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1

Genome Wide Identification of Aberrant Alternative Splicing Events in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic, autosomal dominant disease due to expansion of tetraplet (CCTG) repetitions in the first intron of the ZNF9/CNBP gene. DM2 is a multisystemic disorder affecting the skeletal muscle, the heart, the eye and the endocrine system. According to the proposed pathological mechanism, the expanded tetraplets have an RNA toxic effect, disrupting the splicing of many mRNAs. Thus, the identification of aberrantly spliced transcripts is instrumental for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the disease. The aim of this study was the identification of new aberrant alternative splicing events in DM2 patients. By genome wide analysis of 10 DM2 patients and 10 controls (CTR), we identified 273 alternative spliced exons in 218 genes. While many aberrant splicing events were already identified in the past, most were new. A subset of these events was validated by qPCR assays in 19 DM2 and 15 CTR subjects. To gain insight into the molecular pathways involving the identified aberrantly spliced genes, we performed a bioinformatics analysis with Ingenuity system. This analysis indicated a deregulation of development, cell survival, metabolism, calcium signaling and contractility. In conclusion, our genome wide analysis provided a database of aberrant splicing events in the skeletal muscle of DM2 patients. The affected genes are involved in numerous pathways and networks important for muscle physio-pathology, suggesting that the identified variants may contribute to DM2 pathogenesis. PMID:24722564

Fasanaro, Pasquale; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Manteiga, Jose M. Garcia.; Riba, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Stupka, Elia; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

2

A survey of splice variants of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase and DNA polymerase beta genes: products of alternative or aberrant splicing?  

PubMed

Errors during the pre-mRNA splicing of metazoan genes can degrade the transmission of genetic information, and have been associated with a variety of human diseases. In order to characterize the mutagenic and pathogenic potential of mis-splicing, we have surveyed and quantified the aberrant splice variants in the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and DNA polymerase beta (POLB) in the presence and the absence of the Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) pathway, which removes transcripts with premature termination codons. POLB exhibits a high frequency of splice variants (40-60%), whereas the frequency of HPRT splice variants is considerably lower (approximately 1%). Treatment of cells with emetine to inactivate NMD alters both the spectrum and frequency of splice variants of POLB and HPRT. It is not certain at this point, whether POLB and HPRT splice variants are the result of regulated alternative splicing processes or the result of aberrant splicing, but it appears likely that at least some of the variants are the result of splicing errors. Several mechanisms that may contribute to aberrant splicing are discussed. PMID:15601998

Skandalis, Adonis; Uribe, Elke

2004-01-01

3

Complex Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 isoforms by the alternative splicing of 95 variable exons. In this review, we will describe several genes that use complex alternative splicing to generate large repertoires of mRNAs and what is known about the mechanisms by which they do so. PMID:18380340

Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

2015-01-01

4

SOX2 modulates alternative splicing in transitional cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Aberrant alternative splicing of key cellular regulators may play a pivotal role in cancer development. To investigate the potential influence of altered alternative splicing on the development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), splicing activity in the TCC cell lines TSGH8301 and BFTC905 was examined using the SV40-immortalized uroepithelial cell line SV-HUC-1 as a reference. Our results indicate a significant alteration in splice site selection in the TCC cell lines. By gene expression profiling and subsequent validation, we discovered that sex-determining region Y-box protein 2 (SOX2) is specifically upregulated in BFTC905. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SOX2 modulates alternative splicing of the splicing reporter in vivo. More significantly, using an in vitro pull-down assay, it was found that SOX2 exhibits RNA-binding capability. Our observations suggest that SOX2 modulates alternative splicing by functioning as a splicing factor. PMID:20138825

Tung, Chun-Liang; Hou, Pei-Hsuan; Kao, Yung-Ling; Huang, Yu-Wen; Shen, Chiung-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Shu-Fen; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chin

2010-03-12

5

The splice of life: Alternative splicing and neurological disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splicing of pre-messenger RNA is regulated differently in the brain compared with other tissues. Recognition of aberrations in splicing events that are associated with neurological disease has contributed to our understanding of disease pathogenesis in some cases. Neuron-specific proteins involved in RNA splicing and metabolism are also affected in several neurological disorders. These findings have begun to bridge what we

B. Kate Dredge; Alexandros D. Polydorides; Robert B. Darnell

2001-01-01

6

SOX2 modulates alternative splicing in transitional cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant alternative splicing of key cellular regulators may play a pivotal role in cancer development. To investigate the potential influence of altered alternative splicing on the development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), splicing activity in the TCC cell lines TSGH8301 and BFTC905 was examined using the SV40-immortalized uroepithelial cell line SV-HUC-1 as a reference. Our results indicate a significant alteration

Chun-Liang Tung; Pei-Hsuan Hou; Yung-Ling Kao; Yu-Wen Huang; Chiung-Chun Shen; Yi-Hsin Cheng; Shu-Fen Wu; Moon-Sing Lee; Chin Li

2010-01-01

7

Developmentally Regulated Muscle Type-Specific Alternative Splicing of the COOH-Terminal Variable Region of Fast Skeletal Muscle Troponin T and an Aberrant Splicing Pathway to Encode a Mutant COOH-Terminus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct from the cardiac and slow skeletal muscle troponin Ts, an alternative RNA splicing-generated COOH-terminal variable region exists in the fast skeletal muscle troponin T. Mutually exclusive splicing of exon 16 and 17 encoded sequence into the mature mRNA produces the ?- and ?-isoform, respectively. By cloning and sequence analysis of large numbers of fast troponin T cDNAs, we have

Jian-Ping Jin; Jennifer Wang; Ozgur Ogut

1998-01-01

8

Directing alternative splicing: cast and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the study of alternative RNA splicing indicates that the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with specific target elements modulates splice site recognition and spliceosome assembly. The identity of splicing signals, the presence of modulating elements and differences in the distribution of RNA-binding proteins are key determinants involved in the tissue-specific regulation of splice site selection.

Benoit Chabot

1996-01-01

9

Conditional Control of Alternative Splicing through Light-Triggered Splice-Switching Oligonucleotides.  

PubMed

The spliceosome machinery is composed of several proteins and multiple small RNA molecules that are involved in gene regulation through the removal of introns from pre-mRNAs in order to assemble exon-based mRNA containing protein-coding sequences. Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) are genetic control elements that can be used to specifically control the expression of genes through correction of aberrant splicing pathways. A current limitation with SSO methodologies is the inability to achieve conditional control of their function paired with high spatial and temporal resolution. We addressed this limitation through site-specific installation of light-removable nucleobase-caging groups as well as photocleavable backbone linkers into synthetic SSOs. This enables optochemical OFF ? ON and ON ? OFF switching of their activity and thus precise control of alternative splicing. The use of light as a regulatory element allows for tight spatial and temporal control of splice switching in mammalian cells and animals. PMID:25734836

Hemphill, James; Liu, Qingyang; Uprety, Rajendra; Samanta, Subhas; Tsang, Michael; Juliano, Rudolph L; Deiters, Alexander

2015-03-18

10

ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

2006-01-01

11

The RNA-binding protein QKI suppresses cancer-associated aberrant splicing.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24722255

Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

2014-04-01

12

Statistical and Computational Studies on Alternative Splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The accumulating genome sequences and other high-throughput data have shed light on the extent and importance of alternative\\u000a splicing in functional regulation. Alternative splicing dramatically increases the transcriptome and proteome diversity of\\u000a higher organisms by producing multiple splice variants from different combinations of exons. It has an important role in many\\u000a biological processes including nervous system development and programmed cell

Liang Chen

13

Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans.  

PubMed

Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the most important staple foods. Rice is considered a model species for most gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice has provided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize and wheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soil degradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, such as greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods, soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there is an extremely high demand for additional research, in order to address these negative factors. Studies have shown that the alternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stress conditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternative splicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for rice to adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement of microarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencing technology, several studies have shown that more than half of the genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. This mini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research of splicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicing in humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studies may change the landscape of investigation of rice functional genomics and genetically improved rice. PMID:24064058

E, Zhiguo; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jianhua

2013-09-01

14

Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans  

PubMed Central

Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the most important staple foods. Rice is considered a model species for most gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice has provided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize and wheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soil degradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, such as greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods, soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there is an extremely high demand for additional research, in order to address these negative factors. Studies have shown that the alternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stress conditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternative splicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for rice to adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement of microarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencing technology, several studies have shown that more than half of the genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. This mini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research of splicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicing in humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studies may change the landscape of investigation of rice functional genomics and genetically improved rice. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(9): 439-447] PMID:24064058

E, Zhiguo; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jianhua

2013-01-01

15

Subgroup Specific Alternative Splicing in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is comprised of four distinct molecular variants: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. We analyzed alternative splicing usage in 14 normal cerebellar samples and 103 medulloblastomas of known subgroup. Medulloblastoma samples have a statistically significant increase in alternative splicing as compared to normal fetal cerebella (2.3-times; P<6.47E-8). Splicing patterns are distinct and specific between molecular subgroups. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of alternative splicing events accurately assigns medulloblastomas to their correct subgroup. Subgroup-specific splicing and alternative promoter usage was most prevalent in Group 3 (19.4%) and SHH (16.2%) medulloblastomas, while observed less frequently in WNT (3.2%), and Group 4 (9.3%) tumors. Functional annotation of alternatively spliced genes reveals over-representation of genes important for neuronal development. Alternative splicing events in medulloblastoma may be regulated in part by the correlative expression of antisense transcripts, suggesting a possible mechanism affecting subgroup specific alternative splicing. Our results identify additional candidate markers for medulloblastoma subgroup affiliation, further support the existence of distinct subgroups of the disease, and demonstrate an additional level of transcriptional heterogeneity between medulloblastoma subgroups. PMID:22358458

Kloosterhof, Nanne K; Northcott, Paul A; Yu, Emily PY; Shih, David; Peacock, John; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; van Meter, Timothy; Eberhart, Charles G; Pfister, Stefan; Marra, Marco A; Weiss, William A; Scherer, Stephen W; Rutka, James T; French, Pim J; Taylor, Michael D

2014-01-01

16

Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries, and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism. We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across 42 eukaryotes to gain insight into how spliceosomal introns are recognized. Results All eukaryotes we studied exhibit RIs, which appear more frequently than previously thought. CEs are also present in all kingdoms and most of the organisms in our analysis. We observe that the ratio of CEs to RIs varies substantially among kingdoms, while the ratio of competing 3' acceptor and competing 5' donor sites remains nearly constant. In addition, we find the ratio of CEs to RIs in each organism correlates with the length of its introns. In all 14 fungi we examined, as well as in most of the 9 protists, RIs far outnumber CEs. This differs from the trend seen in 13 multicellular animals, where CEs occur much more frequently than RIs. The six plants we analyzed exhibit intermediate proportions of CEs and RIs. Conclusion Our results suggest that most extant eukaryotes are capable of recognizing splice sites via both ID and ED, although ED is most common in multicellular animals and ID predominates in fungi and most protists. PMID:18321378

McGuire, Abigail M; Pearson, Matthew D; Neafsey, Daniel E; Galagan, James E

2008-01-01

17

Detection and measurement of alternative splicing using splicing-sensitive microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splicing and alternative splicing are major processes in the interpretation and expression of genetic information for metazoan organisms. The study of splicing is moving from focused attention on the regulatory mechanisms of a selected set of paradigmatic alternative splicing events to questions of global integration of splicing regulation with genome and cell function. For this reason, parallel methods for detecting

Karpagam Srinivasan; Lily Shiue; Justin D. Hayes; Ross Centers; Sean Fitzwater; Rebecca Loewen; Lillian R. Edmondson; Jessica Bryant; Michael Smith; Claire Rommelfanger; Valerie Welch; Tyson A. Clark; Charles W. Sugnet; Kenneth J. Howe; Yael Mandel-Gutfreund; Manuel Ares

2005-01-01

18

Phosphorylation-Mediated Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is one of the key processes involved in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. AS catalyzes the removal of intronic sequences and the joining of selected exons, thus ensuring the correct processing of the primary transcript into the mature mRNA. The combinatorial nature of AS allows a great expansion of the genome coding potential, as multiple splice-variants encoding for different proteins may arise from a single gene. Splicing is mediated by a large macromolecular complex, the spliceosome, whose activity needs a fine regulation exerted by cis-acting RNA sequence elements and trans-acting RNA binding proteins (RBP). The activity of both core spliceosomal components and accessory splicing factors is modulated by their reversible phosphorylation. The kinases and phosphatases involved in these posttranslational modifications significantly contribute to AS regulation and to its integration in the complex regulative network that controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we will review the major canonical and noncanonical splicing factor kinases and phosphatases, focusing on those whose activity has been implicated in the aberrant splicing events that characterize neoplastic transformation. PMID:24069033

Sette, Claudio

2013-01-01

19

Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing  

E-print Network

The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

Kong, Rong, 1979-

2005-01-01

20

Alternative Splicing Programs in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most frequent causes of death for cancer in the male population. Although the initial antiandrogenic therapies are efficacious, PCa often evolves into a hormone-resistant, incurable disease. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this type of cancer renders its diagnosis and cure particularly challenging. Mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing, the process that allows production of multiple mRNA variants from each gene, contributes to the heterogeneity of the disease. Key genes for the biology of normal and neoplastic prostate cells, such as those encoding for the androgen receptor and cyclin D1, are alternatively spliced to yield protein isoforms with different or even opposing functions. This review illustrates some examples of genes whose alternative splicing regulation is relevant to PCa biology and discusses the possibility to exploit alternative splicing regulation as a novel tool for prognosis, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to PCa. PMID:23983695

Sette, Claudio

2013-01-01

21

Correspondence Alternative Splicing at NAGNAG  

E-print Network

splicing at NAGNAGs mainly results in the insertion/deletion of one amino acid. While such subtle events]: biases towards intron phase 1 and single amino acid insertions/deletions, correlation of amino acid. Meanwhile, Akerman and Mandel-Gutfreund found a high conservation of the intronic flanking regions [5

Will, Sebastian

22

Global regulation of alternative splicing during myogenic differentiation  

E-print Network

Recent genome-wide analyses have elucidated the extent of alternative splicing (AS) in mammals, often focusing on comparisons of splice isoforms between differentiated tissues. However, regulated splicing changes are likely ...

Bland, Christopher S.

23

Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition  

E-print Network

Background: Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently ...

McGuire, Abigail Manson

24

Tau exon 10 alternative splicing and tauopathies  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of microtubule-associated protein tau play a central role in neurofibrillary degeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders that collectively called tauopathies. Six isoforms of tau are expressed in adult human brain, which result from alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generated from a single tau gene. Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in tau isoforms containing either three or four microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau, respectively). Approximately equal levels of 3R-tau and 4R-tau are expressed in normal adult human brain, but the 3R-tau/4R-tau ratio is altered in the brains in several tauopathies. Discovery of silence mutations and intronic mutations of tau gene in some individuals with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), which only disrupt tau exon 10 splicing but do not alter tau's primary sequence, demonstrates that dysregulation of tau exon 10 alternative splicing and consequently of 3R-tau/4R-tau balance is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and dementia. Here, we review the gene structure, transcripts and protein isoforms of tau, followed by the regulation of exon 10 splicing that determines the expression of 3R-tau or 4R-tau. Finally, dysregulation of exon 10 splicing of tau in several tauopathies is discussed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which tau exon 10 splicing is regulated and how it is disrupted in tauopathies will provide new insight into the mechanisms of these tauopathies and help identify new therapeutic targets to treat these disorders. PMID:18616804

Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

2008-01-01

25

Deep surveying of alternative splicing complexity in the  

E-print Network

system of Illumina to survey splicing complexity in diverse, normal human tissues using mRNA- SeqDeep surveying of alternative splicing complexity in the human transcriptome by high the first analysis of alternative splicing complexity in human tissues using mRNA-Seq data. New splice

26

Alternative Splicing for Diseases, Cancers, Drugs, and Databases  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a major diversification mechanism in the human transcriptome and proteome. Several diseases, including cancers, have been associated with dysregulation of alternative splicing. Thus, correcting alternative splicing may restore normal cell physiology in patients with these diseases. This paper summarizes several alternative splicing-related diseases, including cancers and their target genes. Since new cancer drugs often target spliceosomes, several clinical drugs and natural products or their synthesized derivatives were analyzed to determine their effects on alternative splicing. Other agents known to have modulating effects on alternative splicing during therapeutic treatment of cancer are also discussed. Several commonly used bioinformatics resources are also summarized. PMID:23766705

Lee, Jin-Ching; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wang, Chun-Lin; Chen, Chien-Chi; Huang, Hurng-Wern

2013-01-01

27

Quantitative and evolutionary biology of alternative splicing: how changing the mix of alternative transcripts affects phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-messenger RNA is a common phenomenon that creates different transcripts from a single gene, and these alternative transcripts affect phenotypes. The majority of AS research has examined tissue and developmental specificity of expression of particular AS transcripts, how this specificity affects cell function, and how aberrant AS is related to disease. Few studies have examined quantitative

J H Marden

2008-01-01

28

Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.  

PubMed

The active form of vitamin D (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25447737

Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

2015-04-01

29

ECgene: genome annotation for alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

ECgene provides annotation for gene structure, function and expression, taking alternative splicing events into consideration. The gene-modeling algorithm combines the genome-based expressed sequence tag (EST) clustering and graph-theoretic transcript assembly procedures. The website provides several viewers and applications that have many unique features useful for the analysis of the transcript structure and gene expression. The summary viewer shows the gene summary and the essence of other annotation programs. The genome browser and the transcript viewer are available for comparing the gene structure of splice variants. Changes in the functional domains by alternative splicing can be seen at a glance in the transcript viewer. We also provide two unique ways of analyzing gene expression. The SAGE tags deduced from the assembled transcripts are used to delineate quantitative expression patterns from SAGE libraries available publically. Furthermore, the cDNA libraries of EST sequences in each cluster are used to infer qualitative expression patterns. It should be noted that the ECgene website provides annotation for the whole transcriptome, not just the alternatively spliced genes. Currently, ECgene supports the human, mouse and rat genomes. The ECgene suite of tools and programs is available at http://genome.ewha.ac.kr/ECgene/. PMID:15608289

Kim, Pora; Kim, Namshin; Lee, Younghee; Kim, Bumjin; Shin, Youngah; Lee, Sanghyuk

2005-01-01

30

Alternative Splicing in the Fly and the Worm: Splicing Databases for Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a widespread cellular phenomenon, which regulates gene expression in eukaryotic genomes. Availability of accumulating transcript and genomic sequence data has lead to generation of a wide-range of alternative splicing databases. Generally the available databases focus on mammalian transcriptomes. Here, we present two new alternative splicing databases for the model organisms, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elengans. Databases presented

Bahar Taneri; Ben Snyder; Alexey Novoradovsky; Terry Gaasterland

2011-01-01

31

Identification of cells deficient in signaling-induced alternative splicing by use of somatic cell genetics.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a growing number of mammalian genes have been shown to undergo alternative splicing in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the factors and pathways involved in such signal-induced alternative splicing are almost entirely unknown. Here we describe a novel method for identifying candidate trans-acting factors that are involved in regulating mammalian alternative splicing, using the activation-induced alternative splicing of the human CD45 gene in T cells as a model system. We generated a cell line that stably expresses a CD45 minigene-based GFP reporter construct, such that the levels of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cell reflect the splicing state of the endogenous CD45 gene. Following mutagenesis of this cell line, and multiple rounds of selection for cells that displayed aberrant levels of GFP expression, we isolated several cell lines that are at least partially defective in their ability to support regulated alternative splicing of endogenous CD45 pre-mRNA in response to cell stimulation. Thus we have successfully isolated mutants in a mammalian alternative splicing pathway through use of a somatic cell-based genetic screen. This study clearly demonstrates the feasibility of using genetic screens to further our understanding of the regulation of mammalian splicing, particularly as it occurs in response to environmental cues. PMID:12515380

Sheives, Paul; Lynch, Kristen W

2002-01-01

32

SplicingTypesAnno: Annotating and quantifying alternative splicing events for RNA-Seq data.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays a key role in the regulation of the central dogma. Four major types of alternative splicing have been classified as intron retention, exon skipping, alternative 5 splice sites or alternative donor sites, and alternative 3 splice sites or alternative acceptor sites. A few algorithms have been developed to detect splice junctions from RNA-Seq reads. However, there are few tools targeting at the major alternative splicing types at the exon/intron level. This type of analysis may reveal subtle, yet important events of alternative splicing, and thus help gain deeper understanding of the mechanism of alternative splicing. This paper describes a user-friendly R package, extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. SplicingTypesAnno can: (1) provide annotation for major alternative splicing at exon/intron level. By comparing the annotation from GTF/GFF file, it identifies the novel alternative splicing sites; (2) offer a convenient two-level analysis: genome-scale annotation for users with high performance computing environment, and gene-scale annotation for users with personal computers; (3) generate a user-friendly web report and additional BED files for IGV visualization. SplicingTypesAnno is a user-friendly R package for extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types at exon/intron level for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. It is publically available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/splicingtypes/files/ or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/SplicingTypesAnno.html. PMID:25720307

Sun, Xiaoyong; Zuo, Fenghua; Ru, Yuanbin; Guo, Jiqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav

2015-04-01

33

Novel aberrant splicings caused by a splice site mutation (IVS1a+5g>a) in F7 gene.  

PubMed

Low FVII coagulant activity (FVII:C 8.2%) and antigen level (FVII:Ag 34.1%) in a 46-year-old Chinese male led to a diagnosis of coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified in his F 7 gene:a G to A transition in the 5' donor splice site of intron 1a (IVS1a+5g>a) and a T to G transition at the nucleotide position 10961 in exon 8, resulting in a His to Gln substitution at amino acid residue 348. An analysis of ectopic transcripts of F7 in the leukocytes of the patient reveals that the mutation (IVS1a+5g>a) is associated with two novel aberrant patterns of splicing. The predominant alternative transcript removes exon 2, but retains intron 3, which shifts the reading frame and predicts a premature translation termination at the nucleotide positions 2-4 in intron 3. The minor alternative transcript skips both exon 2 and exon 3 (FVII Delta 2, 3), leading to an in-frame deletion of the propeptide and gamma-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) domains of mature FVII protein. In vitro expression studies of the alternative transcript FVII Delta 2,3 by transient transfection of HEK 293 cells with PcDNA 3.1(-) expression vector showed that although the mutant protein could be secreted, no pro-coagulation activity was detected. The coexistence of the two abnormal transcripts and a heterozygous mutation His348Gln, explained the patient's phenotype. PMID:15968391

Ding, Qiulan; Wu, Wenman; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Xuefeng; Hu, Yiqun; Wang, Hongli; Wang, Zhenyi

2005-06-01

34

Alternative splicing of DNA damage response genes and gastrointestinal cancers  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing, which is a common phenomenon in mammalian genomes, is a fundamental process of gene regulation and contributes to great protein diversity. Alternative splicing events not only occur in the normal gene regulation process but are also closely related to certain diseases including cancer. In this review, we briefly demonstrate the concept of alternative splicing and DNA damage and describe the association of alternative splicing and cancer pathogenesis, focusing on the potential relationship of alternative splicing, DNA damage, and gastrointestinal cancers. We will also discuss whether alternative splicing leads to genetic instability, which is considered to be a driving force for tumorigenesis. Better understanding of the role and mechanism of alternative splicing in tumorigenesis may provide new directions for future cancer studies. PMID:25516641

Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

2014-01-01

35

Regulation of Splicing Factors by Alternative Splicing and NMD Is Conserved between Kingdoms Yet Evolutionarily Flexible  

PubMed Central

Ultraconserved elements, unusually long regions of perfect sequence identity, are found in genes encoding numerous RNA-binding proteins including arginine-serine rich (SR) splicing factors. Expression of these genes is regulated via alternative splicing of the ultraconserved regions to yield mRNAs that are degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a process termed unproductive splicing (Lareau et al. 2007; Ni et al. 2007). As all human SR genes are affected by alternative splicing and NMD, one might expect this regulation to have originated in an early SR gene and persisted as duplications expanded the SR family. But in fact, unproductive splicing of most human SR genes arose independently (Lareau et al. 2007). This paradox led us to investigate the origin and proliferation of unproductive splicing in SR genes. We demonstrate that unproductive splicing of the splicing factor SRSF5 (SRp40) is conserved among all animals and even observed in fungi; this is a rare example of alternative splicing conserved between kingdoms, yet its effect is to trigger mRNA degradation. As the gene duplicated, the ancient unproductive splicing was lost in paralogs, and distinct unproductive splicing evolved rapidly and repeatedly to take its place. SR genes have consistently employed unproductive splicing, and while it is exceptionally conserved in some of these genes, turnover in specific events among paralogs shows flexible means to the same regulatory end. PMID:25576366

Lareau, Liana F.; Brenner, Steven E.

2015-01-01

36

Alternative Splicing Regulation During C. elegans Development: Splicing Factors as Regulated Targets  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing generates protein diversity and allows for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Estimates suggest that 10% of the genes in Caenorhabditis elegans undergo alternative splicing. We constructed a splicing-sensitive microarray to detect alternative splicing for 352 cassette exons and tested for changes in alternative splicing of these genes during development. We found that the microarray data predicted that 62/352 (?18%) of the alternative splicing events studied show a strong change in the relative levels of the spliced isoforms (>4-fold) during development. Confirmation of the microarray data by RT-PCR was obtained for 70% of randomly selected genes tested. Among the genes with the most developmentally regulated alternatively splicing was the hnRNP F/H splicing factor homolog, W02D3.11 – now named hrpf-1. For the cassette exon of hrpf-1, the inclusion isoform comprises 65% of hrpf-1 steady state messages in embryos but only 0.1% in the first larval stage. This dramatic change in the alternative splicing of an alternative splicing factor suggests a complex cascade of splicing regulation during development. We analyzed splicing in embryos from a strain with a mutation in the splicing factor sym-2, another hnRNP F/H homolog. We found that approximately half of the genes with large alternative splicing changes between the embryo and L1 stages are regulated by sym-2 in embryos. An analysis of the role of nonsense-mediated decay in regulating steady-state alternative mRNA isoforms was performed. We found that 8% of the 352 events studied have alternative isoforms whose relative steady-state levels in embryos change more than 4-fold in a nonsense-mediated decay mutant, including hrpf-1. Strikingly, 53% of these alternative splicing events that are affected by NMD in our experiment are not obvious substrates for NMD based on the presence of premature termination codons. This suggests that the targeting of splicing factors by NMD may have downstream effects on alternative splicing regulation. PMID:18454200

Barberan-Soler, Sergio; Zahler, Alan M.

2008-01-01

37

The adaptive significance of unproductive alternative splicing in primates.  

PubMed

Alternative gene splicing is pervasive in metazoa, particularly in humans, where the majority of genes generate splice variant transcripts. Characterizing the biological significance of alternative transcripts is methodologically difficult since it is impractical to assess thousands of splice variants as to whether they actually encode proteins, whether these proteins are functional, or whether transcripts have a function independent of protein synthesis. Consequently, to elucidate the functional significance of splice variants and to investigate mechanisms underlying the fidelity of mRNA splicing, we used an indirect approach based on analyzing the evolutionary conservation of splice variants among species. Using DNA polymerase ? as an indicator locus, we cloned and characterized the types and frequencies of transcripts generated in primary cell lines of five primate species. Overall, we found that in addition to the canonical DNA polymerase ? transcript, there were 25 alternative transcripts generated, most containing premature terminating codons. We used a statistical method borrowed from community ecology to show that there is significant diversity and little conservation in alternative splicing patterns among species, despite high sequence similarity in the underlying genomic (exonic) sequences. However, the frequency of alternative splicing at this locus correlates well with life history parameters such as the maximal longevity of each species, indicating that the alternative splicing of unproductive splice variants may have adaptive significance, even if the specific RNA transcripts themselves have no function. These results demonstrate the validity of the phylogenetic conservation approach in elucidating the biological significance of alternative splicing. PMID:20719917

Skandalis, Adonis; Frampton, Mark; Seger, Jon; Richards, Miriam H

2010-10-01

38

Alternative Splicing and Subfunctionalization Generates Functional Diversity in Fungal Proteomes  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is commonly used by the Metazoa to generate more than one protein from a gene. However, such diversification of the proteome by alternative splicing is much rarer in fungi. We describe here an ancient fungal alternative splicing event in which these two proteins are generated from a single alternatively spliced ancestral SKI7/HBS1 gene retained in many species in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. While the ability to express two proteins from a single SKI7/HBS1 gene is conserved in many fungi, the exact mechanism by which they achieve this varies. The alternative splicing was lost in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following the whole-genome duplication event as these two genes subfunctionalized into the present functionally distinct HBS1 and SKI7 genes. When expressed in yeast, the single gene from Lachancea kluyveri generates two functionally distinct proteins. Expression of one of these proteins complements hbs1, but not ski7 mutations, while the other protein complements ski7, but not hbs1. This is the first known case of subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in yeast. By coincidence, the ancestral alternatively spliced gene was also duplicated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with subsequent subfunctionalization and loss of splicing. Similar subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in fungi also explains the presence of two PTC7 genes in the budding yeast Tetrapisispora blattae, suggesting that this is a common mechanism to preserve duplicate alternatively spliced genes. PMID:23516382

Jiménez-López, Claudia; Lorenz, Michael C.; van Hoof, Ambro

2013-01-01

39

Rectifier of aberrant mRNA splicing recovers tRNA modification in familial dysautonomia.  

PubMed

Familial dysautonomia (FD), a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, is caused by missplicing of exon 20, resulting from an intronic mutation in the inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP) gene encoding IKK complex-associated protein (IKAP)/elongator protein 1 (ELP1). A newly established splicing reporter assay allowed us to visualize pathogenic splicing in cells and to screen small chemicals for the ability to correct the aberrant splicing of IKBKAP. Using this splicing reporter, we screened our chemical libraries and identified a compound, rectifier of aberrant splicing (RECTAS), that rectifies the aberrant IKBKAP splicing in cells from patients with FD. Here, we found that the levels of modified uridine at the wobble position in cytoplasmic tRNAs are reduced in cells from patients with FD and that treatment with RECTAS increases the expression of IKAP and recovers the tRNA modifications. These findings suggest that the missplicing of IKBKAP results in reduced tRNA modifications in patients with FD and that RECTAS is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for FD. PMID:25675486

Yoshida, Mayumi; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Ohe, Kenji; Iida, Kei; Yoshida, Suguru; Nojima, Takayuki; Okuno, Yukiko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Usui, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Akihide; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

2015-03-01

40

Selective modification of alternative splicing by indole derivatives that target serine-arginine-rich protein splicing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of alternative splicing as a target for alterations leading to human genetic disorders makes it highly relevant for therapy. Here we have used in vitro splicing reactions with different splicing reporter constructs to screen 4,000 chemical compounds for their ability to selectively inhibit spliceosome assembly and splicing. We discovered indole derivatives as potent inhibitors of the splicing reaction.

Johann Soret; Nadia Bakkour; Sophie Maire; Sébastien Durand; Latifa Zekri; Mathieu Gabut; Weronika Fic; Gilles Divita; Christian Rivalle; Daniel Dauzonne; Chi Hung Nguyen; Philippe Jeanteur; Jamal Tazi

2005-01-01

41

Modulation of alternative splicing with chemical compounds in new therapeutics for human diseases.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a critical step where a limited number of human genes generate a complex and diverse proteome. Various diseases, including inherited diseases with abnormalities in the "genome code," have been found to result in an aberrant mis-spliced "transcript code" with correlation to the resulting phenotype. Chemical compound-based and nucleic acid-based strategies are trying to target this mis-spliced "transcript code". We will briefly mention about how to obtain splicing-modifying-compounds by high-throughput screening and overview of what is known about compounds that modify splicing pathways. The main focus will be on RNA-binding protein kinase inhibitors. In the main text, we will refer to diseases where splicing-modifying-compounds have been intensively investigated, with comparison to nucleic acid-based strategies. The information on their involvement in mis-splicing as well as nonsplicing events will be helpful in finding better compounds with less off-target effects for future implications in mis-splicing therapy. PMID:25560473

Ohe, Kenji; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

2015-04-17

42

Heritability of alternative splicing in the human genome  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing increases proteomic diversity and provides a potential mechanism underlying both phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to genetic disorders in human populations. To investigate the variation in splicing among humans on a genome-wide scale, we use a comprehensive exon-targeted microarray to examine alternative splicing in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from the CEPH HapMap population. We show the identification of transcripts containing sequence verified exon skipping, intron retention, and cryptic splice site usage that are specific between individuals. A number of novel alternative splicing events with no previous annotations in either the RefSeq and EST databases were identified, indicating that we are able to discover de novo splicing events. Using family-based linkage analysis, we demonstrate Mendelian inheritance and segregation of specific splice isoforms with regulatory haplotypes for three genes: OAS1, CAST, and CRTAP. Allelic association was further used to identify individual SNPs or regulatory haplotype blocks linked to the alternative splicing event, taking advantage of the high-resolution genotype information from the CEPH HapMap population. In one candidate, we identified a regulatory polymorphism that disrupts a 5? splice site of an exon in the CAST gene, resulting in its exclusion in the mutant allele. This report illustrates that our approach can detect both annotated and novel alternatively spliced variants, and that such variation among individuals is heritable and genetically controlled. PMID:17671095

Kwan, Tony; Benovoy, David; Dias, Christel; Gurd, Scott; Serre, David; Zuzan, Harry; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Staples, Michelle K.; Wang, Hui; Blume, John E.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sladek, Rob; Majewski, Jacek

2007-01-01

43

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

44

The ASAP II database: analysis and comparative genomics of alternative splicing in 15 animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have greatly expanded the Alternative Splicing Annotation Project (ASAP) database: (i) its human alternative splicing data are expanded ? 3-fold over the previous ASAP database, to nearly 90000 distinct alternative splicing events; (ii) it now provides genome-wide alternative splicing analyses for 15 vertebrate, insect and other animal species; (iii) it provides comprehensive comparative genomics information for comparing alternative splicing

Namshin Kim; Alexander V. Alekseyenko; Meenakshi Roy; Christopher Lee

2007-01-01

45

Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide computational analysis of alternative splicing (AS) in several flowering plants has revealed that pre-mRNAs from about 30% of genes undergo AS. Chlamydomonas, a simple unicellular green alga, is part of the lineage that includes land plants. However, it diverged from land plants about one billion years ago. Hence, it serves as a good model system to study alternative splicing in early photosynthetic eukaryotes, to obtain insights into the evolution of this process in plants, and to compare splicing in simple unicellular photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. We performed a global analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using its recently completed genome sequence and all available ESTs and cDNAs. Results Our analysis of AS using BLAT and a modified version of the Sircah tool revealed AS of 498 transcriptional units with 611 events, representing about 3% of the total number of genes. As in land plants, intron retention is the most prevalent form of AS. Retained introns and skipped exons tend to be shorter than their counterparts in constitutively spliced genes. The splice site signals in all types of AS events are weaker than those in constitutively spliced genes. Furthermore, in alternatively spliced genes, the prevalent splice form has a stronger splice site signal than the non-prevalent form. Analysis of constitutively spliced introns revealed an over-abundance of motifs with simple repetitive elements in comparison to introns involved in intron retention. In almost all cases, AS results in a truncated ORF, leading to a coding sequence that is around 50% shorter than the prevalent splice form. Using RT-PCR we verified AS of two genes and show that they produce more isoforms than indicated by EST data. All cDNA/EST alignments and splice graphs are provided in a website at http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/chlamy. Conclusions The extent of AS in Chlamydomonas that we observed is much smaller than observed in land plants, but is much higher than in simple unicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes. The percentage of different alternative splicing events is similar to flowering plants. Prevalence of constitutive and alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas, together with its simplicity, many available public resources, and well developed genetic and molecular tools for this organism make it an excellent model system to elucidate the mechanisms involved in regulated splicing in photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:20163725

2010-01-01

46

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alterna- tive splicing of

Jianguo Tan; Zhiqi Liu; Yoshiko Nomura; Alan L. Goldin; Ke Dong

2002-01-01

47

Conserved Alternative Splicing Patterns and Splicing Signals in the Drosophila Sodium Channel Gene Para  

PubMed Central

We cloned genomic DNA corresponding to the Drosophila virilis homologue of para, a gene encoding a sodium channel ?-subunit, and obtained many partial cDNA clones from embryos and adults. Para protein has been well conserved, and the optional elements at six different sites of alternative splicing in D. melanogaster are present in D. virilis, in addition to one new optional exon. Among 31 different splice-types observed in D. virilis, the stage-specific pattern of alternative splicing seen in D. melanogaster is also conserved. Comparison of genomic DNA sequence revealed three aspects that vary between alternatively and constitutively used exon sequences. Sixteen short blocks (10-75 bp), the only recognizably conserved intron sequence, were disproportionately associated with alternatively used splice sites. Silent site substitutions were found much less frequently in alternative than constitutive exon elements, and the degree of match to the Drosophila splice site consensus tended to be lower at less frequently selected alternative splice junctions. This study shows that the developmentally regulated variability of para products is highly conserved and therefore likely to be of functional significance and suggests that a variety of different sequence-dependent mechanisms may regulate this pattern of alternative splicing. PMID:8536968

Thackeray, J. R.; Ganetzky, B.

1995-01-01

48

Detection of alternative splicing during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays a critical role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential cellular program that occurs in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe a strategy to detect alternative splicing during EMT using an inducible EMT model by expressing the transcription repressor Twist. EMT is monitored by changes in cell morphology, loss of E-cadherin localization at cell-cell junctions, and the switched expression of EMT markers, such as loss of epithelial markers E-cadherin and ?-catenin and gain of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. Using isoform-specific primer sets, the alternative splicing of interested mRNAs are analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The production of corresponding protein isoforms is validated by immunoblotting assays. The method of detecting splice isoforms described here is also suitable for the study of alternative splicing in other biological processes. PMID:25350517

Huang, Huilin; Xu, Yilin; Cheng, Chonghui

2014-01-01

49

Tissue-specific classification of alternatively spliced human exons  

E-print Network

Alternative splicing is involved in numerous cellular functions and is often disrupted and involved in disease. Previous research has identified methods to distinguish alternative conserved exons (ACEs) in human and mouse. ...

Rothman, Craig Jeremy

2007-01-01

50

Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. Results We developed a bioinformatic pipeline that maps RNA-seq data to a combinatorial exon database, predicts NMD-susceptibility for mRNA isoforms and calculates the distribution of major splice isoform classes. We present a catalog of NMD-regulated alternative splicing events, showing that isoforms of 30% of all expressed genes are upregulated in NMD-deficient cells and that NMD targets all major splicing classes. Importantly, NMD-dependent effects are not restricted to premature termination codon+ isoforms but also involve an abundance of splicing events that do not generate premature termination codons. Supporting their functional importance, the latter events are associated with high intronic conservation. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that NMD regulates alternative splicing outcomes through an intricate web of splicing regulators and that its loss leads to the deregulation of a panoply of splicing events, providing novel insights into its role in core- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Thus, our study extends the importance of NMD from an mRNA quality pathway to a regulator of several layers of gene expression. PMID:22624609

2012-01-01

51

Alternative Splicing in the Obligate Biotrophic Oomycete Pathogen Pseudoperonospora cubensis.  

PubMed

Pseudoperonospora cubensis is an obligate pathogen and causative agent of cucurbit downy mildew. To help advance our understanding of the pathogenicity of P. cubensis, we used RNA-Seq to improve the quality of its reference genome sequence. We also characterized the RNA-Seq dataset to inventory transcript isoforms and infer alternative splicing during different stages of its development. Almost half of the original gene annotations were improved and nearly 4,000 previously unannotated genes were identified. We also demonstrated that approximately 24% of the expressed genome and nearly 55% of the intron-containing genes from P. cubensis had evidence for alternative splicing. Our analyses revealed that intron retention is the predominant alternative splicing type in P. cubensis, with alternative 5'- and alternative 3'-splice sites occurring at lower frequencies. Representatives of the newly identified genes and predicted alternatively spliced transcripts were experimentally validated. The results presented herein highlight the utility of RNA-Seq for improving draft genome annotations and, through this approach, we demonstrate that alternative splicing occurs more frequently than previously predicted. In total, the current study provides evidence that alternative splicing plays a key role in transcriptome regulation and proteome diversification in plant-pathogenic oomycetes. PMID:25372122

Burkhardt, Alyssa; Buchanan, Alex; Cumbie, Jason S; Savory, Elizabeth A; Chang, Jeff H; Day, Brad

2015-03-01

52

Bax?2 Family Alternative Splicing Salvages Bax Microsatellite-Frameshift Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutation or aberrant splicing can interrupt gene expression. Tumor suppressor Bax is one of the susceptible genes prone to microsatellite frameshifting mutations in coding regions. As a result, tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI) often present a “Bax-negative” phenotype. We previously reported that some Bax-negative cells in fact contain a functional Bax isoform (Bax?2), generated when unique alternative splicing “salvages” the shifted reading frame introduced by a microsatellite mutation. Here we compared Bax alternative splicing profiles in a range of cell lines and primary tumors with and without Bax microsatellite mutations. We found that MSI tumors exhibit a high Bax alternative splicing frequency, especially in exon 2, and produce a family of alternatively spliced isoforms that retain many important Bax functional domains. Surprisingly, these Bax?2 family isoforms can rescue Bax from all common microsatellite frameshift mutations. Production of Bax?2 requires specific cis mutations, while trans components are not cell-type specific. Furthermore, all Bax?2 family isoforms are more potent cell death inducers than the parental Bax without directly targeting mitochondria. These results indicate that the Bax?2 family can potentially salvage Bax tumor suppressor expression otherwise lost to mutation. PMID:24386510

Haferkamp, Bonnie; Zhang, Honghong; Kissinger, Samuel; Wang, Xin; Lin, Yuting; Schultz, Megan

2013-01-01

53

Alternative splicing generates secretory isoforms of human CD1.  

PubMed Central

Human CD1 genes are a family of five non-polymorphic genes that, although homologous to both class I and II major histocompatibility complex genes, map to chromosome 1. Only three of the antigens, CD1a, -b, and -c, have been clustered with monoclonal antibodies. They are noncovalently associated with beta 2-microglobulin and may function as nonclassical antigen-presenting molecules. Here we analyze their expression in mouse myeloma transfectants and human thymocytes and find mRNA splicing complexity. This manifests itself as incomplete splicing, alternative splicing, utilization of cryptic splice sites, and the generation of alternative reading frames. In the case of CD1A transfectants, we demonstrate that the major protein product is secreted and show by amino acid sequence analysis that this is derived from an unspliced transcript. A second major CD1a component appears to be retained intracellularly. The production of alternatively spliced transcripts in the thymus is not a feature of all CD1 genes. Although in the case of CD1A only the transcript encoding the cell surface CD1a isoform is found, CD1C and -E produce complex intrathymic splicing patterns. The CD1C transcripts predict the expression of a secreted CD1c isoform in the human thymus, which we detect in CD1C transfectant culture supernatants. CD1 gene expression is thus characterized by considerable splicing complexity, and the difference between the splicing patterns found in different environments suggests that this is tissue specific. Images PMID:7517559

Woolfson, A; Milstein, C

1994-01-01

54

Should pharmacologists care about alternative splicing? IUPHAR Review 4  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in the majority of human genes, and most differential splicing results in different protein isoforms with possibly different functional properties. However, there are many reported splicing variations that may be quite rare, and not all combinatorially possible variants of a given gene are expressed at significant levels. Genes of interest to pharmacologists are frequently expressed at such low levels that they are not adequately represented in genome-wide studies of transcription. In single-gene studies, data are commonly available on the relative abundance and functional significance of individual alternatively spliced exons, but there are rarely data that quantitate the relative abundance of full-length transcripts and define which combinations of exons are significant. A number of criteria for judging the significance of splice variants and suggestions for their nomenclature are discussed. PMID:24670145

Bonner, T I

2014-01-01

55

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

56

Regulation of Telomerase Alternative Splicing: A New Target for Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Telomerase is present in human cancer cells but absent in most somatic tissues. The mRNA of human telomerase (hTERT) is alternatively spliced into mostly non-functional products. We sought to understand splicing so we could decrease functional splice isoforms to reduce telomerase activity to complement direct enzyme inhibition. Unexpectedly, minigenes containing hTERT exons 5–10 flanked by 150–300bp intronic sequences did not produce alternative splicing. A 1.1kb region of 38bp repeats ~2kb from the exon 6/intron junction restored exclusion of exons 7/8. An element within intron 8, also >1kb from intron/exon junctions, modulated this effect. Transducing an oligonucleotide complementary to this second element increased non-functional hTERT mRNA from endogenous telomerase. These results demonstrate the potential of manipulating hTERT splicing for both chemotherapy and regenerative medicine, and provide the first specific sequences deep within introns that regulate alternative splicing in mammalian cells by mechanisms other than introducing cryptic splice sites. PMID:23562158

Wong, Mandy S.; Chen, Ling; Foster, Christopher; Kainthla, Radhika; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

2013-01-01

57

Functional Manipulations of Acetylcholinesterase Splice Variants Highlight Alternative Splicing Contributions to Murine Neocortical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferation and differentiation of mammalian central nervous system progenitor cells involve concertedly controlled transcrip- tional and alternative splicing modulations. Searching for the developmental implications of this programming, we manipulated specific acetylcholinesterase (AChE) splice variants in the embry- onic mouse brain. In wild type mice, 'synaptic' AChE-S appeared in migrating neurons, whereas the C-terminus cleaved off the stress-induced AChE-R variant associated

Amir Dori; Jonathan Cohen; William F. Silverman

2005-01-01

58

The landscape of alternative splicing in cervical squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism in protein synthesis and proteome diversity. In this study, we identified alternative splicing events in four pairs of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues using RNA sequencing. Methods The transcripts of the four paired samples were thoroughly analyzed by RNA sequencing. SpliceMap software was used to detect the splicing junctions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis was conducted to detect the alternative spliced genes-related signal pathways. The alternative spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results There were 35 common alternative spliced genes in the four CSCC samples; they were novel and CSCC specific. Sixteen pathways were significantly enriched (P<0.05). One novel 5?AS site in the KLHDC7B gene, encoding kelch domain-containing 7B, and an exon-skipping site in the SYCP2 gene, encoding synaptonemal complex 2, were validated by RT-PCR. The KLHDC7B gene with 5?AS was found in 67.5% (27/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with cellular differentiation and tumor size. The exon-skipping site of the SYCP2 gene was found in 35.0% (14/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with depth of cervical invasion. Conclusion The KLHDC7B and the SYCP2 genes with alternative spliced events might be involved in the development and progression of CSCC and could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of CSCC. PMID:25565867

Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Wu, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Ren, Tong; Zhu, Baoli; Xiang, Yang

2015-01-01

59

Alternative splicing networks regulated by signaling in human T cells  

PubMed Central

The formation and execution of a productive immune response requires the maturation of competent T cells and a robust change in cellular activity upon antigen challenge. Such changes in cellular function depend on regulated alterations to protein expression. Previous research has focused on defining transcriptional changes that regulate protein expression during T-cell maturation and antigen stimulation. Here, we globally analyze another critical process in gene regulation during T-cell stimulation, alternative splicing. Specifically, we use RNA-seq profiling to identify 178 exons in 168 genes that exhibit robust changes in inclusion in response to stimulation of a human T-cell line. Supporting an important role for the global coordination of alternative splicing following T-cell stimulation, these signal-responsive exons are significantly enriched in genes with functional annotations specifically related to immune response. The vast majority of these genes also exhibit differential alternative splicing between naive and activated primary T cells. Comparison of the responsiveness of splicing to various stimuli in the cultured and primary T cells further reveals at least three distinct networks of signal-induced alternative splicing events. Importantly, we find that each regulatory network is specifically associated with distinct sequence features, suggesting that they are controlled by independent regulatory mechanisms. These results thus provide a basis for elucidating mechanisms of signal pathway–specific regulation of alternative splicing during T-cell stimulation. PMID:22454538

Martinez, Nicole M.; Pan, Qun; Cole, Brian S.; Yarosh, Christopher A.; Babcock, Grace A.; Heyd, Florian; Zhu, William; Ajith, Sandya; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Lynch, Kristen W.

2012-01-01

60

Alternative Splicing of Type II Procollagen: IIB or not IIB?  

PubMed Central

Over two decades ago, two isoforms of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) were discovered. These isoforms, named IIA and IIB, are generated in a developmentally-regulated manner by alternative splicing of exon 2. Chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly IIA isoforms (containing exon 2) while differentiated chondrocytes produce mainly IIB transcripts (devoid of exon 2). Importantly, this IIA-to-IIB alternative splicing switch occurs only during chondrogenesis. More recently, two other isoforms have been reported (IIC and IID) that also involve splicing of exon 2; these findings highlight the complexities involving regulation of COL2A1 expression. The biological significance of why different isoforms of COL2A1 exist within the context of skeletal development and maintenance is still not completely understood. This review will provide current knowledge on COL2A1 isoform expression during chondrocyte differentiation and what is known about some of the mechanisms that control exon 2 alternative splicing. Utilization of mouse models to address the biological significance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in vivo will also be discussed. From the knowledge acquired to date, some new questions and concepts are now being proposed on the importance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in regulating extracellular matrix assembly and how this may subsequently affect cartilage and endochondral bone quality and function. PMID:24669942

McAlinden, Audrey

2015-01-01

61

Position-dependent FUS-RNA interactions regulate alternative splicing events and transcriptions  

PubMed Central

FUS is an RNA-binding protein that regulates transcription, alternative splicing, and mRNA transport. Aberrations of FUS are causally associated with familial and sporadic ALS/FTLD. We analyzed FUS-mediated transcriptions and alternative splicing events in mouse primary cortical neurons using exon arrays. We also characterized FUS-binding RNA sites in the mouse cerebrum with HITS-CLIP. We found that FUS-binding sites tend to form stable secondary structures. Analysis of position-dependence of FUS-binding sites disclosed scattered binding of FUS to and around the alternatively spliced exons including those associated with neurodegeneration such as Mapt, Camk2a, and Fmr1. We also found that FUS is often bound to the antisense RNA strand at the promoter regions. Global analysis of these FUS-tags and the expression profiles disclosed that binding of FUS to the promoter antisense strand downregulates transcriptions of the coding strand. Our analysis revealed that FUS regulates alternative splicing events and transcriptions in a position-dependent manner. PMID:22829983

Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Masuda, Akio; Fujioka, Yusuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Shibata, Akihide; Urano, Fumihiko; Sobue, Gen; Ohno, Kinji

2012-01-01

62

The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre–mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity of metazoans. Numerous splicing factors have been identified. However, the in vivo functions of many splicing factors remain to be understood. In vivo studies are essential for understanding

Long Ma; Xiaoyang Gao; Jintao Luo; Liange Huang; Yanling Teng; H. Robert Horvitz

2012-01-01

63

The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing  

E-print Network

RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre–mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity ...

Horvitz, H Robert

64

Iron availability modulates aberrant splicing of ferrochelatase through the iron- and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase Jmjd6 and U2AF(65.).  

PubMed

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) results from partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH). Genetically, EPP patients differ from asymptomatic mutation carriers at the unmutated FECH allele, the expression of which is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphism IVS3-48C/T. The IVS3-48C genotype, which is present among patients, leads to correct splicing of 60% of the pre-mRNA and to alternative splicing of 40%, the latter mRNA-product being destroyed by nonsense-mediated decay. An IVS3-48T genotype generates 80% correct and 20% aberrant products. Our study demonstrated that under iron deficient conditions, the aberrant splice product was increased to 56% and 50% of total FECH mRNA in erythroleukemic K562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines, respectively, both being homozygous for IVS3-48T. Concomitantly, FECH protein was decreased. Iron deficiency had less effect on the FECH splice ratio in an IVS3-48C/C lymphoblastoid cell line. Effects similar to iron deficiency were generated by siRNA knockdown of either splicing factor U2AF(65) or Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (Jmjd6), which interacts with U2AF(65) by lysyl-hydroxylation. Based on these results, we propose that the availability of iron, a co-factor of Jmjd6, modulates U2AF(65)-lysyl-hydroxylation. This in turn, influences the relative amounts of correct and aberrant FECH mRNA splice products and thus, regulates the FECH enzyme activity. PMID:23787363

Barman-Aksözen, Jasmin; Béguin, Chantal; Dogar, Afzal M; Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Minder, Elisabeth I

2013-10-01

65

Intragenic DNA methylation modulates alternative splicing by recruiting MeCP2 to promote exon recognition  

PubMed Central

Although the function of DNA methylation in gene promoter regions is well established in transcriptional repression, the function of the evolutionarily conserved widespread distribution of DNA methylation in gene body regions remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that DNA methylation is enriched in included alternatively spliced exons (ASEs), and that inhibition of DNA methylation results in aberrant splicing of ASEs. The methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2 is enriched in included ASEs, particularly those that are also highly methylated, and inhibition of DNA methylation disrupts specific targeting of MeCP2 to exons. Interestingly, ablation of MeCP2 results in increased histone acetylation and aberrant ASE-skipping events. We further show that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity leads to exon skipping that shows a highly significant degree of overlap with that caused by MeCP2 knockdown. Together, our data indicate that intragenic DNA methylation operates in exon definition to modulate alternative RNA splicing and can enhance exon recognition via recruitment of the multifunctional protein MeCP2, which thereby maintains local histone hypoacetylation through the subsequent recruitment of HDACs. PMID:23938295

Maunakea, Alika K; Chepelev, Iouri; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji

2013-01-01

66

Rab15 alternative splicing is altered in spheres of neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor that accounts for 15% of cancer-related deaths in children. More than half of high-risk neuroblastoma patients develop tumor relapse that is lethal in most cases. A small population of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), recently identified from high-risk neuroblastoma patients as spheres, is believed to be responsible for tumor relapse. Rab family small G proteins are essential in controlling membrane traffic and their misregulation results in several cancers. Rab15 was originally isolated as a brain-specific Rab protein regulating the endocytic recycling pathway and was recently identified as a downstream target of the neural transcription factor Atoh1. Previously, we identified two alternatively spliced Rab15 isoforms in neuroblastoma cells and showed a significant correlation between Rab15 expression and neuronal differentiation. As aberrant alternative splicing is intimately associated with an increasing number of cancers, its use as a new diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker has attracted considerable attention. In the present study, we explored cancer-associated changes of Rab15 alternative splicing in neuroblastoma TICs. We found that Rab15 alternative splicing generated two novel isoforms designated as Rab15(AN2) and Rab15(AN3) in addition to two known isoforms designated as Rab15(CN) and Rab15(AN1). Although both Rab15(AN2) and Rab15(AN3) contained premature termination codons, they were detected in not only neuroblastoma cells but also in normal human tissues. One isoform was predominantly expressed in the brain and testis, while the other isoform was more specifically expressed in the brain. In neuroblastoma, Rab15 isoform balance measured by the Rab15(CN)/Rab15(AN1+AN2+AN3) ratio was significantly decreased in spheres compared to parental cells. These results suggest that Rab15 alternative splicing may serve as a biomarker to discriminate TICs from non-TICs in neuroblastoma. PMID:22427180

Pham, Thi Van Huyen; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Lee, Myeong Jin; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Ishida, Toshiaki; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tomoto; Morikawa, Satoru; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Matsuo, Masafumi; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki

2012-06-01

67

The evolutionary relationship between gene duplication and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Gene duplication and alternative splicing (AS) are the two major evolutionary mechanisms that can bring the functional variation by increasing gene diversification. The purpose of this research is to understand the evolutionary relationship between these two different mechanisms, utilizing available data resources. We found the proportion of AS loci and the average number of AS isoforms per locus to be larger in duplicated genes compared to those in singleton genes. However we also found that small gene families have larger proportion of AS loci and larger average number of AS isoforms per locus than large gene families. These results suggest that gene duplication allows for more alternative splicing events to occur on newly duplicated copies than on singletons, probably due to the reduced functional constraint on the duplicates. Smaller average number of AS isoforms in the larger gene families can be explained by the decreased possibility for new useful function to be created via a new alternative splicing event. PMID:18835337

Jin, Lihua; Kryukov, Kirill; Clemente, Jose C; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

2008-12-31

68

Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ?62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C. K.; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

2015-01-01

69

Transcriptome analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by SRSF10 reveals position-dependent splicing modulation  

PubMed Central

Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator. Here, we used RNA-seq coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Motif analysis revealed that SRSF10 binding to cassette exons was associated with exon inclusion, whereas the binding of SRSF10 within downstream constitutive exons was associated with exon exclusion. This positional effect was further demonstrated by the mutagenesis of potential SRSF10 binding motifs in two minigene constructs. Functionally, many of SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of stress and apoptosis. Consistent with this observation, cells depleted of SRSF10 expression were far more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis than control cells. Importantly, reconstituted SRSF10 in knockout cells recovered wild-type splicing patterns and considerably rescued the stress-related defects. Together, our results provide mechanistic insight into SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing events in vivo and demonstrate that SRSF10 plays a crucial role in cell survival under stress conditions. PMID:24442672

Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Wenwu; Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wei, Ning; Zong, Jie; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Dai; Manley, James L.; Wang, Hui; Feng, Ying

2014-01-01

70

Complex pattern of alternative splicing in the normal uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene: implications for diagnosis of familial porphyria cutanea tarda.  

PubMed

We describe multiple alternative transcripts of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase mRNA in normal individuals and patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda. mRNA was reverse-transcribed, subjected to the polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed for nucleotide sequence. Seven different transcripts were characterized, and a cryptic splice acceptor site was identified in intron 1. In all mRNAs the exons abutted at previously defined exon boundaries. Characterization of the splice junctions in the genomic DNA showed that splice donor and acceptor sequences complied with the consensus sequences for these sites except for the splice acceptor sequences of exons 3 and 10. THese deviations were present in two normal individuals and one patient with familial porphyria cutanea tarda and were thus unable to explain the multiple aberrant uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase transcripts. We conclude that apparent deletions observed in transcripts derived from the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene in patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda should be interpreted with caution. PMID:7923766

McManus, J F; Begley, C G; Ratnaike, S

1994-10-01

71

Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3?-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

2012-01-01

72

A chloroplast retrograde signal regulates nuclear alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Light is a source of energy and also a regulator of plant physiological adaptations. We show here that light/dark conditions affect alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes preferentially encoding proteins involved in RNA processing. The effect requires functional chloroplasts and is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. Using photosynthetic electron transfer inhibitors with different mechanisms of action we deduce that the reduced pool of plastoquinones initiates a chloroplast retrograde signaling that regulates nuclear alternative splicing and is necessary for proper plant responses to varying light conditions. PMID:24763593

Petrillo, Ezequiel; Herz, Micaela A. Godoy; Fuchs, Armin; Reifer, Dominik; Fuller, John; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Simpson, Craig; Brown, John W. S.; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

2015-01-01

73

Argonaute proteins couple chromatin silencing to alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Argonaute proteins play a major part in transcriptional gene silencing in many organisms, but their role in the nucleus of somatic mammalian cells remains elusive. Here, we have immunopurified human Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 (AGO1 and AGO2) chromatin-embedded proteins and found them associated with chromatin modifiers and, notably, with splicing factors. Using the CD44 gene as a model, we show that AGO1 and AGO2 facilitate spliceosome recruitment and modulate RNA polymerase II elongation rate, thereby affecting alternative splicing. Proper AGO1 and AGO2 recruitment to CD44 transcribed regions required the endonuclease Dicer and the chromobox protein HP1?, and resulted in increased histone H3 lysine 9 methylation on variant exons. Our data thus uncover a new model for the regulation of alternative splicing, in which Argonaute proteins couple RNA polymerase II elongation to chromatin modification. PMID:22961379

Ameyar-Zazoua, Maya; Rachez, Christophe; Souidi, Mouloud; Robin, Philippe; Fritsch, Lauriane; Young, Robert; Morozova, Nadya; Fenouil, Romain; Descostes, Nicolas; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Mathieu, Jacques; Hamiche, Ali; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Muchardt, Christian; Batsché, Eric; Harel-Bellan, Annick

2012-10-01

74

RNA splicing mutation in an aberrantly rearranged immunoglobulin lambda I gene.  

PubMed Central

The mouse cell line MOPC 315 is an IgA (lambda II)-producing myeloma. We have studied a derivative of MOPC 315 that secretes normal lambda II chains but no heavy chain. This derivative, MOPC 315-26, was found to contain a rearranged lambda I gene in addition to a rearranged lambda II gene. The rearranged lambda I gene was cloned into bacteriophage lambda DNA and its structure was studied. The lambda I gene was found to have arisen by an aberrant recombination event that resulted in a single base insertion at the site of V-J region joining. In addition, the gene contained numerous point mutations in the vicinity of the junction of the V and J regions. Two point mutations occurred in the donor splice sequence normally used for the removal of the intron between the J and C regions, suggesting that the RNA synthesized from the aberrantly rearranged lambda I gene would be unable to undergo proper RNA splicing. Images PMID:6171827

Hozumi, N; Wu, G E; Murialdo, H; Roberts, L; Vetter, D; Fife, W L; Whiteley, M; Sadowski, P

1981-01-01

75

Hypoxia-Induced Alternative Splicing in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptation to low oxygen by changing gene expression is vitally important for cell survival and tissue development. The sprouting of new blood vessels, initiated from endothelial cells, restores the oxygen supply of ischemic tissues. In contrast to the transcriptional response induced by hypoxia, which is mainly mediated by members of the HIF family, there are only few studies investigating alternative splicing events. Therefore, we performed an exon array for the genome-wide analysis of hypoxia-related changes of alternative splicing in endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal findings Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) for 48 h. Genome-wide transcript and exon expression levels were assessed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We found altered expression of 294 genes after hypoxia treatment. Upregulated genes are highly enriched in glucose metabolism and angiogenesis related processes, whereas downregulated genes are mainly connected to cell cycle and DNA repair. Thus, gene expression patterns recapitulate known adaptations to low oxygen supply. Alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are shown for nine genes: six which are implicated in angiogenesis-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling (cask, itsn1, larp6, sptan1, tpm1 and robo1); one, which is involved in the synthesis of membrane-anchors (pign) and two universal regulators of gene expression (cugbp1 and max). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, this study investigates changes in splicing in the physiological response to hypoxia on a genome-wide scale. Nine alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are reported, considerably expanding the information on splicing changes due to low oxygen supply. Therefore, this study provides further knowledge on hypoxia induced gene expression changes and presents new starting points to study the hypoxia adaptation of endothelial cells. PMID:22876330

Weigand, Julia E.; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Gellert, Pascal; Dimmeler, Stefanie

2012-01-01

76

PELP1 oncogenic functions involve alternative splicing via PRMT6  

PubMed Central

Proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a proto-oncogene that functions as coactivator of the estrogen receptor and is an independent prognostic predictor of shorter survival of breast cancer patients. The dysregulation of PELP1 in breast cancer has been implicated in oncogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Although several aspects of PELP1 have been studied, a complete list of PELP1 target genes remains unknown, and the molecular mechanisms of PELP1 mediated oncogenesis remain elusive. In this study, we have performed a whole genome analysis to profile the PELP1 transcriptome by RNA-sequencing and identified 318 genes as PELP1 regulated genes. Pathway analysis revealed that PELP1 modulates several pathways including the molecular mechanisms of cancer, estrogen signaling, and breast cancer progression. Interestingly, RNA-seq analysis also revealed that PELP1 regulates the expression of several genes involved in alternative splicing. Accordingly, the PELP1 regulated genome includes several uniquely spliced isoforms. Mechanistic studies show that PELP1 binds RNA with a preference to poly-C, co-localizes with the splicing factor SC35 at nuclear speckles, and participates in alternative splicing. Further, PELP1 interacts with the arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 and modifies PRMT6 functions. Inhibition of PRMT6 reduced PELP1-mediated estrogen receptor activation, cellular proliferation, and colony formation. PELP1 and PRMT6 are co-recruited to estrogen receptor target genes, PELP1 knockdown affects the enrichment of histone H3R2 di-methylation, and PELP1 and PRMT6 coordinate to regulate the alternative splicing of genes involved in cancer. Collectively, our data suggest that PELP1 oncogenic functions involve alternative splicing leading to the activation of unique pathways that support tumor progression and that the PELP1-PRMT6 axis may be a potential target for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24447537

Mann, Monica; Zou, Yi; Chen, Yidong; Brann, Darrell; Vadlamudi, Ratna

2014-01-01

77

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

78

AsMamDB: an alternative splice database of mammals  

PubMed Central

The objective of database AsMamDB is to facilitate the systematic study of alternatively spliced genes of mammals. Version 1.0 of AsMamDB contains 1563 alternatively spliced genes of human, mouse and rat, each associated with a cluster of nucleotide sequences. The main information provided by AsMamDB includes gene alternative splicing patterns, gene structures, locations in chromosomes, products of genes and tissues where they express. Alternative splicing patterns are represented by multiple alignments of various gene transcripts and by graphs of their topological structures. Gene structures are illustrated by exon, intron and various regulatory elements distributions. There are 4204 DNAs, 3977 mRNAs, 8989 CDSs and 126 931 ESTs in the current database. More than 130 000 GenBank entries are covered and 4443 MEDLINE records are linked. DNA, mRNA, exon, intron and relevant regulatory element sequences are provided in FASTA format. More information can be obtained by using the web-based multiple alignment tool Asalign and various category lists. AsMamDB can be accessed at http://166.111.30.6 5/ASMAM DB.html. PMID:11125106

Ji, Hongkai; Zhou, Qing; Wen, Fang; Xia, Huiyu; Lu, Xin; Li, Yanda

2001-01-01

79

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants  

E-print Network

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants Bing-Bing Wang* and Volker in mamma- lian systems but much less in plants. Here we report AS events deduced from EST cDNA analysis in two model plants: Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, 4,707 (21.8%) of the genes with EST c

Brendel, Volker

80

The functional modulation of epigenetic regulators by alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulators (histone acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, chromatin-remodelling enzymes, etc) play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression by modifying the local state of chromatin. However, due to their recent discovery, little is yet known about their own regulation. This paper addresses this point, focusing on alternative splicing regulation, a mechanism already known to play an important role in

Sergio Lois; Noemí Blanco; Marian Martínez-Balbás; Xavier de la Cruz

2007-01-01

81

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia Amar Kar, MS,* David Kuo, BS with frontotemporal lobe dementia. These mutations affect either biochemical/biophysical pro- perties or the delicate of genetics and molecular pathogenesis of tauopathies with the focus on fronto- temporal lobe dementia. We

Wu, Jane Y.

82

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell  

E-print Network

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Mathieu for Systems Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute 4Center for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Samuel expression. Here, we identify an evolutionarily conserved embryonic stem cell (ESC)- specific AS event

Zandstra, Peter W.

83

Probabilistic Inference of Alternative Splicing Events in Microarray Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) is an important and frequent step in mammalian gene expression that allows a single gene to specify multiple products, and is crucial for the regulation of fundamental biological processes. The extent of AS regulation, and the mechanisms involved, are not well un- derstood. We have developed a custom DNA microarray platform for surveying AS levels on a

Ofer Shai; Brendan J. Frey; Quaid Morris; Qun Pan; Christine Misquitta; Benjamin J. Blencowe

2004-01-01

84

Splicing and Multifactorial Analysis of Intronic BRCA1 and BRCA2 Sequence Variants Identifies Clinically Significant Splicing Aberrations up to 12 Nucleotides from the Intron/Exon Boundary  

PubMed Central

Clinical management of breast cancer families is complicated by identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence alterations of unknown significance. Molecular assays evaluating the effect of intronic variants on native splicing can help determine their clinical relevance. Twentysix intronic BRCA1/2 variants ranging from the consensus dinucleotides in the splice acceptor or donor to 53 nucleotides into the intron were identified in multiple-case families. The effect of the variants on splicing was assessed using HSF matrices, MaxEntScan and NNsplice, followed by analysis of mRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines. A total of 12 variants were associated with splicing aberrations predicted to result in production of truncated proteins, including a variant located 12 nucleotides into the intron. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was estimated using a multifactorial likelihood approach, and provided a pathogenic or likely pathogenic classification for seven of the 12 spliceogenic variants. The apparent disparity between experimental evidence and the multifactorial predictions is likely due to several factors, including a paucity of likelihood information and a nonspecific prior probability applied for intronic variants outside the consensus dinucleotides. Development of prior probabilities of pathogenicity incorporating bioinformatic prediction of splicing aberrations should improve identification of functionally relevant variants and enhance multifactorial likelihood analysis of intronic variants. PMID:21394826

Whiley, Phillip J.; Guidugli, Lucia; Walker, Logan C.; Healey, Sue; Thompson, Bryony A.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Da Silva, Leonard M.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Goldgar, David E.; Brown, Melissa A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Spurdle1, Amanda B.

2015-01-01

85

Alternative splicing of the mouse amelogenin primary RNA transcript  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneous mixture of amelogenins can be extracted from developing tooth enamel matrix. In an attempt to discover the extent to which alternative splicing of the amelogenin primary RNA transcript can generate unique isoforms, we have conducted a thorough search for cDNAs amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Over 2400 colonies were screened by colony hybridization. Seven different alternatively

J. P. Simmer; C. C. Hu; E. C. Lau; P. Sarte; H. C. Slavkin; A. G. Fincham

1994-01-01

86

Identication of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP639  

E-print Network

Identi®cation of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam ZO, the Netherlands Keywords: alternative splicing, Alzheimer's disease, APP derived from a large amyloid precursor protein (APP). To date, several alternatively spliced human APP

Tian, Weidong

87

Autoregulation of transformer-2 Alternative Splicing Is Necessary for Normal Male Fertility in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male germline of Drosophila the transformer-2 protein is required for differential splicing of pre- mRNAs from the exuperantia and att genes and autoregulates alternative splicing of its own pre-mRNA. Autoregulation of TRA-2 splicing results in production of two mRNAs that differ by the splicing\\/retention of the M1 intron and encode functionally distinct protein isoforms. Splicing of the intron

M. Elaine McGuffin; Dawn Chandler; Darshna Somaiya; Brigitte Dauwalder; William Mattox

88

Distinctive Features of Drosophila Alternative Splicing Factor RS Domain: Implication for Specific Phosphorylation, Shuttling, and Splicing Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human splicing factor 2, also called human alternative splicing factor (hASF), is the prototype of the highly conserved SR protein family involved in constitutive and regulated splicing of metazoan mRNA pre- cursors. Here we report that the Drosophila homologue of hASF (dASF) lacks eight repeating arginine-serine dipeptides at its carboxyl-terminal region (RS domain), previously shown to be important for

ERIC ALLEMAND; RENATA GATTONI; HENRI-MARC BOURBON; JAMES STEVENIN; JAVIER F. CACERES; JOHANN SORET; JAMAL TAZI

2001-01-01

89

Introns, alternative splicing, spliced leader trans-splicing and differential expression of pcna and cyclin in Perkinsus marinus.  

PubMed

To gain understanding on the structure and regulation of growth-related genes of the parasitic alveolatePerkinsus marinus, we analyzed genes encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and cyclins (cyclin). Comparison of the full-length cDNAs with the corresponding genomic sequences revealedtrans-splicing of the mRNAs of these genes with a conserved 21-22 nt spliced leader. Over 10 copies ofpcnawere detected, with identical gene structures and similar nucleotide (nt) sequences (88-99%), encoding largely identical amino acid sequences (aa). Two distinct types ofcyclin(Pmacyclin1 andPmacyclin2) were identified, with 66-69% nt and 81-85% aa similarities.Pmacyclin2 was organized in tandem repeats, and was alternatively spliced, giving rise to five subtypes of transcripts. For bothpcnaandcyclingenes, 6-10 introns were found. Quantitative RT-PCR assays showed thatpcnaandPmacyclin2 expression levels were low with small variations during a 28-h time course, whereasPmacyclin1 transcript abundance was 10-100 times higher, and increased markedly during active cell division, suggesting that it is a mitoticcyclinand can be a useful growth marker for this species. The gene structure and expression features along with phylogenetic results position this organism between dinoflagellates and apicomplexans, but its definitive affiliation among alveolates requires further studies. PMID:20650682

Zhang, Huan; Dungan, Christopher F; Lin, Senjie

2011-01-01

90

Alteration of conserved alternative splicing in AMELX causes enamel defects.  

PubMed

Tooth enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Enamel crystal formation and elongation should be well controlled to achieve an exceptional hardness and a compact microstructure. Enamel matrix calcification occurs with several matrix proteins, such as amelogenin, enamelin, and ameloblastin. Among them, amelogenin is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, and multiple isoforms resulting from extensive but well-conserved alternative splicing and postsecretional processing have been identified. In this report, we recruited a family with a unique enamel defect and identified a silent mutation in exon 4 of the AMELX gene. We show that the mutation caused the inclusion of exon 4, which is almost always skipped, in the mRNA transcript. We further show, by generating and characterizing a transgenic animal model, that the alteration of the ratio and quantity of the developmentally conserved alternative splicing repertoire of AMELX caused defects in enamel matrix mineralization. PMID:25117480

Cho, E S; Kim, K-J; Lee, K-E; Lee, E-J; Yun, C Y; Lee, M-J; Shin, T J; Hyun, H-K; Kim, Y-J; Lee, S-H; Jung, H-S; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

2014-10-01

91

Ca 2+ Signaling, Alternative Splicing and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca2+-signaling, alternative splicing, and stress responses by the endoplasmic reticulum are three important cellular activities\\u000a which can be strongly interconnected to alter the expression of protein isoforms in a tissue dependent manner or during development\\u000a depending on the environmental conditions. This integrated network of signaling pathways permits a high degree of versatility\\u000a and adaptation to metabolic, developmental and stress processes.

Joachim Krebs; Jody Groenendyk; Marek Michalak

2011-01-01

92

Differing patterns of selection in alternative and constitutive splice sites  

PubMed Central

In addition to allowing identification of putative functional elements as regions having reduced substitution rates, comparison of genome sequences can also provide insights into these elements at the nucleotide level, by indicating the pattern of tolerated substitutions. We created data sets of orthologous alternative and constitutive splice sites in mouse, rat, and human and analyzed the substitutions occurring within them. Our results illuminate differences between alternative and constitutive sites and, in particular, strongly support the idea that alternative sites are under selection to be weak. PMID:17556528

Garg, Kavita; Green, Phil

2007-01-01

93

Sudemycin E influences alternative splicing and changes chromatin modifications  

PubMed Central

Sudemycin E is an analog of the pre-messenger RNA splicing modulator FR901464 and its derivative spliceostatin A. Sudemycin E causes the death of cancer cells through an unknown mechanism. We found that similar to spliceostatin A, sudemycin E binds to the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) component SF3B1. Native chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that U2 snRNPs physically interact with nucleosomes. Sudemycin E induces a dissociation of the U2 snRNPs and decreases their interaction with nucleosomes. To determine the effect on gene expression, we performed genome-wide array analysis. Sudemycin E first causes a rapid change in alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing, which is later followed by changes in overall gene expression and arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The changes in alternative exon usage correlate with a loss of the H3K36me3 modification in chromatin encoding these exons. We propose that sudemycin E interferes with the ability of U2 snRNP to maintain an H3K36me3 modification in actively transcribed genes. Thus, in addition to the reversible changes in alternative splicing, sudemycin E causes changes in chromatin modifications that result in chromatin condensation, which is a likely contributing factor to cancer cell death. PMID:24623796

Convertini, Paolo; Shen, Manli; Potter, Philip M.; Palacios, Gustavo; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; de la Grange, Pierre; Horbinski, Craig; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.; Stamm, Stefan

2014-01-01

94

Mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation: insights from molecular and genomics approaches  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors provides an important means of genetic control and is a crucial step in the expression of most genes. Alternative splicing markedly affects human development, and its misregulation underlies many human diseases. Although the mechanisms of alternative splicing have been studied extensively, until the past few years we had not begun to realize fully the diversity and complexity of alternative splicing regulation by an intricate protein–RNA network. Great progress has been made by studying individual transcripts and through genome-wide approaches, which together provide a better picture of the mechanistic regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:19773805

Chen, Mo; Manley, James L.

2010-01-01

95

Differential characterization of three alternative spliced isoforms of DPPX.  

PubMed

Transient subthreshold-activating somato-dendritic A-type K(+) currents (I(SA)s) have fundamental roles in neuronal function. They cause delayed excitation, influence spike repolarization, modulate the frequency of repetitive firing, and have important roles in signal processing in dendrites. We previously reported that DPPX proteins are key components of the channels mediating these currents (Kv4 channels) (Nadal, M.S., Ozaita, A., Amarillo, Y., Vega-Saenz, E., Ma, Y., Mo, W., Goldberg, E.M., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y., Neubert, T.A., Rudy, B., 2003. The CD26-related dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein DPPX is a critical component of neuronal A-type K+ channels. Neuron 37, 449-461). The DPPX gene encodes alternatively spliced transcripts that generate single-spanning transmembrane proteins with a short, divergent intracellular domain and a large extracellular domain. We characterized the modulatory effects on Kv4.2-mediated currents and the rat brain distribution of three splice variants of the DPPX subfamily of proteins. These three splice isoforms--DPPX-S, DPPX-L, and DPPX-K--are expressed in adult rat brain and modify the voltage dependence and kinetic properties of Kv4.2 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Analysis of a deletion mutant that lacks the variable N-terminus showed that the N-terminus is not necessary for the modulation of Kv4 channels. Using in situ hybridization analysis, we found that the three splice variants are prominently expressed in brain regions where Kv4 subunits are also expressed. DPPX-K and DPPX-S mRNAs have a widespread distribution, whereas DPPX-L transcripts are concentrated in few specific areas of the rat brain. The emerging diversity of DPPX splice variants, differing only in the N-terminus of the protein, opens up intriguing possibilities for the modulation of Kv4 channels. PMID:16764835

Nadal, Marcela S; Amarillo, Yimy; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Rudy, Bernardo

2006-06-13

96

Differential Requirements for Alternative Splicing and Nuclear Export Functions of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rev protein of equine infectious anemia virus (ERev) exports unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus. Like several cellular proteins, ERev regulates its own mRNA by mediating an alternative splicing event. To determine the requirements for these functions, we have identified ERev mutants that affect RNA export or both export and alternative splicing. Mutants were further characterized

MATTHEW E. HARRIS; RICHARD R. GONTAREK; DAVID DERSE; THOMAS J. HOPE

1998-01-01

97

A sensitive procedure to detect alternatively spliced mRNA in pooled-tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important goal of genomics is to explore the extent of alternative splicing in the transcriptome and generate a comprehensive catalog of splice forms. New computational and experimental approaches have led to an increase in the number of predicted alternatively spliced tran- scripts; however, validation of these predictions has not kept pace. In this work, we systematically explore different methods

German Gaston Leparc; Robi David Mitra

2007-01-01

98

Aberrant splicing of proteolipid protein mRNA in the dysmyelinating jimpy mutant mouse.  

PubMed Central

cDNA clones encoding proteolipid protein (PLP) were isolated from a mouse brain library and sequenced. We describe two transcripts arising from the PLP locus by alternative splicing: the major one encodes the 277-amino acid PLP protein and the minor one corresponds to the DM-20 protein, a PLP-like protein of 20,000 Mr that shares both amino and carboxyl regions with PLP. These two transcripts lack approximately 70 bases in PLP mRNA from the dysmyelinating jimpy mutant. The deletion spans amino acids 208-232; however, this region is present in the jimpy PLP-encoding gene. We propose that the jimpy mutant suffers a point mutation or the deletion of a few bases in the PLP gene that alters the normal splicing pattern and generates partially deleted PLP transcripts. Images PMID:3469678

Hudson, L D; Berndt, J A; Puckett, C; Kozak, C A; Lazzarini, R A

1987-01-01

99

WebScipio: Reconstructing alternative splice variants of eukaryotic proteins.  

PubMed

Accurate exon-intron structures are essential prerequisites in genomics, proteomics and for many protein family and single gene studies. We originally developed Scipio and the corresponding web service WebScipio for the reconstruction of gene structures based on protein sequences and available genome assemblies. WebScipio also allows predicting mutually exclusive spliced exons and tandemly arrayed gene duplicates. The obtained gene structures are illustrated in graphical schemes and can be analysed down to the nucleotide level. The set of eukaryotic genomes available at the WebScipio server is updated on a daily basis. The current version of the web server provides access to ?3400 genome assembly files of >1100 sequenced eukaryotic species. Here, we have also extended the functionality by adding a module with which expressed sequence tag (EST) and cDNA data can be mapped to the reconstructed gene structure for the identification of all types of alternative splice variants. WebScipio has a user-friendly web interface, and we believe that the improved web server will provide better service to biologists interested in the gene structure corresponding to their protein of interest, including all types of alternative splice forms and tandem gene duplicates. WebScipio is freely available at http://www.webscipio.org. PMID:23677611

Hatje, Klas; Hammesfahr, Björn; Kollmar, Martin

2013-07-01

100

Long noncoding RNA modulates alternative splicing regulators in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA represents a major mechanism underlying increased transcriptome and proteome complexity. Here, we show that the nuclear speckle RNA-binding protein (NSR) and the AS competitor long noncoding RNA (or ASCO-lncRNA) constitute an AS regulatory module. AtNSR-GFP translational fusions are expressed in primary and lateral root (LR) meristems. Double Atnsr mutants and ASCO overexpressors exhibit an altered ability to form LRs after auxin treatment. Interestingly, auxin induces a major change in AS patterns of many genes, a response largely dependent on NSRs. RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that AtNSRs interact not only with their alternatively spliced mRNA targets but also with the ASCO-RNA in vivo. The ASCO-RNA displaces an AS target from an NSR-containing complex in vitro. Expression of ASCO-RNA in Arabidopsis affects the splicing patterns of several NSR-regulated mRNA targets. Hence, lncRNA can hijack nuclear AS regulators to modulate AS patterns during development. PMID:25073154

Bardou, Florian; Ariel, Federico; Simpson, Craig G; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Laporte, Philippe; Balzergue, Sandrine; Brown, John W S; Crespi, Martin

2014-07-28

101

WT1 interacts with the splicing protein RBM4 and regulates its ability to modulate alternative splicing in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Wilm's tumor protein 1 (WT1), a protein implicated in various cancers and developmental disorders, consists of two major isoforms: WT1(-KTS), a transcription factor, and WT1(+KTS), a post-transcriptional regulator that binds to RNA and can interact with splicing components. Here we show that WT1 interacts with the novel splicing regulator RBM4. Each protein was found to colocalize in nuclear speckles and to cosediment with supraspliceosomes in glycerol gradients. RBM4 conferred dose-dependent and cell-specific regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs transcribed from several reporter genes. We found that overexpressed WT1(+KTS) abrogated this effect of RBM4 on splice-site selection, whereas WT1(-KTS) did not. We conclude that the (+KTS) form of WT1 is able to inhibit the effect of RBM4 on alternative splicing.

Markus, M. Andrea [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heinrich, Bettina [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Raitskin, Oleg [Department of Genetics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Adams, David J. [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mangs, Helena [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Goy, Christine [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ladomery, Michael [Centre for Research in Biomedicine, Bristol Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Sperling, Ruth [Department of Genetics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Stamm, Stefan [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Morris, Brian J. [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: brianm@medsci.usyd.edu.au

2006-10-15

102

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alternative splicing of sodium channels has not been demonstrated. In this study, we identified three mutually exclusive alternative exons encoding part of segments 3 and 4 of domain III in the German cockroach sodium channel gene, paraCSMA. The splice site is conserved in the mouse, fish, and human Nav1.6 sodium channel genes, suggesting an ancient origin. One of the alternative exons possesses a stop codon, which would generate a truncated protein with only the first two domains. The splicing variant containing the stop codon is detected only in the PNS, whereas the other two full-size variants were detected in both the PNS and CNS. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the two splicing variants produced robust sodium currents, but with different gating properties, whereas the splicing variant with the stop codon did not produce any detectable sodium current. Furthermore, these two functional splicing variants exhibited a striking difference in sensitivity to a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin. Exon swapping partially reversed the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Our results therefore provide the first evidence that alternative splicing of a sodium channel gene produces pharmacologically distinct channels. PMID:12097481

Tan, Jianguo; Liu, Zhiqi; Nomura, Yoshiko; Goldin, Alan L.; Dong, Ke

2011-01-01

103

Expansion of the eukaryotic proteome by alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

The collection of components required to carry out the intricate processes involved in generating and maintaining a living, breathing and, sometimes, thinking organism is staggeringly complex. Where do all of the parts come from? Early estimates stated that about 100,000 genes would be required to make up a mammal; however, the actual number is less than one-quarter of that, barely four times the number of genes in budding yeast. It is now clear that the ‘missing’ information is in large part provided by alternative splicing, the process by which multiple different functional messenger RNAs, and therefore proteins, can be synthesized from a single gene. PMID:20110989

Nilsen, Timothy W.; Graveley, Brenton R.

2012-01-01

104

Nuclear localization of MBNL1: splicing-mediated autoregulation and repression of repeat-derived aberrant proteins.  

PubMed

In some neurological diseases caused by repeat expansions such as myotonic dystrophy, the RNA-binding protein muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) accumulates in intranuclear inclusions containing mutant repeat RNA. The interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA in the nucleus is a key event leading to loss of MBNL function, yet the details of this effect have been elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism and significance of MBNL1 nuclear localization. We found that MBNL1 contains two classes of nuclear localization signal (NLS), a classical bipartite NLS and a novel conformational NLS. Alternative splicing of exon 7 acts as a switch between these NLS types and couples MBNL1 activity and intracellular localization. Depending on its nuclear localization, MBNL1 promoted nuclear accumulation of mutant RNA containing a CUG or CAG repeat, some of which produced proteins containing homopolymeric tracts such as polyglutamine. Furthermore, MBNL1 repressed the expression of these homopolymeric proteins including those presumably produced through repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. These results suggest that nuclear retention of expanded RNA reflects a novel role of MBNL proteins in repressing aberrant protein expression and may provide pathological and therapeutic implications for a wide range of repeat expansion diseases associated with nuclear RNA retention and/or RAN translation. PMID:25274774

Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Kurosawa, Masaru; Oma, Yoko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Ishiura, Shoichi; Nukina, Nobuyuki

2015-02-01

105

Heteroduplex formation and S1 digestion for mapping alternative splicing sites.  

PubMed

The identification of alternatively spliced transcripts has contributed to a better comprehension of developmental mechanisms, tissue-specific physiological processes and human diseases. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of alternatively spliced variants commonly leads to the formation of heteroduplexes as a result of base pairing involving exons common between the two variants. S1 nuclease cleaves single-stranded loops of heteroduplexes and also nicks the opposite DNA strand. In order to establish a strategy for mapping alternative splice-prone sites in the whole transcriptome, we developed a method combining the formation of heteroduplexes between 2 distinct splicing variants and S1 nuclease digestion. For 20 consensuses identified here using this methodology, 5 revealed a conserved splice site after inspection of the cDNA alignment against the human genome (exact splice sites). For 8 other consensuses, conserved splice sites were mapped at 2 to 30 bp from the border, called proximal splice sites; for the other 7 consensuses, conserved splice sites were mapped at 40 to 800 bp, called distal splice sites. These latter cases showed a nonspecific activity of S1 nuclease in digesting double-strand DNA. From the 20 consensuses identified here, 5 were selected for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validation, confirming the splice sites. These data showed the potential of the strategy in mapping splice sites. However, the lack of specificity of the S1 nuclease enzyme is a significant obstacle that impedes the use of this strategy in large-scale studies. PMID:18949713

Ferreira, E N; Rangel, M C R; Pineda, P B; Vidal, D O; Camargo, A A; Souza, S J; Carraro, D M

2008-01-01

106

Global analysis of alternative splicing regulation by insulin and wingless signaling in Drosophila cells  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the prevalence and biological relevance of both signaling pathways and alternative pre-mRNA splicing, our knowledge of how intracellular signaling impacts on alternative splicing regulation remains fragmentary. We report a genome-wide analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays of changes in alternative splicing induced by activation of two distinct signaling pathways, insulin and wingless, in Drosophila cells in culture. Results Alternative splicing changes induced by insulin affect more than 150 genes and more than 50 genes are regulated by wingless activation. About 40% of the genes showing changes in alternative splicing also show regulation of mRNA levels, suggesting distinct but also significantly overlapping programs of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Distinct functional sets of genes are regulated by each pathway and, remarkably, a significant overlap is observed between functional categories of genes regulated transcriptionally and at the level of alternative splicing. Functions related to carbohydrate metabolism and cellular signaling are enriched among genes regulated by insulin and wingless, respectively. Computational searches identify pathway-specific sequence motifs enriched near regulated 5' splice sites. Conclusions Taken together, our data indicate that signaling cascades trigger pathway-specific and biologically coherent regulatory programs of alternative splicing regulation. They also reveal that alternative splicing can provide a novel molecular mechanism for crosstalk between different signaling pathways. PMID:19178699

Hartmann, Britta; Castelo, Robert; Blanchette, Marco; Boue, Stephanie; Rio, Donald C; Valcárcel, Juan

2009-01-01

107

Female-specific insect lethality engineered using alternative splicing.  

PubMed

The Sterile Insect Technique is a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of pest control involving mass release of sterilized insects that reduce the wild population through infertile matings. Insects carrying a female-specific autocidal genetic system offer an attractive alternative to conventional sterilization methods while also eliminating females from the release population. We exploited sex-specific alternative splicing in insects to engineer female-specific autocidal genetic systems in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. These rely on the insertion of cassette exons from the C. capitata transformer gene into a heterologous tetracycline-repressible transactivator such that the transactivator transcript is disrupted in male splice variants but not in the female-specific one. As the key components of these systems function across a broad phylogenetic range, this strategy addresses the paucity of sex-specific expression systems (e.g., early-acting, female-specific promoters) in insects other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach may have wide applicability for regulating gene expression in other organisms, particularly for combinatorial control with appropriate promoters. PMID:17322873

Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng; Jin, Li; Condon, George C; Morrison, Neil I; Dafa'alla, Tarig H; Alphey, Luke

2007-03-01

108

The Caenorhabditis elegans gene mfap-1 encodes a nuclear protein that affects alternative splicing.  

PubMed

RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre-mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity of metazoans. Numerous splicing factors have been identified. However, the in vivo functions of many splicing factors remain to be understood. In vivo studies are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of RNA splicing and the biology of numerous RNA splicing-related diseases. We previously isolated a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant defective in an essential gene from a genetic screen for suppressors of the rubberband Unc phenotype of unc-93(e1500) animals. This mutant contains missense mutations in two adjacent codons of the C. elegans microfibrillar-associated protein 1 gene mfap-1. mfap-1(n4564 n5214) suppresses the Unc phenotypes of different rubberband Unc mutants in a pattern similar to that of mutations in the splicing factor genes uaf-1 (the C. elegans U2AF large subunit gene) and sfa-1 (the C. elegans SF1/BBP gene). We used the endogenous gene tos-1 as a reporter for splicing and detected increased intron 1 retention and exon 3 skipping of tos-1 transcripts in mfap-1(n4564 n5214) animals. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we isolated splicing factors as potential MFAP-1 interactors. Our studies indicate that C. elegans mfap-1 encodes a splicing factor that can affect alternative splicing. PMID:22829783

Ma, Long; Gao, Xiaoyang; Luo, Jintao; Huang, Liange; Teng, Yanling; Horvitz, H Robert

2012-01-01

109

Alternative Splicing Events Is Not a Key Event for Gene Expression Regulation in Uremia  

PubMed Central

Background The control of gene expression in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well addressed. Alternative splicing is a common way to increase complexity of proteins. More than 90% of human transcripts are alternatively spliced. We hypothesised that CKD can induce modification of the alternative splicing machinery. Methods During mutation screening in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, we identified in mononuclear cells (PBMC), an alternative splicing event on the exon 30 of PKD1 gene, the gene implicated in this disease. This alternative splice variant was not correlated with the cystic disease but with CKD. To confirm the association between this variant and CKD, a monocentric clinical study was performed with 3 different groups according to their kidney function (CKD5D, CKD3-5 and normal kidney function). An exon microarray approach was used to highlight splicing events in whole human genome in a normal cell model (fibroblasts) incubated with uremic serum. Alternative splicing variants identified were confirmed by RT-PCR. Results The splicing variant of the exon 30 of PKD1 was more frequent in PBMCs from patients with CKD compared to control. With the microarray approach, despite the analysis of more than 230 000 probes, we identified 36 genes with an abnormal splicing index evocating splicing event in fibroblasts exposed to uremic serum. Only one abnormal splicing event in one gene, ADH1B, was confirmed by RT-PCR. Conclusion We observed two alternative spliced genes in two different cell types associated with CKD. Alternative splicing could play a role in the control of gene expression during CKD but it does not seem to be a major mechanism. PMID:24358217

Sallée, Marion; Fontès, Michel; Louis, Laurence; Cérini, Claire; Brunet, Philippe; Burtey, Stéphane

2013-01-01

110

Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region  

PubMed Central

Background Periostin (POSTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed in a broad range of human cancers, including breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Here, we combine genomic and transcriptomic sequence data from vertebrate organisms to study the evolution of periostin and particularly of its C-terminal region. Results We found that the C-terminal part of periostin is markedly more variable among vertebrates than the rest of periostin in terms of exon count, length, and splicing pattern, which we interpret as a consequence of neofunctionalization after the split between periostin and its paralog transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI). We also defined periostin's sequential 13-amino acid repeat units - well conserved in teleost fish, but more obscure in higher vertebrates - whose secondary structure is predicted to be consecutive beta strands. We suggest that these beta strands may mediate binding interactions with other proteins through an extended beta-zipper in a manner similar to the way repeat units in bacterial cell wall proteins have been reported to bind human fibronectin. Conclusions Our results, obtained with the help of the increasingly large collection of complete vertebrate genomes, document the evolutionary plasticity of periostin's C-terminal region, and for the first time suggest a basis for its functional role. PMID:20109226

2010-01-01

111

Distinct regulatory programs establish widespread sex-specific alternative splicing in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila melanogaster, female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (SXL) and Transformer (TRA) proteins controls sex-specific alternative splicing and/or translation of a handful of regulatory genes responsible for sexual differentiation and behavior. Recent findings in 2009 by Telonis-Scott et al. document widespread sex-biased alternative splicing in fruitflies, including instances of tissue-restricted sex-specific splicing. Here we report results arguing that some of these novel sex-specific splicing events are regulated by mechanisms distinct from those established by female-specific expression of SXL and TRA. Bioinformatic analysis of SXL/TRA binding sites, experimental analysis of sex-specific splicing in S2 and Kc cells lines and of the effects of SXL knockdown in Kc cells indicate that SXL-dependent and SXL-independent regulatory mechanisms coexist within the same cell. Additional determinants of sex-specific splicing can be provided by sex-specific differences in the expression of RNA binding proteins, including Hrp40/Squid. We report that sex-specific alternative splicing of the gene hrp40/squid leads to sex-specific differences in the levels of this hnRNP protein. The significant overlap between sex-regulated alternative splicing changes and those induced by knockdown of hrp40/squid and the presence of related sequence motifs enriched near subsets of Hrp40/Squid-regulated and sex-regulated splice sites indicate that this protein contributes to sex-specific splicing regulation. A significant fraction of sex-specific splicing differences are absent in germline-less tudor mutant flies. Intriguingly, these include alternative splicing events that are differentially spliced in tissues distant from the germline. Collectively, our results reveal that distinct genetic programs control widespread sex-specific splicing in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21233220

Hartmann, Britta; Castelo, Robert; Miñana, Belén; Peden, Erin; Blanchette, Marco; Rio, Donald C.; Singh, Ravinder; Valcárcel, Juan

2011-01-01

112

Aberrant 3? splice sites in human disease genes: mutation pattern, nucleotide structure and comparison of computational tools that predict their utilization  

PubMed Central

The frequency distribution of mutation-induced aberrant 3? splice sites (3?ss) in exons and introns is more complex than for 5? splice sites, largely owing to sequence constraints upstream of intron/exon boundaries. As a result, prediction of their localization remains a challenging task. Here, nucleotide sequences of previously reported 218 aberrant 3?ss activated by disease-causing mutations in 131 human genes were compared with their authentic counterparts using currently available splice site prediction tools. Each tested algorithm distinguished authentic 3?ss from cryptic sites more effectively than from de novo sites. The best discrimination between aberrant and authentic 3?ss was achieved by the maximum entropy model. Almost one half of aberrant 3?ss was activated by AG-creating mutations and ?95% of the newly created AGs were selected in vivo. The overall nucleotide structure upstream of aberrant 3?ss was characterized by higher purine content than for authentic sites, particularly in position ?3, that may be compensated by more stringent requirements for positive and negative nucleotide signatures centred around position ?11. A newly developed online database of aberrant 3?ss will facilitate identification of splicing mutations in a gene or phenotype of interest and future optimization of splice site prediction tools. PMID:16963498

Vo?echovský, Igor

2006-01-01

113

The thyroperoxidase doublet is not produced by alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Thyroperoxidase is a membrane-bound, heme-containing enzyme which catalyses iodination of thyroglobulin and coupling of resulting iodotyrosines to produce thyroid hormone. In addition to the full length molecule of 933 amino acids (TPO1), Northern blotting and sequencing have revealed several shorter transcripts. The most abundant is a species lacking 171 nucleotides in which the alternative splicing results in the deletion of codons 533-590 in exon 10 (TPO2). Evidence for TPO2 transcripts being translated into a protein is lacking, but in Western blots TPO invariably appears as a doublet of 110 and 105 kDa. In the present study we have produced two recombinant fusion proteins for: (i) the 57 amino acids which are spliced out in TPO2 and (ii) for the 20 amino acids which bridge the splice site (10 amino acids on both sides). Both recombinant fragments have been produced in the pMAL-cRI vector as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion, permitting their purification from a bacterial lysate on an amylose column. Rabbits have been immunized by intradermal injection of 500 micrograms of fusion protein, initially in complete Freund's adjuvant followed by two boosts, at 2-week intervals, in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The resulting high titre immune sera (IS) were reactive with the relevant immunising antigens, when tested by ELISA. Depletion of each serum by passage through an MBP-CNBr Sepharose column allowed purification of antibodies against the relevant peptides, as demonstrated by ELISA with the appropriate fusion protein and MBP. This demonstrates that we have produced specific polyclonal antibodies for the 57 amino acids unique to TPO1 and for the amino acid segment bridging the splice site, found in TPO2. These polyclonal antibodies were used in Western blotting experiments with normal and Graves' thyroid membranes, in reducing and non-reducing conditions. Monoclonal 47/C21 which recognises a linear epitope (amino acids residues 710-722) common to TPO1 and TPO2 was used as a control. In non-reducing conditions, we observed a broad signal at 105-110 kDa, which appeared to comprise two bands, with both polyclonal antibodies and the monoclonal. There was no difference in the image between the normal and the Graves' thyroid. In reducing conditions, the broad signal resolved clearly into two distinct bands, one at 105 and the other at 110 kDa. Once again we observed exactly the same pattern of reactivity with all three antibodies both in normal and Graves' glands. We conclude that the TPO doublet is not the consequence of translation of TPO2. PMID:8824887

Cetani, F; Costagliola, S; Tonacchera, M; Panneels, V; Vassart, G; Ludgate, M

1995-12-29

114

Molecular Heterogeneity and Alternative Splicing of Human Lactoperoxidase  

PubMed Central

Human lactoperoxidase (LPO) exists as two distinct molecules independent of glycosylation. The N-terminus of one form is blocked and has not been identified while the other is proteolytically processed at the N-terminus similar to myeloperoxidase. Our analysis identified alternatively spliced human LPO mRNAs that may explain the observed molecular heterogeneity of LPO. Two mRNAs omit propeptide encoding exons while retaining the 5? exon encoding the secretion signal, consistent with the heterogeneity and suggesting a possible functional role for the propeptide. Two LPO forms were expressed using baculovirus and both showed similar enzyme activity. LC/MS/MS analysis of trypsin digested, partially purified, salivary LPO confirmed the larger unprocessed LPO is present in saliva. To compare variant expression patterns, antisera were raised against purified recombinant (rhLPO) as well as against an antigenic peptide sequence within the exons encoding the propeptide region. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated proLPO was differently localized within gland cells compared to other forms of LPO. The data suggested splice variants may contribute to LPO molecular heterogeneity and its regulation by intracellular compartmental localization. PMID:19059195

Fragoso, Miryam A.; Torbati, Aliza; Fregien, Nevis; Conner, Gregory E.

2009-01-01

115

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and alternative splicing in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with pleiomorphic neuropathology. We hypothesize that LRRK2 mediates its pathogenic effect through alternative splicing of neurodegeneration genes. Methods used in this study included western blotting analysis of subcellular protein fractions, exon-array analysis of RNA from cultured neuroblastoma cells transfected with LRRK2 expression vectors, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of RNA from cultured cells and postmortem tissue. Overexpression of the LRRK2 G2019S mutant resulted in a significant (2.6-fold; P = 0.020) decrease in nuclear transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 levels. Exon-array analyses revealed that wild-type LRRK2 had a significant effect on the expression of genes with nuclear (P < 10(-22) ) and cell-cycle functions (P < 10(-15) ). We replicated changes in gene expression in 30% of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Overexpression of LRRK2 resulted in the altered splicing of two genes associated with PD, with an increased inclusion of exon 10 of microtubule-associated protein tau (1.7-fold; P = 0.001) and exon 5 of the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene (1.6-fold; P =0.005). Moreover, overexpression of LRRK2 (G2019S) and two mutant genes associated with neurodegeneration, TARDBP (M337V) and FUS (R521H), were associated with decreased inclusion out of the dystonin (DST) 1e precursor exons in SK-N-MC cells. Altered splicing of SNCA (1.9-fold; P < 0.001) and DST genes (log(2) 2.3-fold; P = 0.005) was observed in a cohort of PD, compared with neurologically healthy, brains. This suggests that aberrant RNA metabolism is an important contributor to idiopathic PD. PMID:22528366

Elliott, David A; Kim, Woojin S; Gorissen, Sarsha; Halliday, Glenda M; Kwok, John B J

2012-07-01

116

Novel Development-Related Alternative Splices in Human Testis Identified by cDNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing of premessenger RNA is an im- portant regulatory mechanism that increases the diversity of proteins transcribed from a single gene. This is particularly important in the testis because germ cell expansion and differentiation require many cellular changes and regulatory steps. To investigate novel devel- opment-related alternative splicings in the human testis, comple- mentary DNA microarray studies were conducted

XIAOYAN HUANG; JIANMIN LI; LI LU; MIN XU; JUNHUA XIAO; LANLAN YIN; HU ZHU; ZUOMIN ZHOU; JIAHAO SHA

2005-01-01

117

FULL-GENOME ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SPLICING IN MOUSE LIVER AFTER HEPATOTOXICANT EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative splicing plays a role in determining gene function and protein diversity. We have employed whole genome exon profiling using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays to understand the significance of alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale in response to multiple toxic...

118

Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.  

PubMed

The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of ?-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. PMID:25737553

Selvanathan, Saravana P; Graham, Garrett T; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T; Ljungman, Mats E; Wu, Cathy H; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

2015-03-17

119

Oncogenic Alternative Splicing Switches: Role in Cancer Progression and Prospects for Therapy  

PubMed Central

Alterations in the abundance or activities of alternative splicing regulators generate alternatively spliced variants that contribute to multiple aspects of tumor establishment, progression and resistance to therapeutic treatments. Notably, many cancer-associated genes are regulated through alternative splicing suggesting a significant role of this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in the production of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, the study of alternative splicing in cancer might provide a better understanding of the malignant transformation and identify novel pathways that are uniquely relevant to tumorigenesis. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of cancer-associated alternative splicing isoforms will not only help to explain many fundamental hallmarks of cancer, but will also offer unprecedented opportunities to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24285959

Bonomi, Serena; Gallo, Stefania; Catillo, Morena; Pignataro, Daniela; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Ghigna, Claudia

2013-01-01

120

Aberrant splicing of U12-type introns is the hallmark of ZRSR2 mutant myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene ZRSR2-located on the X chromosome-are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). ZRSR2 is involved in the recognition of 3'-splice site during the early stages of spliceosome assembly; however, its precise role in RNA splicing has remained unclear. Here we characterize ZRSR2 as an essential component of the minor spliceosome (U12 dependent) assembly. shRNA-mediated knockdown of ZRSR2 leads to impaired splicing of the U12-type introns and RNA-sequencing of MDS bone marrow reveals that loss of ZRSR2 activity causes increased mis-splicing. These splicing defects involve retention of the U12-type introns, while splicing of the U2-type introns remain mostly unaffected. ZRSR2-deficient cells also exhibit reduced proliferation potential and distinct alterations in myeloid and erythroid differentiation in vitro. These data identify a specific role for ZRSR2 in RNA splicing and highlight dysregulated splicing of U12-type introns as a characteristic feature of ZRSR2 mutations in MDS. PMID:25586593

Madan, Vikas; Kanojia, Deepika; Li, Jia; Okamoto, Ryoko; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Kohlmann, Alexander; Sanada, Masashi; Grossmann, Vera; Sundaresan, Janani; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Miyano, Satoru; Thol, Felicitas; Ganser, Arnold; Yang, Henry; Haferlach, Torsten; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

2015-01-01

121

Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist for how such splicing might be regulated, and some studies have concluded that NAGNAG splicing is purely stochastic and nonfunctional. Here, we used deep RNA-Seq data from 16 human and eight mouse tissues to analyze the regulation and evolution of NAGNAG splicing. Using both biological and technical replicates to estimate false discovery rates, we estimate that at least 25% of alternatively spliced NAGNAGs undergo tissue-specific regulation in mammals, and alternative splicing of strongly tissue-specific NAGNAGs was 10 times as likely to be conserved between species as was splicing of non-tissue-specific events, implying selective maintenance. Preferential use of the distal NAG was associated with distinct sequence features, including a more distal location of the branch point and presence of a pyrimidine immediately before the first NAG, and alteration of these features in a splicing reporter shifted splicing away from the distal site. Strikingly, alignments of orthologous exons revealed a ?15-fold increase in the frequency of three base pair gaps at 3? splice sites relative to nearby exon positions in both mammals and in Drosophila. Alternative splicing of NAGNAGs in human was associated with dramatically increased frequency of exon length changes at orthologous exon boundaries in rodents, and a model involving point mutations that create, destroy, or alter NAGNAGs can explain both the increased frequency and biased codon composition of gained/lost sequence observed at the beginnings of exons. This study shows that NAGNAG alternative splicing generates widespread differences between the proteomes of mammalian tissues, and suggests that the evolutionary trajectories of mammalian proteins are strongly biased by the locations and phases of the introns that interrupt coding sequences. PMID:22235189

Bradley, Robert K.; Merkin, Jason; Lambert, Nicole J.; Burge, Christopher B.

2012-01-01

122

Targeting RNA Splicing for Disease Therapy  

PubMed Central

Splicing of pre-messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA is an essential step for expression of most genes in higher eukaryotes. Defects in this process typically affect cellular function and can have pathological consequences. Many human genetic diseases are caused by mutations that cause splicing defects. Furthermore, a number of diseases are associated with splicing defects that are not attributed to overt mutations. Targeting splicing directly to correct disease-associated aberrant splicing is a logical approach to therapy. Splicing is a favorable intervention point for disease therapeutics, because it is an early step in gene expression and does not alter the genome. Significant advances have been made in the development of approaches to manipulate splicing for therapy. Splicing can be manipulated with a number of tools including antisense oligonucleotides, modified small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), trans-splicing, and small molecule compounds, all of which have been used to increase specific alternatively spliced isoforms or to correct aberrant gene expression resulting from gene mutations that alter splicing. Here we describe clinically relevant splicing defects in disease states, the current tools used to target and alter splicing, specific mutations and diseases that are being targeted using splice-modulating approaches, and emerging therapeutics. PMID:23512601

Havens, Mallory A.; Duelli, Dominik M.

2013-01-01

123

SpliceVista, a tool for splice variant identification and visualization in shotgun proteomics data.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a pervasive process in eukaryotic organisms. More than 90% of human genes have alternatively spliced products, and aberrant splicing has been shown to be associated with many diseases. Current methods employed in the detection of splice variants include prediction by clustering of expressed sequence tags, exon microarray, and mRNA sequencing, all methods focusing on RNA-level information. There is a lack of tools for analyzing splice variants at the protein level. Here, we present SpliceVista, a tool for splice variant identification and visualization based on mass spectrometry proteomics data. SpliceVista retrieves gene structure and translated sequences from alternative splicing databases and maps MS-identified peptides to splice variants. The visualization module plots the exon composition of each splice variant and aligns identified peptides with transcript positions. If quantitative mass spectrometry data are used, SpliceVista plots the quantitative patterns for each peptide and provides users with the option to cluster peptides based on their quantitative patterns. SpliceVista can identify splice-variant-specific peptides, providing the possibility for variant-specific analysis. The tool was tested on two experimental datasets (PXD000065 and PXD000134). In A431 cells treated with gefitinib, 2983 splice-variant-specific peptides corresponding to 939 splice variants were identified. Through comparison of splice-variant-centric, protein-centric, and gene-centric quantification, several genes (e.g. EIF4H) were found to have differentially regulated splice variants after gefitinib treatment. The same discrepancy between protein-centric and splice-centric quantification was detected in the other dataset, in which induced pluripotent stem cells were compared with parental fibroblast and human embryotic stem cells. In addition, SpliceVista can be used to visualize novel splice variants inferred from peptide-level evidence. In summary, SpliceVista enables visualization, detection, and differential quantification of protein splice variants that are often missed in current proteomics pipelines. PMID:24692640

Zhu, Yafeng; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Forshed, Jenny; Branca, Rui M M; Orre, Lukas M; Lehtiö, Janne

2014-06-01

124

Nova1 is a master regulator of alternative splicing in pancreatic beta cells  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. It affects more than 90% of human genes but its role in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells, the producers of insulin, remains unknown. Our recently published data indicated that the ‘neuron-specific’ Nova1 splicing factor is expressed in pancreatic beta cells. We have presently coupled specific knockdown (KD) of Nova1 with RNA-sequencing to determine all splice variants and downstream pathways regulated by this protein in beta cells. Nova1 KD altered the splicing of nearly 5000 transcripts. Pathway analysis indicated that these genes are involved in exocytosis, apoptosis, insulin receptor signaling, splicing and transcription. In line with these findings, Nova1 silencing inhibited insulin secretion and induced apoptosis basally and after cytokine treatment in rodent and human beta cells. These observations identify a novel layer of regulation of beta cell function, namely AS controlled by key splicing regulators such as Nova1. PMID:25249621

Villate, Olatz; Turatsinze, Jean-Valery; Mascali, Loriana G.; Grieco, Fabio A.; Nogueira, Tatiane C.; Cunha, Daniel A.; Nardelli, Tarlliza R.; Sammeth, Michael; Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.; Eliasson, Lena; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L.

2014-01-01

125

A Pan-Cancer Analysis of Alternative Splicing Events Reveals Novel Tumor-Associated Splice Variants of Matriptase  

PubMed Central

High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows identification of cancer-related changes that occur at the stages of transcription, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), and splicing. In the current study, we devised a pipeline to predict novel alternative splicing (AS) variants from high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data and applied it to large sets of tumor transcriptomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified two novel tumor-associated splice variants of matriptase, a known cancer-associated gene, in the transcriptome data from epithelial-derived tumors but not normal tissue. Most notably, these variants were found in 69% of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) samples studied. We confirmed the expression of matriptase AS transcripts using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in an orthogonal panel of tumor tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed surface expression of matriptase splice variants in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transiently transfected with cDNA encoding the novel transcripts. Our findings further implicate matriptase in contributing to oncogenic processes and suggest potential novel therapeutic uses for matriptase splice variants. PMID:25506199

Dargahi, Daryanaz; Swayze, Richard D; Yee, Leanna; Bergqvist, Peter J; Hedberg, Bradley J; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Dullaghan, Edie M; Dercho, Ryan; An, Jianghong; Babcook, John S; Jones, Steven JM

2014-01-01

126

Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms  

SciTech Connect

Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A. [Universite de Paris (France)] [and others

1995-09-20

127

Alternative Splicing of PTC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Determines Protein Localization  

PubMed Central

It is well established that higher eukaryotes use alternative splicing to increase proteome complexity. In contrast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-cell eukaryote, conducts predominantly regulated splicing through retention of nonfunctional introns. In this article we describe our discovery of a functional intron in the PTC7 (YHR076W) gene that can be alternatively spliced to create two mRNAs that code for distinct proteins. These two proteins localize to different cellular compartments and have distinct cellular roles. The protein translated from the spliced mRNA localizes to the mitochondria and its expression is carbon-source dependent. In comparison, the protein translated from the unspliced mRNA contains a transmembrane domain, localizes to the nuclear envelope, and mediates the toxic effects of Latrunculin A exposure. In conclusion, we identified a definitive example of functional alternative splicing in S. cerevisiae that confers a measurable fitness benefit. PMID:19564484

Juneau, Kara; Nislow, Corey; Davis, Ronald W.

2009-01-01

128

An EMT–Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established

Irina M. Shapiro; Albert W. Cheng; Nicholas C. Flytzanis; Michele Balsamo; John S. Condeelis; Maja H. Oktay; Christopher B. Burge; Frank B. Gertler

2011-01-01

129

Alternative splicing of Alu exons--two arms are better than one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alus, primate-specific retroelements, are the most abundant repetitive elements in the human genome. They are composed of two related but distinct monomers, left and right arms. Intronic Alu ele- ments may acquire mutations that generate func- tional splice sites, a process called exonization. Most exonizations occur in right arms of antisense Alu elements, and are alternatively spliced. Here we show

Nurit Gal-Mark; Schraga Schwartz; Gil Ast

2008-01-01

130

Gene Selection, Alternative Splicing, and Post-translational Processing Regulate Neuroligin Selectivity for -Neurexins  

E-print Network

Gene Selection, Alternative Splicing, and Post-translational Processing Regulate Neuroligin1/NX1 binding. Our data indicate that gene selection, mRNA splicing, and post. In the mammalian central nervous system, the development and maintenance of a functional neuronal network is based

Sandini, Giulio

131

Regulation of BCL-X splicing reveals a role for the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1/hnRNP I) in alternative 5? splice site selection  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) modulates many physiological and pathological processes. For instance, AS of the BCL-X gene balances cell survival and apoptosis in development and cancer. Herein, we identified the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) as a direct regulator of BCL-X AS. Overexpression of PTBP1 promotes selection of the distal 5? splice site in BCL-X exon 2, generating the pro-apoptotic BCL-Xs splice variant. Conversely, depletion of PTBP1 enhanced splicing of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant. In vivo cross-linking experiments and site-directed mutagenesis restricted the PTBP1 binding site to a polypyrimidine tract located between the two alternative 5? splice sites. Binding of PTBP1 to this site was required for its effect on splicing. Notably, a similar function of PTBP1 in the selection of alternative 5? splice sites was confirmed using the USP5 gene as additional model. Mechanistically, PTBP1 displaces SRSF1 binding from the proximal 5? splice site, thus repressing its selection. Our study provides a novel mechanism of alternative 5? splice site selection by PTBP1 and indicates that the presence of a PTBP1 binding site between two alternative 5? splice sites promotes selection of the distal one, while repressing the proximal site by competing for binding of a positive regulator. PMID:25294838

Bielli, Pamela; Bordi, Matteo; Biasio, Valentina Di; Sette, Claudio

2014-01-01

132

Ancient nature of alternative splicing and functions of introns  

SciTech Connect

Using four genomes: Chamydomonas reinhardtii, Agaricus bisporus, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Sporotricum thermophile with EST coverage of 2.9x, 8.9x, 29.5x, and 46.3x respectively, we identified 11 alternative splicing (AS) types that were dominated by intron retention (RI; biased toward short introns) and found 15, 35, 52, and 63percent AS of multiexon genes respectively. Genes with AS were more ancient, and number of AS correlated with number of exons, expression level, and maximum intron length of the gene. Introns with tendency to be retained had either stop codons or length of 3n+1 or 3n+2 presumably triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), but introns retained in major isoforms (0.2-6percent of all introns) were biased toward 3n length and stop codon free. Stopless introns were biased toward phase 0, but 3n introns favored phase 1 that introduced more flexible and hydrophilic amino acids on both ends of introns which would be less disruptive to protein structure. We proposed a model in which minor RI intron could evolve into major RI that could facilitate intron loss through exonization.

Zhou, Kemin; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Aerts, Andrea; Grigoriev, Igor

2011-03-21

133

Alternative splicing and genetic diversity: silencers are more frequently modified by SNVs associated with alternative exon/intron borders  

PubMed Central

With the availability of a large amount of genomic data it is expected that the influence of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in many biological phenomena will be elucidated. Here, we approached the problem of how SNVs affect alternative splicing. First, we observed that SNVs and exonic splicing regulators (ESRs) independently show a biased distribution in alternative exons. More importantly, SNVs map more frequently in ESRs located in alternative exons than in ESRs located in constitutive exons. By looking at SNVs associated with alternative exon/intron borders (by their common presence in the same cDNA molecule), we observed that a specific type of ESR, the exonic splicing silencers (ESSs), are more frequently modified by SNVs. Our results establish a clear association between genetic diversity and alternative splicing involving ESSs. PMID:21398627

de Souza, Jorge E. S.; Ramalho, Rodrigo F.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Meyer, Diogo; de Souza, Sandro J.

2011-01-01

134

Intron Retention in the Alternatively Spliced Region of RON Results from Weak 3’ Splice Site Recognition  

PubMed Central

The RON gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein. A constitutively active isoform that arises by skipping of exon 11 is expressed in carcinomas and contributes to an invasive phenotype. However, a high proportion of the mRNA expressed from the endogenous gene, or from transfected minigenes, appears to retain introns 10 and 11. It is not known whether this represents specific repression or the presence of weak splicing signals. We have used chimeric pre-mRNAs spliced in vitro to investigate the reason for intron retention. A systematic test showed that, surprisingly, the exon sequences known to modulate exon 11 skipping were not limiting, but the 3’ splice site regions adjacent to exons 11 and 12 were too weak to support splicing when inserted into a globin intron. UV-crosslinking experiments showed binding of hnRNP F/H just 5’ of these regions, but the hnRNP F/H target sequences did not mediate inhibition. Instead, the failure of splicing is linked to weak binding of U2AF65, and spliceosome assembly stalls prior to formation of any of the ATP-dependent complexes. We discuss mechanisms by which U2AF65 binding is facilitated in vivo. PMID:24155930

Smith, Lindsay D.; Lucas, Christian M.; Eperon, Ian C.

2013-01-01

135

RBM24 is a major regulator of muscle-specific alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Cell-type-specific splicing generates numerous alternatively spliced transcripts playing important roles for organ development and homeostasis, but only a few tissue-specific splicing factors have been identified. We found that RBM24 governs a large number of muscle-specific splicing events that are critically involved in cardiac and skeletal muscle development and disease. Targeted inactivation of RBM24 in mice disrupted cardiac development and impaired sarcomerogenesis in striated muscles. In vitro splicing assays revealed that recombinant RBM24 is sufficient to promote muscle-specific exon inclusion in nuclear extracts of nonmuscle cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that binding of RBM24 to an intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) is essential and sufficient to overcome repression of exon inclusion by an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) containing PTB and hnRNP A1/A2 binding sites. Introduction of ESS and ISE converted a constitutive exon into an RMB24-dependent alternative exon. We reason that RBM24 is a major regulator of alternative splicing in striated muscles. PMID:25313962

Yang, Jiwen; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Licht, Thomas; Kostin, Sawa; Looso, Mario; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Bindereif, Albrecht; Schneider, Andre; Braun, Thomas

2014-10-13

136

Effects of alternative splicing on function of Bestrophin-1 calcium-activated chloride channels  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The proposed Ca2+-activated Cl? channel protein Bestrophin 1 (Best1) is expressed and functionally important in the retina and in the brain. Human BEST1 has two known splice variants, Best1V1 and Best1V2, which arise from alternative splicing of two exons: exon 2 splicing results in a unique N-terminal domain, whereas alternative splicing of exon 11 produces two mutually exclusive C-termini. Prior studies were limited to Best1V1 and its clinically relevant mutations. In the present work, we cloned a novel splice variant of Best1V1 missing exon 2 (Best1V1?ex2) and differing from each of the two previously identified isoforms by one alternatively spliced domain. This finding allowed us to determine the role for alternative splicing of the Best1 N- and C-termini. We heteroexpressed Best1V1?ex2 in HEK293 cells, and compared its properties to Best1V1 and Best1V2. Western blot analysis confirmed protein expression from all three splice variants. Both Best1V1 and Best1V1?ex2 successfully formed Ca2+-activated Cl? channels, demonstrating that the N-terminus encoded by exon 2 is not essential for channel function. In contrast, Best1V2 expressing cells had no detectable Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, pointing to a critical role for splicing of the C-terminus. Surface protein biotinylation demonstrated that Best1V1 and Best1V1?ex2 are trafficked to the plasma membrane, whereas Best1V2 is not. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Best1 function, and should be taken into consideration in future modeling of the Best1 protein structure. PMID:24341532

Kuo, Yu-Hung; Abdullaev, Iskandar F.; Hyzinski-García, María C.; Mongin, Alexander A.

2014-01-01

137

A Novel SLC12A3 Splicing Mutation Skipping of Two Exons and Preliminary Screening for Alternative Splice Variants in Human Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gitelman’s syndrome is a mild autosomal recessive disorder caused by inactivating mutations of SLC12A3. However, severe phenotype may be associated with compound heterozygous nonfunctional variants such as frameshift and splicing mutations. Because most multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced as shown by recent studies, SLC12A3, with 26 exons, is likely to be alternatively spliced as well. Methods: A case of

Leping Shao; Liqiu Liu; Zhimin Miao; Hong Ren; Weiming Wang; Yanhua Lang; Shaoheng Yue; Nan Chen

2008-01-01

138

Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons  

PubMed Central

Thousands of tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with small size differences. Recent work has concentrated on the question of biological relevance in general, and the physiological regulation of TASS in particular. We have quantitatively studied 11 representative TASS cases in comparison to one mutually exclusive exon case and two cassette exons (CEs) using a panel of human and mouse tissues, as well as cultured cell lines. Tissues show small but significant differences in TASS isoform ratios, with a variance 4- to 20-fold lower than seen for CEs. Remarkably, in cultured cells, all studied alternative splicing (AS) cases showed a cell-density-dependent shift of isoform ratios with similar time series profiles. A respective genome-wide co-regulation of TASS splicing was shown by next-generation mRNA sequencing data. Moreover, data from human and mouse organs indicate that this co-regulation of TASS occurs in vivo, with brain showing the strongest difference to other organs. Together, the results indicate a physiological AS regulation mechanism that functions almost independently from the splice site context and sequence. PMID:25030907

Szafranski, Karol; Fritsch, Claudia; Schumann, Frank; Siebel, Lisa; Sinha, Rileen; Hampe, Jochen; Hiller, Michael; Englert, Christoph; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias

2014-01-01

139

Regulation of gene expression in mammalian nervous system through alternative pre-mRNA splicing coupled with RNA quality control mechanisms.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic gene expression is orchestrated on a genome-wide scale through several post-transcriptional mechanisms. Of these, alternative pre-mRNA splicing expands the proteome diversity and modulates mRNA stability through downstream RNA quality control (QC) pathways including nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of mRNAs containing premature termination codons and nuclear retention and elimination (NRE) of intron-containing transcripts. Although originally identified as mechanisms for eliminating aberrant transcripts, a growing body of evidence suggests that NMD and NRE coupled with deliberate changes in pre-mRNA splicing patterns are also used in a number of biological contexts for deterministic control of gene expression. Here we review recent studies elucidating molecular mechanisms and biological significance of these gene regulation strategies with a specific focus on their roles in nervous system development and physiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'RNA and splicing regulation in neurodegeneration'. PMID:23357783

Yap, Karen; Makeyev, Eugene V

2013-09-01

140

Alternative splicing: Functional diversity among voltage-gated calcium channels and behavioral consequences?  

PubMed Central

Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels generate rapid, transient intracellular calcium signals in response to membrane depolarization. Neuronal CaV channels regulate a range of cellular functions and are implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Each mammalian Cacna1 gene has the potential to generate tens to thousands of CaV channels by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, a process that adds fine granulation to the pool of CaV channel structures and functions. The precise composition of CaV channel splice isoform mRNAs expressed in each cell are controlled by cell-specific splicing factors. The activity of splicing factors are in turn regulated by molecules that encode various cellular features, including cell-type, activity, metabolic states, developmental state, and other factors. The cellular and behavioral consequences of individual sites of CaV splice isoforms are being elucidated, as are the cell-specific splicing factors that control splice isoform selection. Altered patterns of alternative splicing of CaV pre-mRNAs can alter behavior in subtle but measurable ways, with the potential to influence drug efficacy and disease severity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. PMID:23022282

Lipscombe, Diane; Andrade, Arturo; Allen, Summer E.

2012-01-01

141

Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

Alvarez, Enrique, E-mail: ealvarez@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M. [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2011-10-14

142

Dual-specificity splice sites function alternatively as 5 and 3 splice sites  

E-print Network

-scale sequencing projects and recent splicing- microarray studies, estimates of mammalian genes expressing multiple genome- wide, high-quality alignment of mRNA/EST and genome sequences and experimentally verified by RT of genome sequences and a large amount of mRNA/EST data, especially in human and mouse, genome

143

Regulation of Translation Factor EEF1D Gene Function by Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is an exquisite mechanism that allows one coding gene to have multiple functions. The alternative splicing machinery is necessary for proper development, differentiation and stress responses in a variety of organisms, and disruption of this machinery is often implicated in human diseases. Previously, we discovered a long form of eukaryotic elongation factor 1B? (eEF1B?; this long-form eEF1B? results from alternative splicing of EEF1D transcripts and regulates the cellular stress response by transcriptional activation, not translational enhancement, of heat-shock responsive genes. In this review, we discuss the molecular function of EEF1D alternative splicing products and the estimated implication of human diseases. PMID:25686034

Kaitsuka, Taku; Matsushita, Masayuki

2015-01-01

144

Functional variations modulating PRKCA expression and alternative splicing predispose to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene, encoding a Th17-cell-selective kinase, was repeatedly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. We replicated the association in Italians (409 cases, 723 controls), identifying a protective signal in the PRKCA promoter (P = 0.033), and a risk haplotype in intron 3 (P = 7.7 × 10(-4); meta-analysis with previously published data: P = 4.01 × 10(-8)). Expression experiments demonstrated that the protective signal is associated with alleles conferring higher PRKCA expression levels, well fitting our observation that MS patients have significantly lower PRKCA mRNA levels in blood. The risk haplotype was shown to be driven by a GGTG ins/del polymorphism influencing the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H-dependent inclusion/skipping of a PRKCA alternative exon 3*. Indeed, exon 3* can be present in two different versions in PRKCA mRNAs (out-of-frame 61 bp or in-frame 66 bp long), and is preferentially included in transcripts generated through a premature polyadenylation event. The GGTG insertion downregulates 3* inclusion and shifts splicing towards the 66 bp isoform. Both events reduce the nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay-induced degradation of exon 3*-containing mRNAs. Since we demonstrated that the protein isoform produced through premature polyadenylation aberrantly localizes to the plasma membrane and/or in cytoplasmic clusters, dysregulated PRKCA 3* inclusion may represent an additional mechanism relevant to MS susceptibility. PMID:25080502

Paraboschi, Elvezia M; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Tabaglio, Tommaso; Dall'Osso, Claudia; Saba, Elena; Vigliano, Marco; Salviati, Alessandro; Leone, Maurizio; Benedetti, Maria D; Fornasari, Diego; Saarela, Janna; De Jager, Philip L; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Gemmati, Donato; Duga, Stefano; Asselta, Rosanna

2014-12-20

145

Alternative splicing of delta-like 1 homolog ( DLK1) in the pig and human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), a paternally imprinted gene with several alternative splicing isoforms, is an important regulator of fetal and postnatal development. We report the sequence of porcine DLK1 (pDLK1) and examine the expression and alternative splicing isoforms in the pig (Sus scrofa) and human. DLK1-A was the sole isoform identified in human tissues and has been shown to be

Jeffrey A. Deiuliis; Bing Li; Pasha A. Lyvers-Peffer; Steven J. Moeller; Kichoon Lee

2006-01-01

146

Identification of rare alternative splicing events in MS/MS data reveals a significant fraction of alternative translation initiation sites  

PubMed Central

Integration of transcriptome data is a crucial step for the identification of rare protein variants in mass-spectrometry (MS) data with important consequences for all branches of biotechnology research. Here, we used Splooce, a database of splicing variants recently developed by us, to search MS data derived from a variety of human tumor cell lines. More than 800 new protein variants were identified whose corresponding MS spectra were specific to protein entries from Splooce. Although the types of splicing variants (exon skipping, alternative splice sites and intron retention) were found at the same frequency as in the transcriptome, we observed a large variety of modifications at the protein level induced by alternative splicing events. Surprisingly, we found that 40% of all protein modifications induced by alternative splicing led to the use of alternative translation initiation sites. Other modifications include frameshifts in the open reading frame and inclusion or deletion of peptide sequences. To make the dataset generated here available to the community in a more effective form, the Splooce portal (http://www.bioinformatics-brazil.org/splooce) was modified to report the alternative splicing events supported by MS data. PMID:25405079

Kroll, José E.; de Souza, Sandro J.

2014-01-01

147

Aberrant splicing and transcription termination caused by P element insertion into the intron of a Drosophila gene  

SciTech Connect

Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5{prime} untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce an mRNA composed of 5{prime} sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3{prime} sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Horowitz, H.; Berg, C.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-01-01

148

Binding of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev to an Exon Splicing Enhancer Mediates Alternative Splicing and Nuclear Export of Viral mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to facilitating the nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev regulates alternative splicing of the third exon of the tat\\/rev mRNA. In the presence of Rev, this exon of the bicistronic RNA is skipped in a fraction of the spliced mRNAs. In this report, the cis-acting requirements for exon 3 usage were

MICHAEL BELSHAN; GREGORY S. PARK; PATRICIA BILODEAU; C. MARTIN STOLTZFUS; S. Carpenter

2000-01-01

149

Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression  

PubMed Central

Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

2014-01-01

150

C6 pyridinium ceramide influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing by inhibiting protein phosphatase-1  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA processing is a central element of eukaryotic gene regulation. The cell frequently alters the use of alternative exons in response to physiological stimuli. Ceramides are lipid-signaling molecules composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid. Previously, water-insoluble ceramides were shown to change alternative splicing and decrease SR-protein phosphorylation by activating protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). To gain further mechanistical insight into ceramide-mediated alternative splicing, we analyzed the effect of C6 pyridinium ceramide (PyrCer) on alternative splice site selection. PyrCer is a water-soluble ceramide analog that is under investigation as a cancer drug. We found that PyrCer binds to the PP1 catalytic subunit and inhibits the dephosphorylation of several splicing regulatory proteins containing the evolutionarily conserved RVxF PP1-binding motif (including PSF/SFPQ, Tra2-beta1 and SF2/ASF). In contrast to natural ceramides, PyrCer promotes phosphorylation of splicing factors. Exons that are regulated by PyrCer have in common suboptimal splice sites, are unusually short and share two 4-nt motifs, GAAR and CAAG. They are dependent on PSF/SFPQ, whose phosphorylation is regulated by PyrCer. Our results indicate that lipids can influence pre-mRNA processing by regulating the phosphorylation status of specific regulatory factors, which is mediated by protein phosphatase activity. PMID:22210893

Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Kelemen, Olga; Beullens, Monique; Aubol, Brandon E.; Adams, Joseph A.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew; Bollen, Mathieu; Andreadis, Athena; Stamm, Stefan

2012-01-01

151

Conserved RNA cis-elements regulate alternative splicing of Lepidopteran doublesex.  

PubMed

Doublesex (dsx) is a downstream key regulator in insect sex determination pathway. In Drosophila, alternative splicing of Dm-dsx gene is sex-specifically regulated by transformer (tra), in which the functional TRA promotes female-specific Dm-dsx. However, the sex determination pathway in Lepidoptera is not well understood; here we focused on alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) in two agricultural pests, Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), as well as the silkworm (Bombyx mori). More than a dozen new alternative splicing isoforms of dsx were found in the Lepidopteran females, which exist in all tested developmental stages and differentiated tissues. Alignment of mRNA and protein sequences of doublesex revealed high conservation of this gene in Lepidoptera. Strength analysis of splice sites revealed a weak 5' splice site at intron 3 in Lepidopteran dsx, which was experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, we identified highly conserved RNA sequences in the Lepidopteran dsx, including RNA elements I (14 nt), II (11 nt), III (26 nt), IV (17 nt), 3E-1 (8 nt) and 3E-2 (8 nt). The RNA elements III and IV were previously found in exon 4 of B. mori dsx and bound with Bm-PSI, which suppressed the inclusion of exons 3 & 4 into the male-specific Bm-dsx. Then we identified and analyzed the homologous genes of Bm-psi in the two Lepidopteran pests, which expressed at similar levels and exhibited a unique isoform in the males and females from each Lepidoptera. Importantly, mutagenesis of Bm-dsx mini-genes and their expression in BmN cell line demonstrated that three RNA elements are involved in the female-specific alternative splicing of Bm-dsx. Mutations in the RNA cis-elements 3E-1 and 3E-2 resulted in decreased inclusion of exon 3 into the female-specific dsx mRNA, suggesting that these two elements would be exonic splicing enhancers that facilitate the recognition of the weak 5' splice site at intron 3 of Lepidopteran dsx. We propose that the 5' splice sites at intron 3 are weak, resulting in multiple alternative splicing events in intron 3 of female Lepidoptera dsx. Activation of the 5' splice site requires regulatory cis-elements in exons 3 for female-specific splicing of Lepidoptera dsx. PMID:24239545

Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zheng, Zeng-Zhang; Song, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Zhen

2014-01-01

152

Increased Dosage of Dyrk1A Alters Alternative Splicing Factor (ASF)-regulated Alternative Splicing of Tau in Down Syndrome*S??  

PubMed Central

Two groups of tau, 3R- and 4R-tau, are generated by alternative splicing of tau exon 10. Normal adult human brain expresses equal levels of them. Disruption of the physiological balance is a common feature of several tauopathies. Very early in their life, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer-type tau pathology, the molecular basis for which is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Dyrk1A, a kinase encoded by a gene in the DS critical region, phosphorylates alternative splicing factor (ASF) at Ser-227, Ser-234, and Ser-238, driving it into nuclear speckles and preventing it from facilitating tau exon 10 inclusion. The increased dosage of Dyrk1A in DS brain due to trisomy of chromosome 21 correlates to an increase in 3R-tau level, which on abnormal hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau results in neurofibrillary degeneration. Imbalance of 3R- and 4R-tau in DS brain by Dyrk1A-induced dysregulation of alternative splicing factor-mediated alternative splicing of tau exon 10 represents a novel mechanism of neurofibrillary degeneration and may help explain early onset tauopathy in individuals with DS. PMID:18658135

Shi, Jianhua; Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Chunlei; Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Gu, Xiaosong; Wegiel, Jerzy; Zhou, Jianhua; Hwang, Yu-Wen; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

2008-01-01

153

Proteins associated with the exon junction complex also control the alternative splicing of apoptotic regulators.  

PubMed

Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-x(S) splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis; Chabot, Benoit

2012-03-01

154

Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators  

PubMed Central

Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

155

Regulation of alternative splicing of tau exon 10 by 9G8 and Dyrk1A  

PubMed Central

Adult human brain expresses six isoforms of tau protein as a result of alternative splicing. Alternative splicing of exon 10 (E10) leads to tau isoforms containing either three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. Imbalance in the 3R-tau/4R-tau ratio causes neurofibrillary degeneration and dementia. Here, we demonstrated that the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation–regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) interacted with the splicing factor 9G8 and phosphorylated it at several serine residues. Dyrk1A itself promoted tau E10 inclusion, whereas 9G8 inhibited E10 inclusion, and these actions were variable depending on the cell types. Co-expression of Dyrk1A and 9G8 led to their translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and suppressed their ability to regulate tau exon 10 splicing. This action is probably due to their interaction-induced translocation from the nucleus, where the regulation of tau E10 splicing occurs, to the cytoplasm. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of the regulation of tau E10 splicing and further our understanding of the neurodegeneration caused by dysregulation of tau E10 splicing. PMID:21215488

Ding, Shaohong; Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

2010-01-01

156

RNA-dependent dynamic histone acetylation regulates MCL1 alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) catalyze dynamic histone acetylation at regulatory and coding regions of transcribed genes. Highly phosphorylated HDAC2 is recruited within corepressor complexes to regulatory regions, while the nonphosphorylated form is associated with the gene body. In this study, we characterized the nonphosphorylated HDAC2 complexes recruited to the transcribed gene body and explored the function of HDAC-complex-mediated dynamic histone acetylation. HDAC1 and 2 were coimmunoprecipitated with several splicing factors, including serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) which has roles in alternative splicing. The co-chromatin immunoprecipitation of HDAC1/2 and SRSF1 to the gene body was RNA-dependent. Inhibition of HDAC activity and knockdown of HDAC1, HDAC2 or SRSF1 showed that these proteins were involved in alternative splicing of MCL1. HDAC1/2 and KAT2B were associated with nascent pre-mRNA in general and with MCL1 pre-mRNA specifically. Inhibition of HDAC activity increased the occupancy of KAT2B and acetylation of H3 and H4 of the H3K4 methylated alternative MCL1 exon 2 nucleosome. Thus, nonphosphorylated HDAC1/2 is recruited to pre-mRNA by splicing factors to act at the RNA level with KAT2B and other KATs to catalyze dynamic histone acetylation of the MCL1 alternative exon and alter the splicing of MCL1 pre-mRNA. PMID:24234443

Khan, Dilshad H.; Gonzalez, Carolina; Cooper, Charlton; Sun, Jian-Min; Chen, Hou Yu; Healy, Shannon; Xu, Wayne; Smith, Karen T.; Workman, Jerry L.; Leygue, Etienne; Davie, James R.

2014-01-01

157

A survey of computational methods in transcriptome-wide alternative splicing analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. Consequently the identification and quantification of differentially spliced transcripts is pivotal for transcriptome analysis. Here, we review the currently available computational approaches for the analysis of RNA-sequencing data with a focus on exon-skipping events of alternative splicing and discuss the novelties as well as challenges faced to perform differential splicing analyses. In accordance with operational needs we have classified the software tools, which may be instrumental for a specific analysis based on the experimental objectives and expected outcomes. In addition, we also propose a framework for future directions by pinpointing more extensive experimental validation to assess the accuracy of the software predictions and improvements that would facilitate visualizations, data processing, and downstream analyses along with their associated software implementations. PMID:25719337

Wang, Jianbo; Ye, Zhenqing; Huang, Tim H-M; Shi, Huidong; Jin, Victor

2015-03-01

158

RNA-seq of Arabidopsis pollen uncovers novel transcription and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing patterns of pollen transcripts will improve our understanding of pollen and allow investigation of tissue-specific splicing in plants. Most Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome studies have used the ATH1 microarray, which does not assay splice variants and lacks specific probe sets for many genes. To investigate the pollen transcriptome, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Arabidopsis pollen and seedlings for comparison. Gene expression was more diverse in seedling, and genes involved in cell wall biogenesis were highly expressed in pollen. RNA-Seq detected at least 4,172 protein-coding genes expressed in pollen, including 289 assayed only by nonspecific probe sets. Additional exons and previously unannotated 5' and 3' untranslated regions for pollen-expressed genes were revealed. We detected regions in the genome not previously annotated as expressed; 14 were tested and 12 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Gapped read alignments revealed 1,908 high-confidence new splicing events supported by 10 or more spliced read alignments. Alternative splicing patterns in pollen and seedling were highly correlated. For most alternatively spliced genes, the ratio of variants in pollen and seedling was similar, except for some encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing. This study highlights the robustness of splicing patterns in plants and the importance of ongoing annotation and visualization of RNA-Seq data using interactive tools such as Integrated Genome Browser. PMID:23590974

Loraine, Ann E; McCormick, Sheila; Estrada, April; Patel, Ketan; Qin, Peng

2013-06-01

159

Psip1/Ledgf p52 Binds Methylated Histone H3K36 and Splicing Factors and Contributes to the Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that chromatin modifications have important roles in modulating constitutive or alternative splicing. Here we demonstrate that the PWWP domain of the chromatin-associated protein Psip1/Ledgf can specifically recognize tri-methylated H3K36 and that, like this histone modification, the Psip1 short (p52) isoform is enriched at active genes. We show that the p52, but not the long (p75), isoform of Psip1 co-localizes and interacts with Srsf1 and other proteins involved in mRNA processing. The level of H3K36me3 associated Srsf1 is reduced in Psip1 mutant cells and alternative splicing of specific genes is affected. Moreover, we show altered Srsf1 distribution around the alternatively spliced exons of these genes in Psip1 null cells. We propose that Psip1/p52, through its binding to both chromatin and splicing factors, might act to modulate splicing. PMID:22615581

Pradeepa, Madapura M.; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Ule, Jernej; Grimes, Graeme R.; Bickmore, Wendy A.

2012-01-01

160

The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing  

E-print Network

factor genes uaf-1 (the C. elegans U2AF large subunit gene) and sfa-1 (the C. elegans SF1/BBP gene). WeRNP complex and the SF1/U2AF65/U2AF35 protein complex recognize the 59 and 39 splice sites of an intronThe Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing

Horvitz, H. Robert

161

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis  

SciTech Connect

Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

2009-02-03

162

Regulation of the alternative splicing of tau exon 10 by SC35 and Dyrk1A  

PubMed Central

Abnormal alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in imbalance of 3R-tau and 4R-tau expression, which is sufficient to cause neurofibrillary degeneration. Splicing factor SC35, a member of the superfamily of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, promotes tau exon 10 inclusion. The molecular mechanism by which SC35 participates in tau exon 10 splicing remains elusive. In the present study, we found that tau pre-mRNA was coprecipitated by SC35 tagged with HA. Mutation of the SC35-like exonic splicing enhancer located at exon 10 of tau affected both the binding of SC35 to tau pre-mRNA and promotion of tau exon 10 inclusion, suggesting that SC35 acts on the SC35-like exonic splicing enhancer to promote tau exon 10 inclusion. Dyrk1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A) phosphorylated SC35 in vitro and interacted with it in cultured cells. Overexpression of Dyrk1A suppressed SC35?s ability to promote tau exon 10 inclusion. Downregulation of Dyrk1A promoted 4R-tau expression. Therefore, upregulation of Dyrk1A in Down syndrome brain or Alzheimer’s brain may cause dysregulation of tau exon 10 splicing through SC35, and probably together with other splicing factors, leading to the imbalance in 3R-tau and 4R-tau expression, which may initiate or accelerate tau pathology and cause neurofibrillary degeneration in the diseases. PMID:21470964

Qian, Wei; Liang, Hongwei; Shi, Jianhua; Jin, Nana; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

2011-01-01

163

Genetic variants affecting alternative splicing of human cholesteryl ester transfer protein  

PubMed Central

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport, with decreased CETP activity increasing HDL levels. Formation of an alternative splice form lacking exon 9 (?9-CETP) has been associated with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in high linkage disequilibrium with each other, namely rs9930761 T>C located in intron 8 in a putative splicing branch site and rs5883 C>T in a possible exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) site in exon 9. To assess the relative effect of rs9930761 and rs5883 on splicing, mini-gene constructs spanning CETP exons 8 to 10, carrying all four possible allele combinations, were transfected into HEK293 and HepG2 cells. The minor T allele of rs5883 enhanced splicing significantly in both cell lines whereas the minor C allele of rs9930761 did not. In combination, the two alleles did not yield greater splicing than the rs5883 T allele alone in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the genetic effect on CETP splicing is largely attributable to rs5883. We also confirm that ?9-CETP protein is expressed in the liver but fails to circulate in the blood. PMID:24393849

Suhy, Adam; Hartmann, Katherine; Newman, Leslie; Papp, Audrey; Toneff, Thomas; Hook, Vivian; Sadee, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

164

Internal Polyadenylation of the Parvovirus B19 Precursor mRNA Is Regulated by Alternative Splicing*  

PubMed Central

Alternative processing of parvovirus B19 (B19V) pre-mRNA is critical to generating appropriate levels of B19V mRNA transcripts encoding capsid proteins and small nonstructural proteins. Polyadenylation of the B19V pre-mRNA at the proximal polyadenylation site ((pA)p), which prevents generation of full-length capsid proteins encoding mRNA transcripts, has been suggested as a step that blocks B19V permissiveness. We report here that efficient splicing of the B19V pre-mRNA within the first intron (upstream of the (pA)p site) stimulated the polyadenylation; in contrast, splicing of the B19V pre-mRNA within the second intron (in which the (pA)p site resides) interfered with the polyadenylation, leading to the generation of a sufficient number of B19V mRNA transcripts polyadenylated at the distal polyadenylation site ((pA)d). We also found that splicing within the second intron and polyadenylation at the (pA)p site compete during processing of the B19V pre-mRNA. Furthermore, we discovered that the U1 RNA that binds to the 5? splice donor site of the second intron is fully responsible for inhibiting polyadenylation at the (pA)p site, whereas actual splicing, and perhaps assembly of the functional spliceosome, is not required. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of B19V pre-mRNA splicing within the second intron by targeting an intronic splicing enhancer using a Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide prevented B19V mRNA transcripts polyadenylated at the (pA)d site during B19V infection of human erythroid progenitors. Thus, our study reveals the mechanism by which alternative splicing coordinates alternative polyadenylation to generate full-length B19V mRNA transcripts at levels sufficient to support productive B19V infection. PMID:21622561

Guan, Wuxiang; Huang, Qinfeng; Cheng, Fang; Qiu, Jianming

2011-01-01

165

Congenital analbuminemia caused by a novel aberrant splicing in the albumin gene  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Congenital analbuminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. It is an allelic heterogeneous defect, caused by variety of mutations within the albumin gene in homozygous or compound heterozygous state. Herein we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a new case of congenital analbuminemia diagnosed in a female newborn of consanguineous (first degree cousins) parents from Ankara, Turkey, who presented with a low albumin concentration (< 8 g/L) and severe clinical symptoms. Materials and methods: The albumin gene of the index case was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex analysis, and direct DNA sequencing. The effect of the splicing mutation was evaluated by examining the cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the albumin mRNA extracted from proband’s leukocytes. Results: DNA sequencing revealed that the proband is homozygous, and both parents are heterozygous, for a novel G>A transition at position c.1652+1, the first base of intron 12, which inactivates the strongly conserved GT dinucleotide at the 5? splice site consensus sequence of this intron. The splicing defect results in the complete skipping of the preceding exon (exon 12) and in a frame-shift within exon 13 with a premature stop codon after the translation of three mutant amino acid residues. Conclusions: Our results confirm the clinical diagnosis of congenital analbuminemia in the proband and the inheritance of the trait and contribute to shed light on the molecular genetics of analbuminemia. PMID:24627724

Caridi, Gianluca; Dagnino, Monica; Erdeve, Omer; Di Duca, Marco; Yildiz, Duran; Alan, Serdar; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet; Campagnoli, Monica; Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

166

QUANTIFYING ALTERNATIVE SPLICING FROM PAIRED-END RNA-SEQUENCING DATA.  

PubMed

RNA-sequencing has revolutionized biomedical research and, in particular, our ability to study gene alternative splicing. The problem has important implications for human health, as alternative splicing may be involved in malfunctions at the cellular level and multiple diseases. However, the high-dimensional nature of the data and the existence of experimental biases pose serious data analysis challenges. We find that the standard data summaries used to study alternative splicing are severely limited, as they ignore a substantial amount of valuable information. Current data analysis methods are based on such summaries and are hence sub-optimal. Further, they have limited flexibility in accounting for technical biases. We propose novel data summaries and a Bayesian modeling framework that overcome these limitations and determine biases in a non-parametric, highly flexible manner. These summaries adapt naturally to the rapid improvements in sequencing technology. We provide efficient point estimates and uncertainty assessments. The approach allows to study alternative splicing patterns for individual samples and can also be the basis for downstream analyses. We found a several fold improvement in estimation mean square error compared popular approaches in simulations, and substantially higher consistency between replicates in experimental data. Our findings indicate the need for adjusting the routine summarization and analysis of alternative splicing RNA-seq studies. We provide a software implementation in the R package casper. PMID:24795787

Rossell, David; Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Kroiss, Manuel; Stöcker, Almond

2014-03-01

167

QUANTIFYING ALTERNATIVE SPLICING FROM PAIRED-END RNA-SEQUENCING DATA  

PubMed Central

RNA-sequencing has revolutionized biomedical research and, in particular, our ability to study gene alternative splicing. The problem has important implications for human health, as alternative splicing may be involved in malfunctions at the cellular level and multiple diseases. However, the high-dimensional nature of the data and the existence of experimental biases pose serious data analysis challenges. We find that the standard data summaries used to study alternative splicing are severely limited, as they ignore a substantial amount of valuable information. Current data analysis methods are based on such summaries and are hence sub-optimal. Further, they have limited flexibility in accounting for technical biases. We propose novel data summaries and a Bayesian modeling framework that overcome these limitations and determine biases in a non-parametric, highly flexible manner. These summaries adapt naturally to the rapid improvements in sequencing technology. We provide efficient point estimates and uncertainty assessments. The approach allows to study alternative splicing patterns for individual samples and can also be the basis for downstream analyses. We found a several fold improvement in estimation mean square error compared popular approaches in simulations, and substantially higher consistency between replicates in experimental data. Our findings indicate the need for adjusting the routine summarization and analysis of alternative splicing RNA-seq studies. We provide a software implementation in the R package casper* PMID:24795787

Rossell, David; Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Kroiss, Manuel; Stöcker, Almond

2014-01-01

168

Analysis of Genetic Interaction Networks Shows That Alternatively Spliced Genes Are Highly Versatile  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing has the potential to increase the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Where more than one transcript arises from a gene they are often so different that they are quite unlikely to have the same function. However, it remains unclear if alternative splicing generally leads to a gene being involved in multiple biological processes or whether it alters the function within a single process. Knowing that genetic interactions occur between functionally related genes, we have used them as a proxy for functional versatility, and have analysed the sets of genes of two well-characterised model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Using network analyses we find that few genes are functionally homogenous (only involved in a few functionally-related biological processes). Moreover, there are differences between alternatively spliced genes and genes with a single transcript; specifically, genes with alternatively splicing are, on average, involved in more biological processes. Finally, we suggest that factors other than specific functional classes determine whether a gene is alternatively spliced. PMID:23409018

Talavera, David; Sheoran, Ritika; Lovell, Simon C.

2013-01-01

169

Regulation of neurexin 1? tertiary structure and ligand binding through alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Summary Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a “splice insert signaling code”. In particular, neurexin 1? carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS#4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1?+SS#4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the “hyper-variable surface”, the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop ?10-?11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and 3) rearranges the Ca2+-binding site required for ligand binding increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1? isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity. PMID:18334217

Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby

2008-01-01

170

Nuclear matrix protein Matrin3 regulates alternative splicing and forms overlapping regulatory networks with PTB.  

PubMed

Matrin3 is an RNA- and DNA-binding nuclear matrix protein found to be associated with neural and muscular degenerative diseases. A number of possible functions of Matrin3 have been suggested, but no widespread role in RNA metabolism has yet been clearly demonstrated. We identified Matrin3 by its interaction with the second RRM domain of the splicing regulator PTB. Using a combination of RNAi knockdown, transcriptome profiling and iCLIP, we find that Matrin3 is a regulator of hundreds of alternative splicing events, principally acting as a splicing repressor with only a small proportion of targeted events being co-regulated by PTB. In contrast to other splicing regulators, Matrin3 binds to an extended region within repressed exons and flanking introns with no sharply defined peaks. The identification of this clear molecular function of Matrin3 should help to clarify the molecular pathology of ALS and other diseases caused by mutations of Matrin3. PMID:25599992

Coelho, Miguel B; Attig, Jan; Bellora, Nicolás; König, Julian; Hallegger, Martina; Kayikci, Melis; Eyras, Eduardo; Ule, Jernej; Smith, Christopher Wj

2015-03-01

171

Tissue-specific alternative splicing analysis reveals the diversity of chromosome 18 transcriptome.  

PubMed

The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is aimed to identify the variety of protein products and transcripts of the number of chromosomes. The Russian part of C-HPP is devoted to the study of the human chromosome 18. Using widely accepted Tophat and SpliceGrapher, a tool for accurate splice sites and alternative mRNA isoforms prediction, we performed the extensive mining of the splice variants of chromosome 18 transcripts and encoded protein products in liver, brain, lung, kidney, blood, testis, derma, and skeletal muscles. About 6.1 billion of the reads represented by 450 billion of the bases have been analyzed. The relative frequencies of splice events as well as gene expression profiles in normal tissues are evaluated. Using ExPASy PROSITE, the novel features and possible functional sites of previously unknown splice variants were highlighted. A set of unique proteotypic peptides enabling the identification of novel alternative protein species using mass-spectrometry is constructed. The revealed data will be integrated into the gene-centric knowledgebase of the Russian part of C-HPP available at http://kb18.ru and http://www.splicing.zz.mu/. PMID:24320163

Shargunov, Alexander V; Krasnov, George S; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Lisitsa, Andrey V; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Zverev, Vitaliy V; Archakov, Alexander I; Blinov, Vladimir M

2014-01-01

172

SKIP is a component of the spliceosome linking alternative splicing and the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA processing, is emerging as a critical step for clock function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking RNA metabolism to the circadian clock network. Here, we report that a conserved SNW/Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) domain protein, SKIP, a splicing factor and component of the spliceosome, is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of circadian clock genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation in SKIP lengthens the circadian period in a temperature-sensitive manner and affects light input and the sensitivity of the clock to light resetting. SKIP physically interacts with the spliceosomal splicing factor Ser/Arg-rich protein45 and associates with the pre-mRNA of clock genes, such as PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) and PRR9, and is necessary for the regulation of their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. Genome-wide investigations reveal that SKIP functions in regulating alternative splicing of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition or cleavage of 5' and 3' splice donor and acceptor sites. Our study addresses a fundamental question on how the mRNA splicing machinery contributes to circadian clock function at a posttranscriptional level. PMID:22942380

Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Fangming; Xie, Qiguang; Wang, Huamei; Wang, Ying; Yue, Yanling; Gahura, Ondrej; Ma, Shuangshuang; Liu, Lei; Cao, Ying; Jiao, Yuling; Puta, Frantisek; McClung, C Robertson; Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Ligeng

2012-08-01

173

Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program  

SciTech Connect

A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

2006-06-15

174

Regulation of transcription of the RNA splicing factor hSlu7 by Elk-1 and Sp1 affects alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing plays a major role in transcriptome diversity and plasticity, but it is largely unknown how tissue-specific and embryogenesis-specific alternative splicing is regulated. The highly conserved splicing factor Slu7 is involved in 3? splice site selection and also regulates alternative splicing. We show that Slu7 has a unique spatial pattern of expression among human and mouse embryonic and adult tissues. We identified several functional Ets binding sites and GC-boxes in the human Slu7 (hSlu7) promoter region. The Ets and GC-box binding transcription factors, Elk-1 and Sp1, respectively, exerted opposite effects on hSlu7 transcription: Sp1 protein enhances and Elk-1 protein represses transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Sp1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Sp1 by RNA interference (RNAi) repressed hSlu7 expression. Elk-1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Elk-1 by RNAi caused an increase in the endogenous level of hSlu7 mRNA. Further, depletion of either Sp1 or Elk-1 affected alternative splicing. Our results provide indications of a complex transcription regulation mechanism that controls the spatial and temporal expression of Slu7, presumably allowing regulation of tissue-specific alternative splicing events. PMID:17804646

Alberstein, Moti; Amit, Maayan; Vaknin, Keren; O'Donnell, Amanda; Farhy, Chen; Lerenthal, Yaniv; Shomron, Noam; Shaham, Ohad; Sharrocks, Andrew D.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Ast, Gil

2007-01-01

175

An alternatively spliced surfactant protein B mRNA in normal human lung: disease implication.  

PubMed Central

We identified an alternatively-spliced surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA from normal human lung with a 12 nt deletion at the beginning of exon 8. This deletion causes a loss of four amino acids in the SP-B precursor protein. Sequence comparison of the 3' splice sites reveals only one difference in the frequency of U/C in the 11 predominantly-pyrimidine nucleotide tract, 73% for the normal and 45% for the alternatively-spliced SP-B mRNA (77-99% for the consensus sequence). Analysis of SP-B mRNA in lung indicates that the abundance of the alternatively-spliced form is very low and varies among individuals. Although the relative abundance of the deletion form of SP-B mRNA remains constant among normal lungs, it is found with relatively higher abundance in the lungs of some individuals with diseases such as congenital alveolar proteinosis, respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia and hypophosphatasia. This observation points to the possibility that the alternative splicing is a potential regulatory mechanism of SP-B and may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease under certain circumstances. PMID:10493923

Lin, Z; Wang, G; Demello, D E; Floros, J

1999-01-01

176

Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5? splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5? exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. PMID:24214997

McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M.; Zimmerly, Steven

2014-01-01

177

RNA interference knockdown of DNA methyl-transferase 3 affects gene alternative splicing  

E-print Network

experimental test of the effect of methylation on alternative slicing at the whole genome level has never beenRNA interference knockdown of DNA methyl- transferase 3 affects gene alternative splicing of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030; f Divisions of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

Jacobsen, Steve

178

New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases. PMID:25414781

Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

2014-10-01

179

New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases. PMID:25414781

Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

2014-01-01

180

Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle function  

PubMed Central

Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos was strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle function. PMID:21925157

Gallagher, Thomas L.; Arribere, Joshua A.; Geurts, Paul A.; Exner, Cameron R. T.; McDonald, Kent L.; Dill, Kariena K.; Marr, Henry L.; Adkar, Shaunak S.; Garnett, Aaron T.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Conboy, John G.

2012-01-01

181

The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

2014-04-01

182

Alternative splicing and gene duplication differentially shaped the regulation of isochorismate synthase in Populus and Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Isochorismate synthase (ICS) converts chorismate to isochorismate for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone, an essential cofactor for photosynthetic electron transport. ICS is also required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis during Arabidopsis defense. In several other species, including Populus, SA is derived primarily from the phenylpropanoid pathway. We therefore sought to investigate ICS regulation in Populus to learn the extent of ICS involvement in SA synthesis and defense. Arabidopsis harbors duplicated AtICS genes that differ in their exon-intron structure, basal expression, and stress inducibility. In contrast, we found a single ICS gene in Populus and six other sequenced plant genomes, pointing to the AtICS duplication as a lineage-specific event. The Populus ICS encodes a functional plastidic enzyme, and was not responsive to stresses that stimulated phenylpropanoid accumulation. Populus ICS underwent extensive alternative splicing that was rare for the duplicated AtICSs. Sequencing of 184 RT-PCR Populus clones revealed 37 alternative splice variants, with normal transcripts representing ?50% of the population. When expressed in Arabidopsis, Populus ICS again underwent alternative splicing, but did not produce normal transcripts to complement AtICS1 function. The splice-site sequences of Populus ICS are unusual, suggesting a causal link between junction sequence, alternative splicing, and ICS function. We propose that gene duplication and alternative splicing of ICS evolved independently in Arabidopsis and Populus in accordance with their distinct defense strategies. AtICS1 represents a divergent isoform for inducible SA synthesis during defense. Populus ICS primarily functions in phylloquinone biosynthesis, a process that can be sustained at low ICS transcript levels. PMID:19996170

Yuan, Yinan; Chung, Jeng-Der; Fu, Xueyan; Johnson, Virgil E.; Ranjan, Priya; Booth, Sarah L.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2009-01-01

183

A deep survey of alternative splicing in grape reveals changes in the splicing machinery related to tissue, stress condition and genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity. It is differentially regulated in a wide variety of cell types and plays a role in several cellular processes. Here we describe a detailed survey of alternative splicing in grape based on 124 SOLiD RNAseq analyses from different tissues, stress conditions and genotypes. Results We used the RNAseq data to update the existing grape gene prediction with 2,258 new coding genes and 3,336 putative long non-coding RNAs. Several gene structures have been improved and alternative splicing was described for about 30% of the genes. A link between AS and miRNAs was shown in 139 genes where we found that AS affects the miRNA target site. A quantitative analysis of the isoforms indicated that most of the spliced genes have one major isoform and tend to simultaneously co-express a low number of isoforms, typically two, with intron retention being the most frequent alternative splicing event. Conclusions As described in Arabidopsis, also grape displays a marked AS tissue-specificity, while stress conditions produce splicing changes to a minor extent. Surprisingly, some distinctive splicing features were also observed between genotypes. This was further supported by the observation that the panel of Serine/Arginine-rich splicing factors show a few, but very marked differences between genotypes. The finding that a part the splicing machinery can change in closely related organisms can lead to some interesting hypotheses for evolutionary adaptation, that could be particularly relevant in the response to sudden and strong selective pressures. PMID:24739459

2014-01-01

184

Alpharetroviral vector-mediated gene therapy for X-CGD: functional correction and lack of aberrant splicing.  

PubMed

Comparative integrome analysis has revealed that the most neutral integration pattern among retroviruses is attributed to alpharetroviruses. We chose X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) as model to evaluate the potential of self-inactivating (SIN) alpharetroviral vectors for gene therapy of monogenic diseases. Therefore, we combined the alpharetroviral vector backbone with the elongation factor-1? short promoter, both considered to possess a low genotoxic profile, to drive transgene (gp91(phox)) expression. Following efficient transduction transgene expression was sustained and provided functional correction of the CGD phenotype in a cell line model at low vector copy number. Further analysis in a murine X-CGD transplantation model revealed gene-marking of bone marrow cells and oxidase positive granulocytes in peripheral blood. Transduction of human X-CGD CD34+ cells provided functional correction up to wild-type levels and long-term expression upon transplantation into a humanized mouse model. In contrast to lentiviral vectors, no aberrantly spliced transcripts containing cellular exons fused to alpharetroviral sequences were found in transduced cells, implying that the safety profile of alpharetroviral vectors may extend beyond their neutral integration profile. Taken together, this highlights the potential of this SIN alpharetroviral system as a platform for new candidate vectors for future gene therapy of hematopoietic disorders. PMID:23207695

Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Brendel, Christian; Suerth, Julia D; Mueller-Kuller, Uta; Chen-Wichmann, Linping; Schwäble, Joachim; Pahujani, Shweta; Kunkel, Hana; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher; Grez, Manuel

2013-03-01

185

ECgene: Genome-based EST clustering and gene modeling for alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

With the availability of the human genome map and fast algorithms for sequence alignment, genome-based EST clustering became a viable method for gene modeling. We developed a novel gene-modeling method, ECgene (Gene modeling by EST Clustering), which combines genome-based EST clustering and the transcript assembly procedure in a coherent and consistent fashion. Specifically, ECgene takes alternative splicing events into consideration. The position of splice sites (i.e., exon–intron boundaries) in the genome map is utilized as the critical information in the whole procedure. Sequences that share any splice sites are grouped together to define an EST cluster in a manner similar to that of the genome-based version of the UniGene algorithm. Transcript assembly is achieved using graph theory that represents the exon connectivity in each cluster as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Distinct paths along exons correspond to possible gene models encompassing all alternative splicing events. EST sequences in each cluster are subclustered further according to the compatibility with gene structure of each splice variant, and they can be regarded as clone evidence for the corresponding isoform. The reliability of each isoform is assessed from the nature of cluster members and from the minimum number of clones required to reconstruct all exons in the transcript. PMID:15805497

Kim, Namshin; Shin, Seokmin; Lee, Sanghyuk

2005-01-01

186

Genome-wide association between DNA methylation and alternative splicing in an invertebrate  

PubMed Central

Background Gene bodies are the most evolutionarily conserved targets of DNA methylation in eukaryotes. However, the regulatory functions of gene body DNA methylation remain largely unknown. DNA methylation in insects appears to be primarily confined to exons. Two recent studies in Apis mellifera (honeybee) and Nasonia vitripennis (jewel wasp) analyzed transcription and DNA methylation data for one gene in each species to demonstrate that exon-specific DNA methylation may be associated with alternative splicing events. In this study we investigated the relationship between DNA methylation, alternative splicing, and cross-species gene conservation on a genome-wide scale using genome-wide transcription and DNA methylation data. Results We generated RNA deep sequencing data (RNA-seq) to measure genome-wide mRNA expression at the exon- and gene-level. We produced a de novo transcriptome from this RNA-seq data and computationally predicted splice variants for the honeybee genome. We found that exons that are included in transcription are higher methylated than exons that are skipped during transcription. We detected enrichment for alternative splicing among methylated genes compared to unmethylated genes using fisher’s exact test. We performed a statistical analysis to reveal that the presence of DNA methylation or alternative splicing are both factors associated with a longer gene length and a greater number of exons in genes. In concordance with this observation, a conservation analysis using BLAST revealed that each of these factors is also associated with higher cross-species gene conservation. Conclusions This study constitutes the first genome-wide analysis exhibiting a positive relationship between exon-level DNA methylation and mRNA expression in the honeybee. Our finding that methylated genes are enriched for alternative splicing suggests that, in invertebrates, exon-level DNA methylation may play a role in the construction of splice variants by positively influencing exon inclusion during transcription. The results from our cross-species homology analysis suggest that DNA methylation and alternative splicing are genetic mechanisms whose utilization could contribute to a longer gene length and a slower rate of gene evolution. PMID:22978521

2012-01-01

187

Regulation of constitutive and alternative splicing by PRMT5 reveals a role for Mdm4 pre-mRNA in sensing defects in the spliceosomal machinery  

PubMed Central

The tight control of gene expression at the level of both transcription and post-transcriptional RNA processing is essential for mammalian development. We here investigate the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a putative splicing regulator and transcriptional cofactor, in mammalian development. We demonstrate that selective deletion of PRMT5 in neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to postnatal death in mice. At the molecular level, the absence of PRMT5 results in reduced methylation of Sm proteins, aberrant constitutive splicing, and the alternative splicing of specific mRNAs with weak 5? donor sites. Intriguingly, the products of these mRNAs are, among others, several proteins regulating cell cycle progression. We identify Mdm4 as one of these key mRNAs that senses the defects in the spliceosomal machinery and transduces the signal to activate the p53 response, providing a mechanistic explanation of the phenotype observed in vivo. Our data demonstrate that PRMT5 is a master regulator of splicing in mammals and uncover a new role for the Mdm4 pre-mRNA, which could be exploited for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24013503

Bezzi, Marco; Teo, Shun Xie; Muller, Julius; Mok, Wei Chuen; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Vardy, Leah A.; Bonday, Zahid Q.; Guccione, Ernesto

2013-01-01

188

CARM1 automethylation is controlled at the level of alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Co-activator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is subjected to multiple post-translational modifications. Our previous finding that automethylation of CARM1 is essential for regulation of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing prompted us to investigate how automethylation is regulated. Here, we report that automethylation is regulated by alternative splicing of CARM1 mRNA to remove exon 15, containing the automethylation site. Specifically, we find that two major alternative transcripts encoding full-length CARM1 (CARM1FL) and CARM1 with exon 15 deleted (CARM1?E15) exist in cells, and each transcript produces the expected protein. Further biochemical characterizations of the automethylation-defective mutant and CARM1?E15 reveal overlapping yet different properties. Interestingly, other arginine methylation substrates also have missing exons encompassing the site(s) of methylation, suggesting that protein arginine methylation level may, in general, be controlled by the alternative splicing mechanism. Finally, we observed differential distribution of CARM1FL and CARM1?E15 in epithelial and stromal cells in normal mouse mammary gland. Thus, alternative splicing not only serves as the determinant for CARM1 automethylation but also generates cell type-specific isoforms that might regulate normal ER? biology in the mammary gland. PMID:23723242

Wang, Lu; Charoensuksai, Purin; Watson, Nikole J.; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Zibo; Coriano, Carlos G.; Kerr, Leslie R.; Xu, Wei

2013-01-01

189

CARM1 automethylation is controlled at the level of alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Co-activator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is subjected to multiple post-translational modifications. Our previous finding that automethylation of CARM1 is essential for regulation of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing prompted us to investigate how automethylation is regulated. Here, we report that automethylation is regulated by alternative splicing of CARM1 mRNA to remove exon 15, containing the automethylation site. Specifically, we find that two major alternative transcripts encoding full-length CARM1 (CARM1FL) and CARM1 with exon 15 deleted (CARM1?E15) exist in cells, and each transcript produces the expected protein. Further biochemical characterizations of the automethylation-defective mutant and CARM1?E15 reveal overlapping yet different properties. Interestingly, other arginine methylation substrates also have missing exons encompassing the site(s) of methylation, suggesting that protein arginine methylation level may, in general, be controlled by the alternative splicing mechanism. Finally, we observed differential distribution of CARM1FL and CARM1?E15 in epithelial and stromal cells in normal mouse mammary gland. Thus, alternative splicing not only serves as the determinant for CARM1 automethylation but also generates cell type-specific isoforms that might regulate normal ER? biology in the mammary gland. PMID:23723242

Wang, Lu; Charoensuksai, Purin; Watson, Nikole J; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Zibo; Coriano, Carlos G; Kerr, Leslie R; Xu, Wei

2013-08-01

190

Tracking the evolution of alternatively spliced exons within the Dscam family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Dscam gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, contains twenty-four exons, four of which are composed of tandem arrays that each undergo mutually exclusive alternative splicing (4, 6, 9 and 17), potentially generating 38,016 protein isoforms. This degree of transcript diversity has not been found in mammalian homologs of Dscam. We examined the molecular evolution of exons within

Mack E Crayton; Bradford C Powell; Todd J Vision; Morgan C Giddings

2006-01-01

191

TWO ISOFORMS OF RUBISCO ACTIVASE IN COTTON, THE PRODUCTS OF SEPARATE GENES NOT ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In several plants, Rubisco activase consists of two isoforms that are produced by alternative splicing of a pre-mRNA. Two forms of activase corresponding to the longer, alpha and the shorter, beta forms were detected in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves, but their N-termini differed. The cDNAs...

192

Assessing the number of ancestral alternatively spliced exons in the human genome  

E-print Network

1 Assessing the number of ancestral alternatively spliced exons in the human genome Rotem Sorek1,4,5,* , Gideon Dror2,4 , and Ron Shamir3 1 Department of Human Genetics, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv to this work 5 Present address: Genomics Division, One Cyclotron Road, MS 84-171, Lawrence Berkeley National

Shamir, Ron

193

Evidence for the widespread coupling of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay  

E-print Network

that are alternatively spliced (Fig. 1a). To exclude errors from genome sequencing and assembly, and to simplify the task to the genomic sequence over the full length of the coding sequence, without gaps in the exons. We further in humans Benjamin P. Lewis* , Richard E. Green*§ , and Steven E. Brenner*§¶ Departments of *Plant

194

Pyrvinium pamoate changes alternative splicing of the serotonin receptor 2C by influencing its RNA structure  

PubMed Central

The serotonin receptor 2C plays a central role in mood and appetite control. It undergoes pre-mRNA editing as well as alternative splicing. The RNA editing suggests that the pre-mRNA forms a stable secondary structure in vivo. To identify substances that promote alternative exons inclusion, we set up a high-throughput screen and identified pyrvinium pamoate as a drug-promoting exon inclusion without editing. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that pyrvinium pamoate binds directly to the pre-mRNA and changes its structure. SHAPE (selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension) assays show that part of the regulated 5?-splice site forms intramolecular base pairs that are removed by this structural change, which likely allows splice site recognition and exon inclusion. Genome-wide analyses show that pyrvinium pamoate regulates >300 alternative exons that form secondary structures enriched in A–U base pairs. Our data demonstrate that alternative splicing of structured pre-mRNAs can be regulated by small molecules that directly bind to the RNA, which is reminiscent to an RNA riboswitch. PMID:23393189

Shen, Manli; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Hiller, Michael; de La Grange, Pierre; Creamer, Trevor P.; Malina, Orit; Sperling, Ruth; Mathews, David H.; Stoilov, Peter; Stamm, Stefan

2013-01-01

195

ALTERNATE PATCHED SPLICE FORMS ARE EXPRESSED IN A TISSUE SPECIFIC MANNER DURING EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is critical for embryonic patterning of nearly every organ system in the developing fetus and is highly conserved across phylogeny. We have previously characterized three alternate splice forms of the Ptc gene, including a novel Exon 1C isoform in the mouse, but...

196

Functional coordination of alternative splicing in the mammalian central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing (AS) functions to expand proteomic complexity and plays numerous important roles in gene regulation. However, the extent to which AS coordinates functions in a cell and tissue type specific manner is not known. Moreover, the sequence code that underlies cell and tissue type specific regulation of AS is poorly understood. RESULTS: Using quantitative AS microarray profiling, we

Matthew Fagnani; Yoseph Barash; Joanna Y Ip; Christine Misquitta; Qun Pan; Arneet L Saltzman; Ofer Shai; Leo Lee; Aviad Rozenhek; Naveed Mohammad; Sandrine Willaime-Morawek; Tomas Babak; Wen Zhang; Timothy R Hughes; Derek van der Kooy; Brendan J Frey; Benjamin J Blencowe

2007-01-01

197

Diverse modes of alternative splicing of human splicing factor SF1 deduced from the exon–intron structure of the gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs encoding the essential human splicing facor (SF) 1 have been cloned. Comparison of the cDNA sequences suggested that the corresponding mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing from a common pre-mRNA. To confirm this assumption and to analyze possible modes used in the generation of these mRNAs, we have determined the structure of the gene encoding SF1. The gene

Angela Krämer; Mireille Quentin; Frank Mulhauser

1998-01-01

198

Exon-level microarray analyses identify alternative splicing programs in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing (AS) of many genes have been implicated in several aspects of cancer genesis and progression. These observations motivated a genome-wide assessment of AS in breast cancer. We accomplished this by measuring exon level expression in 31 breast cancer and nonmalignant immortalized cell lines representing luminal, basal and claudin-low breast cancer subtypes using Affymetrix Human Junction Arrays (HJAY). We analyzed these data using a computational pipeline specifically designed to detect AS with a low false positive rate. This identified 181 splice events representing 156 genes as candidates for AS. RT-PCR validation of a subset of predicted AS events confirmed 90%. Approximately half of the AS events were associated with basal, luminal or claudin-low breast cancer subtypes. Exons involved in claudin-low subtype-specific AS were significantly associated with the presence of evolutionarily conserved binding motifs for the tissue-specific Fox2 splicing factor. siRNA knockdown of Fox2 confirmed the involvement of this splicing factor in subtype specific AS. The subtype specific AS detected in this study likely reflects the splicing pattern in the breast cancer progenitor cells in which the tumor arose and suggests the utility of assays for Fox-mediated AS in cancer subtype definition and early detection. These data also suggest the possibility of reducing the toxicity of protein-targeted breast cancer treatments by targeting protein isoforms that are not present in limiting normal tissues. PMID:20605923

Lapuk, Anna; Marr, Henry; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Pedro, Helder; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Purdom, Elizabeth; Hu, Zhi; Simpson, Ken; Pachter, Lior; Durinck, Steffen; Wang, Nicholas; Parvin, Bahram; Fontenay, Gerald; Speed, Terence; Garbe, James; Stampfer, Martha; Bayandorian, Hovig; Dorton, Shannon; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Wyrobek, Andrew; Feiler, Heidi; Spellman, Paul; Conboy, John; Gray, Joe W.

2010-01-01

199

Myocardial Alternative RNA Splicing and Gene Expression Profiling in Early Stage Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital defect characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle and pathological compensation of the right ventricle. If untreated, HLHS is invariably lethal due to the extensive increase in right ventricular workload and eventual failure. Despite the clinical significance, little is known about the molecular pathobiological state of HLHS. Splicing of mRNA transcripts is an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression. Tissue specific alterations of this process have been associated with several cardiac diseases, however, transcriptional signature profiles related to HLHS are unknown. In this study, we performed genome-wide exon array analysis to determine differentially expressed genes and alternatively spliced transcripts in the right ventricle (RV) of six neonates with HLHS, compared to the RV and left ventricle (LV) from non-diseased control subjects. In HLHS, over 180 genes were differentially expressed and 1800 were differentially spliced, leading to changes in a variety of biological processes involving cell metabolism, cytoskeleton, and cell adherence. Additional hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that differential gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns identified in HLHS are unique compared to non-diseased tissue. Our findings suggest that gene expression and mRNA splicing are broadly dysregulated in the RV myocardium of HLHS neonates. In addition, our analysis identified transcriptome profiles representative of molecular biomarkers of HLHS that could be used in the future for diagnostic and prognostic stratification to improve patient outcome. PMID:22299024

Ricci, Marco; Xu, Yanji; Hammond, Harriet L.; Willoughby, David A.; Nathanson, Lubov; Rodriguez, Maria M.; Vatta, Matteo; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Lincoln, Joy

2012-01-01

200

Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.  

PubMed

Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. PMID:24751650

McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

2014-06-01

201

Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Alternative Splicing of the Slo Gene in Corporal Tissue  

PubMed Central

Objectives Erectile dysfunction is a common diabetic complication. Preclinical studies have documented that the Slo gene (encoding the BK or Maxi-K channel ?-subunit) plays a critical role in erectile function. Therefore, we determined whether diabetes induces changes in the splicing of the Slo gene relevant to erectile function. Methods Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to compare Slo splice variant expression in corporal tissue excised from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Fischer F-344 rats. Splice variants were sequenced, characterized by patch clamping, and fused to green fluorescent protein to determine cellular localization. The impact of altered Slo expression on erectile function was further evaluated in vivo. Results A novel Slo splice variant (SVcyt, with a cytoplasmic location) was predominantly expressed in corporal tissue from control rats. STZ-diabetes caused upregulation of a channel-forming transcript SV0. Preliminary results suggest that SV0 was also more prevalent in the corporal tissue of human diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. The change in isoform expression in STZ-treated rats was partially reversed by insulin treatment. Intracorporal injection of a plasmid expressing the SV0 transcript, but not SVcyt, restored erectile function in STZ-diabetic rats. Conclusions Alternative splicing of the Slo transcript may represent an important compensatory mechanism to increase the ease with which relaxation of corporal tissue may be triggered as a result of a diabetes-related decline in erectile capacity. PMID:17150299

Davies, Kelvin P.; Zhao, Weixin; Tar, Moses; Figueroa, Johanna C.; Desai, Pratik; Verselis, Vytas K.; Kronengold, Jack; Wang, Hong-Zhan; Melman, Arnold; Christ, George J.

2007-01-01

202

Alternative Splicing at the Intersection of Biological Timing, Development, and Stress Responses[OPEN  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely. PMID:24179132

Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W.S.

2013-01-01

203

Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24213538

Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

2014-01-01

204

Protein interaction network of alternatively spliced isoforms from brain links genetic risk factors for autism  

PubMed Central

Increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is attributed to hundreds of genetic loci. The convergence of ASD variants have been investigated using various approaches, including protein interactions extracted from the published literature. However, these datasets are frequently incomplete, carry biases and are limited to interactions of a single splicing isoform, which may not be expressed in the disease-relevant tissue. Here we introduce a new interactome mapping approach by experimentally identifying interactions between brain-expressed alternatively spliced variants of ASD risk factors. The Autism Spliceform Interaction Network reveals that almost half of the detected interactions and about 30% of the newly identified interacting partners represent contribution from splicing variants, emphasizing the importance of isoform networks. Isoform interactions greatly contribute to establishing direct physical connections between proteins from the de novo autism CNVs. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of spliceform networks for translating genetic knowledge into a better understanding of human diseases. PMID:24722188

Corominas, Roser; Yang, Xinping; Lin, Guan Ning; Kang, Shuli; Shen, Yun; Ghamsari, Lila; Broly, Martin; Rodriguez, Maria; Tam, Stanley; Trigg, Shelly A.; Fan, Changyu; Yi, Song; Tasan, Murat; Lemmens, Irma; Kuang, Xingyan; Zhao, Nan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Michaelson, Jacob J.; Vacic, Vladimir; Calderwood, Michael A.; Roth, Frederick P.; Tavernier, Jan; Horvath, Steve; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Korkin, Dmitry; Sebat, Jonathan; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Vidal, Marc; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

2014-01-01

205

CD44 isoform expression mediated by alternative splicing: tissue-specific regulation in mice.  

PubMed

CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein which shows heterogeneity in molecular expression as a result of post-translational modification as well as alternative splicing of CD44 mRNA. Functional studies have indicated that CD44 plays a role as an adhesion molecule and that different CD44-expressing cells differ in their capacities for CD44-dependent ligand binding. These observations have raised the possibility that structural modifications of CD44, including those resulting from alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms, are involved in the functional heterogeneity of CD44. To assess the expression of CD44 isoforms in the mouse, we examined CD44 cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Southern blotting of PCR products with a CD44 cDNA probe or with internal oligonucleotides revealed the expression in mouse tumor cell lines and normal tissues of multiple CD44 mRNA products which are larger than that observed in the absence of variable exon expression. Interestingly, different mouse tissues, including lymphoid cells, showed unique patterns of alternative CD44 mRNA in Southern blotting analysis. The use of exon-specific primers allowed detection of multiple alternatively spliced mRNA species involving expression of at least seven variable exons. Cloning and sequencing of these PCR products revealed sequence identity with recently identified genomic CD44 sequences and confirmed that the PCR products correspond to mature mRNA expressing alternatively spliced CD44 exons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the mouse expresses multiple variably spliced CD44 isoforms and that expression is regulated in a tissue- and cell-type specific manner. PMID:7511928

Hirano, H; Screaton, G R; Bell, M V; Jackson, D G; Bell, J I; Hodes, R J

1994-01-01

206

ZRANB2 localizes to supraspliceosomes and influences the alternative splicing of multiple genes in the transcriptome.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a major source of protein diversity in humans. The human splicing factor zinc finger, Ran-binding domain containing protein 2 (ZRANB2) is a splicing protein whose specific endogenous targets are unknown. Its upregulation in grade III ovarian serous papillary carcinoma could suggest a role in some cancers. To determine whether ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome, nuclear supernatants from human embryonic kidney 293 cells were prepared and then fractioned on a glycerol gradient, followed by Western blotting. The same was done after treatment with a tyrosine kinase to induce phosphorylation. This showed for the first time that ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome, and that phosphorylation affects its subcellular location. Studies were then performed to understand the splicing targets of ZRANB2 at the whole-transcriptome level. HeLa cells were transfected with a vector containing ZRANB2 or with a vector-only control. RNA was extracted, converted to cDNA and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. At the FDR ?1.3 significance level we found that ZRANB2 influenced the alternative splicing of primary transcripts of CENTB1, WDR78, C10orf18, CABP4, SMARCC2, SPATA13, OR4C6, ZNF263, CAPN10, SALL1, ST18 and ZP2. Several of these have been implicated in tumor development. In conclusion ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome and causes differential splicing of numerous primary transcripts, some of which might have a role in cancer. PMID:23666063

Yang, Yee Hwa J; Markus, M Andrea; Mangs, A Helena; Raitskin, Oleg; Sperling, Ruth; Morris, Brian J

2013-09-01

207

Tissue-specific alternative splicing of mouse brain type ryanodine receptor\\/calcium release channel mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We detected alternative splicing of the mouse brain type ryanodine receptor (RyR3) mRNA. The splicing variant was located in the transmembrane segment. The non-splicing type (RyR3-II) included a stretch of 341 bp, and that of the 13th codon was stop codon TAA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis shows that RyR3-II mRNA was expressed in various peripheral tissues and brain

Ryosuke Miyatake; Aizo Furukawa; Masayuki Matsushita; Kazuhiko Iwahashi; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yoshiyuki Ichikawa; Hiroshi Suwaki

1996-01-01

208

[Progress in the study on alternative splicing and functions of kininogen genes].  

PubMed

The kininogen gene and its coded proteins are slightly different in various species. In human beings, bovine and mouse, for example, there is an alternatively spliced kininogen gene K, encoding two kinds of proteins. By contrast, there is still another constituted spliced kininogen gene T which encodes only one kind of protein in the rat. The kininogen, belonging to the family 3 of cystatin superfamily, is a kind of multifunctional proteins with multiple domains, which maintains the normal physiological condition in human and some other organisms. The antagonism of hemoglutination and antihemoglutination of kininogen can not only recuperate the damaged blood vessels to prevent them from bleeding ceaselessly, but also restrain the formation of thrombus. In this review, we briefly discussed alternative splicing of kininogen gene and the multifunction of kininogen protein, as well as primarily hemoglutination and antihemoglutination, in human beings, bovine, mouse and rat which have been currently studied in detail. Our aims are to provide the beneficial references for further understanding the mechanism of evolution and alternative splicing of kininogen gene, and elucidating the multifunction roles of kininogen protein. Besides, it would be helpful for developing new medicines to regulate the vascular permeability and blood pressure and to restrain tumor. PMID:17138555

Zhou, Li-Wei; Ma, Fei; Li, Qing-Wei

2006-12-01

209

Alternative splicing of EKLF/KLF1 in murine primary erythroid tissues.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing has emerged as a vital way to expand the functional repertoire of a set number of mammalian genes. For example, such changes can dramatically alter the function and cellular localization of transcription factors. With this in mind, we addressed whether EKLF/KLF1 mRNA, coding for a transcription factor that plays a critical role in erythropoietic gene regulation, is alternatively spliced. We find that EKLF mRNA undergoes exon skipping only in primary tissues and that this splice variant (SV) remains at a very low level in both embryonic and adult erythroid cells, as well as during terminal differentiation. The resultant protein is truncated and partially encodes a non-erythroid Krüppel-like factor amino acid sequence. Its overexpression can alter full-length erythroid Krüppel-like factor function at selected promoters. We discuss these results in the context of stress and with respect to recent global studies on the role of alternative splicing during terminal erythroid differentiation. PMID:25283745

Yien, Yvette Y; Gnanapragasam, Merlin Nithya; Gupta, Ritama; Rivella, Stefano; Bieker, James J

2015-01-01

210

Discovery and expression analysis of alternative splicing events conserved among plant SR proteins.  

PubMed

The high frequency of alternative splicing among the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of proteins in plants has been linked to important roles in gene regulation during development and in response to environmental stress. In this article, we have searched and manually annotated all the SR proteins in the genomes of maize and sorghum. The experimental validation of gene structure by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed, with few exceptions, that SR genes produced multiple isoforms of transcripts by alternative splicing. Despite sharing high structural similarity and conserved positions of the introns, the profile of alternative splicing diverged significantly between maize and sorghum for the vast majority of SR genes. These include many transcript isoforms discovered by RT-PCR and not represented in extant expressed sequence tag (EST) collection. However, we report the occurrence of various maize and sorghum SR mRNA isoforms that display evolutionary conservation of splicing events with their homologous SR genes in Arabidopsis and moss. Our data also indicate an important role of both 5' and 3' untranslated regions in the regulation of SR gene expression. These observations have potentially important implications for the processes of evolution and adaptation of plants to land. PMID:24356560

Rauch, Hypaitia B; Patrick, Tara L; Klusman, Katarina M; Battistuzzi, Fabia U; Mei, Wenbin; Brendel, Volker P; Lal, Shailesh K

2014-03-01

211

Regulation of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR Signalling Pathways by Alternative Splicing in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a fundamental step in regulation of gene expression of many tumor suppressors and oncogenes in cancer. Signalling through the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR pathways is misregulated and hyperactivated in most types of cancer. However, the regulation of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signalling pathways by alternative splicing is less well established. Recent studies have shown the contribution of alternative splicing regulation of these signalling pathways which can lead to cellular transformation, cancer development, and tumor maintenance. This review will discuss findings in the literature which describe new modes of regulation of components of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signalling pathways by alternative splicing. We will also describe the mechanisms by which signals from extracellular stimuli can be communicated to the splicing machinery and to specific RNA-binding proteins that ultimately control exon definition events. PMID:24078813

Bonomi, Serena

2013-01-01

212

Alternative splicing governs cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel sensitivity to regulation by phosphoinositides.  

PubMed

Precursor mRNA encoding CNGA3 subunits of cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels undergoes alternative splicing, generating isoforms differing in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region of the protein. In humans, four variants arise from alternative splicing, but the functional significance of these changes has been a persistent mystery. Heterologous expression of the four possible CNGA3 isoforms alone or with CNGB3 subunits did not reveal significant differences in basic channel properties. However, inclusion of optional exon 3, with or without optional exon 5, produced heteromeric CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels exhibiting an ?2-fold greater shift in K1/2,cGMP after phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate application compared with channels lacking the sequence encoded by exon 3. We have previously identified two structural features within CNGA3 that support phosphoinositides (PIPn) regulation of cone CNG channels: N- and C-terminal regulatory modules. Specific mutations within these regions eliminated PIPn sensitivity of CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels. The exon 3 variant enhanced the component of PIPn regulation that depends on the C-terminal region rather than the nearby N-terminal region, consistent with an allosteric effect on PIPn sensitivity because of altered N-C coupling. Alternative splicing of CNGA3 occurs in multiple species, although the exact variants are not conserved across CNGA3 orthologs. Optional exon 3 appears to be unique to humans, even compared with other primates. In parallel, we found that a specific splice variant of canine CNGA3 removes a region of the protein that is necessary for high sensitivity to PIPn. CNGA3 alternative splicing may have evolved, in part, to tune the interactions between cone CNG channels and membrane-bound phosphoinositides. PMID:24675082

Dai, Gucan; Sherpa, Tshering; Varnum, Michael D

2014-05-01

213

Alternative Splicing at a NAGNAG Acceptor Site as a Novel Phenotype Modifier  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of alleles causing genetic disorders generate premature termination codons (PTCs), which are usually associated with severe phenotypes. However, bypassing the deleterious stop codon can lead to a mild disease outcome. Splicing at NAGNAG tandem splice sites has been reported to result in insertion or deletion (indel) of three nucleotides. We identified such a mechanism as the origin of the mild to asymptomatic phenotype observed in cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for the E831X mutation (2623G>T) in the CFTR gene. Analyses performed on nasal epithelial cell mRNA detected three distinct isoforms, a considerably more complex situation than expected for a single nucleotide substitution. Structure-function studies and in silico analyses provided the first experimental evidence of an indel of a stop codon by alternative splicing at a NAGNAG acceptor site. In addition to contributing to proteome plasticity, alternative splicing at a NAGNAG tandem site can thus remove a disease-causing UAG stop codon. This molecular study reveals a naturally occurring mechanism where the effect of either modifier genes or epigenetic factors could be suspected. This finding is of importance for genetic counseling as well as for deciding appropriate therapeutic strategies. PMID:20949073

Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Aissat, Abdel; Sondo, Elvira; Costa, Catherine; Arous, Nicole; Gameiro, Christine; Martin, Natacha; Tarze, Agathe; Weiss, Laurence; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Costes, Bruno; Goossens, Michel; Galietta, Luis J.; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Fanen, Pascale

2010-01-01

214

Alternative splicing during Arabidopsis flower development results in constitutive and stage-regulated isoforms  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is a process in eukaryotic gene expression, in which the primary transcript of a multi-exon gene is spliced into two or more different mature transcripts, thereby increasing proteome diversity. AS is often regulated differentially between different tissues or developmental stages. Recent studies suggested that up to 60% of intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana undergo AS. Yet little is known about this complicated and important process during floral development. To investigate the preferential expression of different isoforms of individual alternatively spliced genes, we used high throughput RNA-Seq technology to explore the transcriptomes of three floral development stages of Arabidopsis thaliana and obtained information of various AS events. We identified approximately 24,000 genes that were expressed at one or more of these stages, and found that nearly 25% of multi-exon genes had two or more spliced variants. This is less frequent than the previously reported 40–60% for multiple organs and stages of A. thaliana, indicating that many genes expressed in floral development function with a single predominant isoform. On the other hand, 1716 isoforms were differentially expressed between the three stages, suggesting that AS might still play important roles in stage transition during floral development. Moreover, 337 novel transcribed regions were identified and most of them have a single exon. Taken together, our analyses provide a comprehensive survey of AS in floral development and facilitate further genomic and genetic studies. PMID:24575124

Wang, Haifeng; You, Chenjiang; Chang, Fang; Wang, Yingxiang; Wang, Lei; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

2014-01-01

215

Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event - leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a - prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

Hulse, R P; Beazley-Long, N; Hua, J; Kennedy, H; Prager, J; Bevan, H; Qiu, Y; Fernandes, E S; Gammons, M V; Ballmer-Hofer, K; Gittenberger de Groot, A C; Churchill, A J; Harper, S J; Brain, S D; Bates, D O; Donaldson, L F

2014-11-01

216

Alternative Splicing and Extensive RNA Editing of Human TPH2 Transcripts  

PubMed Central

Brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2) in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1) is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide) and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour. PMID:20126463

Grohmann, Maik; Hammer, Paul; Walther, Maria; Paulmann, Nils; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Baghai, Thomas C.; Schüle, Cornelius; Rupprecht, Rainer; Bader, Michael; Bondy, Brigitta; Zill, Peter

2010-01-01

217

Effect of alternative splicing on the degree centrality of nodes in protein-protein interaction networks of Homo sapiens.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of an mRNA transcript could lead to formation of protein products having a different number of binding/interacting domains which in turn may relate to the number of physical interactions they make with other proteins and hence a node in a protein-protein interaction network can be considered as an ensemble of its splice variants and its degree (i.e., number of physical interactions it makes with other nodes) as the union of the individual degrees of its splice variants. In this communication, we demonstrate that in the eukaryotic protein-protein interaction networks hubs tend to have a significantly higher number of splice variants than nonhubs. Also, hubs have a distinct frequency distribution of splice variants as compared to nonhubs. Furthermore, nodes with high number of splice variants, in general, are associated with high structural disorderedness. We also show that the degree of a node is substantially contributed by its structurally disordered splice variants. This suggests that the propensity of a node for a large number of interactions arises as a consequence of structurally disordered splice variants. Our work, therefore, sheds light on the phenomenon of alternative splicing as a significant contributor toward the "connection diversity" of nodes in a eukaryotic PPI network and hence to its functionality. PMID:23406498

Sinha, Anupam; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu Adimurthy

2013-04-01

218

INTEGRATIVE GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PRE-MRNA SPLICING REGULATION BY THE DROSOPHILA SR PROTEIN FAMILY  

E-print Network

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a powerful mechanism that is exploited by higher eukaryotes to diversify their proteomes, and to differentially regulate the expression, function, and localization of mRNA and proteins. Pre-mRNA splicing is typically...

Bradley, Todd Christopher

2013-05-31

219

Genome-Wide Identification of Alternative Splice Forms Down-Regulated by Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in  

E-print Network

Genome-Wide Identification of Alternative Splice Forms Down-Regulated by Nonsense-Mediated m of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States is of general utility for interpreting splicing-sensitive microarrays and high-throughput sequence data. Using

220

Distinct functions of alternatively spliced isoforms encoded by zebrafish mef2ca and mef2cb  

PubMed Central

In mammals, an array of MEF2C proteins is generated by alternative splicing (AS), yet specific functions have not been ascribed to each isoform. Teleost fish possess two MEF2C paralogues, mef2ca and mef2cb. In zebrafish, the Mef2cs function to promote cardiomyogenic differentiation and myofibrillogenesis in nascent skeletal myofibers. We found that zebrafish mef2ca and mef2cb are alternatively spliced in the coding exons 4–6 region and these splice variants differ in their biological activity. Of the two, mef2ca is more abundantly expressed in developing skeletal muscle, its activity is tuned through zebrafish development by AS. By 24 hpf, we found the prevalent expression of the highly active full length protein in differentiated muscle in the somites. The splicing isoform of mef2ca that lacks exon 5 (mef2ca 4–6), encodes a protein that has 50% lower transcriptional activity, and is found mainly earlier in development, before muscle differentiation. mef2ca transcripts including exon 5 (mef2ca 4–5–6) are present early in the embryo. Over-expression of this isoform alters the expression of genes involved in early dorso-ventral patterning of the embryo such as chordin, nodal related 1 and goosecoid, and induces severe developmental defects. AS of mef2cb generates a long splicing isoform in the exon 5 region (Mef2cbL) that predominates during somitogenesis. Mef2cbL contains an evolutionarily conserved domain derived from exonization of a fragment of intron 5, which confers the ability to induce ectopic muscle in mesoderm upon over-expression of the protein. Taken together, the data show that AS is a significant regulator of Mef2c activity. PMID:24844180

Ganassi, M.; Badodi, S.; Polacchini, A.; Baruffaldi, F.; Battini, R.; Hughes, S.M.; Hinits, Y.; Molinari, S.

2014-01-01

221

Activity-dependent alternative splicing increases persistent sodium current and promotes seizure  

PubMed Central

Activity of voltage-gated Na channels (Nav) is modified by alternative splicing. However, whether altered splicing of human Nav’s contributes to epilepsy remains to be conclusively shown. We show here that altered splicing of the Drosophila Nav (paralytic, DmNav) contributes to seizure-like behaviour in identified seizure-mutants. We focus attention on a pair of mutually-exclusive alternate exons (termed K and L), which form part of the voltage sensor (S4) in domain III of the expressed channel. The presence of exon L results in a large, non-inactivating, persistent INap. Many forms of human epilepsy are associated with an increase in this current. In wildtype (WT) Drosophila larvae ~70-80% of DmNav transcripts contain exon L, the remainder contain exon K. Splicing of DmNav to include exon L is increased to ~100% in both the slamdance and easily-shocked seizure-mutants. This change to splicing is prevented by reducing synaptic activity levels through exposure to the antiepileptic phenytoin or the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Conversely, enhancing synaptic activity in WT, by feeding of picrotoxin, is sufficient to increase INap and promote seizure through increased inclusion of exon L to 100%. We also show that the underlying activity-dependent mechanism requires the presence of Pasilla, an RNA-binding protein. Finally, we use computational modelling to show that increasing INap is sufficient to potentiate membrane excitability consistent with a seizure phenotype. Thus, increased synaptic excitation favors inclusion of exon L which, in turn, further increases neuronal excitability. Thus, at least in Drosophila, this self-reinforcing cycle may promote the incidence of seizure. PMID:22623672

Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Günay, Cengiz; Marley, Richard; Prinz, Astrid A.; Baines, Richard A.

2012-01-01

222

The Alternative TrkAIII Splice Variant Targets the Centrosome and Promotes Genetic Instability ?  

PubMed Central

The hypoxia-regulated alternative TrkAIII splice variant expressed by human neuroblastomas exhibits oncogenic potential, driven by in-frame exon 6 and 7 alternative splicing, leading to omission of the receptor extracellular immunoglobulin C1 domain and several N-glycosylation sites. Here, we show that the TrkAIII oncogene promotes genetic instability by interacting with and exhibiting catalytic activity at the centrosome. This function depends upon intracellular TrkAIII accumulation and spontaneous interphase-restricted activation, in cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (tk) domain orientation, predominantly within structures that closely associate with the fully assembled endoplasmic reticulum intermediate compartment and Golgi network. This facilitates TrkAIII tk-mediated binding of ?-tubulin, which is regulated by endogenous protein tyrosine phosphatases and geldanamycin-sensitive interaction with Hsp90, paving the way for TrkAIII recruitment to the centrosome. At the centrosome, TrkAIII differentially phosphorylates several centrosome-associated components, increases centrosome interaction with polo kinase 4, and decreases centrosome interaction with separase, the net results of which are centrosome amplification and increased genetic instability. The data characterize TrkAIII as a novel internal membrane-associated centrosome kinase, unveiling an important alternative mechanism to “classical” cell surface oncogenic receptor tk signaling through which stress-regulated alternative TrkAIII splicing influences the oncogenic process. PMID:19564412

Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Tacconelli, Antonella; Cappabianca, Lucia; Cea, Gesilia; Panella, Sonia; Chioda, Antonella; Romanelli, Alessandra; Pedone, Carlo; Gulino, Alberto; Mackay, Andrew Reay

2009-01-01

223

Modeling alternative splicing variants from RNA-Seq data with isoform graphs.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies need new methodologies for alternative splicing (AS) analysis. Current computational methods for AS analysis from NGS data are mainly based on aligning short reads against a reference genome, while methods that do not need a reference genome are mostly underdeveloped. In this context, the main developed tools for NGS data focus on de novo transcriptome assembly (Grabherr et al., 2011 ; Schulz et al., 2012). While these tools are extensively applied for biological investigations and often show intrinsic shortcomings from the obtained results, a theoretical investigation of the inherent computational limits of transcriptome analysis from NGS data, when a reference genome is unknown or highly unreliable, is still missing. On the other hand, we still lack methods for computing the gene structures due to AS events under the above assumptions--a problem that we start to tackle with this article. More precisely, based on the notion of isoform graph (Lacroix et al., 2008), we define a compact representation of gene structures--called splicing graph--and investigate the computational problem of building a splicing graph that is (i) compatible with NGS data and (ii) isomorphic to the isoform graph. We characterize when there is only one representative splicing graph compatible with input data, and we propose an efficient algorithmic approach to compute this graph. PMID:24200390

Beretta, Stefano; Bonizzoni, Paola; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Raffaella

2014-01-01

224

Neuroprotection associated with alternative splicing of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons  

PubMed Central

Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to elevated extracellular K+ concentrations (25?mM) induces membrane depolarization and an increase in action-potential firing. Long-term high K+ treatment was associated with an increased neuronal cell death. In surviving neurons, multiple changes occurred in the proportion of individual NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) splice variant mRNA expression, whereas the overall expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B transcripts remained unaffected. The high K+-induced changes in NR1 splice variant expression were virtually abolished upon a concurrent administration of tetrodotoxin (TTX; 3??M). In voltage-clamp recordings performed on neurons resistant to high K+ treatment, inward currents induced by NMDA (1–1000??M) were reduced. In K+-resistant cells, the activity of calpain but not of caspase-3 was diminished compared with controls kept in regular medium. NR function as well as calpain activity was not affected in cultures concomitantly treated with high K+ and either TTX or a NR antagonist (CGS19755 (selfotel) or memantine). In conclusion, the present data indicate adaptive changes in NR1 splice variant expression and a decrease in NR function upon a sustained increase in neurotransmission. Accordingly, alternative splicing could be an endogenous mechanism to counteract cellular damage due to overactivation of excitatory NRs and may be associated with an impairment of necrotic mechanisms. PMID:16314856

Jaekel, Beate; Mühlberg, Katja; Garcia de Arriba, Susana; Reichenbach, Andreas; Verdaguer, Ester; Pallas, Mercè; Camins, Antoni; Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Allgaier, Clemens

2005-01-01

225

CD20 alternative splicing isoform generates immunogenic CD4 helper T epitopes.  

PubMed

Cancer-specific splice variants gain significant interest as they generate neo-antigens that could be targeted by immune cells. CD20, a membrane antigen broadly expressed in mature B cells and in B cell lymphomas, is subject to an alternative splicing named D393-CD20 leading to loss of membrane expression of the spliced isoform. D393-CD20 expression is detectable in transformed B cells and upregulated in various lymphoma B cells. In this study, we show that D393-CD20 is translated in malignant B cells and that D393-CD20 specific CD4 T cells producing IFN-? are present in B-cell lymphoma patients. Then, we have investigated whether the 20mer D393-CD20 peptide spanning the splicing site might be targeted by the immune system and we have shown that D393-CD20-specific CD4 Th1 clones could directly recognize malignant B cell lines and kill autologous lymphoma B cells indicating that D393-CD20-derived epitopes are naturally processed and presented on tumor cells. Finally, D393-CD20 peptide-based vaccination induced specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses in HLA-humanized transgenic mice suggesting the presentation of D393-CD20 derived peptides on both HLA Class-I and -II. These findings support further investigations on the potential use of D393-CD20 directed specific immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. PMID:25449106

Vauchy, Charline; Gamonet, Clementine; Ferrand, Christophe; Daguindau, Etienne; Galaine, Jeanne; Beziaud, Laurent; Chauchet, Adrien; Henry Dunand, Carole J; Deschamps, Marina; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Borg, Christophe; Adotevi, Olivier; Godet, Yann

2015-07-01

226

Complexity of the Alternative Splicing Landscape in Plants[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) from multiexon genes allows organisms to increase their coding potential and regulate gene expression through multiple mechanisms. Recent transcriptome-wide analysis of AS using RNA sequencing has revealed that AS is highly pervasive in plants. Pre-mRNAs from over 60% of intron-containing genes undergo AS to produce a vast repertoire of mRNA isoforms. The functions of most splice variants are unknown. However, emerging evidence indicates that splice variants increase the functional diversity of proteins. Furthermore, AS is coupled to transcript stability and translation through nonsense-mediated decay and microRNA-mediated gene regulation. Widespread changes in AS in response to developmental cues and stresses suggest a role for regulated splicing in plant development and stress responses. Here, we review recent progress in uncovering the extent and complexity of the AS landscape in plants, its regulation, and the roles of AS in gene regulation. The prevalence of AS in plants has raised many new questions that require additional studies. New tools based on recent technological advances are allowing genome-wide analysis of RNA elements in transcripts and of chromatin modifications that regulate AS. Application of these tools in plants will provide significant new insights into AS regulation and crosstalk between AS and other layers of gene regulation. PMID:24179125

Reddy, Anireddy S.N.; Marquez, Yamile; Kalyna, Maria; Barta, Andrea

2013-01-01

227

Rbfox2-coordinated alternative splicing of Mef2d and Rock2 controls myoblast fusion during myogenesis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays important regulatory roles during periods of physiological change. During development, a large number of genes coordinately express protein isoform transitions regulated by alternative splicing; however, the mechanisms that coordinate splicing and the functional integration of the resultant tissue-specific protein isoforms are typically unknown. Here we show that the conserved Rbfox2 RNA binding protein regulates 30% of the splicing transitions observed during myogenesis and is required for the specific step of myoblast fusion. Integration of Rbfox2-dependent splicing outcomes from RNA-seq with Rbfox2 iCLIP data identified Mef2d and Rock2 as Rbfox2 splicing targets. Restored activities of Mef2d and Rock2 rescued myoblast fusion in Rbfox2-depleted cultures, demonstrating functional cooperation of protein isoforms generated by coordinated alterative splicing. The results demonstrate that coordinated alternative splicing by a single RNA binding protein modulates transcription (Mef2d) and cell signaling (Rock2) programs to drive tissue-specific functions (cell fusion) to promote a developmental transition. PMID:25087874

Singh, Ravi K; Xia, Zheng; Bland, Christopher S; Kalsotra, Auinash; Scavuzzo, Marissa A; Curk, Tomaz; Ule, Jernej; Li, Wei; Cooper, Thomas A

2014-08-21

228

Alternative splice variants of AID are not stoichiometrically present at the protein level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is a DNA-mutating enzyme that mediates class-switch recombination as well as somatic hypermutation of antibody genes in B cells. Due to off-target activity, AID is implicated in lymphoma development by introducing genome-wide DNA damage and initiating chromosomal translocations such as c-myc/IgH. Several alternative splice transcripts of AID have been reported in activated B cells as well as malignant B cells such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). As most commercially available antibodies fail to recognize alternative splice variants, their abundance in vivo, and hence their biological significance, has not been determined. In this study, we assessed the protein levels of AID splice isoforms by introducing an AID splice reporter construct into cell lines and primary CLL cells from patients as well as from WT and TCL1tg C57BL/6 mice (where TCL1 is T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1). The splice construct is 5?-fused to a GFP-tag, which is preserved in all splice isoforms and allows detection of translated protein. Summarizing, we show a thorough quantification of alternatively spliced AID transcripts and demonstrate that the corresponding protein abundances, especially those of splice variants AID-ivs3 and AID-?E4, are not stoichiometrically equivalent. Our data suggest that enhanced proteasomal degradation of low-abundance proteins might be causative for this discrepancy. PMID:24668151

Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Zaborsky, Nadja; Gassner, Franz Josef; Catakovic, Kemal; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

2014-01-01

229

Alternative splice variants of AID are not stoichiometrically present at the protein level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is a DNA-mutating enzyme that mediates class-switch recombination as well as somatic hypermutation of antibody genes in B cells. Due to off-target activity, AID is implicated in lymphoma development by introducing genome-wide DNA damage and initiating chromosomal translocations such as c-myc/IgH. Several alternative splice transcripts of AID have been reported in activated B cells as well as malignant B cells such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). As most commercially available antibodies fail to recognize alternative splice variants, their abundance in vivo, and hence their biological significance, has not been determined. In this study, we assessed the protein levels of AID splice isoforms by introducing an AID splice reporter construct into cell lines and primary CLL cells from patients as well as from WT and TCL1(tg) C57BL/6 mice (where TCL1 is T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1). The splice construct is 5'-fused to a GFP-tag, which is preserved in all splice isoforms and allows detection of translated protein. Summarizing, we show a thorough quantification of alternatively spliced AID transcripts and demonstrate that the corresponding protein abundances, especially those of splice variants AID-ivs3 and AID-?E4, are not stoichiometrically equivalent. Our data suggest that enhanced proteasomal degradation of low-abundance proteins might be causative for this discrepancy. PMID:24668151

Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Zaborsky, Nadja; Gassner, Franz Josef; Catakovic, Kemal; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

2014-07-01

230

Minor fibrillar collagens; variable regions alternative splicing, intrinsic disorder, and tyrosine sulfation  

PubMed Central

Minor fibrillar collagen types V and XI, are those less abundant than the fibrillar collagens types I, II and III. The alpha chains share a high degree of similarity with respect to protein sequence in all domains except the variable region. Genomic variation and, in some cases, extensive alternative splicing contribute to the unique sequence characteristics of the variable region. While unique expression patterns in tissues exist, the functions and biological relevance of the variable regions have not been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about expression patterns and biological functions of the collagen types V and XI alpha chains. Analysis of biochemical similarities among the peptides encoded by each exon of the variable region suggest the potential for shared function. The alternative splicing, conservation of biochemical characteristics in light of low sequence conservation, and evidence for intrinsic disorder, suggests modulation of binding events between the surface of collagen fibrils and surrounding extracellular molecules as a shared function. PMID:22752873

Fang, Ming; Jacob, Reed; McDougal, Owen; Oxford, Julia Thom

2012-01-01

231

Borrelidin modulates the alternative splicing of VEGF in favour of anti-angiogenic isoforms.  

PubMed

The polyketide natural product borrelidin 1 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and spontaneous metastasis. Affinity biopanning of a phage display library of colon tumor cell cDNAs identified the tandem WW domains of spliceosome-associated protein formin binding protein 21 (FBP21) as a novel molecular target of borrelidin, suggesting that borrelidin may act as a modulator of alternative splicing. In support of this idea, 1, and its more selective analog 2, bound to purified recombinant WW domains of FBP21. They also altered the ratio of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms in retinal pigmented endothelial (RPE) cells in favour of anti-angiogenic isoforms. Transfection of RPE cells with FBP21 altered the ratio in favour of pro-angiogenic VEGF isoforms, an effect inhibited by 2. These data implicate FBP21 in the regulation of alternative splicing and suggest the potential of borrelidin analogs as tools to deconvolute key steps of spliceosome function. PMID:22822423

Woolard, Jeanette; Vousden, William; Moss, Steven J; Krishnakumar, Arjun; Gammons, Melissa Vr; Nowak, David G; Dixon, Neil; Micklefield, Jason; Spannhoff, Astrid; Bedford, Mark T; Gregory, Matthew A; Martin, Christine J; Leadlay, Peter F; Zhang, Ming Q; Harper, Steven J; Bates, David O; Wilkinson, Barrie

2011-02-01

232

Tailoring of Membrane Proteins by Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNA†  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (ASfootnote_1) of RNA is a key mechanism for diversification of the eukaryotic proteome. In this process, different mRNA transcripts can be produced through altered excision/inclusion of exons during processing of the pre-mRNA molecule. Since its discovery, AS has been shown to play roles in protein structure, function, and localization. Dysregulation of this process can result in disease phenotypes. Moreover, AS pathways are promising therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Integral membrane proteins (MPs) represent a class of proteins that may be particularly amenable to regulation by alternative splicing due to the distinctive topological restraints associated with their folding, structure, trafficking, and function. Here, we review the impact of AS on MP form and function, and the roles of AS in MP-related disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22708632

Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Deatherage, Catherine L.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Sanders, Charles R.

2012-01-01

233

Gene structure, alternative splicing, and chromosomal localization of pro-apoptotic Bcl2 relative Bim  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Bim is a proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that shares only the short BH3 domain with other members. It has three\\u000a isoforms, apparently produced by alternative splicing. The demonstration that Bim is essential for certain apoptotic responses\\u000a and to prevent overproduction of hematopoietic cells suggests that it may be a tumor suppressor. We have, therefore, investigated\\u000a the organization

Philippe Bouillet; Li Chen Zhang; David C. S. Huang; Graham C. Webb; Cynthia D. K. Bottema; Paul Shore; Helen J. Eyre; Grant R. Sutherland; Jerry M. Adams

2001-01-01

234

Alternative Splicing, Muscle Calcium Sensitivity, and the Modulation of Dragonfly Flight Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and

James H. Marden; Gail H. Fitzhugh; Melisande R. Wolf; Kristina D. Arnold; Barry Rowan

1999-01-01

235

Gaf-1b is an alternative splice variant of Gaf-1\\/Rip11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaf-1\\/Rip11 encoded by the clone KIAA0857 participates in endosomal recycling through the interaction with both ?-SNAP, a member of the soluble NSF attachment protein family, and a small GTPase, Rab11. Gaf-1\\/Rip11 and other Rab11-interacting proteins constitute a novel protein family that is involved in the endocytic pathways. Here we report the presence of an alternative splice variant of Gaf-1\\/Rip11 named

Kazuho Kawase; Mika Shibata; Hoshiko Kawashima; Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa; Masami Nagahama; Mitsuo Tagaya; Katsuko Tani

2003-01-01

236

The role played by alternative splicing in antigenic variability in human endo-parasites  

PubMed Central

Endo-parasites that affect humans include Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, which remains one of the leading causes of death in human beings. Despite decades of research, vaccines to this and other endo-parasites remain elusive. This is in part due to the hyper-variability of the parasites surface proteins. Generally these surface proteins are encoded by a large family of genes, with only one being dominantly expressed at certain life stages. Another layer of complexity can be introduced through the alternative splicing of these surface proteins. The resulting isoforms may differ from each other with regard to cell localisation, substrate affinities and functions. They may even differ in structure to the extent that they are no longer recognised by the host’s immune system. In many cases this leads to changes in the N terminus of these proteins. The geographical localisation of endo-parasitic infections around the tropics and the highest incidences of HIV-1 infection in the same areas, adds a further layer of complexity as parasitic infections affect the host immune system resulting in higher HIV infection rates, faster disease progression, and an increase in the severity of infections and complications in HIV diagnosis. This review discusses some examples of parasite surface proteins that are alternatively spliced in trypanosomes, Plasmodium and the parasitic worm Schistosoma as well as what role alternate splicing may play in the interaction between HIV and these endo-parasites. PMID:24472559

2014-01-01

237

Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-mu, an alternatively spliced isoform expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a molecular mediator in numerous processes in cellular development and physiology. Differential expression and regulation of a family of three NO synthase (NOS) gene products help achieve this diversity of action. Previous studies identify post-translational modification and interaction of NOS with specific protein targets as tissue-specific modes of regulation. Here, we show that alternative splicing specifically regulates neuronal NOS (nNOS, type I) in striated muscle. nNOS in skeletal muscle is slightly more massive than nNOS from brain owing to a 102-base pair (34-amino acid) alternatively spliced segment between exons 16 and 17. Following purification, this novel nNOS mu isoform has similar catalytic activity to that of nNOS expressed in cerebellum. nNOS mu appears to function exclusively in differentiated muscle as its expression occurs coincidentally with myotube fusion in culture. An isoform-specific antibody detects nNOS mu protein only in skeletal muscle and heart. This study identifies alternative splicing as a means for tissue-specific regulation of nNOS and reports the first additional protein sequence for a mammalian NOS since the original cloning of the gene family. PMID:8626668

Silvagno, F; Xia, H; Bredt, D S

1996-05-10

238

RAN-Binding Protein 9 is Involved in Alternative Splicing and is Critical for Male Germ Cell Development and Male Fertility  

PubMed Central

As a member of the large Ran-binding protein family, Ran-binding protein 9 (RANBP9) has been suggested to play a critical role in diverse cellular functions in somatic cell lineages in vitro, and this is further supported by the neonatal lethality phenotype in Ranbp9 global knockout mice. However, the exact molecular actions of RANBP9 remain largely unknown. By inactivation of Ranbp9 specifically in testicular somatic and spermatogenic cells, we discovered that Ranbp9 was dispensable for Sertoli cell development and functions, but critical for male germ cell development and male fertility. RIP-Seq and proteomic analyses revealed that RANBP9 was associated with multiple key splicing factors and directly targeted >2,300 mRNAs in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Many of the RANBP9 target and non-target mRNAs either displayed aberrant splicing patterns or were dysregulated in the absence of Ranbp9. Our data uncovered a novel role of Ranbp9 in regulating alternative splicing in spermatogenic cells, which is critical for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:25474150

Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Ying; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

2014-01-01

239

HNRNPA1 regulates HMGCR alternative splicing and modulates cellular cholesterol metabolism  

PubMed Central

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and is inhibited by statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs. Expression of an alternatively spliced HMGCR transcript lacking exon 13, HMGCR13(?), has been implicated in the variation of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and is the single most informative molecular marker of LDL-C response to statins. Given the physiological importance of this transcript, our goal was to identify molecules that regulate HMGCR alternative splicing. We recently reported gene expression changes in 480 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) after in vitro simvastatin treatment, and identified a number of statin-responsive genes involved in mRNA splicing. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) was chosen for follow-up since rs3846662, an HMGCR SNP that regulates exon 13 skipping, was predicted to alter an HNRNPA1 binding motif. Here, we not only demonstrate that rs3846662 modulates HNRNPA1 binding, but also that sterol depletion of human hepatoma cell lines reduced HNRNPA1 mRNA levels, an effect that was reversed with sterol add-back. Overexpression of HNRNPA1 increased the ratio of HMGCR13(?) to total HMGCR transcripts by both directly increasing exon 13 skipping in an allele-related manner and specifically stabilizing the HMGCR13(?) transcript. Importantly, HNRNPA1 overexpression also diminished HMGCR enzyme activity, enhanced LDL-C uptake and increased cellular apolipoprotein B (APOB). rs1920045, an SNP associated with HNRNPA1 exon 8 alternative splicing, was also associated with smaller statin-induced reduction in total cholesterol from two independent clinical trials. These results suggest that HNRNPA1 plays a role in the variation of cardiovascular disease risk and statin response. PMID:24001602

Yu, Chi-Yi; Theusch, Elizabeth; Lo, Kathleen; Mangravite, Lara M.; Naidoo, Devesh; Kutilova, Mariya; Medina, Marisa W.

2014-01-01

240

Discrimination of Alternative Spliced Isoforms by Real-Time PCR Using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Substituted Primer  

E-print Network

Determination of quantitative expression levels of alternatively spliced isoforms provides an important approach to the understanding of the functional significance of each isoform. Real-time PCR using exon junction ...

Wan, Guoqiang

241

Structural determinants for alternative splicing regulation of the MAPT pre-mRNA.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing at the MAPT gene exon 10 yields similar levels of the 3R and 4R tau protein isoforms. (1) The presence of mutations, particularly in exon 10 and intron 10-11, changes the quantity of tau isoforms. Domination each of the isoform yields tau protein aggregation and frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Here, we report for the first time the secondary structure of the 194/195 nucleotide region for the wild type (WT) and 10 mutants of the MAPT gene pre-mRNA determined using both chemical and microarray mapping. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that single nucleotide mutations in the splicing regulatory element (SRE) that form a hairpin affect its stability by up to 4 and 7 kcal/mol. Moreover, binding the regulatory hairpin of small molecule ligands (neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin and mitoxantrone) enhance its stability depending on the nature of the ligands and the RNA mutations. Experiments using the cos-7 cell line indicate that the presence of ligands and modified antisense oligonucleotides affect the quantity of 3R and 4R isoforms. This finding correlates with the thermodynamic stability of the regulatory hairpin. An alternative splicing regulation mechanism for exon 10 is postulated based on our experimental data and on published data. PMID:25826665

Lisowiec, Jolanta; Magner, Dorota; Kierzek, Elzbieta; Lenartowicz, Elzbieta; Kierzek, Ryszard

2015-03-01

242

Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Regulates the Alternative Splicing of Tau Exon 10  

PubMed Central

Hyperphosphorylation and deposition of tau into neurofibrillary tangles is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 generates tau isoforms containing three or four microtubule binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau), which are equally expressed in adult human brain. Dysregulation of exon 10 causes neurofibrillary degeneration. Here, we report that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, phosphorylates splicing factor SRSF1, modulates its binding to tau pre-mRNA, and promotes tau exon 10 inclusion in cultured cells and in vivo in rat brain. PKA-C?, but not PKA-C?, interacts with SRSF1 and elevates SRSF1-mediated tau exon 10 inclusion. In AD brain, the decreased level of PKA-C? correlates with the increased level of 3R-tau. These findings suggest that a down-regulation of PKA dysregulates the alternative splicing of tau exon 10 and contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration in AD by causing an imbalance in 3R-tau and 4R-tau expression. PMID:21367856

Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Yin, Xiaomin; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

2011-01-01

243

Identification of the Alternative Splicing of the UL49 Locus of Human Cytomegalovirus  

PubMed Central

The UL49 ORF of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential for viral replication; conserved among all herpes viruses; however, the function is unclear. Once the UL49 ORF was precisely deleted from the start to stop codon, the mutant did not yield infectious progeny. In this study, we find out many alternatively processed ESTs in UL49 locus in HCMV-infected cells, in which there are two novel transcription termination sites in UL49 locus. Most of these ESTs are rare transcripts that contain directed repeat sequences in the intron splicing regions. There is a typical GU-AG intron splicing site in UL49Y transcripts. The 1847?bp UL49Y cDNA spans an ORF from 335 to 1618 and encodes a putative protein of 427 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.1?kDa. All the new EST sequences and UL49Y cDNA sequence have been deposited in the GenBank database (GenBank Accession nos. GW314860-GW314900 and GU376796). This study provides us with very important clues for revealing the importance of the UL49 locus alternative splicing.

Yang, Guang; Li, Wei; Liao, Wenzhen; Zhang, Xin; Zou, Yi; Dai, Jianfeng; Li, Yueqin; Jing, Chunxia; Zhou, Tianhong

2015-01-01

244

Conserved sequences in the final intron of MDM2 are essential for the regulation of alternative splicing of MDM2 in response to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in generating proteome diversity and is critical in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. It is estimated that 50% of disease-causing mutations alter splicing efficiency and\\/or patterns of splicing. An alternatively spliced form of murine double-minute 2, MDM2-ALT1, is associated with pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) at high frequency in primary human tumors and RMS cell lines.

Ravi K. Singh; Aixa Tapia-Santos; Thomas W. Bebee; Dawn S. Chandler

2009-01-01

245

PPS, a Large Multidomain Protein, Functions with Sex-Lethal to Regulate Alternative Splicing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF). In studies begun by screening for proteins that interact with SNF, we identified PPS, a previously uncharacterized protein, as a novel component of the machinery required for Sxl male exon skipping. PPS encodes a large protein with four signature motifs, PHD, BRK, TFS2M, and SPOC, typically found in proteins involved in transcription. We demonstrate that PPS has a direct role in Sxl male exon skipping by showing first that loss of function mutations have phenotypes indicative of Sxl misregulation and second that the PPS protein forms a complex with SXL and the unspliced Sxl RNA. In addition, we mapped the recruitment of PPS, SXL, and SNF along the Sxl gene using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which revealed that, like many other splicing factors, these proteins bind their RNA targets while in close proximity to the DNA. Interestingly, while SNF and SXL are specifically recruited to their predicted binding sites, PPS has a distinct pattern of accumulation along the Sxl gene, associating with a region that includes, but is not limited to, the SxlPm promoter. Together, these data indicate that PPS is different from other splicing factors involved in male-exon skipping and suggest, for the first time, a functional link between transcription and SXL–mediated alternative splicing. Loss of zygotic PPS function, however, is lethal to both sexes, indicating that its role may be of broad significance. PMID:20221253

Johnson, Matthew L.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Salz, Helen K.

2010-01-01

246

Using single-strand conformational polymorphism gel electrophoresis to analyze mutually exclusive alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis has been used successfully to identify single nucleotide changes within sequences based on the fact that multidetection enhancement gels will separate molecules based on their conformation rather than their size. We have expanded the utility of this technique to analyze easily the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs containing multiple mutually exclusive exons of the same size. We have used this technique to study the Caenorhabditis elegans let-2 gene containing two alternative exons and the Drosophilia melanogaster Dscam gene, which contains 12 mutually exclusive exons. The ease and the quantitative nature of this technique should be very useful. PMID:14769996

Celotto, Alicia M; Graveley, Brenton R

2004-01-01

247

Alternative Splicing Regulation of Cancer-Related Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: An In Vivo Model System with a Powerful Reverse Genetics Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing allows for the generation of protein diversity and fine-tunes gene expression. Several model systems have been used for the in vivo study of alternative splicing. Here we review the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to study splicing regulation in vivo. Recent studies have shown that close to 25% of genes in the worm genome undergo alternative splicing. A big proportion of these events are functional, conserved, and under strict regulation either across development or other conditions. Several techniques like genome-wide RNAi screens and bichromatic reporters are available for the study of alternative splicing in worms. In this review, we focus, first, on the main studies that have been performed to dissect alternative splicing in this system and later on examples from genes that have human homologs that are implicated in cancer. The significant advancement towards understanding the regulation of alternative splicing and cancer that the C. elegans system has offered is discussed. PMID:24069034

Barberán-Soler, Sergio; Ragle, James Matthew

2013-01-01

248

RNA-Seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. Results We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5? UTR and/or 3? UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. Conclusions We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum. PMID:23324402

2013-01-01

249

Control of fibroblast fibronectin expression and alternative splicing via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway  

SciTech Connect

Fibronectin (FN), a ubiquitous glycoprotein that plays critical roles in physiologic and pathologic conditions, undergoes alternative splicing which distinguishes plasma FN (pFN) from cellular FN (cFN). Although both pFN and cFN can be incorporated into the extracellular matrix, a distinguishing feature of cFN is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon termed EDA (for extra type III domain A). The molecular steps involved in EDA splicing are well-characterized, but pathways influencing EDA splicing are less clear. We have previously found an obligate role for inhibition of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the primary regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in fibroblast activation. Here we show TGF-{beta}, a potent inducer of both EDA splicing and fibroblast activation, inhibits PTEN expression and activity in mesenchymal cells, corresponding with enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling. In pten{sup -/-} fibroblasts, which resemble activated fibroblasts, inhibition of Akt attenuated FN production and decreased EDA alternative splicing. Moreover, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pten{sup -/-} cells also blocked FN production and EDA splicing. This effect was due to inhibition of Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the primary EDA splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Importantly, FN silencing in pten{sup -/-} cells resulted in attenuated proliferation and migration. Thus, our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis is instrumental in FN transcription and alternative splicing, which regulates cell behavior.

White, Eric S., E-mail: docew@umich.edu [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sagana, Rommel L.; Booth, Adam J.; Yan, Mei; Cornett, Ashley M.; Bloomheart, Christopher A.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Jesse [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Muro, Andres F. [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)] [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

2010-10-01

250

Splice variants of the condensin II gene Ncaph2 include alternative reading frame translations of exon 1.  

PubMed

Condensins I and II are five-protein complexes that are important for the condensation of chromatin. They are essential for mitosis and important for regulating gene expression during interphase. Here, we investigated the transcription and translation of the mouse Ncaph2 gene, which encodes a subunit of condensin II. We identified three splice variants within the first exon, a NAGNAG splice variant at the beginning of exon 16 and alternative 3'-UTRs. In total, Ncaph2 is potentially capable of generating 12 unique mRNA transcripts and six unique proteins. We confirm that Ncaph2 can generate three different N-termini, all encoded by exon 1, one of which is translated from an alternative reading frame. This alternative reading frame splice variant appears to be a novel outcome of splicing. If this is applicable to other genes, it would account for a previously unappreciated level of eukaryotic protein diversity. PMID:22333158

Theodoratos, Angelo; Wilson, Laurence O W; Gosling, Katharine M; Fahrer, Aude M

2012-04-01

251

PTBP-dependent PSD-95 and CamKII? alternative splicing in the lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose Parallels described between neurons and lens fiber cells include detailed similarities in sub-cellular structures that increasingly show shared expression of genes involved in the construction and function of these structures in neurons. Intriguingly, associated modes of molecular regulation of these genes that had been thought to distinguish neurons have been identified in the lens as well. Both elongated cell types form membrane protrusions with similar size, shape, and spacing that exclude microtubules, contain F-actin, and are coated with the clathrin/AP-2 adaptor. Lenses express glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors with signaling and channel proteins shown to act together at neuronal membranes. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII?) expression and functions illustrate the integration of aspects of neuronal molecular and cell biology and were investigated here in the lens. Methods Immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and RT–PCR methods were used to assess protein expression and alternative transcript splicing. Results We showed the essential dendritic spine scaffold protein PSD-95 is expressed in lenses and demonstrated lens PSD-95 transcripts undergo polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP)-dependent alternative splicing of its pivotal exon 18 required to avoid nonsense-mediated decay, and showed PTBP-dependent alternative splicing of CaMKII? transcripts in the lens. The PSD-95 protein was observed at fiber cell membranes overlapping with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate and GABA receptor proteins, tyrosine phosphatase STEP, CaMKII?, the Ca(V)1.3 calcium channel, and clathrin, which were previously identified at lens fiber cell membranes. During neurogenesis, miR-124 is expressed that suppresses PTBP1 and promotes these splicing events. miR-124 is also expressed in mammalian lenses and upregulated during lens regeneration in amphibians, consistent with previous demonstrations of PTBP1,2 and PTBP-dependent PTBP2 exon 10 splicing in rodent lenses. Conclusions Findings of this dendritic spine scaffold protein and conservation of its key mode of molecular regulation in the lens provides further evidence that key aspects of the neuron morphogenetic program are shared with the lens. PMID:25540577

Nandanoor, Anoop; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

2014-01-01

252

Alternative splicing coupled nonsense-mediated decay generates neuronal cell type-specific expression of SLM proteins.  

PubMed

The unique physiological and morphological properties of neuronal populations are crucial for the appropriate functioning of neuronal circuits. Alternative splicing represents an attractive mechanism for generating cell type-specific molecular repertoires that steer neuronal development and function. However, the mechanisms that link neuronal identity to alternative splicing programs are poorly understood. We report that cell type-specific, mutually exclusive expression of two alternative splicing regulators, SLM1 and SLM2, in the mouse hippocampus is achieved by a cross-repression mechanism. Deletion of SLM2 in vivo modifies alternative splicing of its paralog Slm1 and stabilizes its mRNA, resulting in expression of SLM1 in previously SLM2-expressing cells. Despite this ectopic upregulation of SLM1, loss of SLM2 severely disrupts the alternative splicing regulation of Nrxn1, Nrxn2, and Nrxn3, highlighting that the two SLM paralogs have partially divergent functions. Our study uncovers a hierarchical, SLM2-dependent mechanism for establishing cell type-specific expression of neuronal splicing regulators in vivo. PMID:25505328

Traunmüller, Lisa; Bornmann, Caroline; Scheiffele, Peter

2014-12-10

253

Modification of Akt by SUMO conjugation regulates alternative splicing and cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Akt/PKB is a key signaling molecule in higher eukaryotes and a crucial protein kinase in human health and disease. Phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation have been reported as important regulatory post-translational modifications of this kinase. We describe here that Akt is modified by SUMO conjugation, and show that lysine residues 276 and 301 are the major SUMO attachment sites within this protein. We found that phosphorylation and SUMOylation of Akt appear as independent events. However, decreasing Akt SUMOylation levels severely affects the role of this kinase as a regulator of fibronectin and Bcl-x alternative splicing. Moreover, we observed that the Akt mutant (Akt E17K) found in several human tumors displays increased levels of SUMOylation and also an enhanced capacity to regulate fibronectin splicing patterns. This splicing regulatory activity is completely abolished by decreasing Akt E17K SUMO conjugation levels. Additionally, we found that SUMOylation controls Akt regulatory function at G?/S transition during cell cycle progression. These findings reveal SUMO conjugation as a novel level of regulation for Akt activity, opening new areas of exploration related to the molecular mechanisms involved in the diverse cellular functions of this kinase. PMID:24013425

Risso, Guillermo; Pelisch, Federico; Pozzi, Berta; Mammi, Pablo; Blaustein, Matías; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Srebrow, Anabella

2013-01-01

254

Alternative splicing, muscle calcium sensitivity, and the modulation of dragonfly flight performance  

PubMed Central

Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and that the mixture of TnT splice variants explains significant portions of the variation in muscle calcium sensitivity, wing-beat frequency, and an index of aerodynamic power output during free flight. Two size-distinguishable morphs differ in their maturational pattern of TnT splicing, yet they show the same relationship between TnT transcript mixture and calcium sensitivity and between calcium sensitivity and aerodynamic power output. This consistency of effect in different developmental and physiological contexts strengthens the hypothesis that TnT isoform variation modulates muscle calcium sensitivity and whole-organism locomotor performance. Modulating muscle power output appears to provide the ecologically important ability to operate at different points along a tradeoff between performance and energetic cost. PMID:10611380

Marden, James H.; Fitzhugh, Gail H.; Wolf, Melisande R.; Arnold, Kristina D.; Rowan, Barry

1999-01-01

255

Alternative splicing, muscle calcium sensitivity, and the modulation of dragonfly flight performance.  

PubMed

Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and that the mixture of TnT splice variants explains significant portions of the variation in muscle calcium sensitivity, wing-beat frequency, and an index of aerodynamic power output during free flight. Two size-distinguishable morphs differ in their maturational pattern of TnT splicing, yet they show the same relationship between TnT transcript mixture and calcium sensitivity and between calcium sensitivity and aerodynamic power output. This consistency of effect in different developmental and physiological contexts strengthens the hypothesis that TnT isoform variation modulates muscle calcium sensitivity and whole-organism locomotor performance. Modulating muscle power output appears to provide the ecologically important ability to operate at different points along a tradeoff between performance and energetic cost. PMID:10611380

Marden, J H; Fitzhugh, G H; Wolf, M R; Arnold, K D; Rowan, B

1999-12-21

256

Leydig cells express the myelin proteolipid protein gene and incorporate a new alternatively spliced exon.  

PubMed

Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) is highly expressed in the central nervous system encoding the most abundant myelin protein in oligodendrocytes, it is also expressed in other tissues, including testis. Transgenic studies with mice that harbor Plp1-lacZ fusion genes suggest that Leydig cells are the source of Plp1 gene expression in testis. However, virtually nothing is known about Plp1 gene regulation in Leydig cells, which is the focus of this study. The first intron contains both positive and negative regulatory elements that are important in regulating Plp1 gene expression in oligodendrocytes. To test whether these elements are functional in Leydig cells, a battery of Plp1-lacZ fusion genes with partial deletion of Plp1 intron 1 sequence was transfected into the mouse Leydig cell line, TM3. Results presented here suggest that an enhancer, which is very potent in oligodendrocytes, is only nominally active in TM3 cells. The intron also contains several negative regulatory elements that are operative in TM3 cells. Moreover a new exon (exon 1.2) was identified within the first 'intron' resulting in novel splice variants in TM3 cells. Western blot analysis suggests that these splice variants, along with those containing another alternatively spliced exon (exon 1.1) derived from intron 1 sequence, give rise to multiple Plp1 gene products in the mouse testis. PMID:19232385

Li, Shenyang; Greuel, Brian T; Meng, Fanxue; Pereira, Glauber B; Pitts, Adria; Dobretsova, Anna; Wight, Patricia A

2009-05-01

257

Detection of recurrent alternative splicing switches in tumor samples reveals novel signatures of cancer.  

PubMed

The determination of the alternative splicing isoforms expressed in cancer is fundamental for the development of tumor-specific molecular targets for prognosis and therapy, but it is hindered by the heterogeneity of tumors and the variability across patients. We developed a new computational method, robust to biological and technical variability, which identifies significant transcript isoform changes across multiple samples. We applied this method to more than 4000 samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas project to obtain novel splicing signatures that are predictive for nine different cancer types, and find a specific signature for basal-like breast tumors involving the tumor-driver CTNND1. Additionally, our method identifies 244 isoform switches, for which the change occurs in the most abundant transcript. Some of these switches occur in known tumor drivers, including PPARG, CCND3, RALGDS, MITF, PRDM1, ABI1 and MYH11, for which the switch implies a change in the protein product. Moreover, some of the switches cannot be described with simple splicing events. Surprisingly, isoform switches are independent of somatic mutations, except for the tumor-suppressor FBLN2 and the oncogene MYH11. Our method reveals novel signatures of cancer in terms of transcript isoforms specifically expressed in tumors, providing novel potential molecular targets for prognosis and therapy. Data and software are available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1061917 and https://bitbucket.org/regulatorygenomicsupf/iso-ktsp. PMID:25578962

Sebestyén, Endre; Zawisza, Micha?; Eyras, Eduardo

2015-02-18

258

Detection of recurrent alternative splicing switches in tumor samples reveals novel signatures of cancer  

PubMed Central

The determination of the alternative splicing isoforms expressed in cancer is fundamental for the development of tumor-specific molecular targets for prognosis and therapy, but it is hindered by the heterogeneity of tumors and the variability across patients. We developed a new computational method, robust to biological and technical variability, which identifies significant transcript isoform changes across multiple samples. We applied this method to more than 4000 samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas project to obtain novel splicing signatures that are predictive for nine different cancer types, and find a specific signature for basal-like breast tumors involving the tumor-driver CTNND1. Additionally, our method identifies 244 isoform switches, for which the change occurs in the most abundant transcript. Some of these switches occur in known tumor drivers, including PPARG, CCND3, RALGDS, MITF, PRDM1, ABI1 and MYH11, for which the switch implies a change in the protein product. Moreover, some of the switches cannot be described with simple splicing events. Surprisingly, isoform switches are independent of somatic mutations, except for the tumor-suppressor FBLN2 and the oncogene MYH11. Our method reveals novel signatures of cancer in terms of transcript isoforms specifically expressed in tumors, providing novel potential molecular targets for prognosis and therapy. Data and software are available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1061917 and https://bitbucket.org/regulatorygenomicsupf/iso-ktsp. PMID:25578962

Sebestyén, Endre; Zawisza, Micha?; Eyras, Eduardo

2015-01-01

259

Transcriptomic Analysis of PNN- and ESRP1-Regulated Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We investigated the impact of PININ (PNN) and epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the corneal epithelial context. Methods. Isoform-specific RT-PCR assays were performed on wild-type and Pnn knockout mouse cornea. Protein interactions were examined by deconvolution microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. For genome-wide alternative splicing study, immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCET) harboring doxycycline-inducible shRNA against PNN or ESRP1 were created. Total RNA was isolated from four biological replicates of control and knockdown HCET cells, and subjected to hGlue3_0 transcriptome array analysis. Results. Pnn depletion in developing mouse corneal epithelium led to disrupted alternative splicing of multiple ESRP-regulated epithelial-type exons. In HCET cells, ESRP1 and PNN displayed close localization in and around nuclear speckles, and their physical association in protein complexes was identified. Whole transcriptome array analysis on ESRP1 or PNN knockdown HCET cells revealed clear alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of specific subsets of genes. Separate RT-PCR validation assays confirmed successfully specific changes in exon usage of several representative splice variants, including PAX6(5a), FOXJ3, ARHGEF11, and SLC37A2. Gene ontologic analyses on ESRP1- or PNN-regulated alternative exons suggested their roles in epithelial phenotypes, such as cell morphology and movement. Conclusions. Our data suggested that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of target genes, but not general splicing events, in HCET cells to maintain or enhance epithelial characteristics. PMID:23299472

Joo, Jeong-Hoon; Correia, Greg P.; Li, Jian-Liang; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Sugrue, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

260

The alternative splicing regulator Tra2b is required for somitogenesis and regulates splicing of an inhibitory Wnt11b isoform.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is pervasive in vertebrates, yet little is known about most isoforms or their regulation. transformer-2b (tra2b) encodes a splicing regulator whose endogenous function is poorly understood. Tra2b knockdown in Xenopus results in embryos with multiple defects, including defective somitogenesis. Using RNA sequencing, we identify 142 splice changes (mostly intron retention and exon skipping), 89% of which are not in current annotations. A previously undescribed isoform of wnt11b retains the last intron, resulting in a truncated ligand (Wnt11b-short). We show that this isoform acts as a dominant-negative ligand in cardiac gene induction and pronephric tubule formation. To determine the contribution of Wnt11b-short to the tra2b phenotype, we induce retention of intron 4 in wnt11b, which recapitulates the failure to form somites but not other tra2b morphant defects. This alternative splicing of a Wnt ligand adds intricacy to a complex signaling pathway and highlights intron retention as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:25620705

Dichmann, Darwin S; Walentek, Peter; Harland, Richard M

2015-02-01

261

Skipping of Exons by Premature Termination of Transcription and Alternative Splicing within Intron-5 of the Sheep SCF Gene: A Novel Splice Variant  

PubMed Central

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (?) or soluble (+) forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin of white merino sheep via cloning and sequencing. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and molecular prediction revealed two different cDNA products of SCF. Full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). Nucleotide sequencing and molecular prediction revealed that the primary 1519 base pair (bp) cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 274 amino acids (aa), commonly known as ‘soluble’ isoform. In contrast, the shorter (835 and/or 725 bp) cDNA was found to be a ‘novel’ mRNA splice variant. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) corresponding to a truncated protein of 181 aa (vs 245 aa) with an unique C-terminus lacking the primary proteolytic segment (28 aa) right after the D175G site which is necessary to produce ‘soluble’ form of SCF. This alternative splice (AS) variant was explained by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering exon 5-intron (5)-exon 6 (948 bp) with a premature termination codon (PTC) whereby exons 6 to 9/10 are skipped (Cassette Exon, CE 6–9/10). We also demonstrated that the Northern blot analysis at transcript level is mediated via an intron-5 splicing event. Our data refine the structure of SCF gene; clarify the presence (+) and/or absence (?) of primary proteolytic-cleavage site specific SCF splice variants. This work provides a basis for understanding the functional role and regulation of SCF in hair follicle melanogenesis in sheep beyond what was known in mice, humans and other mammals. PMID:22719917

Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

2012-01-01

262

High-throughput sequence analysis of Ciona intestinalis SL trans-spliced mRNAs: alternative expression modes and gene function correlates.  

PubMed

Pre-mRNA 5' spliced-leader (SL) trans-splicing occurs in some metazoan groups but not in others. Genome-wide characterization of the trans-spliced mRNA subpopulation has not yet been reported for any metazoan. We carried out a high-throughput analysis of the SL trans-spliced mRNA population of the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis by 454 Life Sciences (Roche) pyrosequencing of SL-PCR-amplified random-primed reverse transcripts of tailbud embryo RNA. We obtained approximately 250,000 high-quality reads corresponding to 8790 genes, approximately 58% of the Ciona total gene number. The great depth of this data revealed new aspects of trans-splicing, including the existence of a significant class of "infrequently trans-spliced" genes, accounting for approximately 28% of represented genes, that generate largely non-trans-spliced mRNAs, but also produce trans-spliced mRNAs, in part through alternative promoter use. Thus, the conventional qualitative dichotomy of trans-spliced versus non-trans-spliced genes should be supplanted by a more accurate quantitative view recognizing frequently and infrequently trans-spliced gene categories. Our data include reads representing approximately 80% of Ciona frequently trans-spliced genes. Our analysis also revealed significant use of closely spaced alternative trans-splice acceptor sites which further underscores the mechanistic similarity of cis- and trans-splicing and indicates that the prevalence of +/-3-nt alternative splicing events at tandem acceptor sites, NAGNAG, is driven by spliceosomal mechanisms, and not nonsense-mediated decay, or selection at the protein level. The breadth of gene representation data enabled us to find new correlations between trans-splicing status and gene function, namely the overrepresentation in the frequently trans-spliced gene class of genes associated with plasma/endomembrane system, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and actin cytoskeleton. PMID:20212022

Matsumoto, Jun; Dewar, Ken; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Roe, Bruce A; Zeller, Robert W; Satou, Yutaka; Hastings, Kenneth E M

2010-05-01

263

High-throughput sequence analysis of Ciona intestinalis SL trans-spliced mRNAs: Alternative expression modes and gene function correlates  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA 5? spliced-leader (SL) trans-splicing occurs in some metazoan groups but not in others. Genome-wide characterization of the trans-spliced mRNA subpopulation has not yet been reported for any metazoan. We carried out a high-throughput analysis of the SL trans-spliced mRNA population of the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis by 454 Life Sciences (Roche) pyrosequencing of SL-PCR-amplified random-primed reverse transcripts of tailbud embryo RNA. We obtained ?250,000 high-quality reads corresponding to 8790 genes, ?58% of the Ciona total gene number. The great depth of this data revealed new aspects of trans-splicing, including the existence of a significant class of “infrequently trans-spliced” genes, accounting for ?28% of represented genes, that generate largely non-trans-spliced mRNAs, but also produce trans-spliced mRNAs, in part through alternative promoter use. Thus, the conventional qualitative dichotomy of trans-spliced versus non-trans-spliced genes should be supplanted by a more accurate quantitative view recognizing frequently and infrequently trans-spliced gene categories. Our data include reads representing ?80% of Ciona frequently trans-spliced genes. Our analysis also revealed significant use of closely spaced alternative trans-splice acceptor sites which further underscores the mechanistic similarity of cis- and trans-splicing and indicates that the prevalence of ±3-nt alternative splicing events at tandem acceptor sites, NAGNAG, is driven by spliceosomal mechanisms, and not nonsense-mediated decay, or selection at the protein level. The breadth of gene representation data enabled us to find new correlations between trans-splicing status and gene function, namely the overrepresentation in the frequently trans-spliced gene class of genes associated with plasma/endomembrane system, Ca2+ homeostasis, and actin cytoskeleton. PMID:20212022

Matsumoto, Jun; Dewar, Ken; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Wiley, Graham B.; Macmil, Simone L.; Roe, Bruce A.; Zeller, Robert W.; Satou, Yutaka; Hastings, Kenneth E.M.

2010-01-01

264

RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis Pollen Uncovers Novel Transcription and Alternative Splicing1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing patterns of pollen transcripts will improve our understanding of pollen and allow investigation of tissue-specific splicing in plants. Most Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome studies have used the ATH1 microarray, which does not assay splice variants and lacks specific probe sets for many genes. To investigate the pollen transcriptome, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Arabidopsis pollen and seedlings for comparison. Gene expression was more diverse in seedling, and genes involved in cell wall biogenesis were highly expressed in pollen. RNA-Seq detected at least 4,172 protein-coding genes expressed in pollen, including 289 assayed only by nonspecific probe sets. Additional exons and previously unannotated 5? and 3? untranslated regions for pollen-expressed genes were revealed. We detected regions in the genome not previously annotated as expressed; 14 were tested and 12 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Gapped read alignments revealed 1,908 high-confidence new splicing events supported by 10 or more spliced read alignments. Alternative splicing patterns in pollen and seedling were highly correlated. For most alternatively spliced genes, the ratio of variants in pollen and seedling was similar, except for some encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing. This study highlights the robustness of splicing patterns in plants and the importance of ongoing annotation and visualization of RNA-Seq data using interactive tools such as Integrated Genome Browser. PMID:23590974

Loraine, Ann E.; McCormick, Sheila; Estrada, April; Patel, Ketan; Qin, Peng

2013-01-01

265

Species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression of sno-lncRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Intron-derived long noncoding RNAs with snoRNA ends (sno-lncRNAs) are highly expressed from the imprinted Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) region on human chromosome 15. However, sno-lncRNAs from other regions of the human genome or from other genomes have not yet been documented. Results By exploring non-polyadenylated transcriptomes from human, rhesus and mouse, we have systematically annotated sno-lncRNAs expressed in all three species. In total, using available data from a limited set of cell lines, 19 sno-lncRNAs have been identified with tissue- and species-specific expression patterns. Although primary sequence analysis revealed that snoRNAs themselves are conserved from human to mouse, sno-lncRNAs are not. PWS region sno-lncRNAs are highly expressed in human and rhesus monkey, but are undetectable in mouse. Importantly, the absence of PWS region sno-lncRNAs in mouse suggested a possible reason why current mouse models fail to fully recapitulate pathological features of human PWS. In addition, a RPL13A region sno-lncRNA was specifically revealed in mouse embryonic stem cells, and its snoRNA ends were reported to influence lipid metabolism. Interestingly, the RPL13A region sno-lncRNA is barely detectable in human. We further demonstrated that the formation of sno-lncRNAs is often associated with alternative splicing of exons within their parent genes, and species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression pattern of sno-lncRNAs in different animals. Conclusions Comparative transcriptomes of non-polyadenylated RNAs among human, rhesus and mouse revealed that the expression of sno-lncRNAs is species-specific and that their processing is closely linked to alternative splicing of their parent genes. This study thus further demonstrates a complex regulatory network of coding and noncoding parts of the mammalian genome. PMID:24734784

2014-01-01

266

Ca 2+ channel sensitivity towards the blocker isradipine is affected by alternative splicing of the human ? 1C subunit gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-type Ca2+ channels are important targets for drugs, such as dihydropyridines (DHPs), in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Channel expression is regulated by alternative splicing. It has been suggested that in the cardiovascular system tissue-specific expression of different L-type Ca2+ channel splice variants may underlie the observed differences in sensitivities to channel block by DHPs. We investigated the sensitivity of

R. D Zühlke; A Bouron; N. M Soldatov; H Reuter

1998-01-01

267

Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay regulate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression during virus-induced lymphomagenesis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Telomerase activation, a critical step in cell immortalization and oncogenesis, is partly regulated by alternative splicing. In this study, we aimed to use the Marek's disease virus (MDV) T-cell lymphoma model to evaluate TERT regulation by splicing during lymphomagenesis in vivo, from the start point to tumor establishment. RESULTS: We first screened cDNA libraries from the chicken MDV lymphoma-derived

Souheila Amor; Sylvie Remy; Ginette Dambrine; Yves Le Vern; Denis Rasschaert; Sylvie Laurent

2010-01-01

268

Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch  

PubMed Central

How mechanochemical signals induced by the amount of weight borne by the skeletal musculature are translated into modifications to muscle sarcomeres is poorly understood. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in response to experimentally induced increases in the weight load borne by a rat, alternative splicing of the fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3) pre-mRNA in gastrocnemius was adjusted in a correlated fashion with the amount of added weight. (Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH, Jefferson LS. J Exp Biol 214: 1523–1532, 2011). Thus muscle load is perceived quantitatively by the body, and mechanisms that sense it appear to control processes that generate muscle sarcomere composition plasticity, such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Here we demonstrate how mechanical stretch (see earlier comment) of C2C12 muscle cells in culture results in changes to Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing that are qualitatively similar to those observed in response to added weight in rats. Moreover, inhibition of Akt signaling, but not that of ERK1/2, prevents the stretch-induced effect on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing. These findings suggest that effects of muscle load on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing are controlled by a cell-autonomous mechanism, rather than systemically. They also indicate that, in addition to its regulatory role in protein synthesis and muscle mass plasticity, Akt signaling may regulate muscle sarcomere composition by modulating alternative splicing events in response to load. Manipulation of Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing by mechanical stretch of cells in culture provides a model to investigate the biology of weight sensing by skeletal muscles and facilitates identification of mechanisms through which skeletal muscles match their performance and experienced load. PMID:22592404

Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

2012-01-01

269

Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch.  

PubMed

How mechanochemical signals induced by the amount of weight borne by the skeletal musculature are translated into modifications to muscle sarcomeres is poorly understood. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in response to experimentally induced increases in the weight load borne by a rat, alternative splicing of the fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3) pre-mRNA in gastrocnemius was adjusted in a correlated fashion with the amount of added weight. (Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH, Jefferson LS. J Exp Biol 214: 1523-1532, 2011). Thus muscle load is perceived quantitatively by the body, and mechanisms that sense it appear to control processes that generate muscle sarcomere composition plasticity, such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Here we demonstrate how mechanical stretch (see earlier comment) of C2C12 muscle cells in culture results in changes to Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing that are qualitatively similar to those observed in response to added weight in rats. Moreover, inhibition of Akt signaling, but not that of ERK1/2, prevents the stretch-induced effect on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing. These findings suggest that effects of muscle load on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing are controlled by a cell-autonomous mechanism, rather than systemically. They also indicate that, in addition to its regulatory role in protein synthesis and muscle mass plasticity, Akt signaling may regulate muscle sarcomere composition by modulating alternative splicing events in response to load. Manipulation of Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing by mechanical stretch of cells in culture provides a model to investigate the biology of weight sensing by skeletal muscles and facilitates identification of mechanisms through which skeletal muscles match their performance and experienced load. PMID:22592404

Schilder, Rudolf J; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

2012-08-01

270

Lysyl oxidase-like 4 is alternatively spliced in an anatomic site-specific manner in tumors involving the serosal cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysyl oxidase-like enzymes (LOXL) are expressed in various cancers. We analyzed the expression of LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4\\u000a in cancers involving the serosal cavities—breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma using reverse-transcriptase\\u000a polymerase chain reaction. We discovered two new alternative splice variants of LOXL4. The spliced segments were exon 9 (splice\\u000a variant 1) or both exons 8 and 9 (splice

Shulamit Sebban; Ben Davidson; Reuven Reich

2009-01-01

271

Genome-wide identification of Fas/CD95 alternative splicing regulators reveals links with iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of Fas/CD95 exon 6 generates either a membrane-bound receptor that promotes, or a soluble isoform that inhibits, apoptosis. Using an automatized genome-wide siRNA screening for alternative splicing regulators of endogenous transcripts in mammalian cells, we identified 200 genes whose knockdown modulates the ratio between Fas/CD95 isoforms. These include classical splicing regulators; core spliceosome components; and factors implicated in transcription and chromatin remodeling, RNA transport, intracellular signaling, and metabolic control. Coherent effects of genes involved in iron homeostasis and pharmacological modulation of iron levels revealed a link between intracellular iron and Fas/CD95 exon 6 inclusion. A splicing regulatory network linked iron levels with reduced activity of the Zinc-finger-containing splicing regulator SRSF7, and in vivo and in vitro assays revealed that iron inhibits SRSF7 RNA binding. Our results uncover numerous links between cellular pathways and RNA processing and a mechanism by which iron homeostasis can influence alternative splicing. PMID:25482508

Tejedor, J Ramón; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Valcárcel, Juan

2015-01-01

272

Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens.  

PubMed

Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

2014-04-28

273

Characteristics of CD44 alternative splice pattern in the course of human colorectal adenocarcinoma progression  

PubMed Central

Background CD44 is considered as ‘a’ metastasis associated gene, despite the fact that it is an umbrella term for a group of molecules produced from a single gene by alternative splicing. However, little consideration is given to the above in the literature of colorectal carcinomas as well as other tumour types, leading to confusion and contradictory results about its possible role in tumour progression. Methods We compared the CD44 alternative splice pattern (ASP) of three genetically different human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT25, HT29, HCT116) using a series of PCR reactions and next- generation sequencing method, as well as identified a colorectal adenocarcinoma specific CD44 ASP. This ASP was further investigated in terms of its qualitative and quantitative stability in our experimental iso- and xenograft mouse models for colorectal cancer progression. A complex preclinical experimental set-up was established to separately test the different steps of tumour progression and the role of tumour microenvironment, respectively, focusing on the role of ‘CD44’ in this process. Results We managed to present a colorectal cancer-specific CD44 ASP, which remained unchanged from cell lines throughout primary tumour formation and metastatic progression. Furthermore, we report a unique roster of all expressed CD44 variant isoforms characteristic to colorectal cancer. Finally, on quantitative assessment of the variable exons v3 and v6, higher co-expression levels were found to be characteristic to metastatically potent tumour cells. Conclusion Particular CD44 variant isoforms seem to act as “metastasis genes” via tumour microenvironment-driven shifts in v3 and v6 expressions. However, this function may just affect a minority of tumour subclones. This fact and the huge potential number of different CD44 splice variants that can contain v3 and v6 domains can explain incoherence of clinical studies regarding functional asessment of CD44 variants, as well as diminish the chances of using CD44 variants for predictive purpose. PMID:23151220

2012-01-01

274

Predicting the Impact of Alternative Splicing on Plant MADS Domain Protein Function  

PubMed Central

Several genome-wide studies demonstrated that alternative splicing (AS) significantly increases the transcriptome complexity in plants. However, the impact of AS on the functional diversity of proteins is difficult to assess using genome-wide approaches. The availability of detailed sequence annotations for specific genes and gene families allows for a more detailed assessment of the potential effect of AS on their function. One example is the plant MADS-domain transcription factor family, members of which interact to form protein complexes that function in transcription regulation. Here, we perform an in silico analysis of the potential impact of AS on the protein-protein interaction capabilities of MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins. We first confirmed the expression of transcript isoforms resulting from predicted AS events. Expressed transcript isoforms were considered functional if they were likely to be translated and if their corresponding AS events either had an effect on predicted dimerisation motifs or occurred in regions known to be involved in multimeric complex formation, or otherwise, if their effect was conserved in different species. Nine out of twelve MIKC MADS-box genes predicted to produce multiple protein isoforms harbored putative functional AS events according to those criteria. AS events with conserved effects were only found at the borders of or within the K-box domain. We illustrate how AS can contribute to the evolution of interaction networks through an example of selective inclusion of a recently evolved interaction motif in the MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING1-3 (MAF1–3) subclade. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential effect of an AS event in SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), resulting in the deletion of a short sequence stretch including a predicted interaction motif, by overexpression of the fully spliced and the alternatively spliced SVP transcripts. For most of the AS events we were able to formulate hypotheses about the potential impact on the interaction capabilities of the encoded MIKC proteins. PMID:22295091

Severing, Edouard I.; van Dijk, Aalt D. J.; Morabito, Giuseppa; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Immink, Richard G. H.; van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.

2012-01-01

275

rMATS: robust and flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data.  

PubMed

Ultra-deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We previously developed multivariate analysis of transcript splicing (MATS), a statistical method for detecting differential alternative splicing between two RNA-Seq samples. Here we describe a new statistical model and computer program, replicate MATS (rMATS), designed for detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data. rMATS uses a hierarchical model to simultaneously account for sampling uncertainty in individual replicates and variability among replicates. In addition to the analysis of unpaired replicates, rMATS also includes a model specifically designed for paired replicates between sample groups. The hypothesis-testing framework of rMATS is flexible and can assess the statistical significance over any user-defined magnitude of splicing change. The performance of rMATS is evaluated by the analysis of simulated and real RNA-Seq data. rMATS outperformed two existing methods for replicate RNA-Seq data in all simulation settings, and RT-PCR yielded a high validation rate (94%) in an RNA-Seq dataset of prostate cancer cell lines. Our data also provide guiding principles for designing RNA-Seq studies of alternative splicing. We demonstrate that it is essential to incorporate biological replicates in the study design. Of note, pooling RNAs or merging RNA-Seq data from multiple replicates is not an effective approach to account for variability, and the result is particularly sensitive to outliers. The rMATS source code is freely available at rnaseq-mats.sourceforge.net/. As the popularity of RNA-Seq continues to grow, we expect rMATS will be useful for studies of alternative splicing in diverse RNA-Seq projects. PMID:25480548

Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Lin, Lan; Henry, Michael D; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhou, Qing; Xing, Yi

2014-12-23

276

rMATS: Robust and flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data  

PubMed Central

Ultra-deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We previously developed multivariate analysis of transcript splicing (MATS), a statistical method for detecting differential alternative splicing between two RNA-Seq samples. Here we describe a new statistical model and computer program, replicate MATS (rMATS), designed for detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data. rMATS uses a hierarchical model to simultaneously account for sampling uncertainty in individual replicates and variability among replicates. In addition to the analysis of unpaired replicates, rMATS also includes a model specifically designed for paired replicates between sample groups. The hypothesis-testing framework of rMATS is flexible and can assess the statistical significance over any user-defined magnitude of splicing change. The performance of rMATS is evaluated by the analysis of simulated and real RNA-Seq data. rMATS outperformed two existing methods for replicate RNA-Seq data in all simulation settings, and RT-PCR yielded a high validation rate (94%) in an RNA-Seq dataset of prostate cancer cell lines. Our data also provide guiding principles for designing RNA-Seq studies of alternative splicing. We demonstrate that it is essential to incorporate biological replicates in the study design. Of note, pooling RNAs or merging RNA-Seq data from multiple replicates is not an effective approach to account for variability, and the result is particularly sensitive to outliers. The rMATS source code is freely available at rnaseq-mats.sourceforge.net/. As the popularity of RNA-Seq continues to grow, we expect rMATS will be useful for studies of alternative splicing in diverse RNA-Seq projects. PMID:25480548

Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Lin, Lan; Henry, Michael D.; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhou, Qing; Xing, Yi

2014-01-01

277

Characterization of a gene encoding a single-subunit bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase from maize which is alternatively spliced.  

PubMed

Single-subunit RNA polymerases belonging to the T3/T7 bacteriophage family are thought to be common throughout eukaryotes. We report the isolation and characterization of a nucleus-encoded single-subunit RNA polymerase gene from maize. This gene is highly homologous to other single-subunit RNA polymerase genes from Arabidopsis, Chenopodium. yeast and Neurospora crassa involved in organellar transcription. Genomic Southern analysis reveals 10 to 15 hybridising fragments, suggesting that maize contains a small gene family. The isolated gene contains 19 exons and its genomic structure is highly conserved when compared to the three Arabidopsis homologues. Unlike the case in Arabidopsis, intron-12 of the maize bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase gene is alternatively spliced. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the resultant alternatively spliced transcript represents approximately 21 to 26% of the total polymerase mRNA in maize coleoptiles. The orthologous wheat bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase is also alternatively spliced and the intron exhibits 78% identity to maize intron-12. The conservation in alternative splicing between wheat and maize and its absence from Arabidopsis suggest a functional requirement for the alternatively spliced product. PMID:9829825

Young, D A; Allen, R L; Harvey, A J; Lonsdale, D M

1998-10-01

278

Alternative Cyclin D1 Splice Forms Differentially Regulate the DNA Damage Response  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response (DDR) activates downstream pathways including cell cycle checkpoints. The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed or amplified in many human cancers and is required for gastrointestinal, breast, and skin tumors in murine models. A common polymorphism in the human cyclin D1 gene is alternatively spliced, resulting in cyclin D1a and D1b proteins that differ in their carboxyl terminus. Cyclin D1 overexpression enhances DNA-damage induced apoptosis. The role of cyclin D1 and the alternative splice form in regulating the DDR is not well understood. Herein cyclin D1a overexpression enhanced the DDR as characterized by induction of ?H2AX phosphorylation, the assembly of DNA repair foci, and specific recruitment of DNA repair factors to chromatin, and G2/M arrest. Cyclin D1 deletion in fibroblasts or siRNA mediated reduction of endogenous cyclin D1 in colon cancer cells reduced the 5-FU-mediated DDR. Mechanistic studies demonstrated cyclin D1a, like DNA repair factors, elicited the DDR when stably associated with chromatin. PMID:20940395

Li, Zhiping; Jiao, Xuanmao; Wang, Chenguang; Shirley, L. Andrew; Elsaleh, Hany; Dahl, Olav; Wang, Min; Soutoglou, Evi; Knudsen, Erik S.; Pestell, Richard G.

2010-01-01

279

Divergent functions through alternative splicing: the Drosophila CRMP gene in pyrimidine metabolism, brain, and behavior.  

PubMed

DHP and CRMP proteins comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that perform divergent functions, DHP in pyrimidine catabolism in most organisms and CRMP in neuronal dynamics in animals. In vertebrates, one DHP and five CRMP proteins are products of six genes; however, Drosophila melanogaster has a single CRMP gene that encodes one DHP and one CRMP protein through tissue-specific, alternative splicing of a pair of paralogous exons. The proteins derived from the fly gene are identical over 90% of their lengths, suggesting that unique, novel functions of these proteins derive from the segment corresponding to the paralogous exons. Functional homologies of the Drosophila and mammalian CRMP proteins are revealed by several types of evidence. Loss-of-function CRMP mutation modifies both Ras and Rac misexpression phenotypes during fly eye development in a manner that is consistent with the roles of CRMP in Ras and Rac signaling pathways in mammalian neurons. In both mice and flies, CRMP mutation impairs learning and memory. CRMP mutant flies are defective in circadian activity rhythm. Thus, DHP and CRMP proteins are derived by different processes in flies (tissue-specific, alternative splicing of paralogous exons of a single gene) and vertebrates (tissue-specific expression of different genes), indicating that diverse genetic mechanisms have mediated the evolution of this protein family in animals. PMID:22649077

Morris, Deanna H; Dubnau, Josh; Park, Jae H; Rawls, John M

2012-08-01

280

Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals  

PubMed Central

Muscles coordinate body movements throughout the animal kingdom. Each skeletal muscle is built of large, multi-nucleated cells, called myofibers, which are classified into several functionally distinct types. The typical fiber-type composition of each muscle arises during development, and in mammals is extensively adjusted in response to postnatal exercise. Understanding how functionally distinct muscle fiber-types arise is important for unraveling the molecular basis of diseases from cardiomyopathies to muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on recent advances in Drosophila and mammals in understanding how muscle fiber-type specification is controlled by the regulation of transcription and alternative splicing. We illustrate the cooperation of general myogenic transcription factors with muscle fiber-type specific transcriptional regulators as a basic principle for fiber-type specification, which is conserved from flies to mammals. We also examine how regulated alternative splicing of sarcomeric proteins in both flies and mammals can directly instruct the physiological and biophysical differences between fiber-types. Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. PMID:24145055

Spletter, Maria L.; Schnorrer, Frank

2014-01-01

281

Detection of Alternative Splice and Gene Duplication by RNA Sequencing in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

PubMed Central

Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of “omics” data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 “single-nucleotide polymorphisms” were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

2014-01-01

282

Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells  

PubMed Central

The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

2014-01-01

283

Structural Basis by Which Alternative Splicing Modulates the Organizer Activity of FGF8 in the Brain  

SciTech Connect

Two of the four human FGF8 splice isoforms, FGF8a and FGF8b, are expressed in the mid-hindbrain region during development. Although the only difference between these isoforms is the presence of an additional 11 amino acids at the N terminus of FGF8b, these isoforms possess remarkably different abilities to pattern the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. To reveal the structural basis by which alternative splicing modulates the organizing activity of FGF8, we solved the crystal structure of FGF8b in complex with the 'c' splice isoform of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2c). Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we also characterized the receptor-binding specificity of FGF8a and FGF8b, the 'b' isoform of FGF17 (FGF17b), and FGF18. The FGF8b-FGFR2c structure shows that alternative splicing permits a single additional contact between phenylalanine 32 (F32) of FGF8b and a hydrophobic groove within Ig domain 3 of the receptor that is also present in FGFR1c, FGFR3c, and FGFR4. Consistent with the structure, mutation of F32 to alanine reduces the affinity of FGF8b toward all these receptors to levels characteristic of FGF8a. More importantly, analysis of the mid-hindbrain patterning ability of the FGF8b{sup F32A} mutant in chick embryos and murine midbrain explants shows that this mutation functionally converts FGF8b to FGF8a. Moreover, our data suggest that the intermediate receptor-binding affinities of FGF17b and FGF18, relative to FGF8a and FGF8b, also account for the distinct patterning abilities of these two ligands. We also show that the mode of FGF8 receptor-binding specificity is distinct from that of other FGFs and provide the first biochemical evidence for a physiological FGF8b-FGFR1c interaction during mid-hindbrain development. Consistent with the indispensable role of FGF8 in embryonic development, we show that the FGF8 mode of receptor binding appeared as early as in nematodes and has been preserved throughout evolution.

Olsen,S.; Li, J.; Eliseenkova, A.; Ibrahimi, O.; Lao, Z.; Zhang, F.; Linhardt, R.; Joyner, A.; Mohammadi, M.

2006-01-01

284

Aberrant Alternative Splicing of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in a TSH-Secreting Pituitary Tumor Is  

E-print Network

and Medicine (S.R.), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (M.Q.Z.), Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724 Patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSHomas) have high typically have physical signs and symptoms of thyroid hormone excess. Additionally, TSHomas present al- most

285

Two forms of Wilson disease protein produced by alternative splicing are localized in distinct cellular compartments.  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential trace element in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is strictly regulated by biological mechanisms. Menkes and Wilson diseases are human disorders that arise from disruption of the normal process of copper export from the cytosol to the extracellular environment. Recently a gene for Wilson disease (WD)(also named the ATP7B gene) was cloned. This gene encodes a copper transporter of the P-type ATPase. We prepared monoclonal and polyclonal anti-(WD protein) antibodies and characterized the full-length WD protein as well as a shorter form that is produced by alternative splicing in the human brain. We found that the WD protein is localized mainly in the Golgi apparatus, whereas the shorter form is present in the cytosol. These results suggest that the alternative WD proteins act as key regulators of copper metabolism, perhaps by performing distinct roles in the intracellular transport and export of copper. PMID:9307043

Yang, X L; Miura, N; Kawarada, Y; Terada, K; Petrukhin, K; Gilliam, T; Sugiyama, T

1997-01-01

286

Alternatively spliced protein arginine methyltransferase 1 isoform PRMT1v2 promotes the survival and invasiveness of breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Protein arginine methylation is catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and plays an important role in many cellular processes. Aberrant PRMT expression has been observed in several common cancer types; however, their precise contribution to the cell transformation process is not well understood. We previously reported that the PRMT1 gene generates several alternatively spliced isoforms, and our initial biochemical characterization of these isoforms revealed that they exhibit distinct substrate specificity and subcellular localization. We focus here on the PRMT1v2 isoform, which is the only predominantly cytoplasmic isoform, and we have found that its relative expression is increased in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Specific depletion of PRMT1v2 using RNA interference caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival due to an induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, depletion of PRMT1v2 in an aggressive cancer cell line significantly decreased cell invasion. We also demonstrate that PRMT1v2 overexpression in a non-aggressive cancer cell line was sufficient to render them more invasive. Importantly, this novel activity is specific to PRMT1v2, as overexpression of other isoforms did not enhance invasion. Moreover, this activity requires both proper subcellular localization and methylase activity. Lastly, PRMT1v2 overexpression altered cell morphology and reduced cell-cell adhesion, a phenomenon that we convincingly linked with reduced ?-catenin protein expression. Overall, we demonstrate a specific role for PRMT1v2 in breast cancer cell survival and invasion, underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the distinct functional differences between PRMT1 isoforms. PMID:23187807

Baldwin, R. Mitchell; Morettin, Alan; Paris, Genevieve; Goulet, Isabelle; Côté, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

287

Ametantrone-based compounds as potential regulators of Tau pre-mRNA alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Tau pre-mRNA contains a stem-loop structure involved in the regulation of the alternative splicing of tau protein. We describe here a new family of Tau RNA ligands selected by dynamic combinatorial chemistry based on the combination of ametantrone with small RNA-binding molecules. The most promising compound results from derivatization of one of the side chains of the anthraquinone ring with the small aminoglycoside neamine through a short spacer. This compound binds the RNA target with a high affinity in a preferred binding site, in which the heteroaromatic moiety intercalates in the bulged region of the stem-loop and its side chains and neamine interact with the major groove of the RNA. Importantly, binding of this compound to mutated RNA sequences involved in the onset of some tauopathies such as FTDP-17 restores their thermodynamic stability to a similar or even higher levels than that of the wild-type sequence, thereby revealing its potential as a modulator of Tau pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25372055

Artigas, Gerard; López-Senín, Paula; González, Carlos; Escaja, Núria; Marchán, Vicente

2015-01-14

288

Alternative splicing regulates vesicular trafficking genes in cardiomyocytes during postnatal heart development  

PubMed Central

During postnatal development the heart undergoes a rapid and dramatic transition to adult function through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, including alternative splicing (AS). Here we perform deep RNA-sequencing on RNA from cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts to conduct a high-resolution analysis of transcriptome changes during postnatal mouse heart development. We reveal extensive changes in gene expression and AS that occur primarily between postnatal days 1 and 28. Cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts show reciprocal regulation of gene expression reflecting differences in proliferative capacity, cell adhesion functions, and mitochondrial metabolism. We further demonstrate that AS plays a role in vesicular trafficking and membrane organization, These AS transitions are enriched among targets of two RNA-binding proteins, Celf1 and Mbnl1, which undergo developmentally regulated changes in expression. Vesicular trafficking genes affected by AS during normal development (when Celf1 is down-regulated) show a reversion to neonatal splicing patterns after Celf1 re-expression in adults. Short-term Celf1 induction in adult animals results in disrupted transverse tubule organization and calcium handling. These results identify potential roles for AS in multiple aspects of postnatal heart maturation, including vesicular trafficking and intracellular membrane dynamics. PMID:24752171

Giudice, Jimena; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Eric T.; Scavuzzo, Marissa A.; Ward, Amanda J.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Wang, Wei; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Burge, Christopher B.; Li, Wei; Cooper, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

289

EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism. PMID:23707073

Babic, Ivan; Anderson, Erik S.; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Guo, Deliang; Masui, Kenta; Li, Bing; Zhu, Shaojun; Gu, Yuchao; Villa, Genaro; Akhavan, David; Nathanson, David; Gini, Beatrice; Mareninov, Sergey; Li, Rui; Espindola C., Carolina; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F.; Yong, William H.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Christofk, Heather R.; Black, Douglas L.; Mischel, Paul S.

2013-01-01

290

EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full-length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism. PMID:23707073

Babic, Ivan; Anderson, Erik S; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Guo, Deliang; Masui, Kenta; Li, Bing; Zhu, Shaojun; Gu, Yuchao; Villa, Genaro R; Akhavan, David; Nathanson, David; Gini, Beatrice; Mareninov, Sergey; Li, Rui; Camacho, Carolina Espindola; Kurdistani, Siavash K; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F; Yong, William H; Cavenee, Webster K; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Christofk, Heather R; Black, Douglas L; Mischel, Paul S

2013-06-01

291

Evidence for differential alternative splicing in blood of young boys with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Since RNA expression differences have been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for blood and brain, and differential alternative splicing (DAS) has been reported in ASD brains, we determined if there was DAS in blood mRNA of ASD subjects compared to typically developing (TD) controls, as well as in ASD subgroups related to cerebral volume. Methods RNA from blood was processed on whole genome exon arrays for 2-4–year-old ASD and TD boys. An ANCOVA with age and batch as covariates was used to predict DAS for ALL ASD (n=30), ASD with normal total cerebral volumes (NTCV), and ASD with large total cerebral volumes (LTCV) compared to TD controls (n=20). Results A total of 53 genes were predicted to have DAS for ALL ASD versus TD, 169 genes for ASD_NTCV versus TD, 1 gene for ASD_LTCV versus TD, and 27 genes for ASD_LTCV versus ASD_NTCV. These differences were significant at P <0.05 after false discovery rate corrections for multiple comparisons (FDR <5% false positives). A number of the genes predicted to have DAS in ASD are known to regulate DAS (SFPQ, SRPK1, SRSF11, SRSF2IP, FUS, LSM14A). In addition, a number of genes with predicted DAS are involved in pathways implicated in previous ASD studies, such as ROS monocyte/macrophage, Natural Killer Cell, mTOR, and NGF signaling. The only pathways significant after multiple comparison corrections (FDR <0.05) were the Nrf2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidative response (superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, peroxiredoxin 1, PIK3C3, DNAJC17, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3) and superoxide radical degradation (SOD2, CAT). Conclusions These data support differences in alternative splicing of mRNA in blood of ASD subjects compared to TD controls that differ related to head size. The findings are preliminary, need to be replicated in independent cohorts, and predicted alternative splicing differences need to be confirmed using direct analytical methods. PMID:24007566

2013-01-01

292

Splicing Programs and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies report splicing alterations in a multitude of cancers by using gene-by-gene analysis. However, understanding of the role of alternative splicing in cancer is now reaching a new level, thanks to the use of novel technologies allowing the analysis of splicing at a large-scale level. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing indicate that splicing alterations can affect the products of gene networks involved in key cellular programs. In addition, many splicing variants identified as being misregulated in cancer are expressed in normal tissues. These observations suggest that splicing programs contribute to specific cellular programs that are altered during cancer initiation and progression. Supporting this model, recent studies have identified splicing factors controlling cancer-associated splicing programs. The characterization of splicing programs and their regulation by splicing factors will allow a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in cancer initiation and progression and the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:22132318

Germann, Sophie; Gratadou, Lise; Dutertre, Martin; Auboeuf, Didier

2012-01-01

293

ASmodeler: gene modeling of alternative splicing from genomic alignment of mRNA, EST and protein sequences  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is in important mechanism of modulating gene function and expression which greatly expands transcriptome diversity. ASmodeler is a novel web-based utility that finds gene models including alternative splicing events from genomic alignment of mRNA, EST and protein sequences. User-supplied sequences are aligned against the genome map using the BLAT and SIM4 programs. Resulting exon connectivity is analyzed by applying graph-theoretic methods to build all possible gene models including splice variants. The algorithm essentially combines the genome-based sequence clustering and transcript assembly procedures in a coherent fashion. In addition to the user-supplied sequences, UniGene clusters and many well-known gene predictions such as Genscan, Ensembl and Acembly may be included in gene modeling. The current implementation supports human, mouse and rat genomes. ASmodeler is available at http://genome.ewha.ac.kr/ECgene/ASmodeler/. PMID:15215376

Kim, Namshin; Shin, Seokmin; Lee, Sanghyuk

2004-01-01

294

Mask roughness induced LER control and mitigation: aberrations sensitivity study and alternate illumination scheme  

SciTech Connect

Here we conduct a mask-roughness-induced line-edge-roughness (LER) aberrations sensitivity study both as a random distribution amongst the first 16 Fringe Zernikes (for overall aberration levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75nm rms) as well as an individual aberrations sensitivity matrix over the first 37 Fringe Zernikes. Full 2D aerial image modeling for an imaging system with NA = 0.32 was done for both the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes on a rough mask with a replicated surface roughness (RSR) of 100 pm and a correlation length of 32 nm at the nominal extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) wavelength of 13.5nm. As the ideal RSR value for commercialization of EUVL is 50 pm and under, and furthermore as has been shown elsewhere, a correlation length of 32 nm of roughness on the mask sits on the peak LER value for an NA = 0.32 imaging optic, these mask roughness values and consequently the aberration sensitivity study presented here, represent a worst-case scenario. The illumination conditions were chosen based on the possible candidates for the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes, respectively. In the 22-nm case, a disk illumination setting of {sigma} = 0.50 was used, and for the 16-nm case, crosspole illumination with {sigma} = 0.10 at an optimum offset of dx = 0 and dy = .67 in sigma space. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we considered an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a 'strip'. While this illumination surprisingly provides minimal improvement to the LER as compared to several alternate illumination schemes, the overall imaging quality in terms of image-log-slope (ILS) and contrast is improved.

McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2011-03-11

295

Long Non-Coding RNA and Alternative Splicing Modulations in Parkinson's Leukocytes Identified by RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The continuously prolonged human lifespan is accompanied by increase in neurodegenerative diseases incidence, calling for the development of inexpensive blood-based diagnostics. Analyzing blood cell transcripts by RNA-Seq is a robust means to identify novel biomarkers that rapidly becomes a commonplace. However, there is lack of tools to discover novel exons, junctions and splicing events and to precisely and sensitively assess differential splicing through RNA-Seq data analysis and across RNA-Seq platforms. Here, we present a new and comprehensive computational workflow for whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis, using an updated version of the software AltAnalyze, to identify both known and novel high-confidence alternative splicing events, and to integrate them with both protein-domains and microRNA binding annotations. We applied the novel workflow on RNA-Seq data from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' leukocytes pre- and post- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment and compared to healthy controls. Disease-mediated changes included decreased usage of alternative promoters and N-termini, 5?-end variations and mutually-exclusive exons. The PD regulated FUS and HNRNP A/B included prion-like domains regulated regions. We also present here a workflow to identify and analyze long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) via RNA-Seq data. We identified reduced lncRNA expression and selective PD-induced changes in 13 of over 6,000 detected leukocyte lncRNAs, four of which were inversely altered post-DBS. These included the U1 spliceosomal lncRNA and RP11-462G22.1, each entailing sequence complementarity to numerous microRNAs. Analysis of RNA-Seq from PD and unaffected controls brains revealed over 7,000 brain-expressed lncRNAs, of which 3,495 were co-expressed in the leukocytes including U1, which showed both leukocyte and brain increases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validations confirmed these co-increases in PD leukocytes and two brain regions, the amygdala and substantia-nigra, compared to controls. This novel workflow allows deep multi-level inspection of RNA-Seq datasets and provides a comprehensive new resource for understanding disease transcriptome modifications in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24651478

Soreq, Lilach; Guffanti, Alessandro; Salomonis, Nathan; Simchovitz, Alon; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

2014-01-01

296

Alternative splicing of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein Go alpha generates four distinct mRNAs.  

PubMed Central

Go alpha a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein abundant in brain and other neural tissues, has been implicated in ion channel regulation. Concerted efforts in several laboratories have revealed multiple Go alpha mRNAs and protein isoforms in different contexts. Go alpha is a single copy gene in mammalian species, although the structure, number and tissue localization of Go alpha mRNAs reported by investigators are inconsistent. To define the cell-specific expression of alternatively spliced variants of Go alpha mRNA, we employed several strategies, including Northern hybridizations with sequences-specific oligonucleotides, selective digestions of Go alpha mRNA using RNase H, and adaptations of the polymerase chain reaction. Four distinct alternatively spliced variants were identified, a 5.7-kb Go alpha 2 mRNA and three Go alpha 1 mRNAs with different 3' UTRs. The UTRs of the three Go alpha 1s are composed of different combinations of what have been referred to as UTR-A and UTR-B. The sequences of the spliced segments are well conserved among mammalian species, suggesting a functional role for these alternatively spliced 3' UTRs in post-transcriptional and/or tissue-specific regulation of Go alpha expression. The position of the intron-exon splice boundary at nucleotide 31 following T of the TGA stop codon is conserved in the Gi alpha 2 and Gi alpha 3 genes, consistent with the notion that similar alternative splicing of 3' UTRs occurs in products of these related genes. Images PMID:8139926

Murtagh, J J; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

1994-01-01

297

Intronic Non-CG DNA hydroxymethylation and alternative mRNA splicing in honey bees  

PubMed Central

Background Previous whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing experiments showed that DNA cytosine methylation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is almost exclusively at CG dinucleotides in exons. However, the most commonly used method, bisulfite sequencing, cannot distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine that is catalyzed by the TET family of dioxygenases. Furthermore, some analysis software programs under-represent non-CG DNA methylation and hydryoxymethylation for a variety of reasons. Therefore, we used an unbiased analysis of bisulfite sequencing data combined with molecular and bioinformatics approaches to distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. By doing this, we have performed the first whole genome analyses of DNA modifications at non-CG sites in honey bees and correlated the effects of these DNA modifications on gene expression and alternative mRNA splicing. Results We confirmed, using unbiased analyses of whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) data, with both new data and published data, the previous finding that CG DNA methylation is enriched in exons in honey bees. However, we also found evidence that cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Using antibodies against 5-hydroxmethylcytosine, we confirmed that DNA hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Additionally, using a new technique, Pvu-seq (which employs the enzyme PvuRts1l to digest DNA at 5-hydroxymethylcytosine sites followed by next-generation DNA sequencing), we further confirmed that hydroxymethylation is enriched in introns at non-CG sites. Conclusions Cytosine hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites might have more functional significance than previously appreciated, and in honey bees these modifications might be related to the regulation of alternative mRNA splicing by defining the locations of the introns. PMID:24079845

2013-01-01

298

Colony Forming Unit Endothelial Cells Do not Exhibit Telomerase Alternative Splicing Variants and Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Endothelial progenitor colony forming unit-endothelial cells (CFU-EC) were first believed to be the progenitors of endothelial cells, named endothelial progenitor cells. Further studies revealed that they are monocytes regulating vasculogenesis. The main hindrance of these cells for therapeutic purposes is their low frequency and limited replicative potentials. This study was undertaken to determine telomerase activity and alternative splicing variants in CFU-EC as a potential cause of limited replicative capacity in these cells. Methods: CFU-EC were isolated from peripheral blood using a standard cell culture assay. Colonies were detached mechanically and alternative splicing variant mRNA were evaluated using real-time PCR. Telomerase enzyme activity was assessed using telomerase repeat amplification protocol. The same procedures were done on the cancer cell line Calu6 as the positive control. Results: The cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells formed colonies with spindle-shaped monocytic cells sprouted from the clusters. These morphological characteristics fulfill the definition of CFU-EC. Telomere length amplification protocol assay revealed no telomerase activity and real-time PCR showed no expression of telomerase enzyme mRNA in CFU-EC. Both parameters were significantly higher in the cancer cell line Calu6 taken as the positive control. Conclusion: The absence of telomerase activity in the CFU-EC is a result of pre-transcriptional regulation of gene expression rather than other mechanisms for controlling telomerase activity such as post-transcriptional modifications. This finding can explain the limited proliferative activity of CFU-EC cells. We propose that absence of telomerase activity in CFU-EC can be attributable to their more mature monocytic nature that needs further investigations. PMID:23748893

Attar, Armin; Khosravi Maharlooi, Mohsen; Khoshkhou, Sara; Hosseini, Ahmad; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Dehghan, Arman; Monabati, Ahmad

2013-01-01

299

Alternative splicing and genomic structure of the AML1 gene involved in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed Central

We previously isolated the AML1 gene, which is rearranged by the t(8;21) translocation in acute myeloid leukemia. The AML1 gene is highly homologous to the Drosophila segmentation gene runt and the mouse transcription factor PEBP2 alpha subunit gene. This region of homology, called the Runt domain, is responsible for DNA-binding and protein--protein interaction. In this study, we isolated and characterized various forms of AML1 cDNAs which reflect a complex pattern of mRNA species. Analysis of these cDNAs has led to the identification of two distinct AML1 proteins, designated AML1b (453 amino acids) and AML1c (480 amino acids), which differ markedly from the previously reported AML1a (250 amino acids) with regard to their C-terminal regions, although all three contain the Runt domain. The large C-terminal region common to AML1b and AML1c is suggested to be a transcriptional activation domain. AML1c differs from AML1b by only 32 amino acids in the N-terminal. Characterization of the genomic structure revealed that the AML1 gene consists of nine exons and spans > 150 kb of genomic DNA. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of six major transcripts, encoding AML1b or AML1c, which can all be explained by the existence of two promoters, alternative splicing and differential usage of three polyadenylation sites. A minor transcript encoding AML1a which results from alternative splicing of a separate exon can be detected only by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification. The distinct proteins encoded by the AML1 gene may have different functions, which could contribute to regulating cell growth and/or differentiation through transcriptional regulation of a specific subset of target genes. Images PMID:7651838

Miyoshi, H; Ohira, M; Shimizu, K; Mitani, K; Hirai, H; Imai, T; Yokoyama, K; Soeda, E; Ohki, M

1995-01-01

300

Tra2? Protein Is Required for Tissue-specific Splicing of a Smooth Muscle Myosin Phosphatase Targeting Subunit Alternative Exon*  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of the smooth muscle myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (Mypt1) exon 23 (E23) is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated and, thus, an attractive model for the study of smooth muscle phenotypic specification. We have proposed that Tra2? functions as a tissue-specific activator of Mypt1 E23 splicing on the basis of concordant expression patterns and Tra2? activation of Mypt1 E23 mini-gene splicing in vitro. In this study we examined the relationship between Tra2? and Mypt1 E23 splicing in vivo in the mouse. Tra2? was 2- to 5-fold more abundant in phasic smooth muscle tissues, such as the portal vein, small intestine, and small mesenteric artery, in which Mypt1 E23 is predominately included as compared with the tonic smooth muscle tissues, such as the aorta and inferior vena cava, in which Mypt1 E23 is predominately skipped. Tra2? was up-regulated in the small intestine postnatally, concordant with a switch to Mypt1 E23 splicing. Targeting of Tra2? in smooth muscle cells using SM22?-Cre caused a substantial reduction in Mypt1 E23 inclusion specifically in the intestinal smooth muscle of heterozygotes, indicating sensitivity to Tra2? gene dosage. The switch to the Mypt1 E23 skipped isoform coding for the C-terminal leucine zipper motif caused increased sensitivity of the muscle to the relaxant effects of 8-Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We conclude that Tra2? is necessary for the tissue-specific splicing of Mypt1 E23 in the phasic intestinal smooth muscle. Tra2?, by regulating the splicing of Mypt1 E23, sets the sensitivity of smooth muscle to cGMP-mediated relaxation. PMID:22437831

Fu, Kang; Mende, Ylva; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Baker, Salah; Perrino, Brian A.; Wirth, Brunhilde; Fisher, Steven A.

2012-01-01

301

Ankyrin-G in skeletal muscle: Tissue-specific alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton.  

E-print Network

for the majority of the immunoreactivity for ankyrin-G in soleus muscle. The small ankyrins, when expressed in vivo1 Ankyrin-G in skeletal muscle: Tissue-specific alternative splicing contributes to the complexity muscle-specific ankyrin-G. Here we combined cDNA and database analyses to gain novel insight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2?) and Tra2? have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2? and Tra2? induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2? target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2?–Tra2? control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. PMID:25208576

Best, Andrew; James, Katherine; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Hong, Elaine; Kheirolahi-Kouhestani, Mahsa; Curk, Tomaz; Xu, Yaobo; Danilenko, Marina; Hussain, Rafiq; Keavney, Bernard; Wipat, Anil; Klinck, Roscoe; Cowell, Ian G.; Cheong Lee, Ka; Austin, Caroline A.; Venables, Julian P.; Chabot, Benoit; Santibanez Koref, Mauro; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Elliott, David J.

2014-01-01

303

Profilin II Is Alternatively Spliced, Resulting in Profilin Isoforms That Are Differentially Expressed and Have Distinct Biochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deduced the structure of the mouse profilin II gene. It contains five exons that can generate four different transcripts by alternative splicing. Two transcripts encode different profilin II isoforms (designated IIa and IIb) that have similar affinities for actin but different affinities for polyphosphoinositides and proline-rich sequences. Profilins IIa and IIb are also present in humans, suggesting that all

ANJA LAMBRECHTS; ATTILA BRAUN; VERONIQUE JONCKHEERE; ATTILA ASZODI; LORENE M. LANIER; JOHAN ROBBENS; INGE VAN COLEN; JOEL VANDEKERCKHOVE; REINHARD FASSLER; CHRISTOPHE AMPE

2000-01-01

304

RNA interference knockdown of DNA methyl-transferase 3 affects gene alternative splicing in the honey bee  

PubMed Central

Studies of DNA methylation from fungi, plants, and animals indicate that gene body methylation is ancient and highly conserved in eukaryotic genomes, but its role has not been clearly defined. It has been postulated that regulation of alternative splicing of transcripts was an original function of DNA methylation, but a direct experimental test of the effect of methylation on alternative slicing at the whole genome level has never been performed. To do this, we developed a unique method to administer RNA interference (RNAi) in a high-throughput and noninvasive manner and then used it to knock down the expression of DNA methyl-transferase 3 (dnmt3), which is required for de novo DNA methylation. We chose the honey bee (Apis mellifera) for this test because it has recently emerged as an important model organism for studying the effects of DNA methylation on development and social behavior, and DNA methylation in honey bees is predominantly on gene bodies. Here we show that dnmt3 RNAi decreased global genomic methylation level as expected and in addition caused widespread and diverse changes in alternative splicing in fat tissue. Four different types of splicing events were affected by dnmt3 gene knockdown, and change in two types, exon skipping and intron retention, was directly related to decreased methylation. These results demonstrate that one function of gene body DNA methylation is to regulate alternative splicing. PMID:23852726

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Li, Yang; Stroud, Hume; Feng, Suhua; Newman, Thomas C.; Kaneda, Megan; Hou, Kirk K.; Worley, Kim C.; Elsik, Christine G.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ma, Jian; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

305

A Japanese plum ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/?-D-xylosidase gene is developmentally regulated by alternative splicing.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA clone named PsARF/XYL was obtained from Prunus salicina Lindl., and determined to encode a putative ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/?-d-xylosidase belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH, EC 3.2.1.-) family 3. Two related PsARF/XYL cDNAs were amplified, one from a fully-spliced transcript (PsARF/XYLa) and another one from an intron-retained transcript (PsARF/XYLb). The protein deduced from PsARF/XYLb is a truncated peptide at C-terminus that conserves the active-site amino acid sequence. High levels of PsARF/XYLa and PsARF/XYLb transcripts are detectable in several plant tissues. PsARF/XYLb transcripts accumulate progressively during the phase of exponential fruit growth but they become barely noticeable during on-tree ripening, or after a 6-h exposure of preclimacteric full-size plums to ethylene. In contrast, PsARF/XYLa is expressed throughout fruit development, and transcript accumulation parallels the climacteric rise in ethylene production during ripening. PsARF/XYLa expression is strongly induced in preclimacteric full-size plums after a 6-h treatment with physiologically active concentrations of ethylene. These findings suggest that PsARF/XYL gene is post-transcriptionally regulated by alternative splicing during development and that ethylene may be involved in this regulation. The isolation of a partial cDNA clone, PsARF1, is also reported. It encodes a putative cell-wall ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and its transcription is rapidly inhibited by ethylene in mature green plums. PMID:25576002

Di Santo, M Carolina; Ilina, Natalia; Pagano, Eduardo A; Sozzi, Gabriel O

2015-02-01

306

Identification of cis-Acting Elements and Splicing Factors Involved in the Regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA Splicing  

PubMed Central

Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in BIM alternative splicing, as a step to better understand the regulation of BIM expression. We analyzed a recently discovered 2,903-bp deletion polymorphism within BIM intron 2 that biased splicing towards exon 3, and which also impaired BIM-dependent apoptosis. We found that this region harbors multiple redundant cis-acting elements that repress exon 3 inclusion. Furthermore, we have isolated a 23-nt intronic splicing silencer at the 3? end of the deletion that is important for excluding exon 3. We also show that PTBP1 and hnRNP C repress exon 3 inclusion, and that downregulation of PTBP1 inhibited BIM-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings start building our understanding of the cis-acting elements and splicing factors that regulate BIM alternative splicing, and also suggest potential approaches to alter BIM splicing for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24743263

Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S. Tiong

2014-01-01

307

Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing Landscapes Modulated during Plant-Virus Interactions in Brachypodium distachyon.  

PubMed

In eukaryotes, alternative splicing (AS) promotes transcriptome and proteome diversity. The extent of genome-wide AS changes occurring during a plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. Here, using high-throughput, paired-end RNA sequencing, we generated an isoform-level spliceome map of Brachypodium distachyon infected with Panicum mosaic virus and its satellite virus. Overall, we detected ?44,443 transcripts in B. distachyon, ?30% more than those annotated in the reference genome. Expression of ?28,900 transcripts was ?2 fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped fragments, and ?42% of multi-exonic genes were alternatively spliced. Comparative analysis of AS patterns in B. distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Arabidopsis thaliana, potato (Solanum tuberosum), Medicago truncatula, and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) revealed conserved ratios of the AS types between monocots and dicots. Virus infection quantitatively altered AS events in Brachypodium with little effect on the AS ratios. We discovered AS events for >100 immune-related genes encoding receptor-like kinases, NB-LRR resistance proteins, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and splicing-associated proteins. Cloning and molecular characterization of SCL33, a serine/arginine-rich splicing factor, identified multiple novel intron-retaining splice variants that are developmentally regulated and modulated during virus infection. B. distachyon SCL33 splicing patterns are also strikingly conserved compared with a distant Arabidopsis SCL33 ortholog. This analysis provides new insights into AS landscapes conserved among monocots and dicots and uncovered AS events in plant defense-related genes. PMID:25634987

Mandadi, Kranthi K; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

2015-01-01

308

Alternative splicing isoform in succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C causes downregulation of succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase activity in mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for the redox of succinic acid. SDH is a tetrameric iron-sulfur flavoprotein of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain. The SDH complex, subunit C (SDHC) transcript has deletion-type alternative splicing sites. Generally, alternative splicing produces variant proteins and expression patterns, as products of different genes. In certain cases, specific alternative splicing variants (ASVs) have been associated with human disease. Due to a frameshift mutation causing loss of the heme binding region, the SDHC ?5 isoform (lacking exon 5) exhibits no SDHC activity. To investigate whether the SDHC splicing variants can function as dominant-negative inhibitors, SDHC ASVs were overexpressed in HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a dominant-negative effect of the ?5 isoform on SDHC mRNA was shown. In addition, ?5 overexpression increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in the ?5 isoform-overexpressing cells, SDH activity was reduced. SDHC activation is a significant event during the electron transport chain, and the function of the SDHC ?5 variant may be significant for the differentiation of tumor cells. PMID:25435987

SATOH, NANA; YOKOYAMA, CHIKAKO; ITAMURA, NORIAKI; MIYAJIMA-NAKANO, YOSHIHARU; HISATOMI, HISASHI

2015-01-01

309

Biomedical Impact of Splicing Mutations Revealed through Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Splicing is a cellular mechanism, which dictates eukaryotic gene expression by removing the noncoding introns and ligating the coding exons in the form of a messenger RNA molecule. Alternative splicing (AS) adds a major level of complexity to this mechanism and thus to the regulation of gene expression. This widespread cellular phenomenon generates multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene, by utilizing alternative splice sites and promoting different exon–intron inclusions and exclusions. AS greatly increases the coding potential of eukaryotic genomes and hence contributes to the diversity of eukaryotic proteomes. Mutations that lead to disruptions of either constitutive splicing or AS cause several diseases, among which are myotonic dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. Aberrant splicing is also well established in cancer states. Identification of rare novel mutations associated with splice-site recognition, and splicing regulation in general, could provide further insight into genetic mechanisms of rare diseases. Here, disease relevance of aberrant splicing is reviewed, and the new methodological approach of starting from disease phenotype, employing exome sequencing and identifying rare mutations affecting splicing regulation is described. Exome sequencing has emerged as a reliable method for finding sequence variations associated with various disease states. To date, genetic studies using exome sequencing to find disease-causing mutations have focused on the discovery of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter amino acids or introduce early stop codons, or on the use of exome sequencing as a means to genotype known single nucleotide polymorphisms. The involvement of splicing mutations in inherited diseases has received little attention and thus likely occurs more frequently than currently estimated. Studies of exome sequencing followed by molecular and bioinformatic analyses have great potential to reveal the high impact of splicing mutations underlying human disease. PMID:22160217

Taneri, Bahar; Asilmaz, Esra; Gaasterland, Terry

2012-01-01

310

A homolog of splicing factor SF1 is essential for development and is involved in the alternative splicing of pre-mRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

During initial spliceosome assembly, SF1 binds to intron branch points and interacts with U2 snRNP auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65). Here, we present evidence indicating that AtSF1, the Arabidopsis SF1 homolog, interacts with AtU2AF65a and AtU2AF65b, the Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs. A mutant allele of AtSF1 (At5g51300) that contains a T-DNA insertion conferred pleiotropic developmental defects, including early flowering and abnormal sensitivity to abscisic acid. An AtSF1 promoter-driven GUS reporter assay showed that AtSF1 promoter activity was temporally and spatially altered, and that full AtSF1 promoter activity required a significant proportion of the coding region. DNA chip analyses showed that only a small proportion of the transcriptome was altered by more than twofold in either direction in the AtSF1 mutant. Expression of the mRNAs of many heat shock proteins was more than fourfold higher in the mutant strain; these mRNAs were among those whose expression was increased most in the mutant strain. An RT-PCR assay revealed an altered alternative splicing pattern for heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 (At2g26150) in the mutant; this altered splicing is probably responsible for the increased expression of the target genes induced by HsfA2. Altered alternative splicing patterns were also detected for the transcripts of other genes in the mutant strain. These results suggest that AtSF1 has functional similarities to its yeast and metazoan counterparts. PMID:24580679

Jang, Yun Hee; Park, Hyo-Young; Lee, Keh Chien; Thu, May Phyo; Kim, Soon-Kap; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jeong-Kook

2014-05-01

311

Cell Type and Culture ConditionDependent Alternative Splicing in Human Breast Cancer Cells Revealed by  

E-print Network

, hnRNPA/B, APLP2, and MYL6, were detected by the microarray and verified by reverse transcription in Matrigel and in xenograft in nude mice shows that splicing is similar under both conditions. Thus, our changes in splicing and other events during the progression of breast cancer. Mutations in cis

Ares Jr., Manny

312

Alternative splicing in concert with protein intrinsic disorder enables increased functional diversity  

E-print Network

protein isoforms from a single gene, thereby contributing to protein diversity. Despite intensive efforts analyzed a set of 46 differentially spliced genes encoding experimentally characterized human proteins unstructured protein structure The splicing of pre-mRNA (1) was first described in 1977. Soon thereafter

Obradovic, Zoran

313

Phosphorylation, but Not Alternative Splicing or Proteolytic Degradation, Is Conserved in Human and Mouse Cardiac Troponin T  

PubMed Central

Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), the tropomyosin binding subunit of the troponin complex, plays a pivotal regulatory role in the Ca2+-mediated interaction between actin thin filament and myosin thick filament. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) and alternative splicing of cTnT may represent important regulatory mechanisms of cardiac contractility. However, a complete characterization of PTMs and alternatively spliced isoforms in cTnT present in vivo is lacking. Top-down protein mass spectrometry (MS) analyzes whole proteins, thus providing a global view of all types of modifications, including PTMs and sequence variants, simultaneously in one spectrum without a priori knowledge. In this study, we applied an integrated immunoaffinity chromatography and top-down MS approach to comprehensively characterize PTMs and alternatively spliced isoforms of cTnT purified from healthy human and wild-type mouse heart tissue. High-resolution Fourier transform MS revealed that human cTnT (hcTnT) and mouse cTnT (mcTnT) have similar phosphorylation patterns, whereas higher molecular heterogeneity was observed for mcTnT than hcTnT. Further MS/MS fragmentation of monophosphorylated hcTnT and mcTnT by electron capture dissociation and collisionally activated dissociation unambiguously identified Ser1 as the conserved in vivo phosphorylation site. In contrast, we identified a single spliced isoform for hcTnT but three alternatively spliced isoforms for mcTnT. Moreover, we observed distinct proteolytic degradation products for hcTnT and mcTnT. This study also demonstrates the advantage of top-down MS/MS with complementary fragmentation techniques for the identification of modification sites in the highly acidic N-terminal region of cTnT. PMID:21639091

Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Han; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Chen, Yi-Chen; Dong, Xintong; Xu, Qingge; Ge, Ying

2012-01-01

314

Constant Splice-Isoform Ratios in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Support the Concept of a Splico-Stat  

PubMed Central

Splicing generates mature transcripts from genes in pieces in eukaryotic cells. Overwhelming evidence has accumulated that alternative routes in splicing are possible for most human and mammalian genes, thereby allowing formation of different transcripts from one gene. No function has been assigned to the majority of identified alternative splice forms, and it has been assumed that they compose inert or tolerated waste from aberrant or noisy splicing. Here we demonstrate that five human transcription units (WT1, NOD2, GNAS, RABL2A, RABL2B) have constant splice-isoform ratios in genetically diverse lymphoblastoid cell lines independent of the type of alternative splicing (exon skipping, alternative donor/acceptor, tandem splice sites) and gene expression level. Even splice events that create premature stop codons and potentially trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay are found at constant fractions. The analyzed alternative splicing events were qualitatively but not quantitatively conserved in corresponding chimpanzee cell lines. Additionally, subtle splicing at tandem acceptor splice sites (GNAS, RABL2A/B) was highly constrained and strongly depends on the upstream donor sequence content. These results also demonstrate that unusual and unproductive splice variants are produced in a regulated manner. PMID:21220357

Kramer, Marcel; Huse, Klaus; Menzel, Uwe; Backhaus, Oliver; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Hampe, Jochen; Platzer, Matthias

2011-01-01

315

Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).  

PubMed

A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a "head to head" fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge. PMID:24763285

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

316

Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)  

PubMed Central

A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a “head to head” fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge. PMID:24763285

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

317

Evidence for alternative splicing mechanisms in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Rubisco activase gene.  

PubMed

Rubisco activase is required to regulate the catalytic activity of Rubisco in plants, in an ATP-dependent manner. One or two Rubisco activase proteins have been identified in different plant species. In some species, the two isoforms are the products of alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene. The aim of this study was to confirm that Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis plants have two isoforms of Rubisco activase and that they are the products of alternative splicing of common pre-mRNA. Protein gel blot analyses indicated that L. perenne and F. pratensis leaves contained two Rubisco activase proteins. Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA showed that differential splicing generated two mRNAs that differed in sequence only in the inclusion of 48bp. The insertion contains a stop codon leading to the synthesis of a shorter polypeptide. Under the conditions of our experiment, the shorter splicing variant of L. perenne and F. pratensis Rubisco activase gene was preferentially produced. Any further studies concerning Rubisco activase genes in L. perenne and/or F. pratensis plants should take into consideration the mechanism of its expression. PMID:25577732

Jurczyk, Barbara; Hura, Katarzyna; Trzemecka, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin

2015-03-15

318

Co-option of the piRNA pathway for germline-specific alternative splicing of C. elegans TOR.  

PubMed

Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363) is associated with (1) accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against an embedded Helitron transposon and (2) activation of an alternative 3' splice site of TOR. The germline-specific Argonaute proteins PRG-1 and CSR-1, which participate in self/nonself RNA recognition, antagonistically regulate the generation of these endo-siRNAs, TOR mRNA levels, and 3' splice-site selection. Supply of exogenous double-stranded RNA against the region of sense/antisense overlap reverses changes in TOR expression and splicing and suppresses the progressive multigenerational sterility phenotype of prg-1 mutants. We propose that recognition of a "nonself" intronic transposon by endo-siRNAs/the piRNA system provides physiological regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a host gene that, in turn, contributes to the maintenance of germline function across generations. PMID:25220461

Barberán-Soler, Sergio; Fontrodona, Laura; Ribó, Anna; Lamm, Ayelet T; Iannone, Camilla; Cerón, Julián; Lehner, Ben; Valcárcel, Juan

2014-09-25

319

SpliceCenter: A suite of web-based bioinformatic applications for evaluating the impact of alternative splicing on RT-PCR, RNAi, microarray, and peptide-based studies  

PubMed Central

Background Over 60% of protein-coding genes in vertebrates express mRNAs that undergo alternative splicing. The resulting collection of transcript isoforms poses significant challenges for contemporary biological assays. For example, RT-PCR validation of gene expression microarray results may be unsuccessful if the two technologies target different splice variants. Effective use of sequence-based technologies requires knowledge of the specific splice variant(s) that are targeted. In addition, the critical roles of alternative splice forms in biological function and in disease suggest that assay results may be more informative if analyzed in the context of the targeted splice variant. Results A number of contemporary technologies are used for analyzing transcripts or proteins. To enable investigation of the impact of splice variation on the interpretation of data derived from those technologies, we have developed SpliceCenter. SpliceCenter is a suite of user-friendly, web-based applications that includes programs for analysis of RT-PCR primer/probe sets, effectors of RNAi, microarrays, and protein-targeting technologies. Both interactive and high-throughput implementations of the tools are provided. The interactive versions of SpliceCenter tools provide visualizations of a gene's alternative transcripts and probe target positions, enabling the user to identify which splice variants are or are not targeted. The high-throughput batch versions accept user query files and provide results in tabular form. When, for example, we used SpliceCenter's batch siRNA-Check to process the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's large-scale shRNA library, we found that only 59% of the 50,766 shRNAs in the library target all known splice variants of the target gene, 32% target some but not all, and 9% do not target any currently annotated transcript. Conclusion SpliceCenter provides unique, user-friendly applications for assessing the impact of transcript variation on the design and interpretation of RT-PCR, RNAi, gene expression microarrays, antibody-based detection, and mass spectrometry proteomics. The tools are intended for use by bench biologists as well as bioinformaticists. PMID:18638396

Ryan, Michael C; Zeeberg, Barry R; Caplen, Natasha J; Cleland, James A; Kahn, Ari B; Liu, Hongfang; Weinstein, John N

2008-01-01

320

Exon Array Analysis using re-defined probe sets results in reliable identification of alternatively spliced genes in non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with novel targeted therapies is a major unmet clinical need. Alternative splicing is a mechanism which generates diverse protein products and is of functional relevance in cancer. RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide analysis of the alteration of splicing patterns between lung cancer and normal lung tissue was performed. We generated an exon

Wolfram Langer; Florian Sohler; Gabriele Leder; Georg Beckmann; Henrik Seidel; Jörn Gröne; Michael Hummel; Anette Sommer

2010-01-01

321

Evolution of the plasma and tissue kallikreins, and their alternative splicing isoforms.  

PubMed

Kallikreins are secreted serine proteases with important roles in human physiology. Human plasma kallikrein, encoded by the KLKB1 gene on locus 4q34-35, functions in the blood coagulation pathway, and in regulating blood pressure. The human tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles, including cancer-related processes such as cell growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the product of the KLK3 gene, is the most widely used biomarker in clinical practice today. A total of 15 KLKs are encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome (19q13.3-13.4), which makes them ideal for evolutionary analysis of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs have traced mammalian homologs as well as a probable early origin of the family in aves, amphibia and reptilia. The aim of this study was to address the evolutionary and functional relationships between tissue KLKs and plasma kallikrein, and to examine the evolution of alternative splicing isoforms. Sequences of plasma and tissue kallikreins and their alternative transcripts were collected from the NCBI and Ensembl databases, and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed by Bayesian as well as maximum likelihood methods. Plasma and tissue kallikreins exhibit high sequence similarity in the trypsin domain (>50%). Phylogenetic analysis indicates an early divergence of KLKB1, which groups closely with plasminogen, chymotrypsin, and complement factor D (CFD), in a monophyletic group distinct from trypsin and the tissue KLKs. Reconstruction of the earliest events leading to the diversification of the tissue KLKs is not well resolved, indicating rapid expansion in mammals. Alternative transcripts of each KLK gene show species-specific divergence, while examination of sequence conservation indicates that many annotated human KLK isoforms are missing the catalytic triad that is crucial for protease activity. PMID:23874499

Koumandou, Vassiliki Lila; Scorilas, Andreas

2013-01-01

322

Transcriptional regulation of the interferon-gamma-inducible tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase includes alternative splicing.  

PubMed

We have investigated the transcriptional control elements of the human interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (hWRS) gene and characterized the transcripts. Transcription leads to a series of mRNAs with different combinations of the first exons. The full-length mRNA codes for a 55-kDa protein (hWRS), but a mRNA lacking exon II is present in almost as high amounts as the full-length transcript. This alternatively spliced mRNA is probably translated into a 48-kDa protein starting from Met48 in exon III. The predicted 48-kDa protein corresponds exactly to an IFN-gamma-inducible protein previously detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By isolation of genomic clones and construction of plasmids containing hWRS promoter fragments fused to the secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene we have mapped a promoter region essential for IFN-mediated gene activation. This region contains IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) as well as a Y-box and a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) element. IFN-gamma inducibility of hWRS depends on ongoing protein synthesis, suggesting that so far undescribed transcription factors apart from the latent GAS-binding protein p91 contribute to gene activation. This could be interferon-regulatory factor-1, which binds ISRE elements. PMID:7814400

Tolstrup, A B; Bejder, A; Fleckner, J; Justesen, J

1995-01-01

323

The Alternatively Spliced Acid Box Region Plays a Key Role in FGF Receptor Autoinhibition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can lead to human malignancies necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) autoinhibition mediated by the alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig) domain 1 (D1) and the acid box (AB)-containing linker between D1 and Ig domain 2 (D2) serves as the first line of defense to minimize inadvertent FGF signaling. In this report, nuclear magnetic resonance and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy are used to demonstrate that the AB subregion of FGFR electrostatically engages the heparan sulfate (HS)-binding site on the D2 domain in cis to directly suppress HS-binding affinity of FGFR. Furthermore, the cis electrostatic interaction sterically autoinhibits ligand-binding affinity of FGFR because of the close proximity of HS-binding and primary ligand-binding sites on the D2 domain. These data, together with the strong amino acid sequence conservation of the AB subregion among FGFR orthologs, highlight the universal role of the AB subregion in FGFR autoinhibition. PMID:22244757

Kalinina, Juliya; Dutta, Kaushik; Ilghari, Dariush; Beenken, Andrew; Goetz, Regina; Eliseenkova, Anna V.; Cowburn, David; Mohammadi, Moosa

2011-01-01

324

The alternatively spliced acid box region plays a key role in FGF receptor autoinhibition.  

PubMed

Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can lead to human malignancies necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) autoinhibition mediated by the alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig) domain 1 (D1) and the acid box (AB)-containing linker between D1 and Ig domain 2 (D2) serves as the first line of defense to minimize inadvertent FGF signaling. In this report, nuclear magnetic resonance and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy are used to demonstrate that the AB subregion of FGFR electrostatically engages the heparan sulfate (HS)-binding site on the D2 domain in cis to directly suppress HS-binding affinity of FGFR. Furthermore, the cis electrostatic interaction sterically autoinhibits ligand-binding affinity of FGFR because of the close proximity of HS-binding and primary ligand-binding sites on the D2 domain. These data, together with the strong amino acid sequence conservation of the AB subregion among FGFR orthologs, highlight the universal role of the AB subregion in FGFR autoinhibition. PMID:22244757

Kalinina, Juliya; Dutta, Kaushik; Ilghari, Dariush; Beenken, Andrew; Goetz, Regina; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Cowburn, David; Mohammadi, Moosa

2012-01-11

325

Short antisense-locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) correct alternative splicing abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder caused by expansion of CTG triplet repeats in 3?-untranslated region of DMPK gene. The pathomechanism of DM1 is driven by accumulation of toxic transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUGexp) in nuclear foci which sequester several factors regulating RNA metabolism, such as Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs). In this work, we utilized very short chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides composed exclusively of locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) complementary to CUG repeats, as potential therapeutic agents against DM1. Our in vitro data demonstrated that very short, 8- or 10-unit all-LNAs effectively bound the CUG repeat RNA and prevented the formation of CUGexp/MBNL complexes. In proliferating DM1 cells as well as in skeletal muscles of DM1 mouse model the all-LNAs induced the reduction of the number and size of CUGexp foci and corrected MBNL-sensitive alternative splicing defects with high efficacy and specificity. The all-LNAs had low impact on the cellular level of CUGexp-containing transcripts and did not affect the expression of other transcripts with short CUG repeats. Our data strongly indicate that short all-LNAs complementary to CUG repeats are a promising therapeutic tool against DM1. PMID:25753670

Wojtkowiak-Szlachcic, Agnieszka; Taylor, Katarzyna; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa; Sznajder, Lukasz J.; Mykowska, Agnieszka; Sroka, Joanna; Thornton, Charles A.; Sobczak, Krzysztof

2015-01-01

326

Alternatively spliced, truncated GCSF receptor promotes leukemogenic properties and sensitivity to JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) drives the production of myeloid progenitor and precursor cells toward neutrophils via the GCSF receptor (GCSFR, gene name CSF3R). Children with severe congenital neutropenia chronically receive pharmacologic doses of GCSF, and ?30% will develop myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with GCSFR truncation mutations. In addition to mutations, multiple isoforms of CSF3R have also been reported. We found elevated expression of the alternatively spliced isoform, class IV CSF3R in adult myelodysplastic syndrome/AML patients. Aside from its association with monosomy 7 and higher rates of relapse in pediatric AML patients, little is known about the biology of the class IV isoform. We found developmental regulation of CSF3R isoforms with the class IV expression more representative of a progenitor cell stage. Striking differences were found in phosphoprotein signaling involving Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and cell cycle gene expression. Enhanced proliferation by class IV GCSFR was associated with diminished STAT3 and STAT5 activation, yet showed sensitivity to JAK2 inhibitors. Alterations in the C-terminal domain of the GCSFR result in leukemic properties of enhanced growth, impaired differentiation and resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that they can behave as oncogenic drivers, sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. PMID:24170028

Mehta, H M; Futami, M; Glaubach, T; Lee, D W; Andolina, J R; Yang, Q; Whichard, Z; Quinn, M; Lu, H F; Kao, W M; Przychodzen, B; Sarkar, C A; Minella, A; Maciejewski, J P; Corey, S J

2014-05-01

327

An Alternatively Spliced IL-15 Isoform Modulates Abrasion-Induced Keratinocyte Activation.  

PubMed

In a routine phenotype-driven screen, we identified a point mutation in exon 7 of the IL-15 gene in Pedigree 191 (deficient memory (DM)) of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized mice. The DM epidermis expressed an alternatively spliced IL-15 mRNA isoform, IL-15?E7, and a wild-type (WT) IL-15 isoform at comparable levels. Mechanical stimulation of DM skin or DM skin graft transplanted onto the WT host resulted in reduced keratinocyte activation and inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into the dermis, demonstrating that DM keratinocytes produced less inflammatory response to external stimulation. Ectopic expression of IL-15?E7 in WT skin prevented abrasion-induced epidermal thickening, blocked the accumulation of nuclear antigen Ki67(+) cells in the basal and the suprabasal cell layers, increased loricrin expression, and also increased keratinocyte CXCL1 and G-CSF production. IL-15?E7 also profoundly blocked neutrophil infiltration in SDS- or immiquimod (IMQ)-treated WT skin. Recombinant IL-15?E7 failed to activate STAT-5 and its downstream target bcl-2 expression. Our study points to IL-15?E7 as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neutrophilia-associated inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:25615554

Lee, Tsung-Lin; Chang, Mei-Ling; Lin, Yu-Jei; Tsai, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Hsuan; Chuang, Che-Ming; Chien, Yun; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Wang, Chih-Hsiu; Chen, Yi-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Wang, Li-Fang; Kung, John T; Ku, Chia-Chi

2015-05-01

328

Ectopic expression of new alternative splice variant of Smac/DIABLO increases mammospheres formation.  

PubMed

Smac-? is a mitochondrial protein that, during apoptosis, is translocated to the cytoplasm, where it negatively regulates members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family via the IAP-binding motif (IBM) contained within its amino-terminus. Here, we describe a new alternative splice variant from Smac gene, which we have named Smac-?. Smac-? lacks both an IBM and a mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS) element. Smac-? mRNA exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in healthy human tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The steady-state levels of endogenous Smac-? protein is regulated by the proteasomal pathway. When ectopically expressed, this isoform presents a cytosolic localization and is unable to associate with or to regulate the expression of X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the best-studied member of IAP family. Nevertheless, over-expression of Smac-? increases mammosphere formation. Whole genome expression analyses from these mammospheres show activation of several pro-survival and growth pathways, including Estrogen-Receptor signaling. In conclusion, our results support the functionality of this new Smac isoform. PMID:25337193

Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo U; Victoria-Acosta, Georgina; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla I; Jimenez-Hernandez, Luis; Muñoz-Galindo, Laura; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

2014-01-01

329

Characterization of the Sesbania rostrata Phytochelatin Synthase Gene: Alternative Splicing and Function of Four Isoforms  

PubMed Central

Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. PCs are synthesized from glutathione by phytochelatin synthase (PCS), a dipeptidyltransferase. Sesbania rostrata is a tropical legume plant that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd and Zn. In this study, the S. rostrata PCS gene (SrPCS) and cDNAs were isolated and characterized. Southern blot and sequence analysis revealed that a single copy of the SrPCS gene occurs in the S. rostrata genome, and produces four different SrPCS mRNAs and proteins, SrPCS1–SrPCS4, by alternative splicing of the SrPCS pre-mRNA. The SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 proteins conferred Cd tolerance when expressed in yeast cells, whereas the SrPCS2 and SrPCS4 proteins, which lack the catalytic triad and the N-terminal domains, did not. These results suggested that SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 have potential applications in genetic engineering of plants for enhancing heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:20111680

Li, An-Ming; Yu, Bing-Yun; Chen, Fu-Hua; Gan, Hui-Yan; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Qiu, Rongliang; Huang, Jun-Chao; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2009-01-01

330

Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in Digitalis purpurea by strand-specific RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health. PMID:25167195

Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

331

Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Digitalis purpurea by Strand-Specific RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health. PMID:25167195

Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

332

Ectopic expression of new alternative splice variant of Smac/DIABLO increases mammospheres formation  

PubMed Central

Smac-? is a mitochondrial protein that, during apoptosis, is translocated to the cytoplasm, where it negatively regulates members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family via the IAP-binding motif (IBM) contained within its amino-terminus. Here, we describe a new alternative splice variant from Smac gene, which we have named Smac-?. Smac-? lacks both an IBM and a mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS) element. Smac-? mRNA exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in healthy human tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The steady-state levels of endogenous Smac-? protein is regulated by the proteasomal pathway. When ectopically expressed, this isoform presents a cytosolic localization and is unable to associate with or to regulate the expression of X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the best-studied member of IAP family. Nevertheless, over-expression of Smac-? increases mammosphere formation. Whole genome expression analyses from these mammospheres show activation of several pro-survival and growth pathways, including Estrogen-Receptor signaling. In conclusion, our results support the functionality of this new Smac isoform. PMID:25337193

Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo U; Victoria-Acosta, Georgina; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla I; Jimenez-Hernandez, Luis; Muñoz-Galindo, Laura; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

2014-01-01

333

Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by the Alternate-Splicing Regulator CUG-Binding Protein 1  

SciTech Connect

CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We describe crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen-bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, whereas filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation, and mRNA decay.

M Teplova; J Song; H Gaw; A Teplov; D Patel

2011-12-31

334

Genome-Wide Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Splicing Events in Flowering Plants  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in many plant functions, but its conservation across the plant kingdom is not known. We describe a methodology to identify AS events and identify conserved AS events across large phylogenetic distances using RNA-Seq datasets. We applied this methodology to transcriptome data from nine angiosperms including Amborella, the single sister species to all other extant flowering plants. AS events within 40–70% of the expressed multi-exonic genes per species were found, 27,120 of which are conserved among two or more of the taxa studied. While many events are species specific, many others are shared across long evolutionary distances suggesting they have functional significance. Conservation of AS event data provides an estimate of the number of ancestral AS events present at each node of the tree representing the nine species studied. Furthermore, the presence or absence of AS isoforms between species with different whole genome duplication (WGD) histories provides the opportunity to examine the impact of WDG on AS potential. Examining AS in gene families identifies those with high rates of AS, and conservation can distinguish ancient events vs. recent or species specific adaptations. The MADS-box and SR protein families are found to represent families with low and high occurrences of AS, respectively, yet their AS events were likely present in the MRCA of angiosperms.

Chamala, Srikar; Feng, Guanqiao; Chavarro, Carolina; Barbazuk, W. Brad

2015-01-01

335

Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

Wada, Akihiro, E-mail: a-wada@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Wong, Pooi-Fong [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hojo, Hironobu [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan)] [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan); Ichinose, Akitoyo [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Llanes, Rafael [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba)] [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba); Kubo, Yoshinao [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Senba, Masachika [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Ichinose, Yoshio [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)

2013-05-03

336

Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution  

E-print Network

Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist ...

Bradley, Robert K.

337

Alternatively Spliced Genes as Biomarkers for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis: A Blood-Based Spliceome-Profiling Exploratory Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Transcriptomic biomarkers of psychiatric diseases obtained from a query of peripheral tissues that are clinically accessible (e.g., blood cells instead of post-mortem brain tissue) have substantial practical appeal to discern the molecular subtypes of common complex diseases such as major psychosis. To this end, spliceome-profiling is a new methodological approach that has considerable conceptual relevance for discovery and clinical translation of novel biomarkers for psychiatric illnesses. Advances in microarray technology now allow for improved sensitivity in measuring the transcriptome while simultaneously querying the "exome" (all exons) and "spliceome" (all alternatively spliced variants). The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of spliceome-profiling to discern transcriptomic biomarkers of psychosis. METHODS: We measured exome and spliceome expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 schizophrenia patients, nine bipolar disorder patients, and eight healthy control subjects. Each diagnostic group was compared to each other, and the combined group of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients was also compared to the control group. Furthermore, we compared subjects with a history of psychosis to subjects without such history. RESULTS: After applying Bonferroni corrections for the 21,866 full-length gene transcripts analyzed, we found significant interactions between diagnostic group and exon identity, consistent with group differences in rates or types of alternative splicing. Relative to the control group, 18 genes in the bipolar disorder group, eight genes in the schizophrenia group, and 15 genes in the combined bipolar disorder and schizophrenia group appeared differentially spliced. Importantly, thirty-three genes showed differential splicing patterns between the bipolar disorder and schizophrenia groups. More frequent exon inclusion and/or over-expression was observed in psychosis. Finally, these observations are reconciled with an analysis of the ontologies, the pathways and the protein domains significantly over-represented among the alternatively spliced genes, several of which support prior discoveries. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first blood-based spliceome-profiling study of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to be reported. The battery of alternatively spliced genes and exons identified in this discovery-oriented exploratory study, if replicated, may have potential utility to discern the molecular subtypes of psychosis. Spliceome-profiling, as a new methodological approach in transcriptomics, warrants further work to evaluate its utility in personalized medicine. Potentially, this approach could also permit the future development of tissue-sampling methodologies in a form that is more acceptable to patients and thereby allow monitoring of dynamic and time-dependent plasticity in disease severity and response to therapeutic interventions in clinical psychiatry. PMID:21532980

Glatt, S J; Chandler, S D; Bousman, C A; Chana, G; Lucero, G R; Tatro, E; May, T; Lohr, J B; Kremen, W S; Everall, I P; Tsuang, M T

2009-09-01

338

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

339

Cloning and initial characterization of an alternatively spliced transcript encoded by the bovine herpes virus 1 latency-related gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) establishes latency in trigeminal ganglionic sensory neurons of infected cattle. The latency-related\\u000a (LR) RNA is the only abundantly expressed viral transcript in sensory neurons of latently infected calves. Wild-type expression\\u000a of LR gene products is required for the latency-reactivation cycle in calves. LR RNA is alternatively spliced in trigeminal\\u000a ganglia (TG) after infection of calves, suggesting

Laxminarayana R. Devireddy; Yange Zhang; Clinton J. Jones

2003-01-01

340

Gene regulation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modification of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation: a focused review  

PubMed Central

Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases. PMID:24817852

Sheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

341

Transformation of eEF1B? into heat-shock response transcription factor by alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein translation factors have crucial roles in a variety of stress responses. Here, we show that eukaryotic elongation factor 1B? (eEF1B?) changes its structure and function from a translation factor into a heat-shock response transcription factor by alternative splicing. The long isoform of eEF1B? (eEF1B?L) is localized in the nucleus and induces heat-shock element (HSE)-containing genes in cooperation with heat-shock

Taku Kaitsuka; Kazuhito Tomizawa; Masayuki Matsushita

2011-01-01

342

Alternative splicing of the imprinted candidate tumor suppressor gene ZAC regulates its antiproliferative and DNA binding activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZAC encodes a zinc finger protein with antiproliferative activity, is maternally imprinted and is a candidate for the tumor suppressor gene on 6q24. ZAC expression is frequently lost in breast and ovary tumor-derived cell lines and down-regulated in breast primary tumors. In this report, we describe ZAC?2, an alternatively spliced variant of ZAC lacking the sequence encoding the two N-terminal

Benoit Bilanges; Annie Varrault; Abhijit Mazumdar; Colette Pantaloni; Anke Hoffmann; Joël Bockaert; Dietmar Spengler; Laurent Journot

2001-01-01

343

Muscleblind-Like 1 Knockout Mice Reveal Novel Splicing Defects in the Myotonic Dystrophy Brain  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multi-systemic disorder caused by a CTG trinucleotide repeat expansion (CTGexp) in the DMPK gene. In skeletal muscle, nuclear sequestration of the alternative splicing factor muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) explains the majority of the alternative splicing defects observed in the HSALR transgenic mouse model which expresses a pathogenic range CTGexp. In the present study, we addressed the possibility that MBNL1 sequestration by CUGexp RNA also contributes to splicing defects in the mammalian brain. We examined RNA from the brains of homozygous Mbnl1?E3/?E3 knockout mice using splicing-sensitive microarrays. We used RT-PCR to validate a subset of alternative cassette exons identified by microarray analysis with brain tissues from Mbnl1?E3/?E3 knockout mice and post-mortem DM1 patients. Surprisingly, splicing-sensitive microarray analysis of Mbnl1?E3/?E3 brains yielded only 14 candidates for mis-spliced exons. While we confirmed that several of these splicing events are perturbed in both Mbnl1 knockout and DM1 brains, the extent of splicing mis-regulation in the mouse model was significantly less than observed in DM1. Additionally, several alternative exons, including Grin1 exon 4, App exon 7 and Mapt exons 3 and 9, which have previously been reported to be aberrantly spliced in human DM1 brain, were spliced normally in the Mbnl1 knockout brain. The sequestration of MBNL1 by CUGexp RNA results in some of the aberrant splicing events in the DM1 brain. However, we conclude that other factors, possibly other MBNL proteins, likely contribute to splicing mis-regulation in the DM1 brain. PMID:22427994

Nakamori, Masayuki; Tatsumi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Jinnai, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Du, Hongqing; Ares, Manuel; Swanson, Maurice S.; Kimura, Takashi

2012-01-01

344

A novel extracellular domain variant of the human integrin alpha 7 subunit generated by alternative intron splicing.  

PubMed

The integrin alpha 7 beta 1 laminin receptor, which is expressed on replicating myoblasts, and upregulated during myogenic differentiation, is involved in cell adhesion and communication between muscle cells and the extracellular matrix. It is a major cell-surface substrate in skeletal muscle cells for the cell-surface, argininespecific, ADP-ribosyltransferase. Both the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains of the mouse alpha 7 subunit undergo alternative splicing during development, generating differentially expressed variants with presumably unique ligand-binding and signalling properties. Here human cDNA clones isolated from a fetal heart lambda gt10 cDNA library encoded the complete sequence of the alpha 7 subunit and hybridised to a single major 4.4 kb alpha 7 subunit transcript abundantly expressed in human skeletal muscle, moderately expressed in heart, and weakly expressed in most other tissues. One clone out of four contained a novel 225-nucleotide in-frame deletion corresponding to 75 amino acids in the C-terminal region of the extracellular domain. The variant, whose expression appears to be tissue-specific, is created by alternative splicing at sites flanking an intron in the alpha 7 gene. A related mouse form was identified in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Deletion of the spliced region, which either contains or is in very close proximity to the major ADP-ribosylation site of the alpha 7 subunit, may serve to modulate the effects of ADP-ribosylation, or alternatively molecular associations, and receptor-ligand affinity. PMID:9473524

Leung, E; Lim, S P; Berg, R; Yang, Y; Ni, J; Wang, S X; Krissansen, G W

1998-02-01

345

Homer1 Alternative Splicing Is Regulated by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Modulates Gonadotropin Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a critical role in reproductive physiology by regulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) gene expression in the pituitary. Analysis of gonadotrope deep-sequencing data identified a global regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by GnRH. Homer1, a gene encoding a postsynaptic density scaffolding protein, was selected for further study. Homer1 expresses a short splice form, Homer1a, and more-abundant long transcripts Homer1b/c. GnRH induced a modest increase in Homer1b/c expression and a dramatic increase in the Homer1a splice form. G protein knockdown studies suggested that the Homer1 induction, but not the regulated splicing, was G?q/11 dependent. Phosphorylation of the splicing regulator SRp20 was found to be induced by GnRH. SRp20 depletion attenuated the GnRH-induced increase in the Homer1a-to-Homer1b/c ratio and modulated the effects of GnRH on FSH? and LH? expression. Homer1 gene knockdown resulted in increased GnRH-induced FSH? and LH? transcript levels. Furthermore, splice-form-specific reduction of Homer1b/c increased both FSH? and LH? mRNA induction, whereas reduction of Homer1a had the opposite effect on FSH? induction. These results indicate that the regulation of Homer1 splicing by GnRH contributes to gonadotropin gene control. PMID:24591653

Wang, Qian; Chikina, Maria D.; Pincas, Hanna

2014-01-01

346

Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

347

Alternative Splicing Produces Two Endoglucanases with One or Two Carbohydrate-Binding Modules in Mucor circinelloides  

PubMed Central

We previously cloned three endoglucanase genes, rce1, rce2, and rce3, that were isolated from Rhizopus oryzae as the first cellulase genes from a member of the subdivision Zygomycota. In this study, two cDNAs homologous to the rce1 gene, designated the mce1 and mce2 cDNAs, were cloned from Mucor circinelloides, a member of the subdivision Zygomycota. The mce1 cDNA encoded an endoglucanase (family 45 glycoside hydrolase) having one carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), designated MCE1, and the mce2 cDNA encoded the same endoglucanase having two tandem repeated CBMs, designated MCE2. The two cDNAs contained the same sequences but with a 147-bp insertion. The corresponding genomic mce gene consisted of four exons. The mce1 cDNA was created from exons 1, 3, and 4, and the mce2 cDNA was created from exons 1, 2, 3, and 4. These results indicate that the mce1 and mce2 cDNAs were created from one genomic mce gene by alternative splicing. MCE1 and MCE2, purified to apparent homogeneity from the culture supernatant of M. circinelloides, had molecular masses of 43 and 47 kDa, respectively. The carboxymethyl cellulase specific activity of MCE2 was almost the same as that of MCE1, whereas the Avicelase specific activity of MCE2 was two times higher than that of MCE1. Furthermore, MCE2, whose two tandem CBMs might be more effective for degradation of crystalline cellulose than one CBM, was secreted only at an early culture stage when crystalline cellulose was abundant. PMID:15838031

Baba, Yuko; Shimonaka, Atsushi; Koga, Jinichiro; Kubota, Hidetoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

2005-01-01

348

Multiple promoters regulate tissue-specific alternative splicing of the human kallikrein gene, KLK11/hippostasin.  

PubMed

The human kallikrein (KLK) family consists of 15 genes located on human chromosome 19q13.4. KLK11/hippostasinis a member of the kallikrein family and is expressed in various tissues. Two types of KLK11 isoforms, isoform 1 and isoform 2, have been predicted from cDNA sequences. Isoform 1 has been isolated from human hippocampus, whereas isoform 2 has been isolated from prostate. However, the regulation and characteristics of these isoforms are unknown. We identified the first three exons (1a, 1b, and 1c) by determining their transcription initiation sites. Exon 1b contained the initiation codon of isoform 2, and noncoding exons 1a and 1c contributed to isoform 1 mRNA. The dual luciferase promoter assay revealed three promoter regions, corresponding to the first exon of each isoform. Reverse transcription and PCR showed that exon 1a was expressed in the hippocampus, thalamus, and non-central nervous system (CNS) tissues, whereas exon 1b was detected only in non-CNS tissues. Exon 1c was observed in both CNS and non-CNS tissues, except for salivary glands. In vitro mutagenesis revealed that the initiation codon for isoform 2 in exon 1b was functional. Isoform 2 had additional hydrophilic amino acids at the amino terminal and was secreted from the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a. Isoform 1 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was distributed to cellular processes, whereas isoform 2-GFP was retained in the Golgi apparatus. We suggest that not only alternative splicing but also tissue-specific use of multiple promoters regulate the expression and intracellular trafficking of KLK11/hippostasin isoforms. PMID:16911518

Mitsui, Shinichi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Okui, Akira; Kominami, Katsuya; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

2006-08-01

349

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Alternative Splicing Is a Key Regulator of Ras Signaling in Neurons  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type I (Nf1) is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that inactivates the oncoprotein Ras and plays important roles in nervous system development and learning. Alternative exon 23a falls within the Nf1 GAP domain coding sequence and is tightly regulated in favor of skipping in neurons; however, its biological function is not fully understood. Here we generated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with a constitutive endogenous Nf1 exon 23a inclusion, termed Nf1 23aIN/23aIN cells, by mutating the splicing signals surrounding the exon to better match consensus sequences. We also made Nf1 23a?/23a? cells lacking the exon. Active Ras levels are high in wild-type (WT) and Nf1 23aIN/23aIN ES cells, where the Nf1 exon 23a inclusion level is high, and low in Nf1 23a?/23a? cells. Upon neuronal differentiation, active Ras levels are high in Nf1 23aIN/23aIN cells, where the exon inclusion level remains high, but Ras activation is low in the other two genotypes, where the exon is skipped. Signaling downstream of Ras is significantly elevated in Nf1 23aIN/23aIN neurons. These results suggest that exon 23a suppresses the Ras-GAP activity of Nf1. Therefore, regulation of Nf1 exon 23a inclusion serves as a mechanism for providing appropriate levels of Ras signaling and may be important in modulating Ras-related neuronal functions. PMID:24710274

Hinman, Melissa N.; Sharma, Alok; Luo, Guangbin

2014-01-01

350

Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher. PMID:18315870

Münk, Carsten; Beck, Thomas; Zielonka, Jörg; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Chareza, Sarah; Battenberg, Marion; Thielebein, Jens; Cichutek, Klaus; Bravo, Ignacio G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lochelt, Martin; Yuhki, Naoya

2008-01-01

351

Alternative splicing regulates the expression of G9A and SUV39H2 methyltransferases, and dramatically changes SUV39H2 functions  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is the main source of proteome diversity. Here, we have investigated how alternative splicing affects the function of two human histone methyltransferases (HMTase): G9A and SUV39H2. We show that exon 10 in G9A and exon 3 in SUV39H2 are alternatively included in a variety of tissues and cell lines, as well as in a different species. The production of these variants is likely tightly regulated because both constitutive and alternative splicing factors control their splicing profiles. Based on this evidence, we have assessed the link between the inclusion of these exons and the activity of both enzymes. We document that these HMTase genes yield several protein isoforms, which are likely issued from alternative splicing regulation. We demonstrate that inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 is a determinant of the stability, the sub-nuclear localization, and the HMTase activity. Genome-wide expression analysis further revealed that alternative inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 differentially modulates the expression of target genes. Our data also suggest that a variant of G9A may display a function that is independent of H3K9 methylation. Our work emphasizes that expression and function of genes are not collinear; therefore alternative splicing must be taken into account in any functional study. PMID:25605796

Mauger, Oriane; Klinck, Roscoe; Chabot, Benoit; Muchardt, Christian; Allemand, Eric; Batsché, Eric

2015-01-01

352

MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated Interaction between Leukemia/Lymphoma-related Factor (LRF) and Alternative Splicing Factor/Splicing Factor 2 (ASF/SF2) Affects Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Senescence and Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) is a transcriptional repressor, which by recruiting histone deacetylases specifically represses p19/ARF expression, thus behaving as an oncogene. Conversely, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), LRF inhibition causes aberrant p19ARF up-regulation resulting in proliferative defects and premature senescence. We have recently shown that LRF is controlled by microRNAs. Here we show that LRF acts on MEF proliferation and senescence/apoptosis by repressing miR-28 and miR-505, revealing a regulatory circuit where microRNAs (miRNAs) work both upstream and downstream of LRF. By analyzing miRNA expression profiles of MEF transfected with LRF-specific short interfering RNAs, we found that miR-28 and miR-505 are modulated by LRF. Both miRNAs are predicted to target alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2), a serine/arginine protein essential for cell viability. In vertebrates, loss or inactivation of ASF/SF2 may result in genomic instability and induce G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We showed that miR-28 and miR-505 modulate ASF/SF2 by directly binding ASF/SF2 3?-UTR. Decrease in LRF causes a decrease in ASF/SF2, which depends on up-regulation of miR-28 and miR-505. Alteration of each of the members of the LRF/miR-28/miR-505/ASF/SF2 axis affects MEF proliferation and the number of senescent and apoptotic cells. Consistently, the axis is coordinately modulated as cell senescence increases with passages in MEF culture. In conclusion, we show that LRF-dependent miRNAs miR-28 and miR-505 control MEF proliferation and survival by targeting ASF/SF2 and suggest a central role of LRF-related miRNAs, in addition to the role of LRF-dependent p53 control, in cellular homeostasis. PMID:20923760

Verduci, Lorena; Simili, Marcella; Rizzo, Milena; Mercatanti, Alberto; Evangelista, Monica; Mariani, Laura; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Pitto, Letizia

2010-01-01

353

Ultra-deep profiling of alternatively spliced Drosophila Dscam isoforms by circularization-assisted multi-segment sequencing  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster gene Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) can generate thousands of different ectodomains via mutual exclusive splicing of three large exon clusters. The isoform diversity plays a profound role in both neuronal wiring and pathogen recognition. However, the isoform expression pattern at the global level remained unexplored. Here, we developed a novel method that allows for direct quantification of the alternatively spliced exon combinations from over hundreds of millions of Dscam transcripts in one sequencing run. With unprecedented sequencing depth, we detected a total of 18?496 isoforms, out of 19?008 theoretically possible combinations. Importantly, we demonstrated that alternative splicing between different clusters is independent. Moreover, the isoforms were expressed across a broad dynamic range, with significant bias in cell/tissue and developmental stage-specific patterns. Hitherto underappreciated, such bias can dramatically reduce the ability of neurons to display unique surface receptor codes. Therefore, the seemingly excessive diversity encoded in the Dscam locus might nevertheless be essential for a robust self and non-self discrimination in neurons. PMID:23792425

Sun, Wei; You, Xintian; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; He, Haihuai; Kise, Yoshiaki; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Tao; Klebes, Ansgar; Schmucker, Dietmar; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

354

Rhythmic U2af26 alternative splicing controls PERIOD1 stability and the circadian clock in mice.  

PubMed

The circadian clock drives daily rhythms in gene expression to control metabolism, behavior, and physiology; while the underlying transcriptional feedback loops are well defined, the impact of alternative splicing on circadian biology remains poorly understood. Here we describe a robust circadian and light-inducible splicing switch that changes the reading frame of the mouse mRNA encoding U2-auxiliary-factor 26 (U2AF26). This results in translation far into the 3' UTR, generating a C terminus with homology to the Drosophila clock regulator TIMELESS. This new U2AF26 variant destabilizes PERIOD1 protein, and U2AF26-deficient mice show nearly arrhythmic PERIOD1 protein levels and broad defects in circadian mRNA expression in peripheral clocks. At the behavioral level, these mice display increased phase advance adaptation following experimental jet lag. These data suggest light-induced U2af26 alternative splicing to be a buffering mechanism that limits PERIOD1 induction, thus stabilizing the circadian clock against abnormal changes in light:dark conditions. PMID:24837677

Preußner, Marco; Wilhelmi, Ilka; Schultz, Astrid-Solveig; Finkernagel, Florian; Michel, Monika; Möröy, Tarik; Heyd, Florian

2014-05-22

355

Identification by high-throughput imaging of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2 as an epigenetic regulator of VEGFA alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence points to a role of chromatin in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS). In order to identify novel chromatin regulators of AS, we screened an RNAi library of chromatin proteins using a cell-based high-throughput in vivo assay. We identified a set of chromatin proteins that regulate AS. Using simultaneous genome-wide expression and AS analysis, we demonstrate distinct and non-overlapping functions of these chromatin modifiers on transcription and AS. Detailed mechanistic characterization of one dual function chromatin modifier, the H3K9 methyltransferase EHMT2 (G9a), identified VEGFA as a major chromatin-mediated AS target. Silencing of EHMT2, or its heterodimer partner EHMT1, affects AS by promoting exclusion of VEGFA exon 6a, but does not alter total VEGFA mRNA levels. The epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS by EHMT2 involves an adaptor system consisting of the chromatin modulator HP1?, which binds methylated H3K9 and recruits splicing regulator SRSF1. The epigenetic regulation of VEGFA is physiologically relevant since EHMT2 is transcriptionally induced in response to hypoxia and triggers concomitant changes in AS of VEGFA. These results characterize a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS and they demonstrate separate roles of epigenetic modifiers in transcription and alternative splicing. PMID:25414343

Salton, Maayan; Voss, Ty C.; Misteli, Tom

2014-01-01

356

The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

2015-01-01

357

The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

2015-02-01

358

Cytokines Interleukin-1? and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Regulate Different Transcriptional and Alternative Splicing Networks in Primary ?-Cells  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Cytokines contribute to pancreatic ?-cell death in type 1 diabetes. This effect is mediated by complex gene networks that remain to be characterized. We presently utilized array analysis to define the global expression pattern of genes, including spliced variants, modified by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? + interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? + IFN-? in primary rat ?-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fluorescence-activated cell sorter–purified rat ?-cells were exposed to IL-1? + IFN-? or TNF-? + IFN-? for 6 or 24 h, and global gene expression was analyzed by microarray. Key results were confirmed by RT-PCR, and small-interfering RNAs were used to investigate the mechanistic role of novel and relevant transcription factors identified by pathway analysis. RESULTS Nearly 16,000 transcripts were detected as present in ?-cells, with temporal differences in the number of genes modulated by IL-1? + IFN? or TNF-? + IFN-?. These cytokine combinations induced differential expression of inflammatory response genes, which is related to differential induction of IFN regulatory factor-7. Both treatments decreased the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of ?-cell phenotype and growth/regeneration. Cytokines induced hypoxia-inducible factor-?, which in this context has a proapoptotic role. Cytokines also modified the expression of >20 genes involved in RNA splicing, and exon array analysis showed cytokine-induced changes in alternative splicing of >50% of the cytokine-modified genes. CONCLUSIONS The present study doubles the number of known genes expressed in primary ?-cells, modified or not by cytokines, and indicates the biological role for several novel cytokine-modified pathways in ?-cells. It also shows that cytokines modify alternative splicing in ?-cells, opening a new avenue of research for the field. PMID:19934004

Ortis, Fernanda; Naamane, Najib; Flamez, Daisy; Ladrière, Laurence; Moore, Fabrice; Cunha, Daniel A.; Colli, Maikel L.; Thykjaer, Thomas; Thorsen, Kasper; Ørntoft, Torben F.; Eizirik, Decio L.

2010-01-01

359

Tau Splicing and the Intricacies of Dementia  

PubMed Central

Tau is a microtubule associated protein that fulfills several functions critical for neuronal formation and health. Tau discharges its functions by producing multiple isoforms via regulated alternative splicing. These isoforms modulate tau function in normal brain by altering the domains of the protein, thereby influencing its localization, conformation and post-translational modifications and hence its availability and affinity for microtubules and other ligands. Disturbances in tau expression result in disruption of the neuronal cytoskeleton and formation of tau structures (neurofibrillary tangles) found in brains of dementia sufferers. More specifically, aberrations in tau splicing regulation directly cause several neurodegenerative diseases which lead to dementia. In this review, I present our cumulative knowledge of tau splicing regulation in connection with neurodegeneration and also briefly go over the still-extensive list of questions that are connected to tau (dys)function. PMID:21604267

Andreadis, Athena

2011-01-01

360

Alternative Splicing Variants and DNA Methylation Status of BDNF in Inbred Chicken Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays essential roles in neuronal survival and differentiation, synaptic plasticity, central regulation of energy homeostasis, and neuronal development of the central and peripheral nerve system. Here, we report two new splicing variants of the chicken BDNF g...

361

RNA-Seq of Aradopsis pollen uncovers novel transcription and alternative splicing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing pattern...

362

Reduced Mobility of the Alternate Splicing Factor (ASF) through the Nucleoplasm and Steady State Speckle Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compartmentalization of the nucleus is now recognized as an important level of regulation influenc- ing specific nuclear processes. The mechanism of factor organization and the movement of factors in nuclear space have not been fully determined. Splicing factors, for example, have been shown to move in a directed manner as large intact structures from sites of concen- tration to sites

Michael J. Kruhlak; Melody A. Lever; Wolfgang Fischle; Eric Verdin; David P. Bazett-Jones; Michael J. Hendzel

2000-01-01

363

Prp40 pre-mRNA processing factor 40 homolog B (PRPF40B) associates with SF1 and U2AF65 and modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vivo.  

PubMed

The first stable complex formed during the assembly of spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA substrates in mammals includes U1 snRNP, which recognizes the 5' splice site, and the splicing factors SF1 and U2AF, which bind the branch point sequence, polypyrimidine tract, and 3' splice site. The 5' and 3' splice site complexes are thought to be joined together by protein-protein interactions mediated by factors that ensure the fidelity of the initial splice site recognition. In this study, we identified and characterized PRPF40B, a putative mammalian ortholog of the U1 snRNP-associated yeast splicing factor Prp40. PRPF40B is highly enriched in speckles with a behavior similar to splicing factors. We demonstrated that PRPF40B interacts directly with SF1 and associates with U2AF(65). Accordingly, PRPF40B colocalizes with these splicing factors in the cell nucleus. Splicing assays with reporter minigenes revealed that PRPF40B modulates alternative splice site selection. In the case of Fas regulation of alternative splicing, weak 5' and 3' splice sites and exonic sequences are required for PRPF40B function. Placing our data in a functional context, we also show that PRPF40B depletion increased Fas/CD95 receptor number and cell apoptosis, which suggests the ability of PRPF40B to alter the alternative splicing of key apoptotic genes to regulate cell survival. PMID:25605964

Becerra, Soraya; Montes, Marta; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Suñé, Carlos

2015-03-01

364

Opposing actions of adrenal androgens and glucocorticoids on alternative splicing of Slo potassium channels in bovine chromaffin cells  

PubMed Central

Pituitary ablation (hypophysectomy) in rats was previously reported to cause a precipitous change in the relative abundance of two alternative splice variants of the “BK”- or “Maxi K”-encoding Slo gene in adrenal chromaffin cells. Inclusion of the optional “STREX” exon (STRess axis-regulated EXon) in a C-terminal splice site was reduced, in preference to the variant lacking an insert at this site. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injections prevented the drop in STREX inclusion, implicating stress-axis function, as opposed to other pituitary functions. Because ACTH promotes synthesis and release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone or cortisol, depending on species), we hypothesized that glucocorticoids applied directly would promote STREX inclusion. Contrary to predictions, we report that direct application of glucocorticoids to bovine cells in vitro decreased STREX inclusion. This effect was blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. As with glucocorticoids, synthesis and release of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases in response to stress or elevated ACTH levels in some species. We report that direct application of DHEA increased expression of the STREX variant in cultured bovine cells. Two other androgens, androstenedione and testosterone, had similar effects. We hypothesize that Slo splicing in adrenal chromaffin cells in vivo is differentially regulated by the integrative, concentration- and time-dependent actions of glucocorticoids and androgens, with potentially important ramifications for stress-evoked catecholamine secretion. PMID:12032350

Lai, Guey-Jen; McCobb, David P.

2002-01-01

365

TILLING mutants of durum wheat result in a high amylose phenotype and provide information on alternative splicing mechanisms.  

PubMed

The amylose/amylopectin ratio has a major influence over the properties of starch and determines its optimal end use. Here, high amylose durum wheat has been bred by combining knock down alleles at the two homoelogous genes encoding starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B). The complete silencing of these genes had a number of pleiotropic effects on starch synthesis: it affected the transcriptional activity of SBEIIb, ISA1 (starch debranching enzyme) and all of the genes encoding starch synthases (SSI, SSIIa, SSIII and GBSSI). The starch produced by grain of the double SBEIIa mutants was high in amylose (up to ?1.95 fold that of the wild type) and contained up to about eight fold more resistant starch. A single nucleotide polymorphism adjacent to the splice site at the end of exon 10 of the G364E mutant copies of both SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B resulted in the loss of a conserved exonic splicing silencer element. Its starch was similar to that of the SBEIIa double mutant. G364E SBEIIa pre-mRNA was incorrectly processed, resulting in the formation of alternative, but non-functional splicing products. PMID:25711820

Sestili, Francesco; Palombieri, Samuela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Mantovani, Paola; Bovina, Riccardo; Lafiandra, Domenico

2015-04-01

366

Isolating and characterizing three alternatively spliced mu opioid receptor variants: mMOR-1A, mMOR-1O and mMOR-1P  

PubMed Central

Extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the mu opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has demonstrated an array of splice variants in mouse, rat and human. Three classes of splice variants have been identified: full length 7 transmembrane (TM) domain variants with C-terminal splicing, truncated 6TM variants and single TM variants. The current studies isolates and characterizes an additional three full length C-terminal splice variants generated from the mouse OPRM1 gene: mMOR-1A, mMOR-1O and mMOR-1P. Using RT-qPCR, we demonstrated differential expression of these variants' mRNAs among selected brain regions, supporting region-specific alternative splicing. When expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, all the variants displayed high mu binding affinity and selectivity with subtle differences in the affinities toward some agonists. [35S]?GTP binding assays revealed marked differences in agonist-induced G protein activation in both potency and efficacy among the variants. Together with the previous studies of mu agonist-induced phosphorylation and internalization in several carboxyl terminal splice variants, the current studies further suggest the existence of biased signaling of various agonists within each individual variant and/or among different variants. PMID:24375714

Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Bolan, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Annie-Kim; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

367

The canine kallikrein-related peptidase 14: structural characterization, alternative splicing and differential expression in mammary cancer.  

PubMed

Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) represent a family of 15 serine proteases with diverse roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including carcinogenesis. In the dog, only two KLK genes are known; dKLK1 and canine arginine esterase. Recently, 12 other genes have been predicted using computational methods, but none of them has ever been experimentally validated in canine tissues. In this study we investigated the expression of Canis familiaris KLK14, (CANFA)KLK14, in normal and cancerous mammary tissues. First, it was demonstrated that the in-silico determined canine KLK14 mRNA (GenBank accession no: XM_541464) has been wrongfully predicted on its 5'-end (nucleotides 1-88). The (CANFA)KLK14 mRNA sequence presented here, has high homology to its human counterpart and exhibits all defining-KLK features. In addition to the classical form of the gene, five splice variants were also identified. The splicing events involved 5'-truncation or complete elimination of exon 4 and/or retention of intron I. All encoded protein products of the splice variants were predicted to be truncated and catalytically inactive. The classical form and variant 3 were almost ubiquitously expressed in both normal and neoplastic tissues. Variant 1 was predominantly detected in normal tissues. The classical form and variants 1 and 2 exhibited lower expression levels in tumor compared to normal tissues. Moreover, an Ile155Asn polymorphism was identified. This is the first report on the structural characterization, alternative splicing and tissue expression of canine KLK14 mRNA. These findings may form the basis for the establishment of comparative studies investigating KLK functions in health and disease using the dog as a model. PMID:19619623

Angelopoulou, Katerina; Prassas, Ioannis; Yousef, George M

2009-10-15

368

Early diagnostic value of survivin and its alternative splice variants in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin and its splice variants are differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues. Our previous work showed Survivin is released from tumor cells via small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes. We, therefore, hypothesize that analysis of serum exosomal Survivin and its splice variants may provide a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods We collected sera from forty breast cancer patients and ten control patients who were disease free for 5 years after treatment. In addition, twenty-three paired breast cancer tumor tissues from those same 40 patients were analyzed for splice variants. Serum levels of Survivin were analyzed using ELISA and exosomes were isolated from this serum using the commercially available ExoQuick kit, with subsequent Western blots and immunohistochemistry performed. Results Survivin levels were significantly higher in all the breast cancer samples compared to controls (p?splice variant expression and localization was identical in serum exosomes, differential expression of Survivin-2B protein existed in the exosomes. Similarly, Survivin and Survivin-?Ex3 proteins were the predominant forms detected in all of the breast cancer tissues evaluated in this study, whereas a more variable expression of Survivin-2B level was found at different cancer stages. Conclusion In this study we show for the first time that like Survivin, the Survivin splice variants are also exosomally packaged in the breast cancer patients’ sera, mimicking the survivin splice variant pattern that we also report in breast cancer tissues. Differential expression of exosomal-Survivin, particularly Survivin-2B, may serve as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker, a “liquid biopsy” if you will, in early breast cancer patients. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of the role of this prominent antiapoptotic pathway could lead to the development of potential therapeutics for breast cancer patients. PMID:24620748

2014-01-01

369

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12  

PubMed Central

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-01-01

370

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

371

Alternative lengthening of telomeres: recurrent cytogenetic aberrations and chromosome stability under extreme telomere dysfunction.  

PubMed

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-11-01

372

Splicing regulators: targets and drugs  

PubMed Central

Silencing of splicing regulators by RNA interference, combined with splicing-specific microarrays, has revealed a complex network of distinct alternative splicing events in Drosophila, while a high-throughput screen of more than 6,000 compounds has identified drugs that interfere specifically and directly with one class of splicing regulators in human cells. PMID:16356274

Yeo, Gene Wei-Ming

2005-01-01

373

Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16  

SciTech Connect

Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

2006-03-01

374

Riboswitch Control of Gene Expression in Plants by Splicing and Alternative 3? End Processing of mRNAs[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The most widespread riboswitch class, found in organisms from all three domains of life, is responsive to the vitamin B1 derivative thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). We have established that a TPP-sensing riboswitch is present in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the thiamin biosynthetic gene THIC of all plant species examined. The THIC TPP riboswitch controls the formation of transcripts with alternative 3? UTR lengths, which affect mRNA accumulation and protein production. We demonstrate that riboswitch-mediated regulation of alternative 3? end processing is critical for TPP-dependent feedback control of THIC expression. Our data reveal a mechanism whereby metabolite-dependent alteration of RNA folding controls splicing and alternative 3? end processing of mRNAs. These findings highlight the importance of metabolite sensing by riboswitches in plants and further reveal the significance of alternative 3? end processing as a mechanism of gene control in eukaryotes. PMID:17993623

Wachter, Andreas; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Grove, Beth C.; Green, Pamela J.; Shintani, David K.; Breaker, Ronald R.

2007-01-01

375

The developing xylem transcriptome and genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) populations  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein structure and function. AS variation has been observed between tissues, cell types, and different treatments in non-woody plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. However, little is known about AS patterns in wood-forming tissues and how much AS variation exists within plant populations. Results Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa) xylem transcriptome in 20 individuals from different populations across much of its range in western North America. Deep transcriptome sequencing and mapping of reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome identified a suite of xylem-expressed genes common to all accessions. Our analysis suggests that at least 36% of the xylem-expressed genes in P. trichocarpa are alternatively spliced. Extensive AS was observed in cell-wall biosynthesis related genes such as glycosyl transferases and C2H2 transcription factors. 27902 AS events were documented and most of these events were not conserved across individuals. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that 7% and 13% of AS events showed significant differences between individuals within geographically separated southern and northern populations, a level that is in general agreement with AS variation in human populations. Conclusions This genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing reveals high levels of AS in P. trichocarpa and extensive inter-individual AS variation. We provide the most comprehensive analysis of AS in P. trichocarpa to date, which will serve as a valuable resource for the plant community to study transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during wood formation. PMID:23718132

2013-01-01

376

cDNA cloning reveals a tissue specific expression of alternatively spliced transcripts of the ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) calcium release channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels. Three cDNAs encoding different isoforms of RyR have been identified and cloned. We report the complete sequence of the mink RyR3 cDNA and the characterization of three alternative spliced regions. The first two splicing sites are represented by insertions of five and six amino acids, respectively. The third site

Giovanna Marziali; Daniela Rossi; Giuseppe Giannini; Alexandra Charlesworth; Vincenzo Sorrentino

1996-01-01

377

Nova1 Regulates Neuron-Specific Alternative Splicing and Is Essential for Neuronal Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have combined genetic and biochemical approaches to analyze the function of the RNA-binding protein Nova-1, the paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (POMA) antigen. Nova-1 null mice die postnatally from a motor deficit associated with apoptotic death of spinal and brainstem neurons. Nova-1 null mice show specific splicing defects in two inhibitory receptor pre-mRNAs, glycine ?2 exon 3A (GlyR?2 E3A) and GABAA

Kirk B Jensen; B. Kate Dredge; Giovanni Stefani; Ru Zhong; Ronald J Buckanovich; Hirotaka J Okano; Yolanda Y. L Yang; Robert B Darnell

2000-01-01

378

A Statistical Method for the Detection of Alternative Splicing Using RNA-Seq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep sequencing of transcriptome (RNA-seq) provides unprecedented opportunity to interrogate plausible mRNA splicing patterns by mapping RNA-seq reads to exon junctions (thereafter junction reads). In most previous studies, exon junctions were detected by using the quantitative information of junction reads. The quantitative criterion (e.g. minimum of two junction reads), although is straightforward and widely used, usually results in high false

Liguo Wang; Yuanxin Xi; Jun Yu; Liping Dong; Laising Yen; Wei Li; Juan Valcarcel

2010-01-01

379

Functional interactions between alternatively spliced forms of Pax6 in crystallin gene regulation and in haploinsufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pax6 is essential for development of the eye, olfac- tory system, brain and pancreas. Haploinsufficiency of Pax6 causes abnormal eye development. Two forms of Pax6 protein, PAX6 and PAX6(5a), differ in a 14 amino acid insertion encoded by an alterna- tively spliced exon 5a in the N-terminal DNA-binding paired domain (PD), and they are simultaneously expressed. Here, we show that

Bharesh K. Chauhan; Ying Yang; Kveta Cveklovaand AlesCvekl

2004-01-01

380

Intronic Polymorphisms Affecting Alternative Splicing of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Are Associated with Cocaine Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine receptor D2 (encoded by DRD2) is implicated in susceptibility to mental disorders and cocaine abuse, but mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain uncertain. DRD2 mRNA exists in two main splice isoforms with distinct functions: D2 long (D2L) and D2 short (D2S, lacking exon 6), expressed mainly postsynaptically and presynaptically, respectively. Two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs2283265 (intron 5)

Robert A Moyer; Danxin Wang; Audrey C Papp; Ryan M Smith; Linda Duque; Deborah C Mash; Wolfgang Sadee

2011-01-01