure articular arc movement in newborns using a goniometer. This article proposes an objective method based on trigonometry for the evaluation of lower limb abduction. With the newborn aligned in the dorsal decubitus position, 2 points are marked at the level of the medial malleolus, one on the sagittal line and the other at the end of the abduction. Using the right-sided line between these 2 points and a line from the medial malleolus to the reference point at the anterior superior iliac spine or umbilical scar, an isosceles triangle is drawn, and half of the inferential abduction angle is obtained by calculating the sine. Twenty healthy full-term newborns comprise the study cohort. Intersubject and intrasubject variability among the abduction angle values (mean [SD], 37 degrees [4] degrees) is low. This method is advantageous because the measurement is precise and because the sine can be used without approximation. PMID:19073852

Lima, Thaís; Alves, Cyntia; Funayama, Carolina A R

2008-12-01

127

ProLogICA: a practical system for Abductive Logic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new system called ProLogICA for Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) with Nega- tion as Failure (NAF) and Integrity Constraints (ICs). The system builds upon existing ALP techniques but includes several optimisations and extensions necessi- tated by recent applications in computational biology, temporal reasoning and machine learning. Unlike some other ALP systems that support non-ground abduction through the

Oliver Ray; Antonis Kakas

2006-01-01

128

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 33.99.16.V0.01 Contract Workforce Page 1 of 3 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures  

E-print Network

CONTRACTORS In evaluating whether to use an independent contractor or an employee to perform a certain job of an employer/employee relationship: a. The worker receives instructions on how to perform the job from, it may be more cost effective for the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL

129

Promoting convergence: The Phi spiral in abduction of mouse corneal behaviors  

PubMed Central

Why do mouse corneal epithelial cells display spiraling patterns? We want to provide an explanation for this curious phenomenon by applying an idealized problem solving process. Specifically, we applied complementary line-fitting methods to measure transgenic epithelial reporter expression arrangements displayed on three mature, live enucleated globes to clarify the problem. Two prominent logarithmic curves were discovered, one of which displayed the ? ratio, an indicator of an optimal configuration in phyllotactic systems. We then utilized two different computational approaches to expose our current understanding of the behavior. In one procedure, which involved an isotropic mechanics-based finite element method, we successfully produced logarithmic spiral curves of maximum shear strain based pathlines but computed dimensions displayed pitch angles of 35° (? spiral is ?17°), which was altered when we fitted the model with published measurements of coarse collagen orientations. We then used model-based reasoning in context of Peircean abduction to select a working hypothesis. Our work serves as a concise example of applying a scientific habit of mind and illustrates nuances of executing a common method to doing integrative science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity 20: 22–38, 2015 PMID:25755620

Rhee, Jerry; Nejad, Talisa Mohammad; Comets, Olivier; Flannery, Sean; Gulsoy, Eine Begum; Iannaccone, Philip; Foster, Craig

2015-01-01

130

Left Radial Access Is Preferable to Right Radial Access for the Diagnostic or Interventional Coronary Procedures: A Meta-Analysis Involving 22 Randomized Clinical Trials and 10287 Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The transradial approach has been used extensively for both diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures; however, there is no universal consensus hitherto on the optimal choice of radial access from either the left or the right artery. We therefore sought to meta-analyze available randomized clinical trials to compare the left with the right radial access for the diagnostic or interventional coronary procedures. Methods and Results Four electronic databases including the PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and CNKI were searched up to April 2013. In total, there were 22 qualified randomized trials involving 5317 and 4970 patients assigned to the left and the right radial accesses, respectively. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Analyses of the full data set indicated significant reductions in fluoroscopy time (seconds) (weighted mean difference; 95% confidence interval; P: ?36.18; ?53.28 to ?18.53; <0.0005) and contrast use (mL) (?2.88; ?5.41 to ?0.34; 0.026) in patients with the left radial access compared to those with the right radial access, and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity but low probability of publication bias. The failure rate of radial access from the left was relatively lower than that from the right (odds ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.68?1.01; P?=?0.064). Further in meta-regression analyses, body mass index was found to be a potential source of heterogeneity for both fluoroscopy time (regression coefficient: 35.85; P?=?0.025) and catheter number (regression coefficient: 0.35; P?=?0.018). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that left radial access is preferable to right radial access in terms of fluoroscopy time and contrast use for the diagnostic or interventional coronary procedures. The import of this study lies in its great shock to the concept of convenient radial access from the right artery. PMID:24223815

Guo, Xiaogang; Ding, Jie; Qi, Yue; Jia, Nan; Chu, Shaoli; Lin, Jinxiu; Su, Jinzi; Peng, Feng; Niu, Wenquan

2013-01-01

131

Reliability and Validity of a Procedure To Measure Diagnostic Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills Taught in Predoctoral Orthodontic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary psychometric data assessing the reliability and validity of a method used to measure the diagnostic reasoning and problem-solving skills of predoctoral students in orthodontia are described. The measurement approach consisted of sets of patient demographic data and dental photos and x-rays, accompanied by a set of 33 multiple-choice…

Albanese, Mark A.; Jacobs, Richard M.

132

Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

2008-01-01

133

Changes in Racial Differences in Use of Medical Procedures and Diagnostic Tests Among Elderly Persons: 1986–1997  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We used 1997 Medicare data to replicate an earlier study that used data from 1986 to examine racial differences in usage of specific medical procedures or tests among elderly persons. Methods. We used 1997 physician claims data to obtain a random sample of 5% of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. We used this sample to study 30 procedures and tests that were analyzed in the 1986 study, as well as several new procedures that became more widely used in the early 1990s. Results. Racial differences remain in the rates of use of these procedures; in general, Blacks have lower rates of use than do Whites. Between 1986 and 1997, the ratio of White to Black use moved in favor of Blacks for all but 4 of the established procedures studied. Conclusions. The White–Black gap in health care use under Medicare is narrowing. PMID:15451752

Escarce, José J.; McGuire, Thomas G.

2004-01-01

134

Spinal palpatory diagnostic procedures utilized by practitioners of spinal manipulation: annotated bibliography of content validity and reliability studies  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction is a pre-requisite for application of spinal manual therapy. Different disciplines rely on palpatory procedures to establish this diagnosis and design treatment plans. Over the past 30 years, the osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy and allopathic professions have investigated the validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. We explored the literature from all four disciplines looking for scientific papers studying the content validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. Thirteen databases were searched for relevant papers between January 1966 and October 2001. An annotated bibliography of these articles is presented and organized by the type of test used.

Seffinger, Michael; Adams, Alan; Najm, Wadie; Dickerson, Vivian; Mishra, Shiraz I; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda

2003-01-01

135

Entonox® inhalation to reduce pain in common diagnostic and therapeutic outpatient urological procedures: a review of the evidence  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Entonox® (50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen; BOC Healthcare, Manchester, UK) is an analgesic and anxiolytic agent that is used to successfully reduce pain and anxiety during dental, paediatric and emergency department procedures. In this article we review the application and efficacy of Entonox® in painful local anaesthesia urological procedures by performing a systematic review of the literature. METHODS A MEDLINE® search was performed using the terms ‘nitrous oxide’, ‘Entonox’, ‘prostate biopsy’, ‘flexible cystoscopy’ and ‘extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy’. English language publications of randomised studies were identified and reviewed. RESULTS The search yielded five randomised studies that investigated the clinical efficacy of Entonox® as an analgesic for day case urological procedures. Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigated Entonox® in transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy. All three reported significant reductions in pain score in the Entonox® versus control groups. One RCT reported significant reduction in pain during male flexible cystoscopy in the Entonox® group compared with the control group. One RCT, which examined the use of Entonox® during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, found its use significantly decreased the pain score compared with the control group and this was comparable to intravenous pethidine. CONCLUSIONS Evidence from varied adult and paediatric procedures has shown Entonox® to be an effective, safe and patient acceptable form of analgesia. All published studies of its use in urological day case procedures have found it to significantly reduce procedural pain. There is huge potential to use this cheap, safe, effective analgesic in our current practice. PMID:22524905

Young, A; Ismail, M; Papatsoris, AG; Barua, JM; Calleary, JG; Masood, J

2012-01-01

136

Predicting wastewater temperatures in sewer pipes using abductive network models.  

PubMed

A predictive modelling technique was employed to estimate wastewater temperatures in sewer pipes. The simplicity of abductive predictive models attracts large numbers of users due to their minimal computation time and limited number of measurable input parameters. Data measured from five sewer pipes over a period of 12 months provide 33,900 training entries and 39,000 evaluation entries to support the models' development. Two simple predictive models for urban upstream combined sewers and large downstream collector sewers were developed. They delivered good correlation between measured and predicted wastewater temperatures proven by their R(2) values of up to 0.98 and root mean square error (RMSE) of the temperature change along the sewer pipe ranging from 0.15 °C to 0.33 °C. Analysis of a number of potential input parameters indicated that upstream wastewater temperature and downstream in-sewer air temperature were the only input parameters that are needed in the developed models to deliver this level of accuracy. PMID:25607674

Abdel-Aal, M; Mohamed, M; Smits, R; Abdel-Aal, R E; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

2015-01-01

137

Agape: Peirce's Abduction Concerning the Growth of Intelligibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the metaphysical articulation of the unity between science and sentiment either possible or desirable? Assuming an affirmative answer to both of these questions, this dissertation contends that the notion of agape may provide such a unity. Though agape has historical roots in the Christian notion of divine love, Charles S. Peirce considered this "law of Love" to be the fundamental principle giving coherence to the otherwise random, spontaneous evolution of the physical and psychical universe. The ability of agape to accomplish this unification is based upon the connection which Peirce drew between it and the logic of abduction, or hypothesis formation. By explicating the way in which agape acts as Peirce's primary evolutionary hypothesis, agape will be shown to act as a bridge between continuous evolutionary processes and discrete evolutionary events. As a similar debate is currently being explored regarding the evolution of quantum mechanical systems, this dissertation has the corollary purpose of indicating precisely how Peirce's notion of agape speaks to questions posed by contemporary quantum theorists.

Staab, Janice Marie

138

Longitudinal Sex Differences during Landing in Knee Abduction in Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors related to abnormal movement patterns increased in females, but not males, during the adolescent growth spurt. Methods 315 subjects participated in two testing sessions approximately one year apart. Male and female subjects were classified based on their maturation status as pubertal or post-pubertal. Three trials of a drop vertical jump (DVJ) were collected. Maximum knee abduction angle and external moments were calculated during the DVJ deceleration phase using a 3D motion analysis system. Changes in knee abduction from the first to second year were compared among four subject groups (female pubertal, female post-pubertal, male pubertal and male post-pubertal). Results There were no sex differences in peak knee abduction angle or moment during DVJ between pubertal males and females (p>0.05). However, pubertal females increased peak abduction angle from the first to second year (p<0.001), while males demonstrated no similar change (p=0.90) in the matched developmental stages. Following puberty, the peak abduction angle and moment were greater in females relative to males (angle: female -9.3±5.7°, male -3.6±4.6°, p<0.001; moment: female:-21.9±13.5 Nm, male:-13.0±12.0 Nm, p=0.017). Conclusion This study identified, through longitudinal analyses, that knee abduction angle was significantly increased in pubertal females during rapid adolescent growth, while males showed no similar change. In addition, knee abduction motion and moments were significantly greater for subsequent year in young female athletes, following rapid adolescent growth, compared to males. The combination of longitudinal, sex and maturational group differences indicate that early puberty appears to be a critical phase related to the divergence of increased ACL injury risk factors. PMID:20305577

Ford, Kevin R.; Shapiro, Robert; Myer, Gregory D.; Bogert, Antonie J. van den; Hewett, Timothy E.

2010-01-01

139

High eccentric hip abduction strength reduces the risk of developing patellofemoral pain among novice runners initiating a self-structured running program: a 1-year observational study.  

PubMed

Study Design Observational prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Objectives To investigate the relationship between eccentric hip abduction strength and the development of patellofemoral pain (PFP) in novice runners during a self-structured running regime. Background Recent research indicates that gluteal muscle weakness exists in individuals with PFP. However, current prospective research has been limited to the evaluation of isometric strength, producing inconsistent findings. Considering that hip muscles, including the gluteus maximus and medius, activate eccentrically to control hip and pelvic motion during weight-bearing activities such as running, the potential link between eccentric strength and PFP risk should be evaluated. Methods Eight hundred thirty-two novice runners were included at baseline, and 629 participants were included in the final analysis. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer prior to initiating a self-structured running program. The diagnostic criteria to classify knee pain as PFP were based on a thorough clinical examination. Participants were followed for 12 months and training characteristics were gathered with a global positioning system. Results Results from the unadjusted generalized linear regression model for cumulative risk at 25 and 50 km indicated differences in cumulative risk of PFP between high strength, normal strength, and low strength (P<.05), with higher strength associated with reduced risk. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that, among novice runners, a level of peak eccentric hip abduction strength that is higher than normal may reduce the risk of PFP during the first 50 km of a self-structured running program. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(3):153-161. Epub 27 Jan 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5091. PMID:25627149

Ramskov, Daniel; Barton, Christian; Nielsen, Rasmus O; Rasmussen, Sten

2015-03-01

140

Comparison of supraspinatus cross-sectional areas according to shoulder abduction angles.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the supraspinatus cross-sectional areas according to shoulder abduction angles, using ultrasonography. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The cross-sectional areas of the supraspinatus of all subjects were measured with ultrasonography at abduction angle of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. We set four abduction angle levels (I, II, III, and IV), 0° to 30°, 30° to 60°, 60° to 90°, and 90° to 120°, respectively, when determining the largest change in cross-sectional area. [Results] The results revealed that cross-sectional areas of the supraspinatus increased at all levels, but the abduction angle level with the largest increase in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus was Level III. [Conclusion] The above results indicate that performing exercises at an abduction angle between 60° and 90° will be the most effective for supraspinatus strengthening in clinical practice. PMID:25729211

Kwon, Wonan; Jang, Hyunjeong; Jun, Ilsub

2015-02-01

141

Constraint handling using tournament selection: abductive inference in partly deterministic bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Constraints occur in many application areas of interest to evolutionary computation. The area considered here is Bayesian networks (BNs), which is a probability-based method for representing and reasoning with uncertain knowledge. This work deals with constraints in BNs and investigates how tournament selection can be adapted to better process such constraints in the context of abductive inference. Abductive inference in BNs consists of finding the most probable explanation given some evidence. Since exact abductive inference is NP-hard, several approximate approaches to this inference task have been developed. One of them applies evolutionary techniques in order to find optimal or close-to-optimal explanations. A problem with the traditional evolutionary approach is this: As the number of constraints determined by the zeros in the conditional probability tables grows, performance deteriorates because the number of explanations whose probability is greater than zero decreases. To minimize this problem, this paper presents and analyzes a new evolutionary approach to abductive inference in BNs. By considering abductive inference as a constraint optimization problem, the novel approach improves performance dramatically when a BN's conditional probability tables contain a significant number of zeros. Experimental results are presented comparing the performances of the traditional evolutionary approach and the approach introduced in this work. The results show that the new approach significantly outperforms the traditional one. PMID:19207088

Galán, Severino F; Mengshoel, Ole J

2009-01-01

142

Comparison of supraspinatus cross-sectional areas according to shoulder abduction angles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the supraspinatus cross-sectional areas according to shoulder abduction angles, using ultrasonography. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The cross-sectional areas of the supraspinatus of all subjects were measured with ultrasonography at abduction angle of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. We set four abduction angle levels (I, II, III, and IV), 0° to 30°, 30° to 60°, 60° to 90°, and 90° to 120°, respectively, when determining the largest change in cross-sectional area. [Results] The results revealed that cross-sectional areas of the supraspinatus increased at all levels, but the abduction angle level with the largest increase in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus was Level III. [Conclusion] The above results indicate that performing exercises at an abduction angle between 60° and 90° will be the most effective for supraspinatus strengthening in clinical practice. PMID:25729211

Kwon, Wonan; Jang, Hyunjeong; Jun, Ilsub

2015-01-01

143

A three-dimensional model of vocal fold abduction/adduction.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional biomechanical model of tissue deformation was developed to simulate dynamic vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model was made of 1721 nearly incompressible finite elements. The cricoarytenoid joint was modeled as a rocking-sliding motion, similar to two concentric cylinders. The vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle's fiber characteristics were implemented as a fiber-gel composite made of an isotropic ground substance imbedded with fibers. These fibers had contractile and/or passive nonlinear stress-strain characteristics. The verification of the model was made by comparing the range and speed of motion to published vocal fold kinematic data. The model simulated abduction to a maximum glottal angle of about 31 degrees. Using the posterior-cricoarytenoid muscle, the model produced an angular abduction speed of 405 degrees per second. The system mechanics seemed to favor abduction over adduction in both peak speed and response time, even when all intrinsic muscle properties were kept identical. The model also verified the notion that the vocalis and muscularis portions of the thyroarytenoid muscle play significantly different roles in posturing, with the muscularis portion having the larger effect on arytenoid movement. Other insights into the mechanisms of abduction/adduction were given. PMID:15101653

Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R; Alipour, Fariborz

2004-04-01

144

Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children in America. First Report: Numbers and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What has in the past been called the missing children problem is in reality a set of at least five distinct problems, each of which needs to be researched, analyzed, and treated separately. The problems are family abductions, nonfamily abductions, runaways, thrownaways, and lost, injured, or otherwise missing children. Many of the children in at…

Finkelhor, David; And Others

145

The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

2009-01-01

146

Sex-specific differences of subacromial space width during abduction, with and without muscular activity, and correlation with anthropometric variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine sex-specific differences of the subacromial space width during active and passive arm abduction and to analyze the correlation of this space with general and regional anthropometric variables. Fourteen healthy subjects (7 men, 7 women) were examined with an open magnetic resonance system at 30[deg ] and 90[deg ] of abduction (with and

Heiko Graichen; Harald Bonel; Tobias Stammberger; Karl-Hans Englmeier; Maximilian Reiser; Felix Eckstein

2001-01-01

147

Characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumours, diagnostic procedure and therapeutic management and main directions of nursing practice in gastrointestinal stromal tumours  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) constitute a separate group of mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They have been commonly recognized for a few years, they have created a new problem in medical practice. GIST are more often centred in the stomach. They equally affect female and male patients and occur mainly in patients older than 50 years of age. The clinical picture of the tumour is non-specific. Radical surgical treatment and molecularly targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used in GIST treatment. Nursing practice with reference to GIST danger is connected with biopsychosocial interventions of perioperative, oncological and palliative procedures and involves the area of health education mainly oriented towards shaping preventive procedures which favour early disease detection and support therapy and recovery.

G?uszek, Stanis?aw; Kozie?, Dorota

2014-01-01

148

Roles of Abductive Reasoning and Prior Belief in Children's Generation of Hypotheses about Pendulum Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student's abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of…

Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok

2006-01-01

149

The Long-Term Aftermath of Child Abduction: Two Case Studies and Implications for Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

When children are abducted for lengthy periods of time, reunifying with family members is a difficult process. Drawing on qualitative interviews with adults who were kidnapped while children for between 18 months and 14 years, two case examples are presented that highlight the issues that are faced. Implications for family therapists are included.

Geoffrey L. Greif

2009-01-01

150

Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

Oh, Phil Seok

2011-01-01

151

Accelerating chromosome evaluation for partial abductive inference in Bayesian networks by means of explanation set absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) is intended as the process of generating the K most probable configurations for a set of unobserved variables (the explanation set). This problem is NP-hard and so exact computation is not always possible. In previous works genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used to solve the problem in an approximate way by using

Luis M. De Campos; José A. Gámez; Seraf??n Moral

2001-01-01

152

Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic Jeppe Revall Frisvad1  

E-print Network

, however, that `´ is translated by "reduc- tion" in the latter version. The logician Charles Sanders Peirce (1839­1914) was pre- sumably the first to describe abduction as "the operation of adopting in [Peirce, 1958, §§249­252] or the translation by A. J. Jenkinson which is available on- line1 . Note

153

Efficacy of the Stranger Safety Abduction-Prevention Program and Parent-Conducted in Situ Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

2013-01-01

154

Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of these…

Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

2008-01-01

155

Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k?=?0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k?=?0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In conclusion, relatively higher prevalence (6.12 %) was recorded in Woldiya municipal abattoir on the basis of detailed Abattoir inspection and RA meat inspection protocols currently utilized in Ethiopia which are insufficient to detect the majority (76.19 %) of TB lesions at the gross level, which indicates the magnitude of meat borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. Detailed abattoir inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately fourfold. In conclusion, routine meat inspections have limitations in detecting BTB-suggestive lesions which indicate the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. PMID:23080340

Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

2013-03-01

156

Validation of Diagnostic and Procedural Codes for Identification of Acute Cardiovascular Events in US Veterans with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes for identifying cardiovascular (CV) events (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, coronary artery bypass graft [CABG], and percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) in enrollees of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry. Design: We performed a validation study from VARA enrollment until 6/1/2010 to compare the accuracy of CV events in those with and without CV-event coding in inpatient and outpatient records to evaluate for CV events +/? 3 months of the coding. The positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated, and codes with a PPV ?50% were included in a composite coding algorithm. Results: We evaluated 107 individuals for 21 CV-event codes and 60 individuals without CV-event coding. The PPV varied between 0–100%. Composite coding algorithms’ PPV ranged from 70–100%. Conclusions: Validation of these algorithms allows for identification of acute CV events with known accuracy. The sensitivity and PPV of coding algorithms for CABG and PCI exceed that of stroke and MI.

Davis, Lisa A.; Mann, Alyse; Cannon, Grant W.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Reimold, Andreas M.; Caplan, Liron

2013-01-01

157

The Effect of Sex and Age on Isokinetic Hip-Abduction Torques  

PubMed Central

Context As high school female athletes demonstrate a rate of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury 3–6 times higher than their male counterparts, research suggests that sagittal-plane hip strength plays a role in factors associated with ACL injuries. Objective To determine if gender or age affect hip-abductor strength in a functional standing position in young female and male athletes. Design Prospective cohort design. Setting Biomechanical laboratory. Participants Over a 3-y time period, 852 isokinetic hip-abduction evaluations were conducted on 351 (272 female, 79 male) adolescent soccer and basketball players. Intervention Before testing, athletes were secured in a standing position, facing the dynamometer head, with a strap secured from the uninvolved side and extending around the waist just above the iliac crest. The dynamometer head was positioned in line with the body in the coronal plane by aligning the axis of rotation of the dynamometer with the center of hip rotation. Subjects performed 5 maximum-effort repetitions at a speed of 120°/s. The peak torque was recorded and normalized to body mass. All test trials were conducted by a single tester to limit potential interrater test error. Main Outcome Measure Standing isokinetic hip-abduction torque. Results Hip-abduction torque increased in both males and females with age (P < .001) on both the dominant and nondominant sides. A significant interaction of gender and age was observed (P < .001), which indicated that males experienced greater increases in peak torque relative to body weight than did females as they matured. Conclusions Males exhibit a significant increase in normative hip-abduction strength, while females do not. Future study may determine if the absence of similar increased relative hip-abduction strength in adolescent females, as they age, may be related to their increased risk of ACL injury compared with males. PMID:22715125

Brent, Jensen L.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

158

Clinico-epidemiological profile and diagnostic procedures of pediatric tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital of western Nepal-a case-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Changing epidemiology and diagnostic difficulties of paediatric tuberculosis (TB) are being increasingly reported. Our aim was to describe clinico-epidemiological profile and diagnostic procedures used for paediatric TB. Methods A retrospective case-series analysis was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital of western Nepal. All pediatric TB (age 0-14 years) patients registered in DOTS clinic during the time period from March, 2003 to July, 2008 were included. Medical case files were reviewed for information on demography, clinical findings, investigations and final diagnosis. Analysis was done on SPSS package. Results were expressed as rates and proportions. Chi square test was used to test for statistical significance. Results About 17.2% (162/941) of TB patients were children. Common symptoms were cough, fever and lymph node swelling. The types of TB were pulmonary TB (46.3%, 75/162), followed by extra-pulmonary TB (41.4%, 67/162). Twelve patients (7.4%) had disseminated TB. Distribution of types of TB according to gender was similar. PTB was common in younger age than EPTB which was statistically significant. EPTB was mainly localized to lymph node (38, 50.7%), and abdomen (9, 12%). Five main investigations namely Mantoux test, BCG test, chest radiograph, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or biopsy were carried out to diagnose TB. Conclusions Paediatric TB in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary forms is a common occurrence in our setting. Age incidence according to type of TB was significant. Diagnosis was based on a combination of epidemiological and clinical suspicion supported by results of various investigations. PMID:20696041

2010-01-01

159

21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices...procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter...system regulation in part 820 of this...

2010-04-01

160

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States; (b) Confirm the child's location or, where necessary... (c) Seek to ascertain the child's welfare through inquiry to the appropriate...provisional arrangements to protect the child or to prevent the child's...

2010-04-01

161

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...United States; (b) Confirm the child's location or, where necessary... (c) Seek to ascertain the child's welfare through inquiry to the appropriate...provisional arrangements to protect the child or to prevent the child's...

2011-04-01

162

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States; (b) Confirm the child's location or, where necessary... (c) Seek to ascertain the child's welfare through inquiry to the appropriate...provisional arrangements to protect the child or to prevent the child's...

2013-04-01

163

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...United States; (b) Confirm the child's location or, where necessary... (c) Seek to ascertain the child's welfare through inquiry to the appropriate...provisional arrangements to protect the child or to prevent the child's...

2014-04-01

164

22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...United States; (b) Confirm the child's location or, where necessary... (c) Seek to ascertain the child's welfare through inquiry to the appropriate...provisional arrangements to protect the child or to prevent the child's...

2012-04-01

165

Effect of acetabular cup abduction angle on wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip simulator testing.  

PubMed

The effect of acetabular component positioning on the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene articulations has not been extensively studied. Placement of acetabular cups at abduction angles of more than 40° has been noted as a possible reason for early failure caused by increased wear. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of different acetabular cup abduction angles on polyethylene wear rate, wear area, contact pressure, and contact area. Our in vitro study used a hip joint simulator and finite element analysis to assess the effects of cup orientation at 4 angles (0°, 40°, 50°, 70°) on wear and contact properties. Polyethylene bearings with 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads were cycled in an environment mimicking in vivo joint fluid to determine the volumetric wear rate after 10 million cycles. Contact pressure and contact area for each cup abduction angle were assessed using finite element analysis. Results were correlated with cup abduction angles to determine if there were any differences among the 4 groups. The inverse relationship between volumetric wear rate and acetabular cup inclination angle demonstrated less wear with steeper cup angles. The largest abduction angle (70°) had the lowest contact area, largest contact pressure, and smallest head coverage. Conversely, the smallest abduction angle (0°) had the most wear and most head coverage. Polyethylene wear after total hip arthroplasty is a major cause of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which may lead to premature implant failure. Several studies have found that high wear rates for cups oriented at steep angles contributed to their failure. Our data demonstrated that larger cup abduction angles were associated with lower, not higher, wear. However, this potentially "protective" effect is likely counteracted by other complications of steep cup angles, including impingement, instability, and edge loading. These factors may be more relevant in explaining why implants fail at a higher rate if cups are oriented at more than 40° of abduction. PMID:25303445

Korduba, Laryssa A; Essner, Aaron; Pivec, Robert; Lancin, Perry; Mont, Michael A; Wang, Aiguo; Delanois, Ronald E

2014-10-01

166

Partial abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks - an evolutionary computation approach by using problem-specific genetic operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Abductive inference in Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) is intended as the process of generating the,most probable configurations given observed evidence. When we are interested only in a subset of the network’s variables, this problem is called partial abductive inference. Both problems are NP-hard and so exact computation is not always possible. In this paper, a genetic algorithm is used to

Luis M. De Campos; José A. Gámez; Serafín Moral

2002-01-01

167

Diagnostic imaging.  

PubMed

Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

2012-04-21

168

Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

2008-01-01

169

Reconstruction of an infrared band of meteorological satellite imagery with abductive networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the current fleet of meteorological satellites age, the accuracy of the imagery sensed on a spectral channel of the image scanning system is continually and progressively degraded by noise. In time, that data may even become unusable. We describe a novel approach to the reconstruction of the noisy satellite imagery according to empirical functional relationships that tie the spectral channels together. Abductive networks are applied to automatically learn the empirical functional relationships between the data sensed on the other spectral channels to calculate the data that should have been sensed on the corrupted channel. Using imagery unaffected by noise, it is demonstrated that abductive networks correctly predict the noise-free observed data.

Singer, Harvey A.; Cockayne, John E.; Versteegen, Peter L.

1995-01-01

170

Comparison of Shoulder Muscles Activation for Shoulder Abduction between Forward Shoulder Posture and Asymptomatic Persons  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the differences in shoulder muscles activities during shoulder abduction between a forward shoulder posture group and asymptomatic group. [Subjects] Seven males with forward shoulder posture (FHS) and seven asymptomatic males were recruited. [Methods] We measured the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT), serratus anterior (SA), and clavicle portion of the pectoralis major (cPM) in the right side during shoulder abduction. [Results] The activities of the UT and cPM in the FHS group were significantly more increased when compared with the asymptomatic group. The activities of the MT and SA in the FHS group were significantly more decreased when compared with the asymptomatic group. [Conclusion] We suggest that forward shoulder posture may become a potential risk factor evoking the various shoulder disorders. PMID:24259860

Yoo, Won-gyu

2013-01-01

171

Abducted by a UFO: prevalence information affects young children's false memories for an implausible event  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study examined whether prevalence information promotes children's false memories for an implausible event. Forty-four 7-8 and forty-seven 11-12 year old children heard a true narrative about their first school day and a false narrative about either an implausible event (abducted by a UFO) or a plausible event (almost choking on a candy). Moreover, half of the children in

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel; Harald Merckelbach; Kimberley A. Wade

2009-01-01

172

ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS TRANSFER TO RESTORE INDEX ABDUCTION IN SEVERE CASES OF CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of the abductor pollicis longus tendon to restore index abduction was performed simultaneously with ulnar nerve decompression in severe cases of cubital tunnel syndrome. Eighteen elbows in 18 patients were evaluated with an average follow-up period of 46 (range 12–120) months. The status of the ulnar nerve palsy was evaluated by the Yasutake’s scoring method. The mean score improved

K. NEMOTO; H. ARINO; M. AMAKO; N. KATO

2007-01-01

173

Prospective evaluation of the use of Mitchell shoes and dynamic abduction brace for idiopathic clubfeet.  

PubMed

Ponseti treatment for clubfoot has been successful, but recurrence continues to be an issue. After correction, patients are typically braced full time with a static abduction bar and shoes. Patient compliance with bracing is a modifiable risk factor for recurrence. We hypothesized that the use of Mitchell shoes and a dynamic abduction brace would increase compliance and thereby reduce the rate of recurrence. A prospective, randomized trial was carried out with consecutive patients treated for idiopathic clubfeet from 2008 to 2012. After casting and tenotomy, patients were randomized into either the dynamic or static abduction bar group. Both groups used Mitchell shoes. Patient demographics, satisfaction, and compliance were measured with self-reported questionnaires throughout follow-up. Thirty patients were followed up, with 15 in each group. Average follow-up was 18.7 months (range 3-40.7 months). Eight recurrences (26.7%) were found, with four in each group. Recurrences had a statistically significant higher number of casts and a longer follow-up time. Mean income, education level, patient-reported satisfaction and compliance, and age of caregiver tended to be lower in the recurrence group but were not statistically significant. No differences were found between the two brace types. Our study showed excellent patient satisfaction and reported compliance with Mitchell shoes and either the dynamic or static abduction bar. Close attention and careful education should be directed towards patients with known risk factors or difficult casting courses to maximize brace compliance, a modifiable risk factor for recurrence. PMID:25144885

Chong, David Y; Finberg, Naomi S; Conklin, Michael J; Doyle, John Scott; Khoury, Joseph G; Gilbert, Shawn R

2014-11-01

174

Increased shoulder abduction loads decreases volitional finger extension in individuals with chronic stroke: Preliminary findings.  

PubMed

The ability to open the paretic hand is greatly affected after a stroke. The loss of especially finger extension has been previously reported during isolated finger movements. However, activities of daily life require the combination of reaching and grasping which will require shoulder abduction. Shoulder abductor activity will result in concurrent elbow, wrist and finger flexion which is also referred to as the flexion synergy. Therefore as part of this study the effect of of shoulder abduction (SABD) loading on volitional finger extension in individuals with chronic stroke is investigated. We expect to observe that shoulder abduction loading will further decrease the already impaired volitional finger extension in individuals with chronic stroke. A total of four moderately impaired individuals with chronic stroke and three age-matched able-bodied subjects participated in this study. Finger extension was recorded during hand open while subjects kept their arm extended at the end of a reach. The preliminary data showed that the maximal volitional finger extension was significantly decreased by increasing the SABD loads in individuals with chronic stroke, but not in age-matched able-bodied subjects. PMID:25571316

Yiyun Lan; Jun Yao; Dewald, Jules

2014-01-01

175

Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.  

PubMed

The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

2012-06-01

176

The urgent need for universally applicable simple screening procedures and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus – lessons from projects funded by the World Diabetes Foundation  

PubMed Central

Background To address the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes and future type 2 diabetes associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), its early detection and timely treatment is essential. In the absence of an international consensus, multiple different guidelines on screening and diagnosis of GDM have existed for a long time. This may be changing with the publication of the recommendations by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. However, none of these guidelines take into account evidence from or ground realities of resource-poor settings. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether GDM projects supported by the World Diabetes Foundation in developing countries utilize any of the internationally recommended guidelines for screening and diagnosis of GDM, explore experiences on applicability and usefulness of the guidelines and barriers if any, in implementing the guidelines. These projects have reached out to thousands of pregnant women through capacity building and improvement of access to GDM screening and diagnosis in the developing world and therefore provide a rich field experience on the applicability of the guidelines in resource-poor settings. Design A mixed methods approach using questionnaires and interviews was utilised to review 11 GDM projects. Two projects were conducted by the same partner; interviews were conducted in person or via phone by the first author with nine project partners and one responded via email. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results The projects use seven different screening procedures and diagnostic criteria and many do not completely adhere to one guideline alone. Various challenges in adhering to the recommendations emerged in the interviews, including problems with screening women during the recommended time period, applicability of some of the listed risk factors used for (pre-)screening, difficulties with reaching women for testing in the fasting state, time consuming nature of the tests, intolerance to high glucose load due to nausea, need for repeat tests, issues with scarcity of test consumables and lack of equipment making some procedures impossible to follow. Conclusion Though an international consensus on screening and diagnosis for GDM is welcome, it should ensure that the recommendations take into account feasibility and applicability in low resource settings to ensure wider usage. We need to move away from purely academic discussions focusing on sensitivity and specificity to also include what can actually be done at the basic care level. PMID:22855644

Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; de Courten, Maximilian; Kapur, Anil

2012-01-01

177

Effect of abduction and external rotation of the hip joint on muscle onset time during prone hip extension with knee flexion  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of hip position on muscle onset time during prone hip extension with knee flexion. [Subjects] The study included 21 healthy male volunteers. [Methods] Muscle onset times of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during right hip extension with knee flexion in the prone position. Measurements were made with the hip in 3 positions: (1) neutral, (2) abduction, and (3) abduction and external rotation. [Results] Gluteus maximus onset relative to the hamstrings was significantly earlier with hip abduction and with hip abduction and external rotation compared with that with the hip in the neutral position. Gluteus maximus onset relative to the hamstrings was significantly earlier with hip abduction and external rotation compared with that with hip abduction. The bilateral multifidus and left lumbar erector spinae onset times relative to the hamstrings were significantly earlier with hip abduction and external rotation compared with those with hip abduction and with the hip in the neutral position. [Conclusion] Abduction and external rotation of the hip during prone hip extension with knee flexion is effective for advancing the onset times of the gluteus maximus, bilateral multifidus, and contralateral lumbar erector spinae. PMID:25642093

Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

2015-01-01

178

Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19–9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The number of patients in the world has increased recently. In our country it is detected late and patients visit doctor in the advanced stage of the disease with already developed metastases. Material and methods: A clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of gastroenterohepatologists, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University on 164 patients. Special attention was given to the symptoms, which are considered to be a macroscopically visible as bleeding, anemia pain, weight loss and disturbance of defecation. Smoking had no effect because a small number of observed patients smoked. Endoscopic examination revealed localization of the tumor in the colon and then underwent targeted biopsy, histological analysis by pathologist, and we determined the concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the serum. Results: In order to get the most relevant results we used larger data set. The program used to prepare the data was Microsoft Excel 2013, and for the creation of decision trees is a used software RapidMiner version 5. Our research has shown that patients older than 55 years with significant stenosis, metastasis and diarrhea that lasted longer than 3.5 months and bleeding that lasted up to 10 months had cancer of the rectum. Bleeding that lasts longer than 10 months indicated that it was the case of cancer that was localized in the rectum in men and sigma in women. Patients older than 82.5 years and had diarrhea up to 3.5 months developed cancer in the sigma part of the colon. Analyzing pain as a symptom of an alarm, the study found that pain that lasts longer than a few days, is caused by rectal cancer, and occurs after the age of 70.5 years, and in patients younger than 63 years anemia as a alarm symptom, which lasted more than two months in men was caused by cancer of the rectum and in women cancer in other localizations within colon. In patients without stenosis developed bleeding as the most important symptom. We can say that after the age of 74 years cancer of the rectum and sigmoid is more common in men and in women dominate sigma and other locations in the colon. In patients under the 70 years of age with short time of bleeding, cancer predominates in rectum. In patients younger than 63 years can be concluded that weight loss is greater than 8 kg follows rectal cancer. In patients with bleeding that lasted one month or more as classifier occurring the age and gender. Patients younger than 74 years have rectal cancer, while older than 73 years have cancer at other sites. In women these locations are sigma and rectum. Conclusion: Based on this study we can conclude that regardless of the technical advances in medicine must pay special attention to the symptoms that doctors will refer to the localization of the tumor, stenosis of the intestine and possibly metastasis. Key words: Colorectal cancer, diagnostic procedures, concentration of CEA and CA19-9. PMID:24825931

Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

179

The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner. PMID:24259870

Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

2013-01-01

180

Efficacy of the stranger safety abduction-prevention program and parent-conducted in situ training.  

PubMed

Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Stranger Safety DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no significant difference in safety skills between the training and control groups after the training group viewed the DVD. Children in both groups scored significantly better after receiving in situ training, with no significant difference in performance between groups. PMID:24114614

Miltenberger, Raymond G; Fogel, Victoria A; Beck, Kimberly V; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

2013-12-01

181

Diagnostics of bearings in presence of strong operating conditions non-stationarity—A procedure of load-dependent features processing with application to wind turbine bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition monitoring of bearings used in Wind Turbines (WT) is an important issue. In general, bearings diagnostics is a well recognized field of research; however, it is not the case for machines operating under non-stationary load. In the case of varying load/speed, vibration signal generated by rolling element bearings is affected by operation factors, and makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. These difficulties come from the variation of vibration-based diagnostic features caused mostly by load/speed variation (operation factors), low energy of sought-after features, and low signal-to-noise levels. Analysis of the signal from the main bearing is even more difficult due to a very low rotational speed of the main shaft. In the paper, a novel diagnostic approach is proposed for bearings used in wind turbines. As an input data we use parameters obtained from commercial diagnostic system (peak-to-peak and root mean square (RMS) of vibration acceleration, and generator power that is related to the operating conditions). The received data cover the period of several months.

Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Barszcz, Tomasz; Urbanek, Jacek

2014-05-01

182

Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

Levin-Rozalis, Miri

2010-01-01

183

How Can Teachers Help Students Formulate Scientific Hypotheses? Some Strategies Found in Abductive Inquiry Activities of Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find how the teacher could help students formulate scientific hypotheses. Data came from two microteaching episodes in which two groups of pre-service secondary science teachers taught high school students as they were engaged in abductive inquiry activities of earth science. Multiple data sources including video…

Oh, Phil Seok

2010-01-01

184

Abduction, Deduction and Induction: Can These Concepts Be Used for an Understanding of Methodological Processes in Interpretative Case Studies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…

Åsvoll, Håvard

2014-01-01

185

The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in situ Feedback to Protect Children with Autism from Abduction Lures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…

Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.

2014-01-01

186

Preventing Abductions  

MedlinePLUS

... stroller, even for a minute. Choose caregivers — babysitters , childcare providers, and nannies — carefully and check their references. ... with your kids and with the school or childcare center. Avoid dressing your kids in clothing with ...

187

Shoulder strength profile in elite junior tennis players: horizontal adduction and abduction isokinetic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish normative data for muscle performance during isokinetic horizontal abduction and adduction of the shoulder in elite junior tennis players. Methods Thirty six tennis players were evaluated (23 male, 13 female; mean age 14 years (range 12–18)). An isokinetic dynamometer was used to test the shoulder horizontal abductors and adductors at 60 and 180°/s. Absolute and relative peak torque (PT and PT/BW), total work (TW), endurance ratio (ER), and the ratio of the peak torque between horizontal abductors and adductors (HAB/HAD ratio) were recorded. Data were compared for the dominant and non?dominant shoulders, horizontal abductor and adductor muscles, and between players grouped according to age. Results The dominant shoulder was significantly (p<0.05) stronger than the non?dominant shoulder in all variables except ER and HAB/HAD ratio. The abductors were significantly (p<0.05) weaker than the adductors in all subjects. The type of backhand (one handed or two handed) did not influence the strength of the shoulder horizontal abductors on the dominant side. The number of years of tennis practice had an effect on muscle strength as evaluated by absolute data (PT and TW) but not relative measurements (PT/BW and TW/BW). Conclusion The findings confirm that horizontal abduction and adduction are stronger in the dominant shoulder of junior tennis players. The clinical relevance of these findings is not established, and more studies are needed to compare tennis players with athletes from other sports and non?athletes. PMID:16488900

Silva, R T; Gracitelli, G C; Saccol, M F; de Souza Laurino, C Frota; Silva, A C; Braga?Silva, J L

2006-01-01

188

The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging  

Cancer.gov

An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

189

Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as

Ahmed Meghzifene; David R. Dance; Donald McLean; Hans-Michael Kramer

2010-01-01

190

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

191

After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ?1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ?1 reintegration program were not significantly different from those who self-reintegrated (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Over 40% of female abductees in this sample had accessed a reintegration program, however significant differences in mental health were not observed between those who accessed a reintegration program and those who self-reintegrated. The successful reintegration of combatants and abductees into their recipient community is a complex process and these results support the need for gender-specific services and ongoing evaluation of reintegration programming. PMID:24855489

2014-01-01

192

The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d) whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis longus (VLL) and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with) based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9). The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ? 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p < 0.0007) and MVIC hip abduction at 0° of abduction for female subjects (p < 0.02196). There were no statistically significant differences in the VLL EMG activity among the three sets of exercises tested. Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by future research PMID:16817971

Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Arakaki, Juliano Coelho; Bérzin, Fausto

2006-01-01

193

Concept abduction and contraction for semantic-based discovery of matches and negotiation spaces in an e-marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a Description Logic approach to extended matchmaking between Demands and Supplies in an Electronic Marketplace, which allows the semantic-based treatment of negotiable and strict requirements in the description.To this aim we exploit two novel non-standard Description Logic inference services, Concept Contraction -which extends satisfiability-and Concept Abduction -which extends subsumption.Based on these services we devise algorithms

Simona Colucci; Tommaso Di Noia; Eugenio Di Sciascio; Marina Mongiello; Francesco M. Donini

2004-01-01

194

Process diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The book contains papers in the areas of combustion and fusion designed to overview major diagnostic techniques (laser-induced fluorescence, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, interferometry, imaging, Langmuir probes, multiphoton exitation/detection techniques, etc.) as applied to combustion and fusion processes. The materials processing diagnostic papers represent the current state-of-the-art diagnostics in such areas as plasma etching, CVD, PACVD, welding, vacuum arc remelting, metal extrusion, and plasma spraying.

Hays, A.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Eckbreth, A.C. (United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (USA). Research Center (USA)); Campbell, G.A. (Plasma Materials Technologies, Burbank, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

195

Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p?=?0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences, both overall and by gender. The analysis further revealed that young northern Ugandans in general are in desperate need of education, skills development, and support for victims of sexual violence. Conclusions This study persuasively demonstrates that all young people in northern Ugandan have been similarly affected by HIV infection during war and displacement. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore abandon rudimentary targeting practices based on abductees as a high-profile category. Instead, they must develop evidence-based HIV interventions that are commensurate with young people’s specific needs. As such programmes will be less stigmatizing, more oriented to self-selection, and more inclusive, they will effectively reach the most vulnerable young people in northern Uganda. PMID:23919329

2013-01-01

196

Comparison of Isokinetic Hip Abduction and Adduction Peak Torques and Ratio Between Sexes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate hip abductor and adductor peak torque outputs and compare their ratios between sexes. Design A cross-sectional laboratory-controlled study. Setting Participants visited a laboratory and performed an isokinetic hip abductor and adductor test. All participants performed 2 sets of 5 repetitions of concentric hip abduction and adduction in a standing position at 60 degrees per second. Gravity was determined as a function of joint angle relative to the horizontal plane and was corrected by normalizing the weight of the limb on an individual basis. Participants A total of 36 collegiate athletes. Independent Variable Sex (20 females and 16 males). Main Outcome Measures Bilateral peak hip abductor and adductor torques were measured. The 3 highest peak torque values were averaged for each subject. Results Independent t tests were used to compare sex differences in hip abductor and adductor peak torques and the abductor:adductor peak torque ratios. Males demonstrated significantly greater hip abductor peak torque compared with females (males 1.29 ± 0.24 Nm/kg, females 1.13 ± 0.20 Nm/kg; P = 0.03). Neither hip adductor peak torque nor their ratios differed between sexes. Conclusions Sex differences in hip abductor strength were observed. The role of weaker hip abductors in females deserves further attention and may be a factor for higher risk of knee pathologies. PMID:24905541

Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G.; Mullineaux, David R.; Palmer, Thomas G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

197

Treatment of developmental dislocation of hip: does changing the hip abduction angle in the hip spica affect the rate of avascular necrosis of the femoral head?  

PubMed

Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a serious complication in the management of developmental dislocation of the hip. Increasing the abduction angle increases its stability but compromises the vascularity of the femoral head. From our database of 240 children treated for developmental dislocation of hip by the two senior authors between 1998 and 2008, we defined two groups of children who underwent closed or medial open reduction of the hip after a failed Pavlik treatment or if patients presented late. In group 1, the reduced hip was immobilized in around 90° flexion, 60° abduction, and 0-10° internal rotation. In group 2 the hip was immobilized in around 45° of hip abduction with flexion and internal rotation as before. The first and second authors independently analysed these two groups blinded to the hip abduction angle. Our hypothesis was that a reduction in the hip abduction angle would reduce the incidence of AVN in the second group without compromising the stability. All eligible children were included, and there were 42 children in group 1 and 44 children in group 2. An almost equal number of children underwent closed and medial open reduction in both the groups. The age at reduction was a mode of 6 months (range 6-13 months) and 7 months (range 7-12 months), respectively. The abduction angle in the first group had a mode of 60° (range 52-70°) and the second group had a mode of 45° (range 38-50°). Radiographic evidence of AVN as described by Salter and colleagues was seen in eight children (19%) in the first group and seven children (16%) in the second group (P=0.78). Redislocation occurred in one child in the second group and none in the first group. In summary, the results show a nonsignificant reduction in the incidence of AVN when the hip abduction angle was reduced with no significant increased risk of redislocation. PMID:23407430

Madhu, Tiruveedhula S; Akula, Maheswara; Scott, Brian W; Templeton, Peter A

2013-05-01

198

[Diagnostic and operative fertiloscopy].  

PubMed

In the last decade, ''fertiloscopy'', a new mini-invasive diagnostic technique, is becoming more and more popular: it is a good alternative to the diagnostic laparoscopy, a standard procedure but surely not harmless, very often capable to discover pathologies in asymptomatic patients. Fertiloscopy allows the visualization of the posterior pelvis (posterior face of the uterus, ovaries, tubes and intestinal ansae with the rectum), with a technique of introducing an optical device in the pouch of Douglas, through the posterior vaginal fornix, under previous general or local anesthesia. When fertiloscopy is performed under local anesthesia, it can comfortably be carried out in out-patient departments and it is generally well tolerated by patients, who follow the whole procedure on the monitor. Moreover, it is possible to perform small interventions, such as adhesiolysis, ovarian drilling, coagulation of endometriosis spots and to perform chromosalpingoscopy and salpingoscopy, important investigations in the diagnostic iter of unexplained female infertility. With fertiloscopy, the patient, therefore, can avoid a real surgical intervention, such as diagnostic laparoscopy, and also uncomfortable examinations, such as hysterosalpingography. PMID:17505459

Pellicano, M; Catena, U; Di Iorio, P; Simonelli, V; Sorrentino, F; Stella, N; Bonifacio, M; Cirillo, D; Nappi, C

2007-04-01

199

Shrug exercises combined with shoulder abduction improve scapular upward rotator activity and scapular alignment in subjects with scapular downward rotation impairment.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate which shoulder abduction angle (30°, 90°, 150°) during shrug exercise is superior for (1) activating the scapular upward rotators and (2) improving scapular and clavicular position in subjects with scapular downward rotation impairment. Twenty subjects performed shrug exercises at three different shoulder abduction angles (30°, 90°, 150°) which were obtained and maintained actively. Surface EMG data were collected from the levator scapulae (LS), upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shrug exercises. Scapular downward rotation index (SDRI) and clavicular tilt angle (CTA) were measured immediately after each shrug exercise. Oneway repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine the significance. UT muscle activity was greater at 90° and 150° than at 30° of shoulder abduction. UT/LS muscle activity ratio was greater at 90° than at 30°. LT and LT/LS increased as shoulder abduction angle increased. SA was greater at 150° than at 30° or 90°. SA/LS was greater at 150° than at 30°. SDRI was lower at 90° and 150° than at 30°. CTA was greater at 90° and 150° than at 30°. In conclusion, shrug exercises at 90° or 150° of shoulder abduction angle may be advocated to activate scapular upward rotators, decrease SDRI, and increase CTA in patients with scapular downward rotation impairment. PMID:25553964

Choi, Woo-Jeong; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lee, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Yoon, Tae-Lim

2015-04-01

200

Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

2010-10-01

201

Diagnostic radiology  

SciTech Connect

Developments in the burgeoning field of diagnostic radiology have continued apace. Four areas that represent either subspecialities or technological advances in diagnostic radiology will be considered in this report: ultrasonography, interventional radiology, nuclear radiology, and magnetic resonance. In no sense is the exclusion of other subdisciplines and modalities (eg, pediatric radiology, computed tomography) and indication of their of importance or their failure to include innovative concepts.

Leeds, N.E.; Jacobson, H.G.

1986-10-17

202

Cotton-based diagnostic devices.  

PubMed

A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

2014-01-01

203

[Diagnostic of brain death].  

PubMed

Despite of some discussion, there is general acceptance of the brain death criterion. As for Germany, there is a quasi legal regulation (TPG §16): two physicians with a longstanding experience in the management of patients with severe brain lesions are personally responsive for the diagnostic procedure lege artis. No false positive diagnosis has been published, hitherto. Before any organ explantation, diagnosis of brain death is mandatory. Nevertheless, discussions on brain death should not be instrumentalized by circumstances of organ explantation. Brain death should be part of a good educational background, to anticipate reflections free from the emotional binding of an acute incident. PMID:22441689

Moskopp, Dag

2012-03-01

204

Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study  

PubMed Central

Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ? 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N) to 202 N (p<0.001) while on the left, the recorded results improved from 158 N to 223 N (p<0.001). Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications. PMID:23031635

2012-01-01

205

The wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb (WHAT) test: a more specific and sensitive test to diagnose de Quervain tenosynovitis than the Eichhoff's Test.  

PubMed

De Quervain's disease has different clinical features. Different tests have been described in the past, the most popular test being the Eichhoff's test, often wrongly named as the Finkelstein's test. Over the years, a misinterpretation has occurred between these two tests, the latter being confused with the first. To compare the Eichhoff's test with a new test, the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test, we set up a prospective study over a period of three years for a cohort of 100 patients (88 women, 12 men) presenting spontaneous pain over the radial side of the styloid of the radius (de Quervain tendinopathy). The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the Eichhoff's test and wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test to diagnose correctly de Quervain's disease by comparing clinical findings using those tests with the results on ultrasound. The wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test revealed greater sensitivity (0.99) and an improved specificity (0.29) together with a slightly better positive predictive value (0.95) and an improved negative predictive value (0.67). Moreover, the study showed us that the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test is very valuable in diagnosing dynamic instability after successful decompression of the first extensor compartment. Our results support that the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test is a more precise tool for the diagnosis of de Quervain's disease than the Eichhoff's test and thus could be adopted to guide clinical diagnosis in the early stages of de Quervain's tendinopathy. PMID:23340762

Goubau, J F; Goubau, L; Van Tongel, A; Van Hoonacker, P; Kerckhove, D; Berghs, B

2014-03-01

206

Diagnostic Laparoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... Library SAGES Video Atlas of Endoscopy SAGES Surgical WIKI iMAGES Image Library SAGES at Cine-Med SAGES Top 21 MIS Procedures SAGES Pearls Services SAGES Research Grants SAGES Career Development Award SAGES Endorsed Courses ...

207

Coronal diagnostics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an introduction to this part of the proceedings and an overview of coronal diagnostics. The current understanding of coronal loops is summarized. Included are observations from ground-based radio telescopes and from X ray telescopes lofted above the atmosphere, as well as theoretical interpretations of these observations. Also included in these introductory remarks is a discussion of the three dimensional structure of coronal loops. Alternative radiation mechanisms are then described within the context of both the radio and X ray emission. Various methods of determining the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field are then described, followed by the coronae of nearby stars and future prospects for radio diagnostic of coronal loops.

Lang, Kenneth R.

1986-01-01

208

PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

2013-01-01

209

On-line diagnostic system for power generators  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

Skormin, V.A. [Binghamton Univ., NY (United States). Watson School; Goodenough, G.S. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Huber, R.K. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

210

Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging.

Eisenberg, R.L.

1985-01-01

211

Splenic rupture after diagnostic colonoscopy: a case report.  

PubMed

Colonoscopy is a commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Splenic injury or rupture after this procedure is rare. We report a case of splenic rupture and hematoma in a middle-aged man who presented with symptoms of worsened anemia after diagnostic colonoscopy. PMID:16816956

Zenooz, Navid A; Win, Thomas

2006-09-01

212

A Tutorial on Confidence Intervals for Proportions in Diagnostic Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in diagnostic radiology often aims to establish the safety and the accuracy of a new procedure or to compare it with other procedures. Frequently, the diagnostic perform- ance of a test can be summarized by proportions such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Safety may be reflected by the proportion of patients experiencing unpleasant or adverse effects. The confidence interval

Charles C. Berry

1990-01-01

213

Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

2008-01-01

214

Rotorcraft Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

2012-01-01

215

Long-term followup of the modified Bristow procedure.  

PubMed

A total of 86 modified Bristow procedures were performed for anterior shoulder instability between 1975 and 1987. Followup on 79 shoulders (92%) was obtained at an average postoperative time of 8.6 years. The redislocation rate was 4%. Average motion loss was 5 degrees of internal rotation and 9 degrees of external rotation. Fifteen percent of the patients examined expressed mild apprehension with the shoulder abducted and externally rotated. Radiographic bone union of the coracoid transplant was noted in 82% of patients. Additional surgical procedures were required in 14% of patients. Seventy-three percent of the reoperations were for screw removal because of persistent shoulder pain. The average subjective shoulder function was rated at 86% of preinjury level. All throwing athletes were able to return to throwing, although 54% of the patients with dominant shoulder involvement noted a decrease in throwing velocity. Ninety-seven percent of the patients rated their results as good or excellent. PMID:8238705

Banas, M P; Dalldorf, P G; Sebastianelli, W J; DeHaven, K E

1993-01-01

216

Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

1984-11-16

217

Diagnostic and therapeutic ankle arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankle arthroscopy has grown in popularity over the past decade as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. We assessed 24 patients\\u000a who underwent ankle arthroscopy during the two year period 1991–1993. In 18 cases a mini-arthrotomy was performed based on\\u000a the arthroscopic findings.\\u000a \\u000a All patients were reviewed at an average of 26 months and a detailed evaluation was carried out according

P. Harrington; K. V. Aiyaswami; M. M. Stephens

1996-01-01

218

Involuntary paretic wrist/finger flexion forces and EMG increase with shoulder abduction load in individuals with chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical observations of the flexion synergy in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke describe coupling of shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger joints. Yet, experimental quantification of the synergy within a shoulder abduction (SABD) loading paradigm has focused only on shoulder and elbow joints. The paretic wrist and fingers have typically been studied in isolation. Therefore, this study quantified involuntary behavior of paretic wrist and fingers during concurrent activation of shoulder and elbow. Methods Eight individuals with chronic moderate-to-severe hemiparesis and four controls participated. Isometric wrist/finger and thumb flexion forces and wrist/finger flexor and extensor electromyograms (EMG) were measured at two positions when lifting the arm: in front of the torso and at maximal reaching distance. The task was completed in the ACT3D robotic device with six SABD loads by paretic, non-paretic, and control limbs. Results Considerable forces and EMG were generated during lifting of the paretic arm only, and they progressively increased with SABD load. Additionally, the forces were greater at the maximal reach position than at the position front of the torso. Conclusions Flexion of paretic wrist and fingers is involuntarily coupled with certain shoulder and elbow movements. Significance Activation of the proximal upper limb must be considered when seeking to understand, rehabilitate, or develop devices to assist the paretic hand. PMID:22364723

Miller, Laura C.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

2013-01-01

219

Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

Oberry, Phillip A.

1991-01-01

220

The ‘impact’ of force filtering cut-off frequency on the peak knee abduction moment during landing: artefact or ‘artifiction’?  

PubMed Central

Background Joint moments computed using inverse dynamic techniques are important estimators of net joint loads. Joints moments computed from marker position and ground reaction force data filtered using different cut-off frequencies may capture changes in moment magnitudes at a single joint that exceed normal physiological response. Peak external knee abduction moment (KAM) generated during landing (ie, the drop vertical jump, DVJ) predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk using marker and force data filtered at different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of using the same low cut-off frequencies versus different cut-off frequencies on joint moment magnitudes to evaluate if artificial smoothing attenuates actual resultant joint loads related to injury risk. Methods Twenty-two female, high school volleyball players performed three maximum DVJs in a laboratory setting. The average peak KAM was computed for each knee using marker and force data filtered with the same low cut-off frequencies and different cut-off frequencies. Results Peak KAMs were significantly larger using different cut-off frequencies. The order of athletes ranked based on the magnitude of their peak KAMs did not significantly change across all filtering cut-off frequencies. Conclusions The magnitude of peak KAM may differ when the same low or different higher cut-off frequencies are used to filter marker and ground reaction forces (GRF) data collected using standard motion capture equipment. It is not clear to what extent the decrease in peak KAM reported when the same low cut-off frequencies were used was solely due to attenuation of the GRF signal. PMID:22893510

Roewer, Benjamin D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-01-01

221

A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

2014-07-01

222

Optical Diagnostics in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at the cellular level. A detailed description of several fiber optics based systems for early diseases diagnosis, as well as preliminary clinic results, will be presented.

Iftimia, Nicusor

2003-03-01

223

Diagnostic checking for multivariate regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic checking for multivariate parametric models is investigated in this article. A nonparametric Monte Carlo Test (NMCT) procedure is proposed. This Monte Carlo approximation is easy to implement and can automatically make any test procedure scale-invariant even when the test statistic is not scale-invariant. With it we do not need plug-in estimation of the asymptotic covariance matrix that is used

Lixing Zhu; Ruoqing Zhu; Song Song

2008-01-01

224

Procedural sedation analgesia  

PubMed Central

The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades.Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED) usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation) is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:20668560

Sheta, Saad A

2010-01-01

225

HOUNSFIELD REVIEW SERIES Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology  

E-print Network

HOUNSFIELD REVIEW SERIES Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology E J HALL, DPhil, DSc, FACR, FRCR and D J BRENNER, PhD, DSc Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York diagnostic radiology comes from high-dose (in the radiological context) procedures such as CT, interventional

Brenner, David Jonathan

226

Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Gas Turbine Performance Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of linear performance diagnostic methods are discussed, in comparison to methods based on full nonlinear calculation of performance deviations, for the purpose of condition monitoring and diagnostics. First, the theoretical background of linear methods is reviewed to establish a relationship to the principles used by nonlinear methods. Then computational procedures are discussed and compared. The effectiveness of determining

K. Mathioudakis

2005-01-01

227

Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics  

Cancer.gov

The Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics Lecture series recognizes outstanding leaders who are making ground-breaking contributions in molecular diagnostics and who have demonstrated broad and integrated approaches in the development and implementation of diagnostics commensurate with emerging technologies. Speakers in this series will have made significant achievement through fundamental observations, discoveries and intellectual contributions in the basic and applied sciences relevant to the practice of clinical molecular diagnostics.

228

Surgical Procedures. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains 13 units of instruction for a course that will prepare students with the entry-level competencies needed by a surgical technologist. The course covers the following topics: introduction to surgical procedures; diagnostic procedures; general surgery; gastrointestinal surgery; obstetrics and gynecological surgery;…

Baker, Beverly; And Others

229

Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p<0.05). The MD/UT ratio was significantly higher during condition 3 than during conditions 1 and 2, and higher during condition 2 than during condition 1 (p<0.05). Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p<0.05). These findings suggest that augmented trunk stabilization with the ECS may be advantageous with regard to reducing the compensatory muscle effort of the UT during isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength. PMID:25586003

Jang, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

2015-04-01

230

A layered abduction model of perception: Integrating bottom-up and top-down processing in a multi-sense agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.

Josephson, John R.

1989-01-01

231

Children and young mothers' agency in the context of conflict: A review of the experiences of formerly abducted young people in Northern Uganda.  

PubMed

This paper critically examines the experiences of formerly abducted young women during their captivity with the Lord Resistance Army rebels and in the resettlement and reintegration period. Special attention is given to their exercise of agency and choices. Using a qualitative design, narrative interviews were conducted with child mothers (N=21), local and civic actors (N=17), and the general community through focus groups (N=10). Data transcripts were analyzed using template analysis methods to derive meanings and increase understanding of the situation. Abducted children faced significant difficulties during their captivity and also during their resettlement and reintegration process, yet they continued to exhibit strong agency to cope with the new realities. Despite these difficulties, opportunities existed which were utilized by the young people, albeit to different degrees depending on each young person's ability and initiative (agency). Situational factors limiting the child mothers' agency were identified as embedded within the latter's environment. This study raises the importance of appreciation of the young women's agency in both the bush-captivity experience and resettlement and reintegration processes within the community, post-conflict. PMID:25641049

Ochen, Eric Awich

2015-04-01

232

Diagnostic use of composite in anterior aesthetics.  

PubMed

The success of anterior restorative procedures is in direct proportion to the ability of the practitioner to master new techniques and materials, which constantly improves the level of aesthetics and ultimately the final results achieved. However, unless a harmonious integration is achieved involving the two "bioaesthetic" parameters-the gingival architectural design and the dental architectural design-the final result will not be satisfactory. The learning objective of this article is to illustrate the use of composite resin as an "architect" to build predictable and successful anterior restorations through more reliable diagnostics of natural aesthetics and function. Freedom of composite build-up is outlined, and the use of composite in moving and opening of the gingival crest is described. Direct and indirect diagnostic use of composite in dental procedures is outlined in a detailed clinical procedure. PMID:9242138

Portalier, L

1996-09-01

233

Anesthesia for cardiac catheterization procedures.  

PubMed

Anesthesiologist's involvement for the purpose of diagnostic and interventional procedures in cardiac catheterization laboratory has been evolving particularly since last two decades. Catheterization laboratory environment poses certain challenges for the anesthesiologist including unfamiliar remote location, exposure to radiation, limited help from colleagues and communication with cardiologists. Anesthesiologists working in catheterization laboratory are required to have adequate knowledge of the environment, personnel, fluoroscope, echocardiography and type of radio contrast dye during the procedure. Anyone who is exposed to radiation environment is expected to protect himself from the exposure and must also wear a dosimeter for cumulative exposure tracing. There is no ideal anesthetic technique and the decision about sedation, general anesthesia or regional anesthesia for the procedure has to be made by attending anesthesiologists in consultation with cardiologists. Anesthesiologists should always try to minimize the effects of anesthesia on cardiovascular system. In addition, oxygenation and ventilatory management should be done according to the diagnostic procedure as it can also influence the diagnosis particularly in pediatric cath procedures. Since more complex procedures are being done in cardiac catheterization laboratory,  it is the responsibility of anesthesia department to train and assign dedicated anesthesiologists for new challenges. Role of anesthetist should be well defined so that there is no confrontation during patient management. Sedation in cardiac catheterization laboratory by non-anesthetists is also an issue, which can be sorted out by making policies and protocol in consultation with cardiologists. PMID:25436204

Hamid, A

2014-01-01

234

Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

2013-06-01

235

BEAM SIMULATIONS USING VIRTUAL DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DRIVER LINAC  

SciTech Connect

End-to-end beam simulations for the driver linac have shown that the design meets the necessary performance requirements including having adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances. However, to achieve reliable operational performance, the development of appropriate beam diagnostic systems and control room procedures are crucial. With limited R&D funding, beam simulations provide a cost effective tool to evaluate candidate beam diagnostic systems and to provide a critical basis for developing early commissioning and later operational activities. We propose to perform beam dynamic studies and engineering analyses to define the requisite diagnostic systems of the driver linac and through simulation to develop and test commissioning and operational procedures.

R. C. York; X. Wu; Q. Zhao

2011-12-21

236

Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background The combined positioning of the trunk and knee in the coronal and sagittal planes during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has not been previously reported. Hypothesis During ACL injury female athletes demonstrate greater lateral trunk and knee abduction angles than ACL-injured male athletes and uninjured female athletes. Design Cross-section control-cohort design. Methods Analyses of still captures from 23 coronal (10 female and 7 male ACL-injured players and 6 female controls) or 28 sagittal plane videos performing similar landing and cutting tasks. Significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results Lateral trunk and knee abduction angles were higher in female compared to male athletes during ACL injury (p ? 0.05) and trended toward being greater than female controls (p = 0.16, 0.13, respectively). Female ACL-injured athletes showed less forward trunk lean than female controls (mean (SD) initial contact (IC): 1.6 (9.3)° vs 14.0 (7.3)°, p ? 0.01). Conclusion Female athletes landed with greater lateral trunk motion and knee abduction during ACL injury than did male athletes or control females during similar landing and cutting tasks. Clinical relevance Lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are important components of the ACL injury mechanism in female athletes as observed from video evidence of ACL injury. PMID:19372088

Hewett, T E; Torg, J S; Boden, B P

2014-01-01

237

A Review of the Diagnostic Methods Reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review summarizes subject selection and diagnostic procedures documented in 142 empirical articles published between 1993 and 1997. Although most researchers reported use of standard diagnostic criteria in classifying subjects, numerous studies did not report diagnostic methods and there was often a lack of specification of inclusion and…

Waller, Stacey A.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; McGrath, Ann M.; Sullivan, Cristin L.

1999-01-01

238

A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures.  

PubMed

Alteration of the gastro-intestinal tract through manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a preharvest control measure to reduce fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the energy source's moisture content (high moisture corn and dry whole-shelled corn), two natural feed supplements (Saccaromyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell and Aspergillus oryzae-Amaferm), and two levels of vitamin A (2200 IU/kg and no supplementation) on the fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle. One hundred sixty-eight Angus-cross beef steers were randomly allocated to 24 pens, and each pen was assigned 1 of 12 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) and fecal grab samples using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and standard microbiological techniques. On the basis of multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, we found a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in animals fed dry whole-shelled corn in models based on fecal-IMS, and this effect was increased if a super-shedding animal (shedding > 10(4) colony forming units of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of feces) was present in the pen at the time of testing relative to animals fed high moisture corn and nonexposed to super-shedders. However, in similar models based on RAMS-IMS testing, the effect of corn type on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 varied with the type of feed additive used. Being exposed to a super-shedding pen-mate also increased the odds of being positive to E. coli O157:H7 in the RAMS-IMS models. These models demonstrate that the impact of different supplements may vary with the diagnostic test used, and that further research into the biological significance of differences between RAMS- and fecal-IMS test results is warranted. PMID:20500082

Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Zerby, Henry N; Fluharty, Francis L; Loerch, Steve C; Kauffman, Michael D; Bard, Jaime L; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

2010-09-01

239

Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials  

PubMed Central

Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies. PMID:24948841

Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

2014-01-01

240

Diagnostic Development on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

1999-12-16

241

[Diagnostic strategy in urolithiasis].  

PubMed

The roentgenological diagnostics of urolithiasis must be carried out with regard to the therapeutic consequences. With the appropriate use of new imaging methods the prevailing techniques are native radiographs and sonography for proof or rejection of suspected renal calculus. Excretion urography is no longer justified as the primary method of investigation. Already practically proven diagnostic schedules are described. Interdisciplinary cooperation of radiologist and urologist is essential for the introduction of diagnostic strategies into practice. PMID:2678233

Kunz, B; Baars, H G; Heuer, H H; Pfannenberg, C

1989-01-01

242

From miniature to nano robots for diagnostic and therapeutic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the evolution of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as a process of convergence of technologies coming from different fields and involving different disciplines. In particular, it illustrates how modern surgery evolved thanks to fundamental biology knowledge; thus, with the introduction of imaging techniques intra-operatively and with the introduction of robotics, surgical procedures became much more predictable, precise and

Arianna Menciassi; Edoardo Sinibaldi; Virginia Pensabene; Paolo Dario

2010-01-01

243

Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER  

SciTech Connect

In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2014-08-21

244

Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

2014-08-01

245

[Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].  

PubMed

This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. PMID:24211195

Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

2013-12-01

246

Diagnostics of lathe spindles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed rapid diagnostic method for lathe spindles is based on tests with no load (test I), with a steady load (turning smooth surfaces; test II), and with a cyclic load (turning discontinuous surfaces; test III). In the method, the actual spectral characteristics of the diagnostic signal obtained from the spindle in the three tests are measured and, on that

S. F. Zolotykh; S. M. Turanosov

2009-01-01

247

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

248

Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

1992-01-01

249

Gas turbine diagnostic system  

E-print Network

In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

Talgat, Shuvatov

2011-01-01

250

Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

2001-05-01

251

Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

1996-01-01

252

Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices  

SciTech Connect

A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

1982-06-01

253

Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

2010-12-30

254

Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013.  

PubMed

Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

Hoffmaster, Alex R; AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D; Brett, Paul J; Brooks, Timothy J G; Brown, Katherine A; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C; Dance, David A B; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J; Rolim, Dionne B; Simpson, Andrew J; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A; Stokes, Martha M; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T

2015-02-01

255

Plasma diagnostic reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

1996-02-26

256

Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131  

PubMed Central

Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

2015-01-01

257

Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of CT scans performed, both in the US and the UK, which has fuelled concern about the long-term consequences of these exposures, particularly in terms of cancer induction. Statistics from the US and the UK indicate a 20-fold and 12-fold increase, respectively, in CT usage over the past two decades, with per caput CT usage in the US being about five times that in the UK. In both countries, most of the collective dose from diagnostic radiology comes from high-dose (in the radiological context) procedures such as CT, interventional radiology and barium enemas; for these procedures, the relevant organ doses are in the range for which there is now direct credible epidemiological evidence of an excess risk of cancer, without the need to extrapolate risks from higher doses. Even for high-dose radiological procedures, the risk to the individual patient is small, so that the benefit/risk balance is generally in the patients' favour. Concerns arise when CT examinations are used without a proven clinical rationale, when alternative modalities could be used with equal efficacy, or when CT scans are repeated unnecessarily. It has been estimated, at least in the US, that these scenarios account for up to one-third of all CT scans. A further issue is the increasing use of CT scans as a screening procedure in asymptomatic patients; at this time, the benefit/risk balance for any of the commonly suggested CT screening techniques has yet to be established. PMID:18440940

Hall, E J; Brenner, D J

2008-05-01

258

MITG test procedure and results  

SciTech Connect

Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper.

Eck, M.B.; Mukunda, M.

1983-01-01

259

Comparison of the gluteus medius and rectus femoris muscle activities during natural sit-to-stand and sit-to-stand with hip abduction in young and older adults.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the relative levels of activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during natural (N) sit-to-stand (STS) and STS with hip abduction (ABD) in young and elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy young females and 15 healthy elderly females. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system for natural STS and STS with hip abduction. [Result] In the elderly subjects, the Gmed increased significantly and RF decreased significantly when STS was performed with hip ABD compared with when it was performed naturally. The Gmed in the elderly subjects was significantly increased during natural STS compared with in the young subjects. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the Gmed was recruited to compensate for weakened RF muscle function in the elderly adults. PMID:25729171

Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-02-01

260

Comparison of the gluteus medius and rectus femoris muscle activities during natural sit-to-stand and sit-to-stand with hip abduction in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the relative levels of activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during natural (N) sit-to-stand (STS) and STS with hip abduction (ABD) in young and elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy young females and 15 healthy elderly females. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system for natural STS and STS with hip abduction. [Result] In the elderly subjects, the Gmed increased significantly and RF decreased significantly when STS was performed with hip ABD compared with when it was performed naturally. The Gmed in the elderly subjects was significantly increased during natural STS compared with in the young subjects. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the Gmed was recruited to compensate for weakened RF muscle function in the elderly adults. PMID:25729171

Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-01-01

261

Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

Brix, M.; Morgan, P.; Stamp, M.; Zastrow, K.-D. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Dodt, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Dunai, D.; Meszaros, B.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Szabolics, T.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Roma (Italy); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Ass., D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Melson, T. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasma e Fusao Nuclear, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-15

262

Effective anxiety treatment prior to diagnostic cardiac catheterization.  

PubMed

Music therapy, massage, guided imagery, therapeutic touch, and stress management instruction have been used successfully to decrease patient anxiety prior to diagnostic cardiac catheterization, providing better patient outcomes. The anxiety experienced among patients may have various causes, including not feeling cared about as an individual, too much waiting time before the procedure begins, and physical discomfort. This review determines nursing interventions that may effectively reduce anxiety prior to diagnostic cardiac catheterization. PMID:15871589

McCaffrey, Ruth; Taylor, Natalie

2005-01-01

263

A case study of the abductive reasoning processes of pre-service elementary education students in a role playing setting concerning a mock senate hearing on global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science education.

Petty, Michael Eugene

264

Acute dizziness in rural practice: Proposal of a diagnostic procedure  

PubMed Central

Acute dizziness is a frequent index symptom in the emergency department as well as in the rural practice office. Most acute dizziness, however, is not dangerous, but some types are highly dangerous. Clinical routine acute dizziness can be separated into frequent benign syndromes including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular neuritis, Meni?re's disease or vestibular migraine, and what is here referred to as the “white shark” of dizziness, i.e. a stroke in the posterior circulation or more rarely a tumor in the posterior fossa. A practical concept is presented to clarify most frequent acute dizziness syndromes using clinical and low budget methods. PMID:25883501

Eid, Ehab; Dastan, Sajed; Heckmann, Josef G.

2015-01-01

265

[Current diagnostic procedure on neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer].  

PubMed

Chromogranin A (CgA) is considered as a major specific neuroendocrine tumor marker. It belongs to the secretogranin family, which is present in the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, endocrine glands and in a group of endocrine cells such us pancreas and thyroid. Serum levels of CgA could reflect the neuroendocrine activity and could be used when evaluating advance prostate carcinoma. Moreover, there are also several factors that may increase the serum level of CgA: treatment with proton-pump inhibitors or H2-receptor blockers, chronic atrophic gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis, liver and renal failure. Another method to evaluate NE differentiation is scintigraphy with the 111In-labeled somatostatin analogue (DTPA-D-Phe)-octrotide, (Octreoscan). This method takes advantage of the overexpression of type II somatostatin receptors on the cell surface of NE tumors. With this technique the presence of NE differentiation can be detected both at the primary (prostate) and the metastatic sites. A more specific system to detect NE cell activity is obtained by analyzing CgA gene expression in prostate tissue by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PMID:21574146

Sciarra, Alessandro; Innocenzi, Michele; Ravaziol, Michele; Minisola, Francesco; Alfarone, Andrea; Cattarino, Susanna; Panebianco, Valeria; Buonocore, Valeria; Gentile, Vincenzo; Di Silverio, Franco

2011-01-01

266

An analysis of the diagnostic methods for acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

In spite of numerous sophisticated investigative procedures, acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is very frequently misdiagnosed. In order to improve the diagnostic approach to PE, the sensitivity and specificity of the commonly used methods were reviewed in a group of 421 patients with angiographically proved PE without associated cardio-pulmonary disease. The specificity of diagnostic procedures was, by decreasing order: positive pulmonary angiography (to affirm) = negative perfusion lung scan (to eliminate) greater than chest X-ray much greater than clinical symptoms, positive perfusion lung scan, ECG, blood gas, serum enzymes. PMID:6425382

Sors, H; Safran, D; Stern, M; Reynaud, P; Bons, J; Even, P

1984-01-01

267

Studies and analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine: SSME failure data review, diagnostic survey and SSME diagnostic evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) failure data for the period 1980 through 1983 are presented. The data was collected, evaluated, and ranked according to procedures established during this study. A number of conclusions and recommendations are made based upon this failure data review. The results of a state-of-the-art diagnostic survey are also presented. This survey covered a broad range of diagnostic sensors and techniques and the findings were evaluated for application to the SSME. Finally, a discussion of the initial activities for the on-going SSME diagnostic evaluation is included.

Glover, R. C.; Kelley, B. A.; Tischer, A. E.

1986-01-01

268

Procedural knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

1986-01-01

269

Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle  

PubMed Central

Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

2013-01-01

270

21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures...use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures...examination to protect the germinal tissue of patients from radiation exposure that may...

2010-04-01

271

ORION laser target diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-15

272

ORION laser target diagnostics.  

PubMed

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

2012-10-01

273

Reversed field pinch diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

Weber, P.G.

1986-01-01

274

General considerations and updates in pediatric gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal and colonic endoscopic examinations have been performed in pediatric patients in Korea for 3 decades. Endoscopic procedures are complex and may be unsafe if special concerns are not considered. Many things have to be kept in mind before, during, and after the procedure. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the most frequently performed procedure in children nowadays, Since the dimension size of the endoscopy was modified for pediatric patients 15 years ago, endoscopic procedures are almost performed routinely in pediatric gastrointestinal patients. The smaller size of the scope let the physicians approach the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. But this is an invasive procedure, so the procedure itself may provoke an emergence state. The procedure-related complications can more easily occur in pediatric patients. Sedation-related or procedure-related respiratory, cardiovascular complications are mostly important and critical in the care. The endoscopists are required to consider diverse aspects of the procedure - patient preparation, indications and contraindications, infection controls, sedation methods, sedative medicines and the side effects of each medicine, monitoring during and after the procedure, and complications related with the procedure and medicines - to perform the procedure successfully and safely. This article presents some important guidelines and recommendations for gastrointestinal endoscopy through literature review. PMID:21189965

2010-01-01

275

Isometric hip abduction using a Thera-Band alters gluteus maximus muscle activity and the anterior pelvic tilt angle during bridging exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bridging with isometric hip abduction (IHA) using the Thera-Band on gluteus maximus (GM), hamstring (HAM), and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity; GM/HAM and GM/ES ratios; and the anterior pelvic tilt angle in healthy subjects. Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG was used to collect EMG data of GM, HAM, and ES muscle activities, and Image J software was used to measure anterior pelvic tilt angle. A paired t-test was used to compare GM, HAM, and ES muscle activity; the GM/HAM and GM/ES ratios; and the anterior pelvic tilt angle with and without IHA during the bridging exercise. GM muscle activity increased significantly and the anterior pelvic tilt angle decreased significantly during bridging with IHA using the Thera-Band (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the activity of the HAM and ES and the GM/HAM and GM/ES ratios between bridging with and without IHA (p>0.05). The results of this study suggest that bridging with IHA using the Thera-Band can be implemented as an effective method to facilitate GM muscle activity and reduce the anterior pelvic tilt angle. PMID:25262160

Choi, Sil-Ah; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun

2015-04-01

276

Substation evaluation using Diagnostic Logic System (DIALOG)  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated the feasibility of applying a Diagnostic Logic System (DIAGLOG) to evaluate substation operation. The purpose was to see if a determination can be made as to whether the equipment in a substation operated correctly or not when an operating event occurred. The work was directed toward modifying an already proven diagnostic system to create a simplified procedure for describing the operation of substation equipment. Special operating tables or modules of logic were identified for describing relay and breaker operations. The resulting model composed of all the modules connected together is used to evaluate the actual observations available at the substation, and to compare them with what the substation should have produced. The report covers the diagnostic approach used, information on how to construct the modules and examples of diagnosis. Also covered are discussions on the special features of substations that offer a challenge to performing diagnostics. Included in the report are the results of modeling a typical substation and several notes are provided along with an initial library of typical modules which were developed in modeling one of the substations belonging to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. This substation served as a feasibility demonstrator. 15 figs.

Andre, W.L.

1989-08-01

277

Objective pain diagnostics: clinical neurophysiology.  

PubMed

Neurophysiological techniques help in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of chronic pain, and are particularly useful to determine its neuropathic origin. According to current standards, the diagnosis of definite neuropathic pain (NP) needs objective confirmation of a lesion or disease of somatosensory systems, which can be provided by neurophysiological testing. Lesions causing NP mostly concern the pain-temperature pathways, and therefore neurophysiological procedures allowing the specific testing of these pathways (i.e., A-delta and C-fibres, spino-thalamo-cortical tracts) are essential for objective diagnosis. Different techniques to stimulate selectively pain-temperature pathways are discussed. Of these, laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) appear as the easiest and most reliable neurophysiological method of assessing nociceptive function, and their coupling with autonomic responses (e.g., galvanic skin response) and psychophysics (quantitative sensory testing - QST) can still enhance their diagnostic yield. Neurophysiological techniques not exploring specifically nociception, such as standard nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and SEPs to non-noxious stimulation, should be associated to the exploration of nociceptive systems, not only because both may be simultaneously affected to different degrees, but also because some specific painful symptoms, such as paroxysmal discharges, may depend on specific alteration of highly myelinated A-beta fibres. The choice of techniques is determined after anamnesis and clinical exam, and tries to answer a number of questions: (a) is the pain-related to injury of somatosensory pathways?; (b) to what extent are different subsystems affected?; (c) are mechanisms and lesion site in accordance with imaging data?; (d) are results of use for diagnostic or therapeutic follow-up? Neuropathic pain (NP) affects more than 15 million people in Western countries, and its belated diagnosis leads to insufficient or delayed therapy. The use of neurofunctional approaches to obtain a "physiological photograph" of somatosensory function is therefore highly relevant, as it yields significant clues about the type and mechanisms of pain, thus prompting rapid and optimised therapy. PMID:22632867

Garcia-Larrea, L

2012-06-01

278

Projection display metrology at NIST: measurements and diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of digital cinema, medical imaging, and other applications, the need to properly characterize projection display systems has become increasingly more crucial. Several standards organizations have developed or are presently developing measurement procedures (including ANSI, IEC, ISO, VESA, and SMPTE). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has played an important role by evaluating standards and procedures, developing diagnostics, and providing technical and editorial input, especially where unbiased technical expertise is needed to establish credibility and to investigate measurement problems.

Boynton, Paul A.; Kelley, Edward F.; Libert, John M.

2004-05-01

279

[Modern angiological diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

The tasks of apparative examination methods in the angiologic diagnostics are explained. Apart from the mechanical oscillography the possibilities of registration and evaluation of the peripheral pulse wave are discussed. As quantitative examination method the plethysmography is broadly used. The most important applications of the ultrasound-Doppler-technique are described. PMID:473831

Grossmann, K

1979-04-15

280

[Radioisotope diagnostic unit].  

PubMed

A diagnostic radionuclide complex is described, developed and introduced into practice in the clinical hospital, servicing 300 thousand patients. Optimal set of methods, nomenclature of instruments, system for information collection and processing as well as the tactics of application of these instruments have been developed. PMID:6969342

Kalantarov, K D; Tabarovski?, I K

1980-01-01

281

Methods in graphologic diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapho~ogic diagnostics is part of the science of the expressions. The history of the lore of the expressive movements through the centuries, may be summed up in the following .antithesi~s. On the one hand, expression was explained away and dissolved, as it were, in an anatomy of the muscles and a physiology of the muscular movement. On the other hand~

Wladimir Eliasberg

1952-01-01

282

Diagnostic du vertige  

PubMed Central

In cases of vertigo, the history is the most important diagnostic element. Questioning must be directed towards obtaining the most pertinent and precise answers possible. A classification based on the duration of vertigo, together with the physiopathology, is suggested. PMID:21289799

Monday, Louise A.

1981-01-01

283

Logistic Regression Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood fit of a logistic regression model (and other similar models) is extremely sensitive to outlying responses and extreme points in the design space. We develop diagnostic measures to aid the analyst in detecting such observations and in quantifying their effect on various aspects of the maximum likelihood fit. The elements of the fitting process which constitute the

Daryl Pregibon

1981-01-01

284

Biotechnology and molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

Molecular diagnostic applications of biotechnology have allowed the exploitation of biological processes for the industrial production of bio-products that are used for diagnostic purposes. Advances in genetic-related technologies together with a multidisciplinary interplay of several fields led to the development of genomics which is focusing at the detection of pathogenetic events at the genome level. Both structural and functional genomic approaches are shaping the technological challenge of the discovery of disease-related genes and the identification of their structural alterations or elucidation of gene function. Some of the emerging technologies and diagnostic applications of both structural and functional genomics will be summarised, including the issues related to identification of disease-genes, detection of genetic alterations, mutation scanning and DNA chip technology or those related to expression genetics (hybridisation-, PCR- and sequence-based technologies), two-hybrid technology and bioinformatics and computational biology, respectively. Further advances of genetic engineering have also revolutionised immunoassay biotechnology via engineering of antibody-encoding genes and the phage display technology. A comment will also be given about some of the issues related to the commercialisation and widespread diffusion of genetic information derived from the exploitation of the biotechnology industry and the development and marketing of diagnostic services. PMID:10607845

Gulino, A

1999-01-01

285

Tele diagnostic by web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

Sugiyama, Shigeki

2006-03-01

286

Diagnostic Testing Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an explanation of the program design of the three separate Pascal-language programs which comprise UCLA's Diagnostic Testing Package "DX." The three parts of the DX test package are three closely interrelated programs--Editest, Runtest, and Summary. Editest serves the following functions: (1) the creation of a suitable…

McArthur, David L.

287

Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

2009-01-01

288

Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies. PMID:22619695

Kramer, Fred Russell

2012-01-01

289

Molecular diagnostics in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biology has significantly improved diagnosis in the field of clinical virology. Virus discovery and rapid implementation of diagnostic tests for newly discovered viruses has strongly beneficiated from the development of molecular techniques. Viral load and antiviral resistance or subtyping assays are now part of the biological monitoring of patients chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus

Guy Vernet

2004-01-01

290

Heterodyne laser diagnostic system  

DOEpatents

The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wyeth, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

291

Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab  

E-print Network

Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility/State_____________________________________ Zip___________________________ Plant common or scientific name____________________________________________________ Variety__________________________________________________________________ Planting date, age of plant

Maxwell, Bruce D.

292

Requirements for ITER diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

Young, K.M.

1991-01-01

293

Procedural sedation in the acute care setting.  

PubMed

Many patients require sedation during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Ideally, procedural sedation minimizes the patient's awareness and discomfort while maintaining the patient's safety. Appropriate monitoring by trained personnel is the key to successful procedural sedation. These techniques should be used only by health care professionals skilled in managing complications, including cardiorespiratory compromise. It is important to take a complete history and perform a thorough physical examination, paying special attention to the selection of pharmacologic agents. Common sedative agents include etomidate, ketamine, fentanyl, and midazolam. These have become the agents of choice for procedural sedation because of their ease of use, predictable action, and excellent safety profiles. All patients requiring procedural sedation should be monitored by qualified staff at the bedside until they have recovered to an age-appropriate baseline mental status and function. PMID:15663030

Brown, Todd B; Lovato, Luis M; Parker, Dinora

2005-01-01

294

Procedural sedation and analgesia in children.  

PubMed

Procedural sedation and analgesia for children--the use of sedative, analgesic, or dissociative drugs to relieve anxiety and pain associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures--is now widely practised by a diverse group of specialists outside the operating theatre. We review the principles underlying safe and effective procedural sedation and analgesia and the spectrum of procedures for which it is currently done. We discuss the decision-making process used to determine appropriate drug selection, dosing, and sedation endpoint. We detail the pharmacopoeia for procedural sedation and analgesia, reviewing the pharmacology and adverse effects of these drugs. International differences in practice are described along with current areas of controversy and future directions. PMID:16517277

Krauss, Baruch; Green, Steven M

2006-03-01

295

Molecular Diagnostics Researcher: James Ferrenberg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF interview, PowerPoint slide set, and webpage biography of a molecular diagnostics researcher, detailing career information. Molecular diagnostics researchers used genetic information to diagnose infections and disease.

2012-05-02

296

RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

297

DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO STREAM CHANNEL ASSESSMENT AND MONITORINGl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that a diagnostic procedure, not unlike that followed in medical practice, provides a logical basis for stream channel assessment and monitoring. Our argument is based on the observation that a particular indicator or measurement of stream channel condition can mean different things depending upon the local geomorphic context and history of the channel in question. This paper offers

David R. Montgomery; Lee H. MacDonald

2002-01-01

298

Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2012-01-01

299

Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

2007-01-01

300

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

301

ACOUSTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM BASED ON ESTIMATION OF SPECTRAL FEATURES OF TRANSMITTED VOICE SOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective analysis of voice sounds transmitted to the chest wall is used widely in medical diagnostics of lung diseases. Attempts to objectify the analysis have been performed by many investigators but unfortunately we have not reliable diagnostic procedure yet to be applicable for practice. The objective is estimation of spectral features of voice sounds transmitted to the chest wall for

V. I. Korenbaum; G. N. Bondar; A. E. Kostiv

2005-01-01

302

Assessing Disease Class-Specific Diagnostic Ability: A Practical Adaptive Test Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of the robustness of disease class-specific diagnostic concepts could play a central role in training programs designed to assure the development of diagnostic competence. In the pilot study, the authors used disease/sign-symptom conditional probability estimates, Monte Carlo procedures, and artificial intelligence (AI) tools to create…

Papa, Frank J.; Schumacker, Randall E.

303

A Review of the Diagnostic Methods Reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes subject selection and diagnostic procedures documented in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. One hundred forty-two empirical articles published between February 1993 and April 1997 were examined. Reviewers independently evaluated articles using a coding instrument developed by the authors. Results indicated that a majority of researchers reported the use of one or more standard diagnostic criteria

Stacey A. Waller; Kevin J. Armstrong; Ann M. McGrath; Cristin L. Sullivan

1999-01-01

304

Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

Burger, D. R.

1990-01-01

305

Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

2010-01-01

306

Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent. PMID:25719854

Noor, K M; Shephard, L; Bastian, I

2015-04-01

307

Advances in diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

Recent advances in diagnostic radiology are discussed on the basis of current publications in Investigative Radiology. Publications in the journal during 2009 and 2010 are reviewed, evaluating developments by modality and anatomic region. Technological advances continue to play a major role in the evolution and clinical practice of diagnostic radiology, and as such constitute a major publication focus. In the past 2 years, this includes advances in both magnetic resonance and computed tomography (in particular, the advent of dual energy computed tomography). An additional major focus of publications concerns contrast media, and in particular continuing research involving nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, its etiology, and differentiation of the gadolinium chelates on the basis of in vivo stability. PMID:21057321

Runge, Val M

2010-12-01

308

ICF diagnostics. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In the past several years there have been significant advances and accomplishments in the field of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research which are directly attributable to an active experimental program supported by the development and applications of sophisticated and specialized diagnostics instruments and techniques. The continued development of high temporal-and spatial-resolution diagnostics, although with a somewhat different technical emphasis than previously, is essential for maintaining progress in ICF. With the generation of inertial fusion drivers now becoming available progress toward higher density compression of fusion fuel will be attained at the expense of temperature, and consequently emissions from the targets will be limited. At the same time since the targets are being driven to higher density they are more opaque to the low-to-moderate energy x-rays (up to a few keV) and particles (alpha particles, protons, and knock-on charged particles) that have been utilized for diagnosing target performance.

Coleman, L.W.

1982-12-17

309

DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

2007-06-25

310

Obturator hernia: A diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 90 Final Diagnosis: Obturator hernia Symptoms: Epigastric pain • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Obturator hernia (OH) can be difficult to diagnose because it shows only nonspecific signs and symptoms. Although pain in a lower limb caused by compression of the obturator nerve by the hernia in the obturator canal (Howship-Romberg sign) is a characteristic sign, its presence is rather rare. Case Report: We herein describe the case of a 90-year-old woman with an OH that was difficult to diagnose because of her slight abdominal signs and symptoms on admission and subtle abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings. Although the CT images revealed the presence of an OH, this finding was overlooked because it contained only a part of the small intestine wall, which is called the Richter type. Fortunately, her condition improved dramatically with only conservative treatment. Conclusions: Although early diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality, OH can be a diagnostic challenge even with abdominal CT. PMID:25006359

Tokushima, Midori; Aihara, Hidetoshi; Tago, Masaki; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Sakanishi, Yuta; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Kyoraku, Itaru; Sugioka, Takashi; Yamashita, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

311

Diagnostics for multiple regression problems  

SciTech Connect

In the last 10 to 15 years there has been much work done in trying to improve linear regression results. Individuals have analyzed the susceptibility of least-squares results to values far removed from the center of the independent variable observations. They have studied the problem of heavy-tailed residuals, and they have studied the problem of collinearity. From these studies have come ridge regression techniques, robust regression techniques, regression on principal components, etc. However, many practitioners view these methods with suspicion (and ignorance), and prefer to continue using the usual least-squares procedures to fit their models, even though their results might not be answering the question they think. In reaction to this, statisticians are spending more time analyzing how the individual observations affect the least squares results. In the last few years approximately 10 papers and one text have appeared that address the problem of how to study the influence of the individual observations. This report is a study of the recent work done in linear regression diagnostics. It is concerned with analyzing the effect of one case at a time, since the methods to analyze this situation are relatively straight-forward and are not prohibitive computationally.

Daly, J.C.

1982-03-01

312

Diagnostic Approach to Incidentaloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are masses of the adrenal gland discovered inadvertently during diagnostic imaging for other conditions\\u000a unrelated to adrenal disease. Incidentally found adrenal tumors were first described more than 25 years ago [1–3]. Improvements\\u000a in imaging technologies, their increasing availability and use have led to increasing recognition of AI as a public health\\u000a problem in the aging population [4–6].

Holger S. Willenberg; Stefan R. Bornstein

313

STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

1998-07-01

314

[Diagnostic kits in parasitology: which controls?].  

PubMed

The development of new diagnostic tools particularly for some parasitic "neglected diseases", is slowed or even hindered by limited resources assigned for basic and applied research in public institution and private sector. Even if the time-line and costs needed for developing a new In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) test are generally lower compared to vaccines or new drugs, industry is poorly engaged in investing resources due to the perception of limited markets. To accelerate the development of diagnostics for the world's most deadly diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Gates Foundation, last year launched a new initiative, FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, www.finddiagnostics.org). The aim is to "apply the latest biotechnology innovations to develop and validate affordable diagnostic tests for diseases of the developing world". Ideally, a new diagnostic test should be accurately evaluated prior to use in medical practice. The first step would be a pre-clinical evaluation, an analytic study to determine its laboratory performance. A crucial point in this phase is the calibration of reagents (antigens, antibodies, DNA probes, etc.) against a standard reference preparation. WHO, through the WHO International Laboratories for Biological Standards, "provides International Biological Reference Preparations which serve as reference sources of defined biological activity expressed in an internationally agreed unit" (www.who.int/biologicals/IBRP/index.htm). Standardization allows "comparison of biological measurements worldwide" and ensures the reliability of diagnostic procedures. These preparations are generally intended for use in the characterization of the activity of secondary reference preparations (regional, national or in-house working standards). Unfortunately, international reference standards for parasitic diseases are not available at present, except for Toxoplasma antibodies. The first international standard reagent for Anti-Toxoplasma Serum was established in 1968 and at present, an international standard reference serum, Anti-toxoplasma serum, human TOXM is available at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in UK. Several collaborative, multicenter studies were carried out to assess the performance of different methods and commercial tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, by providing to participating laboratories a panel of well-defined sera to be tested. A four-phase process following well-accepted methodological standards for the development of diagnostics, analogous to those internationally accepted for drugs and vaccines was recently proposed. The pre-clinical evaluation, the analytic study to assess sensitivity, specificity, predictive values in laboratory (phase I), should be followed by a proof of principle study to distinguish diseased from healthy persons in easily accessible populations (phase II). The evaluation of test performance in populations of intended use (phase III), and finally the delineation of cost-effectiveness and societal impact of new tests in comparison with existing tools (phase IV) should complete the validation procedure. In this context, national regulatory agencies play a major role in pre-market approval and post-market surveillance of IVDs. The European Community in 1998 approved a directive (Directive 98/79/EC) which rules the marketing of IVD medical devices, in order to harmonise the performance levels and standards in European countries. But, among IVDs for parasitic diseases, only those to detect congenital toxoplasmosis are submitted to defined procedures to provide the verification of products before their placing on the market and the surveillance after their marketing by a notified body, which perform appropriate examinations, tests and inspections to production facilities to verify if the device meets the requirements of the directive. In U.

Rossi, P

2004-06-01

315

ITER Diagnostic First Wal  

SciTech Connect

The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

2012-09-21

316

Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

Santoro, Gilbert J. (editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (editor)

1988-01-01

317

Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.  

PubMed

Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (?PADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC. PMID:24333570

Hu, Jie; Wang, ShuQi; Wang, Lin; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

2014-04-15

318

Diagnostic imaging in pediatric renal inflammatory disease  

SciTech Connect

Some form of imaging procedure should be used to document the presence of infection of the upper urinary tract in troublesome cases in children. During the past several years, sonography, nuclear radiology, and computed tomography (CT) have had a significant influence on renal imaging. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate the noninvasive imaging procedures that can be used to diagnose pediatric renal inflammatory disease and to assess the relative value of each modality in the various types of renal infection. The authors will not discuss the radiologic evaluation of the child who has had a previous renal infection, in whom cortical scarring or reflux nephropathy is a possibility; these are different clinical problems and require different diagnostic evaluation.

Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Schroeder, B.A.; Starshak, R.J.

1986-08-15

319

Maintenance of arytenoid abduction following carbon dioxide laser debridement of the articular cartilage and joint capsule of the cricoarytenoid joint combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty in horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate CO2 laser debridement of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty to prevent post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction in seven horses. Horses were assigned to either laser debridement of the left CAJ and laryngoplasty (laser treated, n=5) or control laryngoplasty (sham, n=2), and were evaluated with endoscopic examinations and measurement of right to left angle quotients (RLQ) to assess maintenance of arytenoid abduction. The animals were euthanased at intervals after surgery and larynges were harvested for post-mortem testing, including determination of translaryngeal flow, pressure, impedance and RLQ. Measurements were obtained under increasing vacuum-generated negative pressure with laryngoplasty sutures intact and with the knot/crimp of the laryngoplasty sutures removed. Following post-mortem testing the cricoarytenoid joints were examined histologically. Post-operative endoscopic examinations revealed no significant differences between RLQ measurements calculated for day 1 following surgery to the termination date of the study for the seven horses. Post-mortem RLQ at airflows of 10 and 60 L/s was significantly higher in sham than in laser treated horses both before and after knot/crimp removal. Translaryngeal impedance at 10 and 60 L/s was not statistically different between groups. Histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of articular cartilage in the laser treated horses. The lymphoid cell infiltration subsided but joint capsule and periarticular fibrosis increased over the course of the study. Post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction after laryngoplasty can be minimized with CO2 laser debridement of the CAJ joint. PMID:24405681

Hawkins, J F; Couetil, L; Miller, M A

2014-02-01

320

Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF  

SciTech Connect

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a high temperature and high density plasma is produced by the spherical implosion of a small capsule. A spherical target capsule is irradiated uniformly by a laser beam (direct irradiation) or x-rays from a high Z enclosure (hohlraum) that is irradiated by laser or ion beams (indirect irradiation). Then high-pressure ablation of the surface causes the fuel to be accelerated inward. Thermonuclear fusion reactions begin in the center region of the capsule as it is heated to sufficient temperature (10 keV) by the converging shocks (hot spot formation). During the stagnation of the imploded shell, the fuel in the shell region is compressed to high density ({approx} 10{sup 3} times solid density in fuel region). When these conditions are established, energy released by the initial nuclear reactions in center ''hot-spot'' region can heat up the cold ''fuel'' region and cause ignition. They are developing advanced nuclear diagnostics for imploding plasmas of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is a 1.8MJ, 192-beam glass laser system that is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One objective of the NIF is to demonstrate ignition and gain in an inertial confinement fusion plasma. Extreme physical conditions characterize the imploded plasmas on the NIF. First, the thickness of the plasma, expressed by areal density (plasma density times radius), is large, up to {approx} 1 g/cm{sup 2}. Highly penetrating probes such as energetic neutrons, hard x-rays, or {gamma} rays are required to see deep inside the plasma. Second, the implosion time is quite short. The implosion process takes {approx} 20 ns and the duration of the fusion reaction is on the order of 100 picoseconds. To observe the time history of the nuclear reactions, time resolution better than 10 ps is required. Third, the size of the imploded plasma is quite small ({approx} 100 {micro}m). To see the shape of burning region, a spatial resolution of {approx} 5 {micro}m is required for imaging systems. Fourth, the diagnostics operate in a harsh background. In implosion experiments, strong bursts of electromagnetic pulses, x-rays, neutrons, and neutron-induced radioactivity are produced. Therefore the diagnostics have to be designed to survive in these backgrounds. In addition, to prevent materials ablated from diagnostic components close to the target from being deposited on the laser optics, these components are excluded from a zone around the target with a radius in the range of 0.5 m to 5 m. This exclusion zone has a large impact on diagnostic design.

Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

2001-10-18

321

High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: Is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury?  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying risk factors for knee pain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be an important step in the injury prevention cycle. Objective We evaluated two unique prospective cohorts with similar populations and methodologies to compare the incidence rates and risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and ACL injury. Methods The ‘PFP cohort’ consisted of 240 middle and high school female athletes. They were evaluated by a physician and underwent anthropometric assessment, strength testing and three-dimensional landing biomechanical analyses prior to their basketball season. 145 of these athletes met inclusion for surveillance of incident (new) PFP by certified athletic trainers during their competitive season. The ‘ACL cohort’ included 205 high school female volleyball, soccer and basketball athletes who underwent the same anthropometric, strength and biomechanical assessment prior to their competitive season and were subsequently followed up for incidence of ACL injury. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate potential group (incident PFP vs ACL injured) differences in anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Knee abduction moment (KAM) cut-scores that provided the maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of PFP or ACL injury risk were also compared between the cohorts. Results KAM during landing above 15.4 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk to develop PFP compared to a 2.9% risk if below the PFP risk threshold in our sample. Likewise, a KAM above 25.3 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk for subsequent ACL injury compared to a 0.4% risk if below the established ACL risk threshold. The ACL-injured athletes initiated landing with a greater knee abduction angle and a reduced hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio relative to the incident PFP group. Also, when comparing across cohorts, the athletes who suffered ACL injury also had lower hamstring/quadriceps ratio than the players in the PFP sample (p<0.05). Conclusions In adolescent girls aged 13.3 years, >15 Nm of knee abduction load during landing is associated with greater likelihood of developing PFP. Also, in girls aged 16.1 years who land with >25 Nm of knee abduction load during landing are at increased risk for both PFP and ACL injury. PMID:24687011

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Foss, Kim D Barber; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-01-01

322

PCR as a diagnostic tool for brucellosis.  

PubMed

Numerous PCR-based assays have been developed for the identification of Brucella to improve diagnostic capabilities. Collectively, the repertoire of assays addresses several aspects of the diagnostic process. For some purposes, the simple identification of Brucella is adequate (e.g. diagnosis of human brucellosis or contamination of food products). In these cases, a genus-specific PCR assay is sufficient. Genus-specific assays tend to be simple, robust, and somewhat permissive of environmental influences. The main genetic targets utilized for these applications are the Brucella BCSP31 gene and the 16S-23S rRNA operon. Other instances require identification of the Brucella species involved. For example, most government-sponsored brucellosis eradication programs include regulations that stipulate a species-specific response. For epidemiological trace back, strain-specific identification is helpful. Typically, differential PCR-based assays tend to be more complex and consequently more difficult to perform. Several strategies have been explored to differentiate among Brucella species and strains, including locus specific multiplexing (e.g. AMOS-PCR based on IS711), PCR-RFLP (e.g. the omp2 locus), arbitrary-primed PCR, and ERIC-PCR to name a few. This paper reviews some of the major advancements in molecular diagnostics for Brucella including the development of procedures designed for the direct analysis of a variety of clinical samples. While the progress to date is impressive, there is still room for improvement. PMID:12414163

Bricker, Betsy J

2002-12-20

323

[Diagnostic approach to fever of unknown origin].  

PubMed

Nowadays, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is generally defined as a fever higher than 38-3 degrees C lasting for a period of at least three weeks, in which no definitive diagnosis has been made after a number of obligatory tests. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which history taking, physical examination and the obligatory tests are the most important steps in the search for potentially diagnostic clues (PDCs). Next, factitious fever and drug fever should be ruled out. Further diagnostic procedures should be guided by the PDCs. If this does not lead to diagnosis or if there are no useful PDCs, further screening, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, should be performed. In 30 to 50% of the patients with FUO no diagnosis can be reached. If their clinical condition is stable, waiting to see if new PDCs develop is recommended. Most patients in whom no diagnosis can be made, have a good prognosis. Supportive treatment with NSAIDs can be helpful. Only if patients deteriorate, should other therapeutic trials be considered. PMID:18512526

Bleeker-Rovers, C P; van der Meer, J W M

2008-04-12

324

FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module  

SciTech Connect

Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table.

Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

1980-11-01

325

Bouveret's Syndrome: diagnostic considerations  

SciTech Connect

Bouveret's syndrome is a rare disease entity manifested by the formation of a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula with passage of a gallstone into the duodenal bulb and subsequent obstruction of the gastric outlet. To date, no report of this entity using computed tomographic (CT) imaging is available. This article presents a case of Bouveret's syndrome with the classic findings on upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract series and a description of the CT manifestations. The literature is reviewed with discussion of the diagnostic approach to patients with Bouveret's syndrome.

Cooper, S.G.; Sherman, S.B.; Steinhardt, J.E.; Wilson, J.M. Jr.; Richman, A.H.

1987-07-10

326

Molecular Diagnostics of ?-Thalassemia  

PubMed Central

A high-quality hemoglobinopathy diagnosis is based on the results of a number of tests including assays for molecular identification of causative mutations. We describe the current diagnostic strategy for the identification of ?-thalassemias and hemoglobin (Hb) variants at the International Reference Laboratory for Haemoglobinopathies, Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) “Georgi D. Efremov,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Our overall approach and most of the methods we use for detection of mutations are designed for the specific target population. We discuss new technical improvements that have allowed us to substantially reduce the average time necessary for reaching a conclusive diagnosis. PMID:24052746

Atanasovska, B; Bozhinovski, G; Chakalova, L; Kocheva, S; Karanfilski, O; Plaseska-Karanfiska, D

2012-01-01

327

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

2012-06-01

328

Forearm Approach for Percutaneous Coronary Procedures  

PubMed Central

This article gives contemporary review on the forearm approach for percutaneous diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures. Advantages and disadvantages as well as practical issues and current controversies regarding both radial and ulnar artery approach are discussed throughout the paper. Having in mind advantages of forearm approach in terms of safety and comfort over the traditional femoral approach, as well as the rapid development of invasive technology in the past years, it will probably become the default vascular approach for all percutaneous coronary procedures in the near future. PMID:24554806

Stajic, Zoran; Romanovic, Radoslav; Tavciovski, Dragan

2013-01-01

329

Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown ...

330

Periodontal Treatments and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown ...

331

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

332

Radiation hardening of diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10{sup 16} neutrons per second because of spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

Siemon, R.E.

1991-01-01

333

Instrumentation and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

1990-12-01

334

Development of stimulation diagnostic technology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply Sandia's expertise and technology towards the development of stimulation diagnostic technology in the areas of in situ stress, natural fracturing, stimulation processes and instrumentation systems. Initial work has concentrated on experiment planning for a site where hydraulic fracturing could be evaluated and design models and fracture diagnostics could be validated and improved. Important issues have been defined and new diagnostics, such as inclinometers, identified. In the area of in situ stress, circumferential velocity analysis is proving to be a useful diagnostic for stress orientation. Natural fracture studies of the Frontier formation are progressing; two fracture sets have been found and their relation to tectonic events have been hypothesized. Analyses of stimulation data have been performed for several sites, primarily for in situ stress information. Some new ideas in stimulation diagnostics have been proposed; these ideas may significantly improve fracture diagnostic capabilities.

Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.

1992-02-01

335

Mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal: a diagnostic problem  

PubMed Central

In two cases of mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal there was difficulty and delay in clinical and radiologic diagnosis because the early symptoms did not correspond to any particular dermatome. Myelography and computed tomography (CT) are the initial diagnostic procedures used in most institutions, even where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is available. The purpose of these 2 case reports is to remind clinicians that it is possible for certain tumours attached to the roots in the lumbar spinal canal to migrate, because the roots tend to be redundant or lax. Multilevel search is essential in neuroradiologic studies for early diagnostic confirmation of mobile tumours. PMID:9030087

Varughese, George; Mazagri, Rida

1997-01-01

336

[The developments in melanoma diagnostics].  

PubMed

The continuously increasing incidence of melanoma and new developments in the therapy of metastatic disease require accurate diagnosis in all stages of melanoma. This study overviews the development of diagnostics tools in recent years/decades that are used in everyday medical practice such as optical diagnostic tools utilized for diagnosing primary tumors, sentinel lymph node biopsy, developments in molecular diagnostics, as well as the role of PET/CT in imaging techniques. PMID:25763916

Liszkay, Gabriella

2015-03-11

337

Comparison of muscle activation levels during arm abduction in the plane of the scapula vs. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation upper extremity patterns.  

PubMed

This study quantified activation of 8 muscles of the shoulder, trunk, and back during standing performance of (a) arm abduction in the plane of the scapula (scaption), (b) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) diagonal 1 flexion (D1F), and (c) PNF diagonal 2 flexion (D2F) while lifting a dumbbell with the dominant hand. Twelve men (26.1 ± 4.4 years) and 13 women (24.5 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate. Electromyographic signals were collected with DE-3.1 double-differential surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz. Electromyographic signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections (? = 0.05) examined muscle activation patterns across the 3 conditions. For the middle trapezius, average activation was greater (p < 0.001) for D2F (70.5 ± 23.4% MVIC) than D1F (46.4 ± 19.6% MVIC). Lower trapezius average activation was greater (p < 0.001) for D2F (55.3 ± 23.8% MVIC) than D1F (40.1 ± 16% MVIC). The anterior deltoid showed greater activation (p = 0.009) for scaption (92.4 ± 26% MVIC) than D1F (74.4 ± 21.4% MVIC). The erector spinae showed greater activation for D2F (34.2 ± 12% MVIC; p < 0.001) and D1F (41.7 ± 21.4% MVIC; p < 0.001) than scaption (14.5 ± 12.3% MVIC). During D2F and scaption, all 6 muscles of the shoulder complex demonstrated very high activation levels (>60% MVIC) with the exception of the lower trapezius (55% MVIC). In contrast, erector spinae and external oblique muscles exhibited moderate activation (21-40% MVIC) during arm elevation. The 6 muscles of the shoulder complex displayed high to very high muscle activation at a level appropriate for strength training during all 3 exercise conditions. PMID:22446675

Youdas, James W; Arend, David B; Exstrom, Jada M; Helmus, Taylor J; Rozeboom, Jessica D; Hollman, John H

2012-04-01

338

Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Abdominal pain is the most common indication for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. Aim To examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and to describe the endoscopic and histological findings in patients undergoing OGD for abdominal pain of unclear aetiology. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study in children under 18 years of age who had OGD for the primary indication of abdominal pain, at Texas Children's Hospital and Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters from 1 January 2002 to 30 June 2005. Results Overall, OGD was diagnostic in 454 (38.1%) of the 1191 procedures, including reflux oesophagitis (23%, n = 271), Helicobacter pylori infections (5%, n = 55), peptic ulcers (3%, n = 32), eosinophilic oesophagitis (2%, n = 25), celiac disease (1%, n = 9) and Crohn's disease (0.5%, n = 7). Male gender, older age, elevated C-reactive protein and vomiting were associated with increased diagnostic yield. Conclusions Our findings suggest that OGD is valuable for the evaluation of chronic abdominal pain in children, with a diagnostic yield of 38%. The majority of alarm symptoms and routine laboratory tests are not significantly associated with diagnostic yield. PMID:19573168

THAKKAR, K.; CHEN, L.; TATEVIAN, N.; SHULMAN, R. J.; MCDUFFIE, A.; TSOU, M.; GILGER, M. A.; EL-SERAG, H. B.

2010-01-01

339

[Hiccup, a diagnostic challenge].  

PubMed

Hiccup is a spasmodic involuntary contraction of the diaphragm which triggers a sudden inspiration and an abrupt closure of the glottis with a characteristic sound. Regarding its duration, it is classified as hiccup attack, persistent hiccup or rebellious or intractable hiccup. We present the case of a 75 old male with rebellious hiccup which prevented him to fall asleep by day or by night, associated with belches lasting for three years, refractory to chlorpromazine. An extensive evaluation led to the diagnosis of right ethmoid sinus tumor. The tumor resection was performed and after subsequent local radiotherapy the hiccup disappeared. We consider this a rare cause of rebellious hiccup that generated a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PMID:24561843

Pankl, Sonia; Quezel, Mariano A; Bruetman, Julio E; Finn, Bárbara C; Young, Pablo

2014-01-01

340

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.

1993-03-01

341

Commerce and genetic diagnostics.  

PubMed

The revolution in molecular biology and molecular genetics has begun to reveal the sequence of events that links genes and disease. As a result of activities such as the Human Genome Project, a parallel revolution in technology is bringing nearer to hand the possibility of readily available genetic diagnostics. Genetic testing services have begun to move out of the academic medical centers and into the private enterprise arena. Under these circumstances it is important to understand the factors affecting the availability and application of this powerful predictive tool in a for-profit mode. How does the marketplace encourage or discourage genetic testing? Will the same market influences that generate pharmaceutical sales be operating to "sell" genetic tests? PMID:11654185

Silverman, Paul H

1995-01-01

342

Alpha-particle diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

Young, K.M.

1991-01-01

343

Rig Diagnostic Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

2008-01-01

344

Balloon gondola diagnostics package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

Cantor, K. M.

1986-01-01

345

Ruminant toxicology diagnostics.  

PubMed

The most common sources of ruminant poisoning are feed and water. Diagnoses are based on history, clinical signs, lesions, laboratory examinations, and analytical chemistry. A complete history is necessary for developing the scheme of laboratory investigation and may be valuable in case of litigation. This article outlines the toxicology involved, as well as the procedures and analytic capability of the tests used for differential diagnosis in these cases. PMID:23101675

Ensley, Steve; Rumbeiha, Wilson

2012-11-01

346

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two diagnostics for the statistical assessment of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. One diagnostic is the posterior probability of the complement of the smallest highest posterior density credible region that includes points in the parameter space consistent with the hypothesis of equilibrium. The null hypothesis of equilibrium is to be rejected if this probability is less than a pre-selected critical level.

André Rogatko; Michael J. Slifker; James S. Babb

2002-01-01

347

Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

Norman, Geoff

2009-01-01

348

Diagnostics for Kenneth M. Young  

E-print Network

and Heating #12;The FIRE Divertor #12;Key Nuclear Radiation Data Radiation dose at inboard magnet Biological 2000 #12;For Diagnostic Components Worst Radiation Problem · Ceramics (and Detectors) Electrical (RIC ­ Design features ­ Nuclear information · FIRE Diagnostics ­ Physics perspective ­ Aspects to be considered

349

CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of Diagnostics Research is to provide tools to simplify diagnosis of the causes of biological impairment, in support of State and Tribe 303(d) impaired waters lists. The Diagnostics Workgroup has developed conceptual models for four major aquatic stressors that cause im...

350

Candle and Incense Policy Procedure ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

Candle and Incense Policy Procedure ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/19/2011 CANDLE AND INCENSE POLICY outdoors on campus or the Salameno Spiritual Center that include the use of flame lighted candles shall be acceptable provided the following precautions are followed: · Only "dripless" candles are used · Drip

Rainforth, Emma C.

351

Search Procedure BOARD OF TRUSTEES PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

, developing a job description and ad copy, and posting the job to ramapojobs.com/hr and other media sources result in selection of the best candidate for the job. These procedures are intended to assist. Please see "Specific Hiring Procedures and Responsibilities" section, item #1 below on the role of Hiring

Rainforth, Emma C.

352

Utility programs for substation diagnostics development  

SciTech Connect

This article is a brief overview of the opening remarks of the utility panel. These remarks developed a number of interesting substation diagnostic activities and concepts in which the electric utilities are engaged and outlined the considerations which must accompany development of diagnostic sensors and systems. These area include transformer diagnostics, circuit breaker diagnostics, and testing/cost of diagnostic systems.

NONE

1996-03-01

353

Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma by optical emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The procedure for diagnostics of laser induced plasma (LIP) by optical emission spectroscopy technique is described. LIP was generated by focusing Nd:YAG laser radiation (1.064 nm, 50 mJ, 15 ns pulse duration) on the surface of pellet containing among other elements lithium. Details of the experimental setup and experimental data processing are presented. High speed plasma photography was used to study plasma evolution and decay. From those images optimum time for plasma diagnostics is located. The electron number density, Ne, is determined by fitting profiles of Li I lines while electron temperature, Te, was determined from relative intensities of Li I lines using Boltzmann plot (BP) technique. All spectral line recordings were tested for the presence of self-absorption and then if optically thin, Abel inverted and used for plasma diagnostic purposes.

Cveji?, M.

2014-12-01

354

Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction  

E-print Network

foundations #12;9 Test your Logic sad(X) if overworked(X), poor(X) overworked(oliver) overworked(alex) overworked(krycia) lecturer(alex) lecturer(krycia) student(oliver) poor(alex) · What does this theory do not know or we doubt that Socrates is human and we observe that he has died (after drinking

Moraitis, Pavlos

355

Medial column procedures in the correction of adult acquired flatfoot deformity.  

PubMed

AAFD is a complex problem with a wide variety of treatment options. No single procedure or group of procedures can be applied to all patients with AAFD because of the variety of underlying etiology and grades of deformity. As the posture of the foot progresses into hindfoot valgus and forefoot abduction through attenuation of the medial structures of the foot, the medial column begins to change shape. The first ray elevates and the joints of the medial column may begin to collapse. Careful physical examination and review of weight-bearing radiographs determines which patients have an associated forefoot varus deformity that may require correction at the time of flatfoot reconstruction. Correction of an AAFD requires a combination of soft-tissue procedures to restore dynamic inversion power and bony procedures to correct the hindfoot and midfoot malalignments. If after these corrections forefoot varus deformity remains, the surgeon should consider use of a medial column procedure to recreate the “triangle of support” of the foot that Cotton described.5 If the elevation of the medial column is identified to be at the first NC or the first TMT joint, then the joint should be carefully examined for evidence of instability, hypermobility, or arthritic change. If none of these problems exist, then the surgeon can consider use of the joint-sparing Cotton medial cuneiform osteotomy to correct residual forefoot varus. However, if instability, hypermobility, or arthritic change is present, then the surgeon should consider use of an arthrodesis of the involved joint to correct residual forefoot varus. Either procedure provides a safe and predictable correction to the medial column as part of a comprehensive surgical correction of AAFD. PMID:22541526

McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E

2012-06-01

356

70 FR 33998 - Electronic Products; Performance Standard for Diagnostic X-Ray Systems and Their Major Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dynamic, real-time images of patient anatomy). X-ray imaging is used in medicine to obtain diagnostic information on patient anatomy and disease processes or to visualize...procedure underway while visualizing the anatomy without continuing to expose...

2005-06-10

357

67 FR 76056 - Electronic Products; Performance Standard for Diagnostic X-Ray Systems and Their Major Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dynamic, real- time images of patient anatomy). X-ray imaging is used in medicine to obtain diagnostic information on patient anatomy and disease processes or to visualize...procedure underway while visualizing the anatomy without continuing to expose the...

2002-12-10

358

The utility of administrative diagnostic x rays. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures is used in response to public or private policy rather than individual patient/physician interaction. Such administrative use of diagnostic procedures illustrates the lack of accepted 'referral criteria.' This document reports results of a descriptive study of policy formulation and implementation regarding use of employment-related chest and lumbar-spine radiographs by employers in the State of Michigan. Major observations of the study are that: factors influencing policy formulation are diverse and largely nonmedical; organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence; and perceptions of policy success and examination utility typically are subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the utility of policy-motivated x rays by modifying the processes of policy formulation and evaluation.

Potchen, E.J.; Gard, J.W.; Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Alexander, G.P.

1982-08-01

359

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2011-10-01

360

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2012-10-01

361

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2014-10-01

362

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2013-10-01

363

42 CFR 415.180 - Teaching setting requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. 415...requirements for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests. (a...for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the...

2010-10-01

364

Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients. PMID:22802820

Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Ku?akowska, Alina; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzy?ska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wies?aw

2011-01-01

365

The tissue diagnostic instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

2009-05-01

366

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

E-print Network

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi^2 merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within n*sigma(c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi^2 merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the n*sigma(c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi^2, Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Y. K. Ng

1998-03-30

367

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

2002-01-01

368

Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation.

B.C. Stratton; D. Johnson; R. Feder; E. Fredrickson; H. Neilson; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorf; M. Cole; P. Goranson; E. Lazarus; B. Nelson

2003-09-16

369

Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

1999-11-01

370

Verification and validation of diagnostic laboratory tests in clinical virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes major issues of verification and validation procedures and describes minimum requirements for verification and validation of diagnostic assays in clinical virology including instructions for CE\\/IVD-labeled as well as for self-developed (“home-brewed”) tests or test systems. It covers techniques useful for detection of virus specific antibodies, for detection of viral antigens, for detection of viral nucleic acids, and

Holger F. Rabenau; Harald H. Kessler; Marhild Kortenbusch; Andreas Steinhorst; Reinhard B. Raggam; Annemarie Berger

2007-01-01

371

[Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].  

PubMed

Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies. PMID:25801947

Wiltfang, J

2015-04-01

372

Cash Handling Policy & Procedures  

E-print Network

Cash Handling Policy & Procedures Revised October 2007 #12;POLICY - CASH COLLECTION AND DEPOSIT 4.....................................................................5 Compliance with University Policy & Procedures................................................................................................5 Control Concepts for Cash Receipts, Revenue and Petty Cash ....................................6

Bogaerts, Steven

373

Implementing MSE 2000: Procedures  

E-print Network

do not spawn lasting procedures, and the advances achieved through crisis management are not sustained without formal procedures and an organizational commitment to continual improvement, efficiency gains made during an energy dilemma are quickly lost...

Brown, M.; Adams, J.

374

Student Policies & Procedures  

E-print Network

Student Policies & Procedures summer.uci.edu #12;STUDENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Rev. 04/2014 1 ................................................................................................................. 5 Financial Aid for UCI Students ...................................................................................... 5 Financial Aid for Visiting UC Students

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

375

Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

2011-11-01

376

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

377

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

378

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

379

Application experience with the diaglog automated diagnostic system  

SciTech Connect

Operating experience over the last year with the DIAGLOG automated diagnostic system has shown that operating events at a 230 KV substation for selected line terminals can be monitored and diagnosed. DIAGLOG is a Diagnostic Logic System which has been applied to substation diagnostics under EPRI Project RP1359-20. Reporting data from an instrumented substation has been used to operate the diagnostic system when a significant event is reported. Lessons learned and the significance of monitor point selection are discussed. The use of maintenance alerts f or indicating when equipment is starting to operate out of specification as well as failure reports to tell when a misoperation has occurred are discussed. when a misoperation is detected, then the diagnostics can be asked to perform a troubleshooting procedure to identify what item has failed to operate correctly. Both primary and secondary relay operations are combined in the model logic, and near and remote events are recognized through monitoring of the carrier set activity.

Andre, B. [ANDTEK Inc. Huntsville, AL (United States); Smith, L. [Alabama Power, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1996-03-01

380

System diagnostic builder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

1992-01-01

381

Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

Katz, Ernest R.

382

Bayesian estimation for performance measures of two diagnostic tests in the presence of verification bias.  

PubMed

Sensitivity and specificity are measures that allow us to evaluate the performance of a diagnostic test. In practice, it is common to have situations where a proportion of selected individuals cannot have the real state of the disease verified, since the verification could be an invasive procedure, as occurs with biopsy. This happens, as a special case, in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, or in any other situation related to risks, that is, not practicable, nor ethical, or in situations with high cost. For this case, it is common to use diagnostic tests based only on the information of verified individuals. This procedure can lead to biased results or workup bias. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian approach to estimate the sensitivity and the specificity for two diagnostic tests considering verified and unverified individuals, a result that generalizes the usual situation based on only one diagnostic test. PMID:20496208

Aragon, Davi Casale; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Achcar, Jorge Alberto

2010-07-01

383

Functional Verification through Operation Diagnostics  

E-print Network

be best compared? Finally, what patterns within a visualization should be sought? This paper descibes a method of building system trend data analysis, known as Operation Diagnostics, that involves the creation of ideal patterns for comparison to actual...

Burgoyne, B.

384

FEL-accelerator related diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

2007-08-02

385

Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.  

PubMed

Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control. PMID:23017295

Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

2013-03-01

386

Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

Salstein, David A.

1997-01-01

387

Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. PMID:21094724

Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

2010-01-01

388

Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

2014-01-01

389

Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

2010-01-01

390

Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

391

Surgical procedures in pinniped and cetacean species.  

PubMed

Significant advances in veterinary diagnostic and surgical techniques have been made over the past several decades. Many of these advances, however, have not reached the field of marine mammal medicine. A number of limitations exist: risks of anesthesia, anatomical challenges, difficulties with wound closure, environmental constraints, equipment limitations, and perceived risks. Despite these limitations, surgical treatments have been successfully utilized in marine mammals. While surgery is performed in pinnipeds more frequently than in cetaceans, studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s on dolphin sleep and hearing demonstrated that general anesthesia can be successfully induced in cetaceans. Since this pioneering work, a small number of successful surgeries have been performed in dolphins under both general anesthesia and heavy sedation. While these surgical procedures in pinnipeds and cetaceans have typically been limited to wound management, dentistry, ophthalmic procedures, fracture repair, and superficial biopsy, a number of abdominal surgeries have also been performed. Recently there have been pioneering successes in the application of minimally invasive surgery in marine mammals. Many of the anatomical challenges that almost prohibit traditional laparotomies in cetacean species and present challenges in pinnipeds can be overcome through the use of laparoscopic techniques. Due to the limited number of pinnipeds and cetaceans in captivity and, thus, the limited case load for veterinarians serving marine mammal species, it is vital for knowledge of surgical procedures to be shared among those in the field. This paper reviews case reports of surgical procedures, both traditional and laparoscopic, in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Limitations to performing surgical procedures in marine mammals are discussed and surgical case reports analyzed in an effort to determine challenges that must be overcome in order to make surgery a more feasible diagnostic and treatment option in the field of marine mammal medicine. PMID:24450040

Higgins, Jennifer L; Hendrickson, Dean A

2013-12-01

392

Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

1981-11-01

393

Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

Goldston, R.J.

1982-12-01

394

[Septic arthritis of the hip in infancy--diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities].  

PubMed

Septic arthritis of the hip in infancy is a serious condition which, if left untreated, results in disastrous sequelae and gross invalidity. Treatment is difficult and requires precise perception of characteristic clinical symptoms and signs, application of appropriate diagnostic procedures (laboratory analyses, ultrasound, radiography, joint aspiration, and occasionally additional methods), as well as parenteral administration of adequate antibiotics and obligatory surgical treatment. Differential-diagnostic spectrum of conditions similar to septic hip arthritis is large and diverse. Successful treatment is based on establishing the diagnosis on time, which is only achievable by methodical application of diagnostic protocol for septic hip arthritis in all suspected cases. PMID:16850583

Vukasinovi?, Zoran; Spasovski, Dusko; Cobelji?, Goran; Zivkovi?, Zorica

2006-01-01

395

Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

1990-01-01

396

Hemisensory syndrome is associated with a low diagnostic yield and a nearly uniform benign prognosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the diagnostic yield and prognosis for patients with hemisensory syndrome. Background: The aetiology, utility of diagnostic procedures, and outcome of hemisensory syndrome in patients with exclusive hemibody complaints having only subjective sensory abnormalities on examination is unknown. Methods: Patients were prospectively identified with hemisensory syndrome in a tertiary care institution from 1998–2002. Diagnostic procedures were analysed for sensitivity and clinical follow up was performed. Results: Thirty four patients, 25 (74%) women, of age 35 (SD 11) years were identified. The hemisensory syndrome occurred on the left side in 23 (68%) cases. Neuroimaging of the brain demonstrated diagnostic abnormalities representing ischaemic aetiology in one case. Other diagnostic testing including cerebrospinal fluid examination, electrophysiological testing, carotid ultrasonography, echocardiography, and blood testing revealed no diagnostic abnormalities. Sixteen patients (47%) continued to complain of hemisensory difficulties after all investigations were completed at 9.6 (5.8) days. One patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus and positive antiphospholipid antibodies had a second event diagnosed as stroke seven months after presentation. Clinical follow up at 16 (7) months revealed persisting symptoms in 6 (20%) of 30 patients. Six (50%) of 12 patients agreeing to psychiatric assessment received diagnoses of personality or mood disorders. Conclusions: Diagnostic yield in hemisensory syndrome is low, and prognosis is almost always uniformly benign. The author advocates careful assessment of medical history and consideration for neuroimaging in this group of patients. PMID:12876246

Toth, C

2003-01-01

397

Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The stochastic engine uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling device to allow an analyst to construct a reasonable estimate of the state of nature that is consistent with observed data and modeling assumptions. The key engine output is a sample from the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability distribution of the state of nature, given the data. In applications the state of nature may refer to a complicated, multi-attributed feature like the lithology map of a volume of earth, or to a particular related parameter of interest, say the centroid of the largest contiguous sub-region of specified lithology type. The posterior distribution, which we will call f, can be thought of as the best stochastic description of the state of nature that incorporates all pertinent physical and theoretical models as well as observed data. Characterization of the posterior distribution is the primary goal in the Bayesian statistical paradigm. In applications of the stochastic engine, however, analytical calculation of the posterior distribution is precluded, and only a sample drawn from the distribution is feasible. The engine's MCMC technique, which employs the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, provides a sample in the form of a sequence (chain) of possible states of nature, x{sup (1)}, x{sup (2)}, ..., x{sup (T)}, .... The sequencing is motivated by consideration of comparative likelihoods of the data. Asymptotic results ensure that the sample ultimately spans the entire posterior distribution and reveals the actual state frequencies that characterize the posterior. In mathematical jargon, the sample is an ergodic Markov chain with stationary distribution f. What this means is that once the chain has gone a sufficient number of steps, T{sub 0}, the (unconditional) distribution of the state, x{sup (T)}, at any step T {ge} T{sub 0} is the same (i.e., is ''stationary''), and is the posterior distribution, f. We call T{sub 0} the ''burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.

Glaser, R

2001-12-11

398

UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA Procedures: ASBESTOS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA PROCEDURE Procedures: ASBESTOS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM PROCEDURE Parent Policy, 2023 Approving Body: President Authority: Responsible Executive Officer: Vice-President (Administration out Procedures secondary to Policy: Health and Safety, in conjunction with the need to manage asbestos

Major, Arkady

399

Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis  

PubMed Central

The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

2014-01-01

400

Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.  

PubMed

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha

2014-08-01

401

Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain  

PubMed Central

Background Despite numerous methodological flaws in previous study designs and the lack of validation in primary care populations, clinical tests for identifying acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain are widely utilised without concern for such issues. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ACJ tests and to compare their accuracy with other clinical examination features for identifying a predominant ACJ pain source in a primary care cohort. Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain were recruited prospectively from primary health care clinics. Following a standardised clinical examination and diagnostic injection into the subacromial bursa, all participants received a fluoroscopically guided diagnostic block of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride (XylocaineTM) into the ACJ. Diagnostic accuracy statistics including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for traditional ACJ tests (Active Compression/O’Brien’s test, cross-body adduction, localised ACJ tenderness and Hawkins-Kennedy test), and for individual and combinations of clinical examination variables that were associated with a positive anaesthetic response (PAR) (P?0.05) defined as 80% or more reduction in post-injection pain intensity during provocative clinical tests. Results Twenty two of 153 participants (14%) reported an 80% PAR. None of the traditional ACJ tests were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and combinations of traditional tests were not able to discriminate between a PAR and a negative anaesthetic response (AUC 0.507; 95% CI: 0.366, 0.647; P>0.05). Five clinical examination variables (repetitive mechanism of pain onset, no referred pain below the elbow, thickened or swollen ACJ, no symptom provocation during passive glenohumeral abduction and external rotation) were associated with an 80% PAR (P<0.05) and demonstrated an ability to accurately discriminate between an PAR and NAR (AUC 0.791; 95% CI 0.702, 0.880; P<0.001). Less than two positive clinical features resulted in 96% sensitivity (95% CI 0.78, 0.99) and a LR- 0.09 (95% CI 0.02, 0.41) and four positive clinical features resulted in 95% specificity (95% CI 0.90, 0.98) and a LR+ of 4.98 (95% CI 1.69, 13.84). Conclusions In this cohort of primary care patients with predominantly subacute or chronic ACJ pain of non-traumatic onset, traditional ACJ tests were of limited diagnostic value. Combinations of other history and physical examination findings were able to more accurately identify injection-confirmed ACJ pain in this cohort. PMID:23634871

2013-01-01

402

Diagnostic imaging in cancer.  

PubMed

Screening chest radiographs do not reduce mortality from lung cancer. Should an incidental noncalcified pulmonary parenchymal nodule be discovered, chest CT will demonstrate one third of such patients to, in fact, have the multiple nodules of metastatic disease. CT is very helpful to guide fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions and to assist in evaluation for resectability. MR can be helpful in special circumstances, including the definition of the extent of paravertebral, superior sulcus, and diaphragmatic lesions. Endorectal ultrasound is not sensitive enough to function as a screening tool for prostate cancer but is used routinely to guide biopsies. CT and MR are rarely helpful in staging this disease. Given the highly characteristic trait of bone metastasis in prostate cancer, a bone scan is mandatory in all patients. Double contrast barium enema can be used as an adjunct or alternative to sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening, in the preoperative evaluation of patients, and in postoperative surveillance. CT and MR can detect macroscopic adenopathy and liver metastases; CT is generally the preferred study. Screening mammography can have a major impact in reducing breast cancer mortality. It is recommended that a baseline study be obtained at age 35. Annual or biannual examinations should commence at age 40. Any palpable lesion, whether or not it is demonstrated mammographically, must be subjected to biopsy. Ultrasound is the most useful initial imaging study for evaluating pelvic masses. MR will, on occasion, identify the origin of a mass not determinable from ultrasound scan. MR is particularly valuable to identify parametrial spread (inoperability) of cervical cancer, and has been underused for this purpose. Surgery remains the mainstay for the staging of ovarian and endometrial cancer, although CT can be helpful to identify macroscopic relapse, ascites, or liver metastases. Bone scan and liver CT remain the standard procedures for detecting metastases in these respective organ systems. MR can be invaluable in the imaging of epidural metastasis and spinal cord compression in patients with vertebral metastatic disease. Contrast-enhanced MR is more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT for detecting brain metastases, but the latter remains a useful tool. Chest CT can improve the detection of pulmonary metastases when this is of crucial importance. PMID:1465483

Berman, C G; Clark, R A

1992-12-01

403

Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

Sadler, G.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

404

Children and adults varicocele: diagnostic issues and therapeutical strategies.  

PubMed

Varicocele is defined as abnormally dilated scrotal veins. It is present in 15 % of normal males and in 40 % of males with infertility. This disorder is a challenge for the physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment, as the pathophysiology of varicocele is not yet completely understood. For this reason, accurate diagnostic criteria and clear indications for treatment in asymptomatic adolescents or adults with clinical or subclinical varicocele are still not defined. Ultrasonography (US) is considered the best method for calculating the volume of the testicles, measuring vein diameter and monitoring the growth of the testis in adolescent patients. Color-Doppler US is the method of choice for detecting spermatic vein reflux and for classifying the grade of varicocele. Various classification systems have been published with recommendations on how to perform US imaging of the scrotum. Currently, color-Doppler US and spectral analysis are the most effective, non-invasive diagnostic procedures as they allow detection of subclinical varicocele associated with infertility. Various techniques are used in the treatment of varicocele including open surgery, laparoscopic procedures and interventional radiology. However, there is no consensus among physicians on which technique is the most effective in terms of outcome and complication rates. This review shows that color-Doppler US is currently the most widely employed diagnostic method for detection and classification of varicocele caused by venous reflux, as it is reliable and easily performed. The review also highlights the role of varicocelectomy in the management of adult male infertility. PMID:25177391

Valentino, Massimo; Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo; Pavlica, Pietro

2014-09-01

405

Analyzing paired diagnostic studies by estimating the expected benefit.  

PubMed

When the efficacy of a new medical drug is compared against that of an established competitor in a randomized controlled trial, the difference in patient-relevant outcomes, such as mortality, is usually measured directly. In diagnostic research, however, the impact of diagnostic procedures is of an indirect nature as test results do influence downstream clinical decisions, but test performance (as characterized by sensitivity, specificity, and the predictive values of a procedure) is, at best, only a surrogate endpoint for patient outcome and does not necessarily translate into it. Not many randomized controlled trials have been conducted so far in diagnostic research, and, hence, we need alternative approaches to close the gap between test characteristics and patient outcomes. Several informal approaches have been suggested in order to close this gap, and decision modeling has been advocated as a means of obtaining formal approaches. Recently, the expected benefit has been proposed as a quantity that allows a simple formal approach, and we take up this suggestion in this paper. We regard the expected benefit as an estimation problem and consider two approaches to statistical inference. Moreover, using data from a previously published study, we illustrate the possible insights to be gained from the application of formal inference techniques to determine the expected benefit. PMID:25810239

Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

2015-05-01

406

First Wall and Operational Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

2006-06-19

407

A new diagnostic device: KINOX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new diagnostic device KINOX created at P N Lebedev Physics Institute is described. With this device it is possible to trace the variations of oxygen permeability in erythrocyte membranes during the blood oxygenation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these variations was explained and experimentally tested at P N Lebedev Physics Institute. The diagnostic method is substantiated capable of estimating physiological reserves of organism basing on the results of blood oxygenation measurements performed with the KINOX. The possible reduction in physiological reserves of organism under the laser action on malignant tumor can be detected in this way.

Zaritsky, A. R.; Zaritskaya, G. A.; Pronin, V. S.; Raspopov, N. A.; Fock, M. V.

2005-08-01

408

Diagnostic guidelines for ruminant toxicoses.  

PubMed

Management of poisoning is best accomplished when an accurate diagnosis is made and enhanced by attention to five major diagnostic criteria: history, clinical signs, clinical laboratory evaluation, lesions, and chemical analysis. Used properly, all of these factors allow for a better understanding of clinical poisoning. Although not all of these are possible for individual incidents, a systematic approach to support these criteria will bring a more useful assessment of risk and an accurate diagnosis. This article covers key principles of diagnostic toxicology and provides specific suggestions for clinical, laboratory, postmortem, and chemical testing to best suggest and confirm a toxicologic diagnosis. PMID:21575768

Osweiler, Gary D

2011-07-01

409

Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device  

DOEpatents

A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

Ellison, Timothy

2005-07-12

410

Enucleation Procedure Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

411

Project 1640 Palomar Procedures  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................... 1 1. Instrument Preparation and Dewar Procedures.................................................................................... 15 1. Instrument Preparation and Dewar Procedures 1.1. Pump down procudure 1) First, hook up P1640 Lesker pressure gauge to the pressure sensor on the dewar (both shown in the photo below), and check

412

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Lisa Backus

2005-10-01

413

General Multistage Gatekeeping Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A general multistage (stepwise) procedure is proposed for dealing with ar- bitrary gatekeeping problems including parallel, serial and tree gatekeeping. The procedure is very simple to implement since it does not require the application of the closed testing principle and the consequent need to test all nonempty intersections of hypotheses. It relies on the use of two new concepts,

Alex Dmitrienko; Ajit C. Tamhane; Brian L. Wiens; Gilead Colorado

2007-01-01

414

Donated Leave ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

absence from work due to the donation of an organ (which shall include, for example, the donation of bone resulting from a serious health condition or injury, or donation of an organ. 2. When the DepartmentDonated Leave 1 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/9/2010 DONATED LEAVE PROGRAM DONATED LEAVE PROCEDURES

Rainforth, Emma C.

415

Procedural Learning and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

2010-01-01

416

Examining the whole bowel, double balloon enteroscopy: Indications, diagnostic yield and complications  

PubMed Central

Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is an advanced type of endoscopic procedure which brings the advantage of reaching the whole small bowel using anterograde or the retrograde route. This procedure is both diagnostic and interventional for a variety of small intestinal diseases, such as vascular lesions, tumors, polyps and involvement of inflammatory bowel diseases. Main indication is the diagnosis and treatment of mid-gastrointestinal bleeding according to the recent published data all over the world. The complication rates seem to be higher than conventional procedures but growing experience is lowering them and improving the procedure to be safe and well tolerated. This review is about the technique, indications, diagnostic importance and complications of DBE according to the literature growing since 2001. PMID:25789095

Saygili, Fatih; Saygili, Saba Mukaddes; Oztas, Erkin

2015-01-01

417

Examining the whole bowel, double balloon enteroscopy: Indications, diagnostic yield and complications.  

PubMed

Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is an advanced type of endoscopic procedure which brings the advantage of reaching the whole small bowel using anterograde or the retrograde route. This procedure is both diagnostic and interventional for a variety of small intestinal diseases, such as vascular lesions, tumors, polyps and involvement of inflammatory bowel diseases. Main indication is the diagnosis and treatment of mid-gastrointestinal bleeding according to the recent published data all over the world. The complication rates seem to be higher than conventional procedures but growing experience is lowering them and improving the procedure to be safe and well tolerated. This review is about the technique, indications, diagnostic importance and complications of DBE according to the literature growing since 2001. PMID:25789095

Saygili, Fatih; Saygili, Saba Mukaddes; Oztas, Erkin

2015-03-16

418

The Buffer Diagnostic Prototype: A fault isolation application using CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes problem domain characteristics and development experiences from using CLIPS 6.0 in a proof-of-concept troubleshooting application called the Buffer Diagnostic Prototype. The problem domain is a large digital communications subsystems called the real-time network (RTN), which was designed to upgrade the launch processing system used for shuttle support at KSC. The RTN enables up to 255 computers to share 50,000 data points with millisecond response times. The RTN's extensive built-in test capability but lack of any automatic fault isolation capability presents a unique opportunity for a diagnostic expert system application. The Buffer Diagnostic Prototype addresses RTN diagnosis with a multiple strategy approach. A novel technique called 'faulty causality' employs inexact qualitative models to process test results. Experimental knowledge provides a capability to recognize symptom-fault associations. The implementation utilizes rule-based and procedural programming techniques, including a goal-directed control structure and simple text-based generic user interface that may be reusable for other rapid prototyping applications. Although limited in scope, this project demonstrates a diagnostic approach that may be adapted to troubleshoot a broad range of equipment.

Porter, Ken

1994-01-01

419

Imported mycoses: some diagnostic problems.  

PubMed Central

Infections by actinomycetes or by true fungi may cause diagnostic difficulties in countries where they are not familiar. Illustrative cases from a series of 353 instances are given together with rare indigenous examples of the same infections. Early, accurate diagnosis is essential for rational and effective treatment. Images Fig. 1 PMID:523347

Symmers, W. S.

1979-01-01

420

Checklists to reduce diagnostic errors.  

PubMed

Diagnostic errors are common and can often be traced to physicians' cognitive biases and failed heuristics (mental shortcuts). A great deal is known about how these faulty thinking processes lead to error, but little is known about how to prevent them. Faulty thinking plagues other high-risk, high-reliability professions, such as airline pilots and nuclear plant operators, but these professions have reduced errors by using checklists. Recently, checklists have gained acceptance in medical settings, such as operating rooms and intensive care units. This article extends the checklist concept to diagnosis and describes three types of checklists: (1) a general checklist that prompts physicians to optimize their cognitive approach, (2) a differential diagnosis checklist to help physicians avoid the most common cause of diagnostic error--failure to consider the correct diagnosis as a possibility, and (3) a checklist of common pitfalls and cognitive forcing functions to improve evaluation of selected diseases. These checklists were developed informally and have not been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The purpose of this article is to argue for the further investigation and revision of these initial attempts to apply checklists to the diagnostic process. The basic idea behind checklists is to provide an alternative to reliance on intuition and memory in clinical problem solving. This kind of solution is demanded by the complexity of diagnostic reasoning, which often involves sense-making under conditions of great uncertainty and limited time. PMID:21248608

Ely, John W; Graber, Mark L; Croskerry, Pat

2011-03-01

421

Compressor diagnostics software being developed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a PC-compatible computer program that identifies and quantifies malfunctions in reciprocating compressor performance and is undergoing initial field tests. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, is developing the compressor diagnostics software in a program jointly sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Southern Gas Association's Pipeline and Compressor Research Council, according to GRI.

Not Available

1992-09-28

422

Diagnostic Prescriptive Reading System (DPRS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this diagnostic-prescriptive reading system (DPRS), proposed by Palm Beach County and the Florida Atlantic University and sponsored by the Florida Department of Education, was to provide classroom teachers with resources which would enable them to more effectively meet the individual reading needs of their students. This report…

Kuchinskas, Gloria

423

When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

2013-01-01

424

Mesothelioma – Update on Diagnostic Strategies  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can be a challenging diagnosis for clinicians to make as it is often difficult to distinguish from benign asbestos pleural effusions and metastatic carcinomas. In this review, we present a case of MPM and discuss clinical manifestations, traditional diagnostic techniques, and the role of cytopathologic immunostains and serum biomarkers in the diagnosis of MPM. PMID:23293508

Rosario, Carmen M.; Lin, Xiaoqi; Kamp, David W.

2012-01-01

425

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-10-01

426

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-01-01

427

Coherent scatter in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent scatter is often ignored in diagnostic radiology because its cross section is relatively small, and because it is assumed to be indistinguishable from primary radiation. Single-scatter calculations, however, show that coherently scattered photons diverge sufficiently from the primary ray to degrade image contrast, and that they account for a significant fraction of the total scattered energy fluence at the

P. C. Johns; M. J. Yaffe

1983-01-01

428

Nanotechnology in clinical laboratory diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology–the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer–has been applied to molecular diagnostics. This article reviews nanobiotechnologies that are clinically relevant and have the potential to be incorporated in clinical laboratory diagnosis. Nanotechnologies enable the diagnosis at single cell and molecule level and some of these can be incorporated in the

Kewal K. Jain

2005-01-01

429

MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

1998-04-01

430

Diagnostics in the Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extendable Integrated Support Environment (EISE) is a real-time computer network consisting of commercially available hardware and software components to support systems level integration, modifications, and enhancement to weapons systems. The EISE approach offers substantial potential savings by eliminating unique support environments in favor of sharing common modules for the support of operational weapon systems. An expert system is being developed that will help support diagnosing faults in this network. This is a multi-level, multi-expert diagnostic system that uses experiential knowledge relating symptoms to faults and also reasons from structural and functional models of the underlying physical model when experiential reasoning is inadequate. The individual expert systems are orchestrated by a supervisory reasoning controller, a meta-level reasoner which plans the sequence of reasoning steps to solve the given specific problem. The overall system, termed the Diagnostic Executive, accesses systems level performance checks and error reports, and issues remote test procedures to formulate and confirm fault hypotheses.

Brink, James R.; Storey, Paul

1988-01-01

431

The role of flow cytometry in companion animal diagnostic medicine.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for characterising the composition of complex cell populations. The accuracy and precision of this technology for describing and enumerating cells exceeds traditional methods. The number of diagnostic veterinary laboratories with access to a dedicated machine is increasing, and there is the potential to offer a clinical flow cytometry service. The improved availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cell markers expressed by the leukocytes of companion animals, permits the implementation of comprehensive mAb panels suitable for diagnosis of lympho- and myeloproliferative disease. Reticulated erythrocyte and platelet quantification, antiglobulin assays for immune-mediated cytopenias, lymphocyte subset analysis, and immunophenotyping of lymphoma and leukemia, have been validated for companion animal samples on the flow cytometer. It is now timely to consider the role of flow cytometry in diagnostic practice, and the requirement for quality assurance and standardization of testing procedures. PMID:16266842

Tarrant, Jacqueline M

2005-11-01

432

Salivary Biomarkers: Toward Future Clinical and Diagnostic Utilities  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Schafer, Christopher A.; Schafer, Jason J.; Farrell, James J.; Paster, Bruce J.

2013-01-01

433

Minimally invasive procedures.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small "ports" from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry-meaning only one small incision, like the "uniport" video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional "open" surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

2015-03-01

434

Minimally invasive procedures  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery.

Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2015-01-01

435

R&D ERL: Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

Gassner, D.

2010-01-01

436

42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921 Public...Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer...

2014-10-01

437

42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921 Public...Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer...

2012-10-01

438

42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921 Public...Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer...

2013-10-01

439

42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921 Public...Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer...

2011-10-01

440

21 CFR 890.1375 - Diagnostic electromyograph.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1375 Diagnostic electromyograph. (a)...

2010-04-01

441

Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

442

Levitsky ankle stabilization procedure.  

PubMed

The article discusses surgical reconstruction of torn or partially torn and refibrosed lateral ankle collateral ligaments. The anatomy and historical literature are reviewed. The authors present the Levitsky ankle stabilization procedure. PMID:2625511

Ting, G; Levitsky, D R

1989-01-01

443

Vascular Access Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... period of weeks, months or even years. A simple intravenous (IV) line is effective for short-term ... blood transfusions. patients who have difficulty receiving a simple IV line. Vascular access procedures are also commonly ...

444

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

445

BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ BOMB THREAT CALL PROCEDURES BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Date: Time: Time Caller Phone Number Where Hung Up: Call Received:Most bomb threats are received by phone. Bomb threats are serious until proven otherwise. Act

Guo, Ting

446

RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

447

A LARGE-SCALE DIAGNOSTIC SERVICE FOR RATOON STUNTING DISEASE OF SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experiment Station has provided a diagnostic service for ratoon stunting disease (RSD), based on microscopic ob- servation of the causal bacterium, since 1977. The service is widely used by growers to determine the extent of RSD in commercial cane fields and sources of seedcane, and it is also frequently used by Extension staff for survey purposes. The procedures used

R. A. BAILEY; P. H. FOX

448

Diagnostic Tests and Criterion-Referenced Assessments: Their Contribution to the Resolution of Pupil Learning Difficulties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that failure to learn is often the result of inappropriateness of level of instruction and deficiencies in instructional procedures and educational strategies, and differentiates between the functions of criterion referenced tests and diagnostic tests. Results are reported from two studies of the teaching of osmosis and photosynthesis.…

Simpson, Mary; Arnold, Brian

1983-01-01

449

Development of a pre-alarm diagnostic system for a diesel emission analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous emission measurements of a diesel engine including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxide of nitrogen (NOx) are made in accordance with the procedures specified in the Federal Register. However, it is very difficult to maintain constantly the accuracy of these emission measurements due to failure of the emission analyzer. The authors have thus developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System

J. Ichikawa; T. Suzuki; T. Kugo

1989-01-01

450

FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS RECEIVING DIAGNOSTIC DOSES OF 131 IODINE DURING CHILDHOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the data collection methodology and procedures of a follow-up survey conducted of persons under 16 years old who received diagnostic Iodine 131 for evaluation of thyroid function at nine clinical centers prior to December 31, 1960. The intent of this data col...

451

Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of pregnancy in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) often employs specialized equipment, experienced staff, and the cooperation of the bitch. These procedures can be challenging when the subject is a wild canid, particularly in a field setting. In addition, reproductive hormone assays are unreliable as a diagnostic tool because the estrous profiles of pregnant and pseudopregnant canines are

Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese

2007-01-01

452

Crossing the Great Divide: Adoption of New Technologies, Therapeutics and Diagnostics at Academic Medical Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of new technology in healthcare continues to expand from both the clinical and financial perspectives. Despite the importance of innovation, most academic medical centers do not have a clearly defined process for technology assessment. Recognizing the importance of new drugs, diagnostics and procedures in the care of patients and in the…

DeMonaco, Harold J.; Koski, Greg

2007-01-01

453

Safety referral procedures clarified.  

PubMed

Two types of referrals are available for the purpose of harmonising pharmacovigilance decisions across the EU: the urgent procedure and the "normal" procedure. In both cases, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) issues a recommendation that the marketing authorisation committees concerned must take into account when formulating their opinions. If Member States disagree in their decisions, a final referral is available, although it lacks transparency. The European Commission's final decision is binding on all Member States. PMID:25629154

2014-12-01

454

Validating Student Score Inferences with Person-Fit Statistic and Verbal Reports: A Person-Fit Study for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to investigate the usefulness of person-fit analysis in validating student score inferences in a cognitive diagnostic assessment. In this study, a two-stage procedure was used to evaluate person fit for a diagnostic test in the domain of statistical hypothesis testing. In the first stage, the person-fit statistic, the…

Cui, Ying; Roberts, Mary Roduta

2013-01-01

455

Development of an otolaryngological interferometric fiber optic diagnostic probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current medical instrumentation research at InterScience, Inc. is aimed at utilizing state of the art electro-optics in the development of a diagnostic fiber optic instrument capable of quantifying vibration patterns in real time. This work is in collaboration with the Division of Otolaryngology of the Albany Medical College. The innovative diagnostic probe system design involves the miniaturization of an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) system through the use of fiber optic elements coupled with high speed image acquisition from a solid state matrix detector. Subsequent frame by frame processing produces a high quality three-dimensional spatial representation of the vibrational pattern. The diagnostic probe system is being developed for quantitative tympanic membrane and vocal cord vibration analysis. The significance of the introduction of this instrument to the medical community is the contribution it could make in the efficiency and effectiveness of the diagnosis of otolaryngological disorders. Specific applications include the evaluation of tympanosclerosis, stiffness related middle ear disorders, ossicular chain abnormalities, tympanic membrane replacement, vocal dysphonias, and early detection of laryngeal carcinomas, cysts, and phenomenological properties of mucosal wave dynamics. The current instrumentation research is focused on the production of a prototype system for clinical trials. This research is based in ESPI optical system development and miniaturization, system hardware and software development, and clinical design of the probe heads within anatomical limitations. Significant advantages of this diagnostic tool over currently used instrumentation and procedures are the real time capabilities of the instrument, the ability to quantify the vibrational pattern in time and space, and the possibility of establishing a database of patient history and disorder characteristics. Once fully developed and integrated into the clinical environment, this system will have a profound effect on the diagnostic capabilities of the otolaryngologist and other clinicians and researchers of communication sciences and disorders.

Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Saravia, Eduardo; Parnes, Steven M.; Cacace, Anthony T.

1992-08-01

456

Gold-wire artifacts on diagnostic radiographs: A case report  

PubMed Central

This report described a case in which diagnostic radiographs showed irregular dense radiopaque strings and curved lines in the head and neck area. These artifacts could lead to misinterpretation since they may obscure anatomical structures and/or mask critical structures/pathologies. A more detailed history of the patient indicated that these strings originated from a facelift procedure in which a gold-wire technique was used. Considering that such intervention may cause a radiodiagnostic burden, it should be included in the anamnesis prior to radiography. PMID:24701463

Keestra, Johan Anton Jochum; Jacobs, Reinhilde

2014-01-01

457

Diagnostic Testing for Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic of degenerative disc disease should be reached with the help of various diagnostic studies. This article briefly review the information gained by the following tests: radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and discography. The article explains how each modality provides a piece of the diagnostic puzzle and how discography confirms the origin of the patient's pain. PMID:22844603

Hasz, Michael W.

2012-01-01

458

DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

Tira, Daniel E.

459

Diagnostics for plasma processing-an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The use of plasmas in the production of integrated circuits has lead to the development of a variety of diagnostic tools. The goal of plasma diagnostics in this application is twofold. The diagnostic tools are used to aid in the understanding of plasma physics and chemistry, so that processes and hardware may be optimized.

J. Forster

1999-01-01

460

Proceedings: Tenth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference  

SciTech Connect

Advanced monitoring and diagnostic sensors and systems are needed to provide reliable and accurate information for determining the condition of major transmission substation equipment. The tenth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference highlighted the work of researchers, universities, manufacturers, and utilities in producing advanced monitoring and diagnostic equipment for substations.

None

2002-06-01

461

Proceedings: Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference IX  

SciTech Connect

Advanced monitoring and diagnostic sensors and systems are needed to provide reliable and accurate information for determining the condition of major transmission substation equipment. The ninth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference highlighted the work of researchers, universities, manufacturers, and utilities in producing advanced monitoring and diagnostic equipment for substations.

None

2001-09-01

462

Proceedings: Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference VIII  

SciTech Connect

Advanced monitoring and diagnostic sensors and systems are needed to provide reliable and accurate information for determining the condition of major transmission substation equipment. The eighth EPRI Substation Equipment Diagnostics Conference highlighted the work of researchers, universities, manufacturers, and utilities in producing advanced monitoring and diagnostic equipment for substations.

None

2000-06-01

463

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

464

Preliminary report on aerotoxic syndrome (AS) and the need for diagnostic neurophysiological tests.  

PubMed

Researchers have found, in studies carried out over several years, that many passengers and crew, following their recent flights in commercial jet aeroplanes, have become unwell, with a range of symptoms in common. This condition, which has not yet been officially recognised, is called Aerotoxic Syndrome (AS). It seems to be caused, primarily, by neurotoxic organophosphates contaminating the air circulating in jet cabins. Patients with such symptoms may visit their GPs, who then arrange diagnostic tests. Some of their symptoms fall within the jurisdiction of diagnostic neurophysiological investigations, but neurophysiology practitioners may be unaware of this syndrome. Until AS is officially recognised as an illness, and guidelines for diagnostic procedures established, patients requiring specific investigations may not be appropriately referred, or tests may be performed unnecessarily. This report seeks to stimulate debate within the field, and facilitate studies, if needed, to help define the diagnostic criteria. PMID:19891417

Hale, Margaret A; Al-Seffar, Judith A

2009-09-01

465

Spectroscopic problems in ITER diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of spectroscopic diagnostics of ITER plasma are under consideration. Three types of diagnostics are presented: 1) Balmer lines spectroscopy in the edge and divertor plasmas; 2) Thomson scattering, 3) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The Zeeman-Stark structure of line shapes is discussed. The overlapping of isotopes H-D-T spectral line shapes are presented for the SOL and divertor conditions. The polarization measurements of H-alpha spectral lines for H-D mixture on T-10 tokamak are shown in order to separate Zeeman splitting in more details. The problem of plasma background radiation emission for Thomson scattering in ITER is discussed in details. The line shape of P-7 hydrogen spectral line having a wave length close to laser one is presented together with continuum radiation. The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) is discussed in details. The data on D?, HeII and CVI measurements in CXRS experiments on T-10 tokamak are presented.

Lisitsa, V. S.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Krupin, V. A.; Levashova, M. G.; Medvedev, A. A.; Mukhin, E. E.; Shurygin, V. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Vukolov, K. Yu

2012-12-01

466

Novette diagnostic support. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

1985-02-01

467

[Modern diagnostic imaging: MR urography].  

PubMed

MR-urography presents a new diagnostic approach to the urinary system, resulting in images comparable to those known from i.v.-urography. T2-weighted MR-urograms demonstrate static fluid without ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast media. The excretory renal function can be examined by the use of gadolinium-enhanced T1-urography. The degree and cause of ureteric obstruction can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, urolithiasis is frequently misdiagnosed by MR-urography and, in this case, spiral CT should be used. Pediatric or pregnant patients can be examined as well as donors before and patients after renal transplantation. Furthermore, in case of a tumor MR-imaging, including MR-angiography, is a potential diagnostic "all-in-one" approach. PMID:12524940

Cohnen, M; Jung, G; Fritz, B; Saleh, A; Fürst, G; Mödder, U

2002-11-01

468

Molecular Diagnostic Tests for Microsporidia  

PubMed Central

The Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites which were recognized over 100 years ago with the description of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of silkworms. It is now appreciated that these organisms are related to the Fungi. Microsporidia infect all major animal groups most often as gastrointestinal pathogens; however they have been reported from every tissue and organ, and their spores are common in environmental sources such as ditch water. Several different genera of these organisms infect humans, but the majority of infections are due to either Enterocytozoon bieneusi or Encephalitozoon species. These pathogens can be difficult to diagnose, but significant progress has been made in the last decade in the development of molecular diagnostic reagents for these organisms. This report reviews the molecular diagnostic tests that have been described for the identification of the microsporidia that infect humans. PMID:19657457

Ghosh, Kaya; Weiss, Louis M.

2009-01-01

469

Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

2007-07-26

470

Diagnostics in inflammatory bowel disease: Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging data. Imaging of the morphological characteristics of IBD includes the assessment of mucosal alterations, transmural involvement and extraintestinal manifestations. No single imaging technique serves as a diagnostic gold standard to encompass all disease manifestations. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow cross-sectional imaging of the transmural alterations and extraintestinal manifestations. While in the USA the technique of choice is CT, in Europe the focus is more on MRI and ultrasound (US). Most patients with chronic IBD are diagnosed at a young age. After baseline diagnosis many of these young patients have to undergo repetitive imaging procedures during the variable clinical course of the disease, characterized by alternate periods of remission and active disease, and in monitoring the response to treatment. US has the advantage of being noninvasive, less costly, and easily repeatable, and thus can be very useful in following up patients with IBD. In addition, rising concern about radiation exposure in young adults indicates the demand for radiation-sparing techniques like US and MRI. This article focuses on the current clinical practice of US in IBD, describing the current technologies used in transabdominal intestinal US and the characteristic sonographic findings in Crohn´s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:21912467

Strobel, Deike; Goertz, Ruediger S; Bernatik, Thomas

2011-01-01

471

Diagnostic bronchoscopy--current and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Standard bronchoscopy has limited ability to accurately localise and biopsy pulmonary lesions that cannot be directly visualised. The field of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is rapidly evolving due to advances in electronics and miniaturisation. Bronchoscopes with smaller outer working diameters, coupled with miniature radial and convex ultrasound probes, allow accurate central and peripheral pulmonary lesion localisation and biopsy while at the same time avoiding vascular structures. Increases in computational processing power allow three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic raw data to enable virtual bronchoscopy (VB), providing the bronchoscopist with a preview of the bronchoscopy prior to the procedure. Navigational bronchoscopy enables targeting of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) via a “roadmap”, similar to in-car global positioning systems. Analysis of lesions on a cellular level is now possible with techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy (CM). All these tools will hopefully allow earlier and safer lung cancer diagnosis and in turn better patient outcomes. This article describes these new bronchoscopic techniques and reviews the relevant literature. PMID:24163743

Shaipanich, Tawimas; Lam, Stephen; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

472

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

473