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Microsoft Academic Search

Need for quality control of stingless bee honeys. Stingless bee honeys are produced by bees of the subfamily Meliponini. There are few studies on their composition and no country has suggested standards for their quality control. This work shows the need of Meliponini honey samples collection, with the purpose to determine their entomological and botanical origin, physico-chemical composition and sensorial

Patricia Vit; Eunice Enriquez; Monika O Barth; Adriana H Matsuda


Certificación del Origen Botánico de Miel y Polen Corbicular Pertenecientes a la Comuna de Litueche, VI Región de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

R. Ramírez and G. Montenegro. Certification of the botanical origin of honey and corbicular pollen from VI Region of Chile (Litueche). The objective of this study was to certify and register the botanical origin of honey and corbicular pollen from beehives located at the community of Litueche. For this purpose, a survey of vegetation was conducted within a radio of

R. Ramírez; G. Montenegro


ANALYSE POLLINIQUE DES MIELS DU QUBEC Pollenanalyse von Honigen aus Quebec  

E-print Network

'apiculture. Quatre formes de pollens se sont montrées d'importance majeure dans les miels : Trifolium hybridum forms of pollens were shown to be of major importance in the composition of the honeys : Trifolium hybridum, Solidago spp., fruit trees and Salix spp. Geographic indicators were found. The main ones

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Da 17/01/2014 -11.49h Identifican las sustancias qumicas que las reinas de especies como hormigas, abejas y  

E-print Network

como las abejas, avispas, abejorros y algunas hormigas utilizan la La reina del sexo: por qué solo una puede reproducirse - 1 of 3 dificultades que encontró Darwin", La reina del sexo: por qu

Wenseleers, Tom


Characterization of Spanish honeys with protected designation of origin "Miel de Granada" according to their mineral content.  


Honey attributes such as geographical origin or specified botanical sources often command a premium price due to their organoleptic or pharmacoactive properties. "Miel de Granada" is a highly quality product with protected designation of origin (PDO) which includes six monofloral honeys and two multifloral honeys. Our objective was the characterization of "Miel de Granada" according to their metal content. Metal content was specific enough and allowed discrimination from honeys of different botanical and geographical origins and confirmed the authenticity of PDO labelling as Granada product with the determination of only five elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Zn). Chemometric techniques as cluster analysis and ANOVA were used to classify honeys according to their botanical and geographical origin in the metal data. Metal content marks the differences in honey samples and can be used as a tool to assess the quality of honeys. ANOVA showed significant differences among rosemary honeys from different geographical areas despite the botanical factor weight. Our research contributes to the groundwork studies to determine the geographical origin of Spanish honeys. PMID:22953923

de Alda-Garcilope, C; Gallego-Picó, A; Bravo-Yagüe, J C; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P



Rapid and green analytical method for the determination of quinoline alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) prior to high performance liquid chromatography.  


Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. PMID:22174637

Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Elomri, Abdelhakim; Blanckaert, Axelle; Seguin, Elisabeth; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Chemat, Farid



Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. PMID:22174637

Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Elomri, Abdelhakim; Blanckaert, Axelle; Seguin, Elisabeth; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Chemat, Farid



Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.  


We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models. PMID:19031156

Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel



Jenseits des brain drain: zur Mobilität westlicher Fach- und Führungskräfte nach Polen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Etiketten brain drain bzw. Mobilität von Hochqualifizierten markieren scheinbar ähnliche Prozesse: thematisiert wird die internationale Wanderung von Arbeitskräften im primären Segment des Arbeitsmarktes. Gemeinsam ist auch, daß die Debatten über diesen Migrationstypus jeweils im Kontext von Restrukturierungsbzw. Transformationsprozessen stehen. Im Falle des brain drain der 60er und 70er Jahre richtete sich das Augenmerk auf die Wanderung von Akademikern aus

Felicitas Hillmann; Hedwig Rudolph



The MIEL system: Uniform interrogation of structured and weakly-structured imprecise data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an information system developed to help assessing the microbiological risk in food. That information system contains\\u000a experimental results in microbiology, mainly extracted from scientific publications. The increasing amount of the experimental\\u000a results available and the difficulty to integrate them into a classic relational database schema led us to design a system\\u000a composed of two distinct subsystems queried through

Ollivier Haemmerlé; Patrice Buche; Rallou Thomopoulos



Article de recherche Analyse pollinique des miels de l'Ontario, Canada  

E-print Network

are characteristic of this region : Lotus, Trifolium hybridum / T. repens, Melilotus, Salix, Trifolium pratense comiculé), Trifolium hybridum l T. repens (trèfle hybride / trèfle blanc), Melilotus (mélilot), Salix (saule), Tüfolium pratense (trèfle rouge) et le type Solidago (verge d'or et aster) présents dans plus de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Determinación de plomo en polen apícola de Brassica napus L. del Páramo de Misintá, estado Mérida, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee pollen is the second product of the comb most consu- med, after honey; however, there are no regulations for its quality control in Venezuela. The oligoelements of pollen have been studied for their nutritional, medicinal or toxic functions, and also, as indicators of environmental pollution by the analysis of heavy metals. In this work, the concen- tration of Pb

Agni R Saavedra; María L Di Bernardo; Carlos Rondón; Luis Gutiérrez; Oswaldo Saavedra; Isbelia González; Patricia Vit


76 FR 17637 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Miele...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Office of Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Office of Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and Renewable...



76 FR 64335 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Miele, Inc. From the Department of Energy Residential Dishwasher...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Office of Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. August 4...Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Maile Station EE-10 1000...



76 FR 80920 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Miele, Inc. From the U.S. Department of Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of the decision...voltage into account when measuring energy and water consumption. DATES: This Decision...Raymond, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies...



Article original Les sources de pollen et de nectar  

E-print Network

méthode de tri des pelotes. Les meilleures sources de pollen sont Trifolium hybridum/T repens, Cornus les miels unifloraux de Trifolium hybridum/T repens. Les miels annuels reflètent l'importance de ces 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

to pncrutionof brs1c twu-input and Eatatrs in CPL, DPL andDVL, but it is gcnerni and can-Transislor Logic (DPL) To avoid probleins of reduced noise margins in CPL, twin PMOS transislor branches are added at reduced supply voltage. C.Dual Vdue Logic (DVL) The main drawbuck ciC DPL is its redundancy, i.e. iiioie

Oklobdzija, Vojin G.



Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican honey industry is composed by around of 40,000 honey producers with 2 million of beehives. It has been the result that Mexico is the fourth producer and exporter in the world. In the year 2004, Delicias had 14,115 beehives which produced 443.3 tons of honey with a value of 14.8 millions of Mexican pesos. The honey producers have

Manuel Soto Zapata; Eduardo Magana Magana; Christian Mauricio Kiessling Davison; Lorena Patricia Licon Trillo; Javier Hernandez Salas; Victor Hugo Villarreal Ramirez



Las abejas obreras europeas, las hormigas, los abejorros y las termitas comparten su comida con sus compaeros de nido, y en forma colectiva cran a los jvenes de sus  

E-print Network

nuevo estudio. El resultado pinta un cuadro más complejo y algo más oscuro sobre la conducta de los obreras se comen entre sí sus huevecillos. Desde entonces, los científicos han observado esta conducta

Wenseleers, Tom


Section 3: The Person.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Teaching as the Art of Living" (Bauer, Vannici); "My Metaphoric Journey" (Berman); "Sailing: Educating and Celebrating Self" (Hunkins); "The Primacy of Voice: Reflections of a Teacher" (Roderick); and "Roaming through a Life-Space" (Miel). (SK)

Bauer, David H.



Studienstadt Studieren  

E-print Network

vorbehalten. Archiv 16, 17, 19, 41, 145 Alex Keller 18 AuÃ?enministerium der Republik Polen 176 Bonn Region 54, 157, 184, 209, 220 Eric Lichtenscheidt 96, 212 Lisa Luenenborg 177 Frank Luerweg 27, 46, 64, 112, 113

Buse, Karsten


REVIEW ARTICLE Standard methods for pollination research with Apis  

E-print Network

la realización de experimentos de campo con abejas melíferas en el contexto de la polinización continúa con los métodos para la determinación de las densidades óptimas de colonias en campo. Se incluyen

Delaplane, Keith S.


Suffering for justice in Chiapas: Religion and the globalization of ethnic identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined here is the way in which the indigenous uprising in Chiapas has been able to mobilize international support by employing globally shared discourses to articulate collective identities and political demands. The focus is on the group of liberation theology Roman Catholics in San Pedro Chenalhó and their political association Las Abejas, today one of the most potent symbols of

Heidi Moksnes



7:30-8:30 Check-in DW 103 DW 108 Teaching lab T103/104 Pavillion Hives  

E-print Network

:30-9:20 Beekeeping for Beginners (M. Dykes) Biología de la Abeja Melífera (C. Silveira) Honey Bee Anatomy (A Honey Flow (C. Silveira) Beekeeping Equipment (M. Dykes) Revisando Una Colmena (R. Blanco) 11:40-1230 12:40-1:50 2:00-3:15 Beekeeping as a Business in Florida (D. Hall) Pheremones of the Hive (D. Schmehl) Candle

Florida, University of


Dissociating Neural Correlates of Action Monitoring and Metacognition of Agency  

E-print Network

Dissociating Neural Correlates of Action Monitoring and Metacognition of Agency David B. Miele1 , Tor D. Wager2 , Jason P. Mitchell3 , and Janet Metcalfe1 Abstract Judgments of agency refer of divergence) between observed states and expected states. Presumably, people form judgments of agency

Mitchell, Jason


Hiatus Resolution in Spanish: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Spanish, adjacent vowels across and within word boundaries are either in hiatus or form a diphthong. Generally, when either of the unstressed high vowels /i/ and /u/ appears next to any of the other vowels /e/, /a/, or /o/ the result is a diphthong (i.e., "puerta" "door" less than [pwer.ta], "miel" "honey" less than [mjel], and so on). All…

Souza, Benjamin J.



4. Eine Variation der Pollenform von Tri-folium hybridum L. K. Ruoffa, H. HornbK. Ruoff H. Hornb  

E-print Network

nachgewiesen werden. An exceptional pollen form of Trifolium hybridum L. Over the last few years, a previously with pollen grains of the tetraploid alsike clover cultivar Trifolium hybridum L. 'Frida'. The exact de Trifolium hybridum L. Ces dernières années, on a mis en évi- dence dans le miel finlandais une

Boyer, Edmond



E-print Network

DIE REPR�SENTIERUNG DES CITRUS-POLLENS IN ITALIENISCHEN ORANGENHONIGEN L'abondance relative du pollen de Citrus dans les miels d'oranger italiens G. VORWOHL Universität Hohenheim (LH) Landesanstalt für Bienenkunde SUMMARY THE REPRESENTATION OF CITRUS POLLEN IN ITALIAN ORANGE HONEYS By means of 61

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Methods & Strategies: Collaborating for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As coordinator of childhood science education at Brooklyn College, Eleanor Miele found an able partner in the school's assistant principal for instruction in a school where the PTA science committee wanted to improve science teaching at their school. They began by asking themselves how they could jump-start a change in science teaching…

Miele, Eleanor; Bennett, Stephanie



National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Math  

E-print Network

Crater on Mars 3-5 8 Exploring Gale Crater with the Curiosity Rover 6-8 9 Exploring the North PoleNational Aeronautics and Space Administration MarsMath #12;Space Math http-Composite image of Mars obtained by NASA orbiting spacecraft: Mars Observer; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Top

Christian, Eric


Received: 2006-06-30/2006-09-21 Accepted: 2006-10-19 GOODELLK [Dept Evol Ecol Org Biol, Ohio State Univ, Newark, OH 43023, USA] & THOMSONJ D  

E-print Network

Brassica rapa (Brassi- caceae) and the Muskmelon Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae). - Entomol Gener 29(2/4): 237, ON MS53G5, Canada]: La Movilizaci6n de polen de una mostaza, Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae),y melbn species. A mellifera removed significantly more pollen from B rapa flowers than B impatiens, largely

Thomson, James D.


HUMBOLDTD i e Z e i t u n g d e r A l m a M a t e r B e r o l i n e n s i s Berliner Rede an der Humboldt-Universitt  

E-print Network

HUMBOLDTD i e Z e i t u n g d e r A l m a M a t e r B e r o l i n e n s i s Berliner Rede an der Humboldt-Universität Am 17. Juni 2011 fand im Audimax die diesjährige Berliner Rede des Bundespräsidenten auf größere, internationale Zusammenhänge richtet. Komorowski widmete seine Rede 2011 dem Thema Polen

Röder, Beate


A study of physical and chemical fruit qualities of O?p?u?n?t?i?a? s?p?p?.?  

E-print Network

America and the United States that are not limited to this social class (Curtis, 1975) . The "tuna" , as the fruit of the plant is commonly called in Latin America, is consumed raw and processed into jellies, pastes and jams. Examples of processed tuna... products from Mexico are: "miel de tuna" (tuna honey) a molasses-like product; squeso de tuna" (tuna cheese) a taffy-like product; "colonche" a fermented drink; and "tunas secas" or dried tunas (Russell and Felker, 1987). Over 2 million pounds...

Stalling, Max Brown



Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.  


The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers. PMID:22065125

Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S



On the convergence of Newton-type methods under mild differentiability conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the new idea of recurrent functions to provide a new semilocal convergence analysis for Newton-type methods, under mild differentiability conditions. It turns out that our sufficient convergence conditions are weaker, and the error bounds are tighter than in earlier studies in some interesting cases (Chen, Ann Inst Stat Math 42:387-401, 1990; Chen, Numer Funct Anal Optim 10:37-48, 1989; Cianciaruso, Numer Funct Anal Optim 24:713-723, 2003; Cianciaruso, Nonlinear Funct Anal Appl 2009; Dennis 1971; Deuflhard 2004; Deuflhard, SIAM J Numer Anal 16:1-10, 1979; Gutiérrez, J Comput Appl Math 79:131-145, 1997; Hernández, J Optim Theory Appl 109:631-648, 2001; Hernández, J Comput Appl Math 115:245-254, 2000; Huang, J Comput Appl Math 47:211-217, 1993; Kantorovich 1982; Miel, Numer Math 33:391-396, 1979; Miel, Math Comput 34:185-202, 1980; Moret, Computing 33:65-73, 1984; Potra, Libertas Mathematica 5:71-84, 1985; Rheinboldt, SIAM J Numer Anal 5:42-63, 1968; Yamamoto, Numer Math 51: 545-557, 1987; Zabrejko, Numer Funct Anal Optim 9:671-684, 1987; Zinc?ko 1963). Applications and numerical examples, involving a nonlinear integral equation of Chandrasekhar-type, and a differential equation are also provided in this study.

Argyros, Ioannis; Hilout, Saïd



Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.



Application of cryoprobe 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the verification of corsican honey.  


Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and multivariate analysis techniques have been used to classify honey into two groups by geographical origin. Honey from Corsica (Miel de Corse) was used as an example of a protected designation of origin product. Mathematical models were constructed to determine the feasibility of distinguishing between honey from Corsica and that from other geographical locations in Europe, using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Honey from 10 different regions within five countries was analyzed. (1)H NMR spectra were used as input variables for projection to latent structures (PLS) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and genetic programming (GP). Models were generated using three methods, PLS-LDA, two-stage GP, and a combination of PLS and GP (PLS-GP). The PLS-GP model used variables selected by PLS for subsequent GP calculations. All models were generated using Venetian blind cross-validation. Overall classification rates for the discrimination of Corsican and non-Corsican honey of 75.8, 94.5, and 96.2% were determined using PLS-LDA, two-stage GP, and PLS-GP, respectively. The variables utilized by PLS-GP were related to their (1)H NMR chemical shifts, and this led to the identification of trigonelline in honey for the first time. PMID:18564849

Donarski, James A; Jones, Stephen A; Charlton, Adrian J



Pharmacotechnical caracterization and effectiveness study of a dermopharmaceutical form: rosemary honey contributions as a moisturizing active.  


We have designed, elaborated and studied a dermopharmaceutical form formulated on the basis of a modern self-emulsifying excipient and rosemary honey (known as Miel de La Alcarria--Spain--according to the Governing Council), in order to obtain a hight degree of cutaneous hydratation. The formulation is typified and characterized from a pharmacotechnical and rheological points of view. In this sense, the experimental protocol has emphasized rheological essays which give relevant practical information. Also, we have performed a complete study of it physical and structural stability, and, lastly, we evaluated the dermopharmaceutical effectiveness. The work plan included the following tests: 1) Pharmacotechnical Essays--organoleptic characteristics, photomicrograh study, type of interposition, pH-determination, rheological and thixotropic study and physical stability tests; 2) Dermopharmaceutical Effectiveness Assays--Corneometric and Sebumetric measurements. From the results, we have deduced that the emulsified binary system that is proposed, stable from a physical and structural points of view, presents confirmed properties and a very good cosmetological adequation. In this sense, our emulsion presents a high degree of moisturizing/emollient power that qualifies it not only as a magnificent eudermic dermopharmaceutical form, but also as a very appropriate vehicle for Dermopharmaceutical and/or Dermatological Formulation. PMID:10622106

Jiménez Soriano, M M; Fresno Contreras, M J; Sellés Flores, E



Thick SU-8 photolithography for BioMEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SU-8, negative-tone epoxy base, photoresist has a great potential for ultra-thick high aspect ratio structures in low cost micro-fabrication technologies. Commercial formulation of NanoTM SU-8 2075 is investigate, process limitations are discuss. Good layer uniformity (few %) for single layer up to 200 ?m could be obtained in a covered RC8 (Suss-MicroTec) spin coater, but for ultra-thick microstructures it is also possible to cast on the wafer a volume controlled of resist up to 1.5 mm without barrier. Long baking times are necessary for a well process control. The layout of the photo-masks design and process parameters have great impact on residual stress effects and adhesion failures, especially for dense SU-8 patterns on metallic under layer deposited on silicon wafers. A specific treatment applied before the resist coating definitely solved this problem. Bio-fluidic applications of on-wafer direct prototyping (silicon, glass, plastics) are presented. An example will be given on prototyping dielectophorectic micro-cell manipulation component. The SU-8 fluidic structure is made by a self planarized multi-level process (application for 2,5 to 3D microstructures). Biotechnology applications of integrated micro-cells could be considered thanks to the SU-8 good resistance to PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Future developments are focusing on the SU-8 capabilities for Deep Reactive Ion Etching of plastic and 3D shaping of microstructures using a process called : Multidirectional Inclined Exposure Lithography (MIEL).

Rabarot, Marc; Bablet, Jacqueline; Ruty, Marine; Kipp, Matthieu; Chartier, Isabelle; Dubarry, Christophe



Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation in down-built diapirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformation within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup we study the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezed channel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and (III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformation in each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2D finite deformation within the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strain accumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expected channel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays a high deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and its boundaries. High deformation zones within the stem could also be observed within natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa, Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could reveal information about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directly be correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

Fuchs, Lukas; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro



Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols: Determination, time series, size distributions and sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial vegetation releases substantial amounts of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., isoprene, monoterpenes) into the atmosphere. The VOCs can be rapidly photooxidized under conditions of high solar radiation, yielding products that can participate in new particle formation and growth processes above forests. This thesis focuses on the characterization, identification and quantification of oxidation products of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) as well as other species (tracer compounds) that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. Atmospheric aerosols from various forested sites (i.e., Hyytiala, southern Finland; Rondonia, Brazil; K-Puszta, Hungary and Julich, Germany) were analyzed with Gas Chromotography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) using analytical procedure that targets polar organic compounds. The study demonstrated that isoprene (i.e., 2-methyerythritol, 2-methylthreitol, 2-methylglyceric acid and C5-alkene triols (2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-l-butene (cis and trans) and 3 methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene)) and monoterpene (pinic acid, norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid) oxidation products were present in substantial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols suggesting that oxidation of BVOC from the vegetation is an important process in all studied sites. On the other hand, presence of levoglucosan, biomass burning marker, especially in Amazonian rain forest site at Rondonia, Brazil, pointed that all sites were affected by anthropogenic activities, namely biomass burning. Other identified compounds included plyols, arabitol, mannitol and erythritol, which are marker compounds for fungal spores and monosacharides, glucose and fructose, markers for plant polens. Temporal variations as well as mass size distributions of the detected species confirmed the possible formation mechanisms of marker compounds.

Kourtchev, Ivan


Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are sufficiently low to make the single-particle quantum effects visible on the beam scale, but sufficiently high to make the overlapping of the single-particle wave functions negligible. This lowest QWM state constitutes the border between the fundamental single-particle Compton regime and the collective quantum and thermal regimes at larger (nano- to micro-) scales. Comparing it with the beam parameters in the existing accelerators, we find that it is feasible to achieve nano-sized beams in advanced compact machines.

Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanovi?, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle



Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks varies between 400 and 555 °C at pressures of 5-6 kbar in the retrograde metamorphic path. The El Retiro rocks evidence strong decompression with narrow variation in temperature, showing pressure values between 8.7 and 2.7 kbar at temperatures of 740-633 °C. These metamorphic fragments of the basement in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes could represent a close relationship with an antique subduction zone.

Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano