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1

Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.  

PubMed

The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. PMID:23800666

Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

2013-10-01

2

Genome wide identification of aberrant alternative splicing events in myotonic dystrophy type 2.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic, autosomal dominant disease due to expansion of tetraplet (CCTG) repetitions in the first intron of the ZNF9/CNBP gene. DM2 is a multisystemic disorder affecting the skeletal muscle, the heart, the eye and the endocrine system. According to the proposed pathological mechanism, the expanded tetraplets have an RNA toxic effect, disrupting the splicing of many mRNAs. Thus, the identification of aberrantly spliced transcripts is instrumental for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the disease. The aim of this study was the identification of new aberrant alternative splicing events in DM2 patients. By genome wide analysis of 10 DM2 patients and 10 controls (CTR), we identified 273 alternative spliced exons in 218 genes. While many aberrant splicing events were already identified in the past, most were new. A subset of these events was validated by qPCR assays in 19 DM2 and 15 CTR subjects. To gain insight into the molecular pathways involving the identified aberrantly spliced genes, we performed a bioinformatics analysis with Ingenuity system. This analysis indicated a deregulation of development, cell survival, metabolism, calcium signaling and contractility. In conclusion, our genome wide analysis provided a database of aberrant splicing events in the skeletal muscle of DM2 patients. The affected genes are involved in numerous pathways and networks important for muscle physio-pathology, suggesting that the identified variants may contribute to DM2 pathogenesis. PMID:24722564

Perfetti, Alessandra; Greco, Simona; Fasanaro, Pasquale; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Manteiga, Jose M Garcia; Riba, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Stupka, Elia; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

3

Genome Wide Identification of Aberrant Alternative Splicing Events in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic, autosomal dominant disease due to expansion of tetraplet (CCTG) repetitions in the first intron of the ZNF9/CNBP gene. DM2 is a multisystemic disorder affecting the skeletal muscle, the heart, the eye and the endocrine system. According to the proposed pathological mechanism, the expanded tetraplets have an RNA toxic effect, disrupting the splicing of many mRNAs. Thus, the identification of aberrantly spliced transcripts is instrumental for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the disease. The aim of this study was the identification of new aberrant alternative splicing events in DM2 patients. By genome wide analysis of 10 DM2 patients and 10 controls (CTR), we identified 273 alternative spliced exons in 218 genes. While many aberrant splicing events were already identified in the past, most were new. A subset of these events was validated by qPCR assays in 19 DM2 and 15 CTR subjects. To gain insight into the molecular pathways involving the identified aberrantly spliced genes, we performed a bioinformatics analysis with Ingenuity system. This analysis indicated a deregulation of development, cell survival, metabolism, calcium signaling and contractility. In conclusion, our genome wide analysis provided a database of aberrant splicing events in the skeletal muscle of DM2 patients. The affected genes are involved in numerous pathways and networks important for muscle physio-pathology, suggesting that the identified variants may contribute to DM2 pathogenesis. PMID:24722564

Fasanaro, Pasquale; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Manteiga, Jose M. Garcia.; Riba, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Stupka, Elia; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

4

Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa and various cone-rod dystrophies. For example, mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and ocular variants of Stickler Syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule based therapies, has the potential to lead to the development of new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

Liu, Melissa M.; Zack, Donald J.

2014-01-01

5

Aberrant splicing of an alternative exon in the Drosophila troponin-T gene affects flight muscle development.  

PubMed

During myofibrillogenesis, many muscle structural proteins assemble to form the highly ordered contractile sarcomere. Mutations in these proteins can lead to dysfunctional muscle and various myopathies. We have analyzed the Drosophila melanogaster troponin T (TnT) up1 mutant that specifically affects the indirect flight muscles (IFM) to explore troponin function during myofibrillogenesis. The up1 muscles lack normal sarcomeres and contain "zebra bodies," a phenotypic feature of human nemaline myopathies. We show that the up(1) mutation causes defective splicing of a newly identified alternative TnT exon (10a) that encodes part of the TnT C terminus. This exon is used to generate a TnT isoform specific to the IFM and jump muscles, which during IFM development replaces the exon 10b isoform. Functional differences between the 10a and 10b TnT isoforms may be due to different potential phosphorylation sites, none of which correspond to known phosphorylation sites in human cardiac TnT. The absence of TnT mRNA in up1 IFM reduces mRNA levels of an IFM-specific troponin I (TnI) isoform, but not actin, tropomyosin, or troponin C, suggesting a mechanism controlling expression of TnT and TnI genes may exist that must be examined in the context of human myopathies caused by mutations of these thin filament proteins. PMID:17603127

Nongthomba, Upendra; Ansari, Maqsood; Thimmaiya, Divesh; Stark, Meg; Sparrow, John

2007-09-01

6

Global control of aberrant splice-site activation by auxiliary splicing sequences: evidence for a gradient in exon and intron definition  

PubMed Central

Auxiliary splicing signals play a major role in the regulation of constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing, but their relative importance in selection of mutation-induced cryptic or de novo splice sites is poorly understood. Here, we show that exonic sequences between authentic and aberrant splice sites that were activated by splice-site mutations in human disease genes have lower frequencies of splicing enhancers and higher frequencies of splicing silencers than average exons. Conversely, sequences between authentic and intronic aberrant splice sites have more enhancers and less silencers than average introns. Exons that were skipped as a result of splice-site mutations were smaller, had lower SF2/ASF motif scores, a decreased availability of decoy splice sites and a higher density of silencers than exons in which splice-site mutation activated cryptic splice sites. These four variables were the strongest predictors of the two aberrant splicing events in a logistic regression model. Elimination or weakening of predicted silencers in two reporters consistently promoted use of intron-proximal splice sites if these elements were maintained at their original positions, with their modular combinations producing expected modification of splicing. Together, these results show the existence of a gradient in exon and intron definition at the level of pre-mRNA splicing and provide a basis for the development of computational tools that predict aberrant splicing outcomes. PMID:17881373

Královi?ová, Jana; Vo?echovský, Igor

2007-01-01

7

Our favourite alternative splice site.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism in mammals that generates several mRNAs from one gene, thereby creating genetic diversity of the genome. Variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development or particular tissues, and alternative splicing defects are being more frequently detected in genetic diseases and cancers. The increasingly important role of alternative splicing in the function and the regulation of cellular process makes it critical to have an easy-to-use data repository for the biological and medical research communities. We have compared web resources that give access to information on alternatively spliced genes, and the FAST DB (Friendly Alternative Splicing and Transcripts DataBase) site came out as our favourite. PMID:16611169

Lerivray, Hubert; Méreau, Agnès; Osborne, H Beverley

2006-05-01

8

Alternative Splicing and Its Impact as a Cancer Diagnostic Marker  

PubMed Central

Most genes are processed by alternative splicing for gene expression, resulting in the complexity of the transcriptome in eukaryotes. It allows a limited number of genes to encode various proteins with intricate functions. Alternative splicing is regulated by genetic mutations in cis-regulatory factors and epigenetic events. Furthermore, splicing events occur differently according to cell type, developmental stage, and various diseases, including cancer. Genome instability and flexible proteomes by alternative splicing could affect cancer cells to grow and survive, leading to metastasis. Cancer cells that are transformed by aberrant and uncontrolled mechanisms could produce alternative splicing to maintain and spread them continuously. Splicing variants in various cancers represent crucial roles for tumorigenesis. Taken together, the identification of alternative spliced variants as biomarkers to distinguish between normal and cancer cells could cast light on tumorigenesis. PMID:23105933

Kim, Yun-Ji

2012-01-01

9

Alternative splicing in regulation of cholesterol homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review With the advent of whole-transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, we now know that alternative splicing is a generalized phenomenon, with nearly all multi-exonic genes subject to alternative splicing. In this review we highlight recent studies examining alternative splicing as a modulator of cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and as an underlying mechanism of dyslipidemia. Recent findings A number of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism are known to undergo functionally relevant alternative splicing. Recently, we have identified coordinated changes in alternative splicing in multiple genes in response to alteration in cellular sterol content. We and others have implicated several splicing factors as regulators of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, a number of cis-acting human gene variants that modulate alternative splicing have been implicated in a variety of human metabolic diseases. Summary Alternative splicing is of importance in various types of genetically influenced dyslipidemias, and in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism. PMID:23314925

Medina, Marisa W.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2013-01-01

10

Directing alternative splicing: cast and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the study of alternative RNA splicing indicates that the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with specific target elements modulates splice site recognition and spliceosome assembly. The identity of splicing signals, the presence of modulating elements and differences in the distribution of RNA-binding proteins are key determinants involved in the tissue-specific regulation of splice site selection.

Benoit Chabot

1996-01-01

11

Splice factor mutations and alternative splicing as drivers of hematopoietic malignancy.  

PubMed

Differential splicing contributes to the vast complexity of mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms that are necessary for cellular homeostasis and response to developmental cues and external signals. The hematopoietic system provides an exquisite example of this. Recently, discovery of mutations in components of the spliceosome in various hematopoietic malignancies (HMs) has led to an explosion in knowledge of the role of splicing and splice factors in HMs and other cancers. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which alternative splicing and aberrant splicing contributes to the leukemogenic process will enable more efficacious targeted approaches to tackle these often difficult to treat diseases. The clinical implications are only just starting to be realized with novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies open to exploitation for patient benefit. PMID:25510282

Hahn, Christopher N; Venugopal, Parvathy; Scott, Hamish S; Hiwase, Devendra K

2015-01-01

12

Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

2014-01-01

13

Connections between Alternative Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Mammals  

E-print Network

The majority of mammalian genes produce multiple transcripts resulting from alternative splicing (AS) and/or alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT). Comparative analysis ...

Spiridonov, Alexey Nikolaevich

14

Networking in an alternative splicing world.  

PubMed

Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system, Norris et al. (2014) define complex combinatorial regulation of alternative splicing at single-neuron resolution and illustrate functional coherence among components of a splicing regulatory network controlled by a neuronal splicing factor. PMID:24950376

Carstens, Russ P

2014-06-19

15

Histone Deacetylase Activity Modulates Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence to suggest that splicing decisions are largely made when the nascent RNA is still associated with chromatin. Here we demonstrate that activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) influences splice site selection. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, we identified ?700 genes whose splicing was altered after HDAC inhibition. We provided evidence that HDAC inhibition induced histone H4 acetylation and increased RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) processivity along an alternatively spliced element. In addition, HDAC inhibition reduced co-transcriptional association of the splicing regulator SRp40 with the target fibronectin exon. We further showed that the depletion of HDAC1 had similar effect on fibronectin alternative splicing as global HDAC inhibition. Importantly, this effect was reversed upon expression of mouse HDAC1 but not a catalytically inactive mutant. These results provide a molecular insight into a complex modulation of splicing by HDACs and chromatin modifications. PMID:21311748

Hnilicová, Jarmila; Hozeifi, Samira; Dušková, Eva; Icha, Jaroslav; Tománková, Tereza; Stan?k, David

2011-01-01

16

Histone deacetylase activity modulates alternative splicing.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence to suggest that splicing decisions are largely made when the nascent RNA is still associated with chromatin. Here we demonstrate that activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) influences splice site selection. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, we identified ?700 genes whose splicing was altered after HDAC inhibition. We provided evidence that HDAC inhibition induced histone H4 acetylation and increased RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) processivity along an alternatively spliced element. In addition, HDAC inhibition reduced co-transcriptional association of the splicing regulator SRp40 with the target fibronectin exon. We further showed that the depletion of HDAC1 had similar effect on fibronectin alternative splicing as global HDAC inhibition. Importantly, this effect was reversed upon expression of mouse HDAC1 but not a catalytically inactive mutant. These results provide a molecular insight into a complex modulation of splicing by HDACs and chromatin modifications. PMID:21311748

Hnilicová, Jarmila; Hozeifi, Samira; Dušková, Eva; Icha, Jaroslav; Tománková, Tereza; Stan?k, David

2011-01-01

17

Regulated functional alternative splicing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing expands the coding capacity of metazoan genes, and it was largely genetic studies in the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster that established the principle that regulated alternative splicing results in tissue- and stage-specific protein isoforms with different functions in development. Alternative splicing is particularly prominent in germ cells, muscle and the central nervous system where it modulates the expression of various proteins including cell-surface molecules and transcription factors. Studies in flies have given us numerous insights into alternative splicing in terms of upstream regulation, the exquisite diversity of their forms and the key differential cellular functions of alternatively spliced gene products. The current inundation of transcriptome sequencing data from Drosophila provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain a comprehensive view of alternative splicing. PMID:21908400

Venables, Julian P.; Tazi, Jamal; Juge, François

2012-01-01

18

Exon sequences at the splice junctions affect splicing fidelity and alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Identification of splice sites is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, allowing accurate splicing of pre-mRNAs. The splice sites are recognized by the splicing machinery based on sequences within the pre-mRNA. Here, we show that the exon sequences at the splice junctions play a significant, previously unrecognized role in the selection of 3? splice sites during the second step of splicing. The influence of the exon sequences was enhanced by the Prp18 mutant Prp18?CR, and the strength of an exon sequence in Prp18?CR splicing predicted its effect in wild-type splicing. Analysis of the kinetics of splicing in vitro demonstrated that 3? splice sites were chosen competitively during the second step, likely at the same time as exon ligation. In wild-type yeast, splice site selection for two genes studied was altered by point mutations in their exon bases, affecting splicing fidelity and alternative splicing. Finally, we note that the degeneracy of the genetic code allows competing 3? splice sites to be eliminated from coding regions, and we suggest that the evolution of the splicing signals and the genetic code are connected. PMID:19855008

Crotti, Luciana B.; Horowitz, David S.

2009-01-01

19

The RNA-binding protein QKI suppresses cancer-associated aberrant splicing.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24722255

Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

2014-04-01

20

Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries, and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism. We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across 42 eukaryotes to gain insight into how spliceosomal introns are recognized. Results All eukaryotes we studied exhibit RIs, which appear more frequently than previously thought. CEs are also present in all kingdoms and most of the organisms in our analysis. We observe that the ratio of CEs to RIs varies substantially among kingdoms, while the ratio of competing 3' acceptor and competing 5' donor sites remains nearly constant. In addition, we find the ratio of CEs to RIs in each organism correlates with the length of its introns. In all 14 fungi we examined, as well as in most of the 9 protists, RIs far outnumber CEs. This differs from the trend seen in 13 multicellular animals, where CEs occur much more frequently than RIs. The six plants we analyzed exhibit intermediate proportions of CEs and RIs. Conclusion Our results suggest that most extant eukaryotes are capable of recognizing splice sites via both ID and ED, although ED is most common in multicellular animals and ID predominates in fungi and most protists. PMID:18321378

McGuire, Abigail M; Pearson, Matthew D; Neafsey, Daniel E; Galagan, James E

2008-01-01

21

Phosphorylation-Mediated Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is one of the key processes involved in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. AS catalyzes the removal of intronic sequences and the joining of selected exons, thus ensuring the correct processing of the primary transcript into the mature mRNA. The combinatorial nature of AS allows a great expansion of the genome coding potential, as multiple splice-variants encoding for different proteins may arise from a single gene. Splicing is mediated by a large macromolecular complex, the spliceosome, whose activity needs a fine regulation exerted by cis-acting RNA sequence elements and trans-acting RNA binding proteins (RBP). The activity of both core spliceosomal components and accessory splicing factors is modulated by their reversible phosphorylation. The kinases and phosphatases involved in these posttranslational modifications significantly contribute to AS regulation and to its integration in the complex regulative network that controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we will review the major canonical and noncanonical splicing factor kinases and phosphatases, focusing on those whose activity has been implicated in the aberrant splicing events that characterize neoplastic transformation. PMID:24069033

Sette, Claudio

2013-01-01

22

Tumor microenvironment–associated modifications of alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is modified in cancer, but the origin and specificity of these changes remain unclear. Here, we probed ovarian tumors to identify cancer-associated splicing isoforms and define the mechanism by which splicing is modified in cancer cells. Using high-throughput quantitative PCR, we monitored the expression of splice variants in laser-dissected tissues from ovarian tumors. Surprisingly, changes in alternative splicing were not limited to the tumor tissues but were also found in the tumor microenvironment. Changes in the tumor-associated splicing events were found to be regulated by splicing factors that are differentially expressed in cancer tissues. Overall, ?20% of the alternative splicing events affected by the down-regulation of the splicing factors QKI and RBFOX2 were altered in the microenvironment of ovarian tumors. Together, our results indicate that the tumor microenvironment undergoes specific changes in alternative splicing orchestrated by a limited number of splicing factors. PMID:24335142

Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Lucier, Jean-François; Nwilati, Hanad; Thibault, Philippe; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Durand, Mathieu; Couture, Sonia; Lapointe, Elvy; Prinos, Panagiotis; Klinck, Roscoe; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Chabot, Benoit; Abou-Elela, Sherif

2014-01-01

23

Database and analyses of known alternatively spliced genes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is an important cellular mechanism that increases the diversity of gene products. The number of alternatively spliced genes reported so far in plants is much smaller than that in mammals, but is increasing as a result of the explosive growth of available EST and genomic sequences. We have searched for all alternatively spliced genes reported in GenBank and

Yan Zhou; Chunlong Zhou; Lin Ye; Jianhai Dong; Huayong Xu; Lin Cai; Liang Zhang; Liping Wei

2003-01-01

24

Alternative splicing of DNA damage response genes and gastrointestinal cancers  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing, which is a common phenomenon in mammalian genomes, is a fundamental process of gene regulation and contributes to great protein diversity. Alternative splicing events not only occur in the normal gene regulation process but are also closely related to certain diseases including cancer. In this review, we briefly demonstrate the concept of alternative splicing and DNA damage and describe the association of alternative splicing and cancer pathogenesis, focusing on the potential relationship of alternative splicing, DNA damage, and gastrointestinal cancers. We will also discuss whether alternative splicing leads to genetic instability, which is considered to be a driving force for tumorigenesis. Better understanding of the role and mechanism of alternative splicing in tumorigenesis may provide new directions for future cancer studies. PMID:25516641

Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

2014-01-01

25

Neuronal regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing has an important role in the control of neuronal gene expression. Many neuronal proteins are structurally diversified through the differential inclusion and exclusion of sequences in the final spliced mRNA. Here, we discuss common mechanisms of splicing regulation and provide examples of how alternative splicing has important roles in neuronal development and mature neuron function. Finally, we

Qin Li; Douglas L. Black

2007-01-01

26

Alternative splicing at GYNNGY 5? splice sites: more noise, less regulation  

PubMed Central

Numerous eukaryotic genes are alternatively spliced. Recently, deep transcriptome sequencing has skyrocketed proportion of alternatively spliced genes; over 95% human multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced. One fundamental question is: are all these alternative splicing (AS) events functional? To look into this issue, we studied the most common form of alternative 5? splice sites—GYNNGYs (Y = C/T), where both GYs can function as splice sites. Global analyses suggest that splicing noise (due to stochasticity of splicing process) can cause AS at GYNNGYs, evidenced by higher AS frequency in non-coding than in coding regions, in non-conserved than in conserved genes and in lowly expressed than in highly expressed genes. However, ?20% AS GYNNGYs in humans and ?3% in mice exhibit tissue-dependent regulation. Consistent with being functional, regulated GYNNGYs are more conserved than unregulated ones. And regulated GYNNGYs have distinctive sequence features which may confer regulation. Particularly, each regulated GYNNGY comprises two splice sites more resembling each other than unregulated GYNNGYs, and has more conserved downstream flanking intron. Intriguingly, most regulated GYNNGYs may tune gene expression through coupling with nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, rather than encode different proteins. In summary, AS at GYNNGY 5? splice sites is primarily splicing noise, and secondarily a way of regulation. PMID:25428370

Wang, Meng; Zhang, Peiwei; Shu, Yang; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhou, You; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Kong, Xiangyin; Zhang, Zhenguo

2014-01-01

27

Alternative Splicing and Subfunctionalization Generates Functional Diversity in Fungal Proteomes  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is commonly used by the Metazoa to generate more than one protein from a gene. However, such diversification of the proteome by alternative splicing is much rarer in fungi. We describe here an ancient fungal alternative splicing event in which these two proteins are generated from a single alternatively spliced ancestral SKI7/HBS1 gene retained in many species in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. While the ability to express two proteins from a single SKI7/HBS1 gene is conserved in many fungi, the exact mechanism by which they achieve this varies. The alternative splicing was lost in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following the whole-genome duplication event as these two genes subfunctionalized into the present functionally distinct HBS1 and SKI7 genes. When expressed in yeast, the single gene from Lachancea kluyveri generates two functionally distinct proteins. Expression of one of these proteins complements hbs1, but not ski7 mutations, while the other protein complements ski7, but not hbs1. This is the first known case of subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in yeast. By coincidence, the ancestral alternatively spliced gene was also duplicated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with subsequent subfunctionalization and loss of splicing. Similar subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in fungi also explains the presence of two PTC7 genes in the budding yeast Tetrapisispora blattae, suggesting that this is a common mechanism to preserve duplicate alternatively spliced genes. PMID:23516382

Jiménez-López, Claudia; Lorenz, Michael C.; van Hoof, Ambro

2013-01-01

28

Intronic Alternative Splicing Regulators Identified by Comparative Genomics in Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Many alternative splicing events are regulated by pentameric and hexameric intronic sequences that serve as binding sites for splicing regulatory factors. We hypothesized that intronic elements that regulate alternative splicing are under selective pressure for evolutionary conservation. Using a Wobble Aware Bulk Aligner genomic alignment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, we identified 147 alternatively spliced cassette exons that exhibit short regions of high nucleotide conservation in the introns flanking the alternative exon. In vivo experiments on the alternatively spliced let-2 gene confirm that these conserved regions can be important for alternative splicing regulation. Conserved intronic element sequences were collected into a dataset and the occurrence of each pentamer and hexamer motif was counted. We compared the frequency of pentamers and hexamers in the conserved intronic elements to a dataset of all C. elegans intron sequences in order to identify short intronic motifs that are more likely to be associated with alternative splicing. High-scoring motifs were examined for upstream or downstream preferences in introns surrounding alternative exons. Many of the high- scoring nematode pentamer and hexamer motifs correspond to known mammalian splicing regulatory sequences, such as (T)GCATG, indicating that the mechanism of alternative splicing regulation is well conserved in metazoans. A comparison of the analysis of the conserved intronic elements, and analysis of the entire introns flanking these same exons, reveals that focusing on intronic conservation can increase the sensitivity of detecting putative splicing regulatory motifs. This approach also identified novel sequences whose role in splicing is under investigation and has allowed us to take a step forward in defining a catalog of splicing regulatory elements for an organism. In vivo experiments confirm that one novel high-scoring sequence from our analysis, (T)CTATC, is important for alternative splicing regulation of the unc-52 gene. PMID:16839192

Kabat, Jennifer L; Barberan-Soler, Sergio; McKenna, Paul; Clawson, Hiram; Farrer, Tracy; Zahler, Alan M

2006-01-01

29

Studying alternative splicing regulatory networks through partial correlation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is an important gene regulation mechanism for expanding proteomic diversity in higher eukaryotes.\\u000a Each splicing regulator can potentially influence a large group of alternative exons. Meanwhile, each alternative exon is\\u000a controlled by multiple splicing regulators. The rapid accumulation of high-throughput data provides us with a unique opportunity\\u000a to study the complicated alternative splicing regulatory network.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We propose

Liang Chen; Sika Zheng

2009-01-01

30

Functional association between promoter structure and transcript alternative splicing.  

PubMed

It has been assumed that constitutive and regulated splicing of RNA polymerase II transcripts depends exclusively on signals present in the RNA molecule. Here we show that changes in promoter structure strongly affect splice site selection. We investigated the splicing of the ED I exon, which encodes a facultative type III repeat of fibronectin, whose inclusion is regulated during development and in proliferative processes. We used an alternative splicing assay combined with promoter swapping to demonstrate that the extent of ED I splicing is dependent on the promoter structure from which the transcript originated and that this regulation is independent of the promoter strength. Thus, these results provide the first evidence for coupling between alternative splicing and promoter-specific transcription, which agrees with recent cytological and biochemical evidence of coordination between splicing and transcription. PMID:9326631

Cramer, P; Pesce, C G; Baralle, F E; Kornblihtt, A R

1997-10-14

31

Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV); Robert B. Darnell (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

2001-08-07

32

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alterna- tive splicing of

Jianguo Tan; Zhiqi Liu; Yoshiko Nomura; Alan L. Goldin; Ke Dong

2002-01-01

33

Alternative splicing switches potassium channel sensitivity to protein phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Alternative exon splicing and reversible protein phosphorylation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels represent fundamental control mechanisms for the regulation of cellular excitability. BK channels are encoded by a single gene that undergoes extensive, hormonally regulated exon splicing. In native tissues BK channels display considerable diversity and plasticity in their regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Differential regulation of alternatively spliced BK channels by PKA may provide a molecular basis for the diversity and plasticity of BK channel sensitivities to PKA. Here we demonstrate that PKA activates BK channels lacking splice inserts (ZERO) but inhibits channels expressing a 59-amino acid exon at splice site 2 (STREX-1). Channel activation is dependent upon a conserved C-terminal PKA consensus motif (S869), whereas inhibition is mediated via a STREX-1 exon-specific PKA consensus site. Thus, alternative splicing acts as a molecular switch to determine the sensitivity of potassium channels to protein phosphorylation. PMID:11244090

Tian, L; Duncan, R R; Hammond, M S; Coghill, L S; Wen, H; Rusinova, R; Clark, A G; Levitan, I B; Shipston, M J

2001-03-16

34

Identical Splicing of Aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcripts from Amplified Rearranged Genes in Human Glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor gene has been found to be amplified and rearranged in human glioblastomas in vivo. Here we present the sequence across a splice junction of aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor transcripts derived from corresponding and uniquely rearranged genes that are coamplified and coexpressed with non-rearranged epidermal growth factor receptor genes in six primary human glioblastomas. Each

Noriaki Sugawa; A. Jonas Ekstrand; C. David James; V. Peter Collins

1990-01-01

35

Alternative splicing in plants – coming of age  

PubMed Central

More than 60% of intron-containing genes undergo alternative splicing (AS) in plants. This number will increase when AS in different tissues, developmental stages, and environmental conditions are explored. Although the functional impact of AS on protein complexity is still understudied in plants, recent examples demonstrate its importance in regulating plant processes. AS also regulates transcript levels and the link with nonsense-mediated decay and generation of unproductive mRNAs illustrate the need for both transcriptional and AS data in gene expression analyses. AS has influenced the evolution of the complex networks of regulation of gene expression and variation in AS contributed to adaptation of plants to their environment and therefore will impact strategies for improving plant and crop phenotypes. PMID:22743067

Syed, Naeem H.; Kalyna, Maria; Marquez, Yamile; Barta, Andrea; Brown, John W.S.

2012-01-01

36

Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. Results We developed a bioinformatic pipeline that maps RNA-seq data to a combinatorial exon database, predicts NMD-susceptibility for mRNA isoforms and calculates the distribution of major splice isoform classes. We present a catalog of NMD-regulated alternative splicing events, showing that isoforms of 30% of all expressed genes are upregulated in NMD-deficient cells and that NMD targets all major splicing classes. Importantly, NMD-dependent effects are not restricted to premature termination codon+ isoforms but also involve an abundance of splicing events that do not generate premature termination codons. Supporting their functional importance, the latter events are associated with high intronic conservation. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that NMD regulates alternative splicing outcomes through an intricate web of splicing regulators and that its loss leads to the deregulation of a panoply of splicing events, providing novel insights into its role in core- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Thus, our study extends the importance of NMD from an mRNA quality pathway to a regulator of several layers of gene expression. PMID:22624609

2012-01-01

37

Bax?2 Family Alternative Splicing Salvages Bax Microsatellite-Frameshift Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutation or aberrant splicing can interrupt gene expression. Tumor suppressor Bax is one of the susceptible genes prone to microsatellite frameshifting mutations in coding regions. As a result, tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI) often present a “Bax-negative” phenotype. We previously reported that some Bax-negative cells in fact contain a functional Bax isoform (Bax?2), generated when unique alternative splicing “salvages” the shifted reading frame introduced by a microsatellite mutation. Here we compared Bax alternative splicing profiles in a range of cell lines and primary tumors with and without Bax microsatellite mutations. We found that MSI tumors exhibit a high Bax alternative splicing frequency, especially in exon 2, and produce a family of alternatively spliced isoforms that retain many important Bax functional domains. Surprisingly, these Bax?2 family isoforms can rescue Bax from all common microsatellite frameshift mutations. Production of Bax?2 requires specific cis mutations, while trans components are not cell-type specific. Furthermore, all Bax?2 family isoforms are more potent cell death inducers than the parental Bax without directly targeting mitochondria. These results indicate that the Bax?2 family can potentially salvage Bax tumor suppressor expression otherwise lost to mutation. PMID:24386510

Haferkamp, Bonnie; Zhang, Honghong; Kissinger, Samuel; Wang, Xin; Lin, Yuting; Schultz, Megan

2013-01-01

38

Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Periostin (POSTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed

Sebastian Hoersch; Miguel A Andrade-Navarro

2010-01-01

39

A sequence compilation and comparison of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons.  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism to create protein diversity. In order to elucidate possible regulatory elements common to neuron specific exons, we created and statistically analysed a database of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons. The splice site comparison of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons reveals that some, but not all alternatively spliced exons have splice sites deviating from the consensus sequence, implying diverse patterns of regulation. The deviation from the consensus is most evident at the -3 position of the 3' splice site and the +4 and -3 position of the 5' splice site. The nucleotide composition of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons is different, with alternatively spliced exons being more AU rich. We performed overlapping k-tuple analysis to identify common motifs. We found that alternatively and constitutively spliced exons differ in the frequency of several trinucleotides that cannot be explained by the amino acid composition and may be important for splicing regulation. PMID:8202349

Stamm, S; Zhang, M Q; Marr, T G; Helfman, D M

1994-01-01

40

Functional characterization of alternatively spliced human SECISBP2 transcript variants  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of selenoproteins depends on decoding of the UGA stop codon as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). This process requires the presence of a Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS) in the 3?-untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNAs and its interaction with the SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2). In humans, mutations in the SBP2-encoding gene Sec insertion sequence binding protein 2 (SECISBP2) that alter the amino acid sequence or cause splicing defects lead to abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism. Herein, we present the first in silico and in vivo functional characterization of alternative splicing of SECISBP2. We report a complex splicing pattern in the 5?-region of human SECISBP2, wherein at least eight splice variants encode five isoforms with varying N-terminal sequence. One of the isoforms, mtSBP2, contains a mitochondrial targeting sequence and localizes to mitochondria. Using a minigene-based in vivo splicing assay we characterized the splicing efficiency of several alternative transcripts, and show that the splicing event that creates mtSBP2 can be modulated by antisense oligonucleotides. Moreover, we show that full-length SBP2 and some alternatively spliced variants are subject to a coordinated transcriptional and translational regulation in response to ultraviolet type A irradiation-induced stress. Overall, our data broadens the functional scope of a housekeeping protein essential to selenium metabolism. PMID:19004874

Papp, Laura V.; Wang, Junning; Kennedy, Derek; Boucher, Didier; Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Singh, Ravindra N.; Khanna, Kum Kum

2008-01-01

41

Alternative splicing in the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KIAA0319 gene in chromosome 6p22 has been strongly associated with developmental dyslexia. In this article we show a wide expression\\u000a pattern of this gene in human adult brain by Northern blot analysis. We also performed RT-PCR analysis to detect alternative\\u000a splicing variants in human brain. Most of the detected variants involve alternative splicing of the exons at the 5?

Antonio Velayos-Baeza; Claudio Toma; Stephanie da Roza; Silvia Paracchini; Anthony P. Monaco

2007-01-01

42

Alternative Splicing of SLC39A14 in Colorectal Cancer is Regulated by the Wnt Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a crucial step in the generation of protein diversity and its misregulation is observed in many human cancer types. By analyzing 143 colorectal samples using exon arrays, SLC39A14, a divalent cation transporter, was identified as being aberrantly spliced in tumor samples. SLC39A14 contains two mutually exclusive exons 4A and 4B and the exon 4A/4B ratio was significantly altered in adenomas (p = 3.6 × 10?10) and cancers (p = 9.4 × 10?11), independent of microsatellite stability status. The findings were validated in independent exon array data sets and by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Aberrant Wnt signaling is a hallmark of colorectal tumorigenesis and is characterized by nuclear ?-catenin. Experimental inactivation of Wnt signaling in DLD1 and Ls174T cells by knockdown of ?-catenin or overexpression of dominant negative TCFs (TCF1 and TCF4) altered the 4A/4B ratio, indicating that SLC39A14 splicing is regulated by the Wnt pathway. An altered 4A/4B ratio was also observed in gastric and lung cancer where Wnt signaling is also known to be aberrantly activated. The splicing factor SRSF1 and its regulator, the kinase SRPK1, were found to be deregulated upon Wnt inactivation in colorectal carcinoma cells. SRPK1 was also found up-regulated in both adenoma samples (p = 1.5 × 10?5) and cancer samples (p = 5 × 10?4). In silico splicing factor binding analysis predicted SRSF1 to bind predominantly to the cancer associated exon 4B, hence, it was hypothesized that SRPK1 activates SRSF1 through phosphorylation, followed by SRSF1 binding to exon 4B and regulation of SLC39A14 splicing. Indeed, siRNA-mediated knockdown of SRPK1 and SRSF1 in DLD1 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells led to a change in the 4A/4B isoform ratio, supporting a role of these factors in the regulation of SLC39A14 splicing. In conclusion, alternative splicing of SLC39A14 was identified in colorectal tumors and found to be regulated by the Wnt pathway, most likely through regulation of SRPK1 and SRSF1. PMID:20938052

Thorsen, Kasper; Mansilla, Francisco; Schepeler, Troels; Øster, Bodil; Rasmussen, Mads H.; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Karni, Rotem; Akerman, Martin; Krainer, Adrian R.; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus L.; Ørntoft, Torben F.

2011-01-01

43

Position-dependent FUS-RNA interactions regulate alternative splicing events and transcriptions.  

PubMed

FUS is an RNA-binding protein that regulates transcription, alternative splicing, and mRNA transport. Aberrations of FUS are causally associated with familial and sporadic ALS/FTLD. We analyzed FUS-mediated transcriptions and alternative splicing events in mouse primary cortical neurons using exon arrays. We also characterized FUS-binding RNA sites in the mouse cerebrum with HITS-CLIP. We found that FUS-binding sites tend to form stable secondary structures. Analysis of position-dependence of FUS-binding sites disclosed scattered binding of FUS to and around the alternatively spliced exons including those associated with neurodegeneration such as Mapt, Camk2a, and Fmr1. We also found that FUS is often bound to the antisense RNA strand at the promoter regions. Global analysis of these FUS-tags and the expression profiles disclosed that binding of FUS to the promoter antisense strand downregulates transcriptions of the coding strand. Our analysis revealed that FUS regulates alternative splicing events and transcriptions in a position-dependent manner. PMID:22829983

Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Masuda, Akio; Fujioka, Yusuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Shibata, Akihide; Urano, Fumihiko; Sobue, Gen; Ohno, Kinji

2012-01-01

44

Regulation of Telomerase Alternative Splicing: A New Target for Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Telomerase is present in human cancer cells but absent in most somatic tissues. The mRNA of human telomerase (hTERT) is alternatively spliced into mostly non-functional products. We sought to understand splicing so we could decrease functional splice isoforms to reduce telomerase activity to complement direct enzyme inhibition. Unexpectedly, minigenes containing hTERT exons 5–10 flanked by 150–300bp intronic sequences did not produce alternative splicing. A 1.1kb region of 38bp repeats ~2kb from the exon 6/intron junction restored exclusion of exons 7/8. An element within intron 8, also >1kb from intron/exon junctions, modulated this effect. Transducing an oligonucleotide complementary to this second element increased non-functional hTERT mRNA from endogenous telomerase. These results demonstrate the potential of manipulating hTERT splicing for both chemotherapy and regenerative medicine, and provide the first specific sequences deep within introns that regulate alternative splicing in mammalian cells by mechanisms other than introducing cryptic splice sites. PMID:23562158

Wong, Mandy S.; Chen, Ling; Foster, Christopher; Kainthla, Radhika; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

2013-01-01

45

Alternative splicing of type II procollagen: IIB or not IIB?  

PubMed

Over two decades ago, two isoforms of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) were discovered. These isoforms, named IIA and IIB, are generated in a developmentally-regulated manner by alternative splicing of exon 2. Chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly IIA isoforms (containing exon 2) while differentiated chondrocytes produce mainly IIB transcripts (devoid of exon 2). Importantly, this IIA-to-IIB alternative splicing switch occurs only during chondrogenesis. More recently, two other isoforms have been reported (IIC and IID) that also involve splicing of exon 2; these findings highlight the complexities involving regulation of COL2A1 expression. The biological significance of why different isoforms of COL2A1 exist within the context of skeletal development and maintenance is still not completely understood. This review will provide current knowledge on COL2A1 isoform expression during chondrocyte differentiation and what is known about some of the mechanisms that control exon 2 alternative splicing. Utilization of mouse models to address the biological significance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in vivo will also be discussed. From the knowledge acquired to date, some new questions and concepts are now being proposed on the importance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in regulating extracellular matrix assembly and how this may subsequently affect cartilage and endochondral bone quality and function. PMID:24669942

McAlinden, Audrey

2014-06-01

46

Alternative Splicing of Type II Procollagen: IIB or not IIB?  

PubMed Central

Over two decades ago, two isoforms of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) were discovered. These isoforms, named IIA and IIB, are generated in a developmentally-regulated manner by alternative splicing of exon 2. Chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly IIA isoforms (containing exon 2) while differentiated chondrocytes produce mainly IIB transcripts (devoid of exon 2). Importantly, this IIA-to-IIB alternative splicing switch occurs only during chondrogenesis. More recently, two other isoforms have been reported (IIC and IID) that also involve splicing of exon 2; these findings highlight the complexities involving regulation of COL2A1 expression. The biological significance of why different isoforms of COL2A1 exist within the context of skeletal development and maintenance is still not completely understood. This review will provide current knowledge on COL2A1 isoform expression during chondrocyte differentiation and what is known about some of the mechanisms that control exon 2 alternative splicing. Utilization of mouse models to address the biological significance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in vivo will also be discussed. From the knowledge acquired to date, some new questions and concepts are now being proposed on the importance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in regulating extracellular matrix assembly and how this may subsequently affect cartilage and endochondral bone quality and function. PMID:24669942

McAlinden, Audrey

2015-01-01

47

The landscape of alternative splicing in cervical squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism in protein synthesis and proteome diversity. In this study, we identified alternative splicing events in four pairs of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues using RNA sequencing. Methods The transcripts of the four paired samples were thoroughly analyzed by RNA sequencing. SpliceMap software was used to detect the splicing junctions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis was conducted to detect the alternative spliced genes-related signal pathways. The alternative spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results There were 35 common alternative spliced genes in the four CSCC samples; they were novel and CSCC specific. Sixteen pathways were significantly enriched (P<0.05). One novel 5?AS site in the KLHDC7B gene, encoding kelch domain-containing 7B, and an exon-skipping site in the SYCP2 gene, encoding synaptonemal complex 2, were validated by RT-PCR. The KLHDC7B gene with 5?AS was found in 67.5% (27/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with cellular differentiation and tumor size. The exon-skipping site of the SYCP2 gene was found in 35.0% (14/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with depth of cervical invasion. Conclusion The KLHDC7B and the SYCP2 genes with alternative spliced events might be involved in the development and progression of CSCC and could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of CSCC. PMID:25565867

Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Wu, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Ren, Tong; Zhu, Baoli; Xiang, Yang

2015-01-01

48

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

49

The adipogenic transcriptional cofactor ZNF638 interacts with splicing regulators and influences alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that transcription and alternative splicing are coordinated processes; however, our knowledge of specific factors implicated in both functions during the process of adipocyte differentiation is limited. We have previously demonstrated that the zinc finger protein ZNF638 plays a role as a transcriptional coregulator of adipocyte differentiation via induction of PPAR? in cooperation with CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). Here we provide new evidence that ZNF638 is localized in nuclear bodies enriched with splicing factors, and through biochemical purification of ZNF638's interacting proteins in adipocytes and mass spectrometry analysis, we show that ZNF638 interacts with splicing regulators. Functional analysis of the effects of ectopic ZNF638 expression on a minigene reporter demonstrated that ZNF638 is sufficient to promote alternative splicing, a function enhanced through its recruitment to the minigene promoter at C/EBP responsive elements via C/EBP proteins. Structure-function analysis revealed that the arginine/serine-rich motif and the C-terminal zinc finger domain required for speckle localization are necessary for the adipocyte differentiation function of ZNF638 and for the regulation of the levels of alternatively spliced isoforms of lipin1 and nuclear receptor co-repressor 1. Overall, our data demonstrate that ZNF638 participates in splicing decisions and that it may control adipogenesis through regulation of the relative amounts of differentiation-specific isoforms. PMID:25024404

Du, Chen; Ma, Xinran; Meruvu, Sunitha; Hugendubler, Lynne; Mueller, Elisabetta

2014-09-01

50

A molecular inversion probe assay for detecting alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Absract Background A sensitive, high-throughput method for monitoring pre-mRNA splicing on a genomic scale is needed to understand the spectrum of alternatively spliced mRNA in human cells. Results We adapted Molecular Inversion Probes (MIPs), a padlock-probe based technology, for the multiplexed capture and quantitation of individual splice events in human tissues. Individual MIP capture probes can be quantified using either DNA microarrays or high-throughput sequencing, which permits independent assessment of each spliced junction. Using our methodology we successfully identified 100% of our positive controls and showed that there is a strong correlation between the data from our alternative splicing MIP (asMIP) assay and quantitative PCR. Conclusion The asMIP assay provides a sensitive, accurate and multiplexed means for measuring pre-mRNA splicing. Fully optimized, we estimate that the assay could accommodate a throughput of greater than 20,000 splice junctions in a single reaction. This would represent a significant improvement over existing technologies. PMID:21167051

2010-01-01

51

Sporadic ALS has compartment-specific aberrant exon splicing and altered cell–matrix adhesion biology  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive weakness from loss of motor neurons. The fundamental pathogenic mechanisms are unknown and recent evidence is implicating a significant role for abnormal exon splicing and RNA processing. Using new comprehensive genomic technologies, we studied exon splicing directly in 12 sporadic ALS and 10 control lumbar spinal cords acquired by a rapid autopsy system that processed nervous systems specifically for genomic studies. ALS patients had rostral onset and caudally advancing disease and abundant residual motor neurons in this region. We created two RNA pools, one from motor neurons collected by laser capture microdissection and one from the surrounding anterior horns. From each, we isolated RNA, amplified mRNA, profiled whole-genome exon splicing, and applied advanced bioinformatics. We employed rigorous quality control measures at all steps and validated findings by qPCR. In the motor neuron enriched mRNA pool, we found two distinct cohorts of mRNA signals, most of which were up-regulated: 148 differentially expressed genes (P ? 10?3) and 411 aberrantly spliced genes (P ? 10?5). The aberrantly spliced genes were highly enriched in cell adhesion (P ? 10?57), especially cell–matrix as opposed to cell–cell adhesion. Most of the enriching genes encode transmembrane or secreted as opposed to nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins. The differentially expressed genes were not biologically enriched. In the anterior horn enriched mRNA pool, we could not clearly identify mRNA signals or biological enrichment. These findings, perturbed and up-regulated cell–matrix adhesion, suggest possible mechanisms for the contiguously progressive nature of motor neuron degeneration. Data deposition: GeneChip raw data (CEL-files) have been deposited for public access in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo, accession number GSE18920. PMID:19864493

Rabin, Stuart J.; Kim, Jae Mun ‘Hugo’; Baughn, Michael; Libby, Ryan T.; Kim, Young Joo; Fan, Yuxin; Libby, Randell T.; La Spada, Albert; Stone, Brad; Ravits, John

2010-01-01

52

Characterization of an apparently synonymous F5 mutation causing aberrant splicing and factor V deficiency.  

PubMed

Coagulation factor V (FV) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder. We investigated a patient with severe FV deficiency (FV:C < 3%) and moderate bleeding symptoms. Thrombin generation experiments showed residual FV expression in the patient's plasma, which was quantified as 0.7 ± 0.3% by a sensitive prothrombinase-based assay. F5 gene sequencing identified a novel missense mutation in exon 4 (c.578G>C, p.Cys193Ser), predicting the abolition of a conserved disulphide bridge, and an apparently synonymous variant in exon 8 (c.1281C>G). The observation that half of the patient's F5 mRNA lacked the last 18 nucleotides of exon 8 prompted us to re-evaluate the c.1281C>G variant for its possible effects on splicing. Bioinformatics sequence analysis predicted that this transversion would activate a cryptic donor splice site and abolish an exonic splicing enhancer. Characterization in a F5 minigene model confirmed that the c.1281C>G variant was responsible for the patient's splicing defect, which could be partially corrected by a mutation-specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. The aberrantly spliced F5 mRNA, whose stability was similar to that of the normal mRNA, encoded a putative FV mutant lacking amino acids 427-432. Expression in COS-1 cells indicated that the mutant protein is poorly secreted and not functional. In conclusion, the c.1281C>G mutation, which was predicted to be translationally silent and hence neutral, causes FV deficiency by impairing pre-mRNA splicing. This finding underscores the importance of cDNA analysis for the correct assessment of exonic mutations. PMID:25470420

Nuzzo, F; Bulato, C; Nielsen, B I; Lee, K; Wielders, S J; Simioni, P; Key, N S; Castoldi, E

2014-12-01

53

Xenopus as a model to study alternative splicing in vivo.  

PubMed

An increasing number of genes are being identified for which the corresponding mRNAs contain different combinations of the encoded exons. This highly regulated exon choice, or alternative splicing, is often tissue-specific and potentially could differentially affect cellular functions. Alternative splicing is therefore not only a means to increase the coding capacity of the genome, but also to regulate gene expression during differentiation or development. To both evaluate the importance for cellular functions and define the regulatory pathways of alternative splicing, it is necessary to progress from the in vitro or ex vivo experimental models actually used towards in vivo whole-animal studies. We present here the amphibian, Xenopus, as an experimental model highly amenable for such studies. The various experimental approaches that can be used with Xenopus oocytes and embryos to characterize regulatory sequence elements and factors are presented and the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches are discussed. Finally, the real possibilities for large-scale identification of mRNAs containing alternatively spliced exons, the tissue-specific patterns of exon usage and the way in which these patterns are modified by perturbing the relative amount of splicing factors are discussed. PMID:17155935

Méreau, Agnes; Le Sommer, Caroline; Lerivray, Hubert; Lesimple, Michelle; Hardy, Serge

2007-01-01

54

Autistic-like phenotypes in Cadps2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients  

PubMed Central

Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located within the autism susceptibility locus 1 on chromosome 7q. Here we show that Cadps2-knockout mice not only have impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor release but also show autistic-like cellular and behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, we found an aberrant alternatively spliced CADPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 in some autistic patients. Exon 3 was shown to encode the dynactin 1–binding domain and affect axonal CADPS2 protein distribution. Our results suggest that a disturbance in CADPS2-mediated neurotrophin release contributes to autism susceptibility. PMID:17380209

Sadakata, Tetsushi; Washida, Miwa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Shoji, Satoshi; Sato, Yumi; Ohkura, Takeshi; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Nakajima, Mizuho; Sekine, Yukiko; Tanaka, Mika; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Mori, Norio; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Furuichi, Teiichi

2007-01-01

55

A chloroplast retrograde signal regulates nuclear alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Light is a source of energy and also a regulator of plant physiological adaptations. We show here that light/dark conditions affect alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes preferentially encoding proteins involved in RNA processing. The effect requires functional chloroplasts and is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. Using photosynthetic electron transfer inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, we deduce that the reduced pool of plastoquinones initiates a chloroplast retrograde signaling that regulates nuclear alternative splicing and is necessary for proper plant responses to varying light conditions. PMID:24763593

Petrillo, Ezequiel; Godoy Herz, Micaela A; Fuchs, Armin; Reifer, Dominik; Fuller, John; Yanovsky, Marcelo J; Simpson, Craig; Brown, John W S; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2014-04-25

56

Transcriptome analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by SRSF10 reveals position-dependent splicing modulation  

PubMed Central

Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator. Here, we used RNA-seq coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Motif analysis revealed that SRSF10 binding to cassette exons was associated with exon inclusion, whereas the binding of SRSF10 within downstream constitutive exons was associated with exon exclusion. This positional effect was further demonstrated by the mutagenesis of potential SRSF10 binding motifs in two minigene constructs. Functionally, many of SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of stress and apoptosis. Consistent with this observation, cells depleted of SRSF10 expression were far more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis than control cells. Importantly, reconstituted SRSF10 in knockout cells recovered wild-type splicing patterns and considerably rescued the stress-related defects. Together, our results provide mechanistic insight into SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing events in vivo and demonstrate that SRSF10 plays a crucial role in cell survival under stress conditions. PMID:24442672

Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Wenwu; Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wei, Ning; Zong, Jie; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Dai; Manley, James L.; Wang, Hui; Feng, Ying

2014-01-01

57

Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3?-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

2012-01-01

58

Alternative splicing regulates targeting of malate dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3'-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

2012-06-01

59

Hypoxia-Induced Alternative Splicing in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptation to low oxygen by changing gene expression is vitally important for cell survival and tissue development. The sprouting of new blood vessels, initiated from endothelial cells, restores the oxygen supply of ischemic tissues. In contrast to the transcriptional response induced by hypoxia, which is mainly mediated by members of the HIF family, there are only few studies investigating alternative splicing events. Therefore, we performed an exon array for the genome-wide analysis of hypoxia-related changes of alternative splicing in endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal findings Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) for 48 h. Genome-wide transcript and exon expression levels were assessed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We found altered expression of 294 genes after hypoxia treatment. Upregulated genes are highly enriched in glucose metabolism and angiogenesis related processes, whereas downregulated genes are mainly connected to cell cycle and DNA repair. Thus, gene expression patterns recapitulate known adaptations to low oxygen supply. Alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are shown for nine genes: six which are implicated in angiogenesis-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling (cask, itsn1, larp6, sptan1, tpm1 and robo1); one, which is involved in the synthesis of membrane-anchors (pign) and two universal regulators of gene expression (cugbp1 and max). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, this study investigates changes in splicing in the physiological response to hypoxia on a genome-wide scale. Nine alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are reported, considerably expanding the information on splicing changes due to low oxygen supply. Therefore, this study provides further knowledge on hypoxia induced gene expression changes and presents new starting points to study the hypoxia adaptation of endothelial cells. PMID:22876330

Weigand, Julia E.; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Gellert, Pascal; Dimmeler, Stefanie

2012-01-01

60

The cardiac troponin T alternative exon contains a novel purine-rich positive splicing element.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a novel positive-acting splicing element within the developmentally regulated alternative exon (exon 5) of the cardiac troponin T (cTNT) gene. The exon splicing element (ESE) is internal to the exon portions of the splice sites and is required for splicing to the 3' splice site but not the 5' splice site flanking the exon. Sequence comparisons between cTNT exon 5 and other exons that contain regions required for splicing reveal a common purine-rich motif. Sequence within cTNT exon 5 or a synthetic purine-rich motif facilitates splicing of heterologous alternative and constitutive splice sites in vivo. Interestingly, the ESE is not required for the preferential inclusion of cTNT exon 5 observed in primary skeletal muscle cultures. Our results strongly suggest that the purine-rich ESE serves as a general splicing element that is recognized by the constitutive splicing machinery. Images PMID:8388541

Xu, R; Teng, J; Cooper, T A

1993-01-01

61

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell  

E-print Network

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Mathieu expression. Here, we identify an evolutionarily conserved embryonic stem cell (ESC)- specific AS event of the regulatory processes responsible for maintenance of the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs

Zandstra, Peter W.

62

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants  

E-print Network

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants Bing-Bing Wang* and Volker in mamma- lian systems but much less in plants. Here we report AS events deduced from EST cDNA analysis in two model plants: Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, 4,707 (21.8%) of the genes with EST c

Brendel, Volker

63

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia Amar Kar, MS,* David Kuo, BS with frontotemporal lobe dementia. These mutations affect either biochemical/biophysical pro- perties or the delicate of genetics and molecular pathogenesis of tauopathies with the focus on fronto- temporal lobe dementia. We

Wu, Jane Y.

64

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

65

Aberrant splicing of HTT generates the pathogenic exon 1 protein in Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, late-onset, inherited neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with personality changes, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene that translates to a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The formation of HTT fragments has been implicated as an essential step in the molecular pathogenesis of HD and several proteases that cleave HTT have been identified. However, the importance of smaller N-terminal fragments has been highlighted by their presence in HD postmortem brains and by the fact that nuclear inclusions are only detected by antibodies to the N terminus of HTT. Despite an intense research effort, the precise length of these fragments and the mechanism by which they are generated remains unknown. Here we show that CAG repeat length–dependent aberrant splicing of exon 1 HTT results in a short polyadenylated mRNA that is translated into an exon 1 HTT protein. Given that mutant exon 1 HTT proteins have consistently been shown to be highly pathogenic in HD mouse models, the aberrant splicing of HTT mRNA provides a mechanistic basis for the molecular pathogenesis of HD. RNA-targeted therapeutic strategies designed to lower the levels of HTT are under development. Many of these approaches would not prevent the production of exon 1 HTT and should be reviewed in light of our findings. PMID:23341618

Sathasivam, Kirupa; Neueder, Andreas; Gipson, Theresa A.; Landles, Christian; Benjamin, Agnesska C.; Bondulich, Marie K.; Smith, Donna L.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Howland, David; Detloff, Peter J.; Housman, David E.; Bates, Gillian P.

2013-01-01

66

Alternative Splicing of TAF6: Downstream Transcriptome Impacts and Upstream RNA Splice Control Elements  

PubMed Central

The TAF6? pathway of apoptosis can dictate life versus death decisions independently of the status of p53 tumor suppressor. TAF6? is an inducible pro-apoptotic subunit of the general RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription factor TFIID. Alternative splice site choice of TAF6? has been shown to be a pivotal event in triggering death via the TAF6? pathway, yet nothing is currently known about the mechanisms that promote TAF6? splicing. Furthermore the transcriptome impact of the gain of function of TAF6? versus the loss of function of the major TAF6? splice form remains undefined. Here we employ comparative microarray analysis to show that TAF6? drives a transcriptome profile distinct from that resulting from depletion of TAF6?. To define the cis-acting RNA elements responsible for TAF6? alternative splicing we performed a mutational analysis of a TAF6 minigene system. The data point to several new RNA elements that can modulate TAF6? and also reveal a role for RNA secondary structure in the selection of TAF6?. PMID:25025302

Kamtchueng, Catherine; Stébenne, Marie-Éve; Delannoy, Aurélie; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Léger, Hélène; Benecke, Arndt G.; Bell, Brendan

2014-01-01

67

A Novel CDX2 Isoform Regulates Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Gene expression is a dynamic and coordinated process coupling transcription with pre-mRNA processing. This regulation enables tissue-specific transcription factors to induce expression of specific transcripts that are subsequently amplified by alternative splicing allowing for increased proteome complexity and functional diversity. The intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 regulates development and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium by inducing expression of genes characteristic of the mature enterocyte phenotype. Here, sequence analysis of CDX2 mRNA from colonic mucosa-derived tissues revealed an alternatively spliced transcript (CDX2/AS) that encodes a protein with a truncated homeodomain and a novel carboxy-terminal domain enriched in serine and arginine residues (RS domain). CDX2 and CDX2/AS exhibited distinct nuclear expression patterns with minimal areas of co-localization. CDX2/AS did not activate the CDX2-dependent promoter of guanylyl cyclase C nor inhibit transcriptional activity of CDX2. Unlike CDX2, CDX2/AS co-localized with the putative splicing factors ASF/SF2 and SC35. CDX2/AS altered splicing patterns of CD44v5 and Tra2-?1 minigenes in Lovo colon cancer cells independent of CDX2 expression. These data demonstrate unique dual functions of the CDX2 gene enabling it to regulate gene expression through both transcription (CDX2) and pre-mRNA processing (CDX2/AS). PMID:25101906

Witek, Matthew E.; Snook, Adam E.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Xiang, Bo; Magee, Michael; Waldman, Scott A.

2014-01-01

68

An alternative derivation of Einstein's Doppler shift and aberration formulae  

E-print Network

I propose an alternative, purely kinematical, derivation of Einstein's Doppler formula. It is valid for periodic signals of any shape that propagate with the velocity of light. The formula is asymptotic in a parameter proportional to the relative variation of the distance source-receiver during one period. As a by-product, I also derive an alternative proof of Einstein's aberration formulae.

Jean Reignier

2009-02-06

69

Alteration of conserved alternative splicing in AMELX causes enamel defects.  

PubMed

Tooth enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Enamel crystal formation and elongation should be well controlled to achieve an exceptional hardness and a compact microstructure. Enamel matrix calcification occurs with several matrix proteins, such as amelogenin, enamelin, and ameloblastin. Among them, amelogenin is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, and multiple isoforms resulting from extensive but well-conserved alternative splicing and postsecretional processing have been identified. In this report, we recruited a family with a unique enamel defect and identified a silent mutation in exon 4 of the AMELX gene. We show that the mutation caused the inclusion of exon 4, which is almost always skipped, in the mRNA transcript. We further show, by generating and characterizing a transgenic animal model, that the alteration of the ratio and quantity of the developmentally conserved alternative splicing repertoire of AMELX caused defects in enamel matrix mineralization. PMID:25117480

Cho, E S; Kim, K-J; Lee, K-E; Lee, E-J; Yun, C Y; Lee, M-J; Shin, T J; Hyun, H-K; Kim, Y-J; Lee, S-H; Jung, H-S; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

2014-10-01

70

Alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana SR and SR-related protein-coding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several recent studies indicate that alternative splicing in Arabidopsis and other plants is a common mechanism for post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression. However, few analyses have been done so far to elucidate the functional relevance of alternative splicing in higher plants. Representing a frequent and universal subtle alternative splicing event among eukaryotes, alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors contributes to

Stefanie Schindler; Karol Szafranski; Michael Hiller; Gul Shad Ali; Saiprasad G Palusa; Rolf Backofen; Matthias Platzer; Anireddy SN Reddy

2008-01-01

71

Data Structures for Genome Annotation, Alternative Splicing, and Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a clean basis for studying alternative splicing and gene regulation in life science projects, a powerful data\\u000a modeling and also a strict validation procedure for assigning levels of reliability to given gene models is essential. One\\u000a common problem of public genome databases are insufficiently organized and linked description data, which make it difficult\\u000a to study relations of the

Sven Mielordt; Ivo Grosse; Jürgen Kleffe

2006-01-01

72

Complexity of the alternative splicing landscape in plants.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) from multiexon genes allows organisms to increase their coding potential and regulate gene expression through multiple mechanisms. Recent transcriptome-wide analysis of AS using RNA sequencing has revealed that AS is highly pervasive in plants. Pre-mRNAs from over 60% of intron-containing genes undergo AS to produce a vast repertoire of mRNA isoforms. The functions of most splice variants are unknown. However, emerging evidence indicates that splice variants increase the functional diversity of proteins. Furthermore, AS is coupled to transcript stability and translation through nonsense-mediated decay and microRNA-mediated gene regulation. Widespread changes in AS in response to developmental cues and stresses suggest a role for regulated splicing in plant development and stress responses. Here, we review recent progress in uncovering the extent and complexity of the AS landscape in plants, its regulation, and the roles of AS in gene regulation. The prevalence of AS in plants has raised many new questions that require additional studies. New tools based on recent technological advances are allowing genome-wide analysis of RNA elements in transcripts and of chromatin modifications that regulate AS. Application of these tools in plants will provide significant new insights into AS regulation and crosstalk between AS and other layers of gene regulation. PMID:24179125

Reddy, Anireddy S N; Marquez, Yamile; Kalyna, Maria; Barta, Andrea

2013-10-01

73

Gene Array Analyzer: alternative usage of gene arrays to study alternative splicing events  

PubMed Central

Exon arrays are regularly used to analyze differential splicing events. GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Arrays (gene arrays) manufactured by Affymetrix, Inc. are primarily used to determine expression levels of transcripts, although their basic design is rather similar to GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (exon arrays). Here, we show that the newly developed Gene Array Analyzer (GAA), which evolved from our previously published Exon Array Analyzer (EAA), enables economic and user-friendly analysis of alternative splicing events using gene arrays. To demonstrate the applicability of GAA, we profiled alternative splicing events during embryonic heart development. In addition, we found that numerous developmental splicing events are also activated under pathological conditions. We reason that the usage of GAA considerably expands the analysis of gene expression based on gene arrays and supplies an additional level of information without further costs and with only little effort. PMID:22123740

Jenniches, Katharina; De Gaspari, Piera; John, David; grosse Kreymborg, Karsten; Braun, Thomas; Uchida, Shizuka

2012-01-01

74

A general definition and nomenclature for alternative splicing events.  

PubMed

Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of the transcriptome present in eukaryotic cells is one of the most challenging tasks in the postgenomic era. In this regard, alternative splicing (AS) is a key phenomenon contributing to the production of different mature transcripts from the same primary RNA sequence. As a plethora of different transcript forms is available in databases, a first step to uncover the biology that drives AS is to identify the different types of reflected splicing variation. In this work, we present a general definition of the AS event along with a notation system that involves the relative positions of the splice sites. This nomenclature univocally and dynamically assigns a specific "AS code" to every possible pattern of splicing variation. On the basis of this definition and the corresponding codes, we have developed a computational tool (AStalavista) that automatically characterizes the complete landscape of AS events in a given transcript annotation of a genome, thus providing a platform to investigate the transcriptome diversity across genes, chromosomes, and species. Our analysis reveals that a substantial part--in human more than a quarter-of the observed splicing variations are ignored in common classification pipelines. We have used AStalavista to investigate and to compare the AS landscape of different reference annotation sets in human and in other metazoan species and found that proportions of AS events change substantially depending on the annotation protocol, species-specific attributes, and coding constraints acting on the transcripts. The AStalavista system therefore provides a general framework to conduct specific studies investigating the occurrence, impact, and regulation of AS. PMID:18688268

Sammeth, Michael; Foissac, Sylvain; Guigó, Roderic

2008-01-01

75

Novel alternative splicing isoform biomarkers identification from high-throughput plasma proteomics profiling of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In the biopharmaceutical industry, biomarkers define molecular taxonomies of patients and diseases and serve as surrogate endpoints in early-phase drug trials. Molecular biomarkers can be much more sensitive than traditional lab tests. Discriminating disease biomarkers by traditional method such as DNA microarray has proved challenging. Alternative splicing isoform represents a new class of diagnostic biomarkers. Recent scientific evidence is demonstrating that the differentiation and quantification of individual alternative splicing isoforms could improve insights into disease diagnosis and management. Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing isoforms are essential to the study of molecular mechanisms and early detection of complex diseases such as breast cancer. However, there are limitations with traditional methods used for alternative splicing isoform determination such as transcriptome-level, low level of coverage and poor focus on alternative splicing. Results Therefore, we presented a peptidomics approach to searching novel alternative splicing isoforms in clinical proteomics. Our results showed that the approach has significant potential in enabling discovery of new types of high-quality alternative splicing isoform biomarkers. Conclusions We developed a peptidomics approach for the proteomics community to analyze, identify, and characterize alternative splicing isoforms from MS-based proteomics experiments with more coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. The approach can help generate novel hypotheses on molecular risk factors and molecular mechanisms of cancer in early stage, leading to identification of potentially highly specific alternative splicing isoform biomarkers for early detection of cancer. PMID:24565027

2013-01-01

76

The cardiotonic steroid digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion of the splicing factors SRSF3 and TRA2B  

E-print Network

Modulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a potential approach to therapeutic targeting for a variety of human diseases. We investigated the mechanism by which digitoxin, a member of the cardiotonic steroid class of ...

Anderson, Erik S.

77

Nuclear localization of MBNL1: splicing-mediated autoregulation and repression of repeat-derived aberrant proteins.  

PubMed

In some neurological diseases caused by repeat expansions such as myotonic dystrophy, the RNA-binding protein muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) accumulates in intranuclear inclusions containing mutant repeat RNA. The interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA in the nucleus is a key event leading to loss of MBNL function, yet the details of this effect have been elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism and significance of MBNL1 nuclear localization. We found that MBNL1 contains two classes of nuclear localization signal (NLS), a classical bipartite NLS and a novel conformational NLS. Alternative splicing of exon 7 acts as a switch between these NLS types and couples MBNL1 activity and intracellular localization. Depending on its nuclear localization, MBNL1 promoted nuclear accumulation of mutant RNA containing a CUG or CAG repeat, some of which produced proteins containing homopolymeric tracts such as polyglutamine. Furthermore, MBNL1 repressed the expression of these homopolymeric proteins including those presumably produced through repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. These results suggest that nuclear retention of expanded RNA reflects a novel role of MBNL proteins in repressing aberrant protein expression and may provide pathological and therapeutic implications for a wide range of repeat expansion diseases associated with nuclear RNA retention and/or RAN translation. PMID:25274774

Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Kurosawa, Masaru; Oma, Yoko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Ishiura, Shoichi; Nukina, Nobuyuki

2015-02-01

78

Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cell biology  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation and leads to protein diversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalent in metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern is dynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types, including embryonic stem cells. These observations suggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cell biology. Since embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to all types of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of future cell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, most of the studies focused on the expression of a core set of transcription factors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem cell differentiation was not clear. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed the profiling of dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that are responsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and provided novel insights in a number of studies. In this review, we discuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells. An emerging picture from these findings is that AS is integrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks and together they control pluripotency maintenance and differentiation of stem cells.

Chen, Kenian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiaqian

2015-01-01

79

Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cell biology.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation and leads to protein diversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalent in metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern is dynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types, including embryonic stem cells. These observations suggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cell biology. Since embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to all types of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of future cell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, most of the studies focused on the expression of a core set of transcription factors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem cell differentiation was not clear. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed the profiling of dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that are responsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and provided novel insights in a number of studies. In this review, we discuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells. An emerging picture from these findings is that AS is integrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks and together they control pluripotency maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25621101

Chen, Kenian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiaqian

2015-01-26

80

Alternative splicing and the progesterone receptor in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Progesterone receptor status is a marker for hormone responsiveness and disease prognosis in breast cancer. Progesterone receptor negative tumours have generally been shown to have a poorer prognosis than progesterone receptor positive tumours. The observed loss of progesterone receptor could be through a range of mechanisms, including the generation of alternatively spliced progesterone receptor variants that are not detectable by current screening methods. Many progesterone receptor mRNA variants have been described with deletions of various whole, multiple or partial exons that encode differing protein functional domains. These variants may alter the progestin responsiveness of a tissue and contribute to the abnormal growth associated with breast cancer. Absence of specific functional domains from these spliced variants may also make them undetectable or indistinguishable from full length progesterone receptor by conventional antibodies. A comprehensive investigation into the expression profile and activity of progesterone receptor spliced variants in breast cancer is required to advance our understanding of tumour hormone receptor status. This, in turn, may aid the development of new biomarkers of disease prognosis and improve adjuvant treatment decisions. PMID:18557990

Cork, David MW; Lennard, Thomas WJ; Tyson-Capper, Alison J

2008-01-01

81

SASD: the Synthetic Alternative Splicing Database for identifying novel isoform from proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing is an important and widespread mechanism for generating protein diversity and regulating protein expression. High-throughput identification and analysis of alternative splicing in the protein level has more advantages than in the mRNA level. The combination of alternative splicing database and tandem mass spectrometry provides a powerful technique for identification, analysis and characterization of potential novel alternative splicing protein isoforms from proteomics. Therefore, based on the peptidomic database of human protein isoforms for proteomics experiments, our objective is to design a new alternative splicing database to 1) provide more coverage of genes, transcripts and alternative splicing, 2) exclusively focus on the alternative splicing, and 3) perform context-specific alternative splicing analysis. Results We used a three-step pipeline to create a synthetic alternative splicing database (SASD) to identify novel alternative splicing isoforms and interpret them at the context of pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity or custom gene set with maximum coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. First, we extracted information on gene structures of all genes in the Ensembl Genes 71 database and incorporated the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database. Then, we compiled artificial splicing transcripts. Lastly, we translated the artificial transcripts into alternative splicing peptides. The SASD is a comprehensive database containing 56,630 genes (Ensembl gene IDs), 95,260 transcripts (Ensembl transcript IDs), and 11,919,779 Alternative Splicing peptides, and also covering about 1,956 pathways, 6,704 diseases, 5,615 drugs, and 52 organs. The database has a web-based user interface that allows users to search, display and download a single gene/transcript/protein, custom gene set, pathway, disease, drug, organ related alternative splicing. Moreover, the quality of the database was validated with comparison to other known databases and two case studies: 1) in liver cancer and 2) in breast cancer. Conclusions The SASD provides the scientific community with an efficient means to identify, analyze, and characterize novel Exon Skipping and Intron Retention protein isoforms from mass spectrometry and interpret them at the context of pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity or custom gene set with maximum coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. PMID:24267658

2013-01-01

82

The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre–mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity of metazoans. Numerous splicing factors have been identified. However, the in vivo functions of many splicing factors remain to be understood. In vivo studies are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of RNA splicing and the biology of numerous RNA splicing-related diseases. We previously isolated a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant defective in an essential gene from a genetic screen for suppressors of the rubberband Unc phenotype of unc-93(e1500) animals. This mutant contains missense mutations in two adjacent codons of the C. elegans microfibrillar-associated protein 1 gene mfap-1. mfap-1(n4564 n5214) suppresses the Unc phenotypes of different rubberband Unc mutants in a pattern similar to that of mutations in the splicing factor genes uaf-1 (the C. elegans U2AF large subunit gene) and sfa-1 (the C. elegans SF1/BBP gene). We used the endogenous gene tos-1 as a reporter for splicing and detected increased intron 1 retention and exon 3 skipping of tos-1 transcripts in mfap-1(n4564 n5214) animals. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we isolated splicing factors as potential MFAP-1 interactors. Our studies indicate that C. elegans mfap-1 encodes a splicing factor that can affect alternative splicing. PMID:22829783

Ma, Long; Gao, Xiaoyang; Luo, Jintao; Huang, Liange; Teng, Yanling; Horvitz, H. Robert

2012-01-01

83

Female-specific insect lethality engineered using alternative splicing.  

PubMed

The Sterile Insect Technique is a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of pest control involving mass release of sterilized insects that reduce the wild population through infertile matings. Insects carrying a female-specific autocidal genetic system offer an attractive alternative to conventional sterilization methods while also eliminating females from the release population. We exploited sex-specific alternative splicing in insects to engineer female-specific autocidal genetic systems in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. These rely on the insertion of cassette exons from the C. capitata transformer gene into a heterologous tetracycline-repressible transactivator such that the transactivator transcript is disrupted in male splice variants but not in the female-specific one. As the key components of these systems function across a broad phylogenetic range, this strategy addresses the paucity of sex-specific expression systems (e.g., early-acting, female-specific promoters) in insects other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach may have wide applicability for regulating gene expression in other organisms, particularly for combinatorial control with appropriate promoters. PMID:17322873

Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng; Jin, Li; Condon, George C; Morrison, Neil I; Dafa'alla, Tarig H; Alphey, Luke

2007-03-01

84

Alternative splicing as a novel of means of regulating the expression of therapeutic genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the potential of alternative splicing as a means of targeting the expression of therapeutic genes to tumor cells in vivo, a series of episomal plasmid-based “splice-activated gene expression” (pSAGE) vectors was generated, which contain minigene cassettes composed of various combinations of the three alternatively spliced exons present in the differentially expressed adhesion protein CD44R1 (v8, v9,

Gregory M Hayes; Carmine Carpenito; Peter D Davis; Shona T Dougherty; Julie F Dirks; Graeme J Dougherty

2002-01-01

85

Alternative splicing of voltage-gated calcium channels: from molecular biology to disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the diversification of voltage-gated calcium channel function center on the rapidly emerging role of\\u000a the posttranscriptional mechanism of alternative splicing. A number of diseases have been found to relate to the dysfunction\\u000a of alternatively spliced exons arising from either genetic mutations or alterations in the splicing machinery. Mutations in\\u000a some genes associated with congenital diseases have been

Ping Liao; Heng Yu Zhang; Tuck Wah Soong

2009-01-01

86

Genome-wide analysis of light-regulated alternative splicing mediated by photoreceptors in Physcomitrella patens  

PubMed Central

Background Light is one of the most important factors regulating plant growth and development. Light-sensing photoreceptors tightly regulate gene expression to control photomorphogenic responses. Although many levels of gene expression are modulated by photoreceptors, regulation at the mRNA splicing step remains unclear. Results We performed high-throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze light-responsive changes in alternative splicing in the moss Physcomitrella patens, and found that a large number of alternative splicing events were induced by light in the moss protonema. Light-responsive intron retention preferentially occurred in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and translation. Many of the alternatively spliced transcripts were expressed from genes with a function relating to splicing or light signaling, suggesting a potential impact on pre-mRNA splicing and photomorphogenic gene regulation in response to light. Moreover, most light-regulated intron retention was induced immediately upon light exposure, while motif analysis identified a repetitive GAA motif that may function as an exonic regulatory cis element in light-mediated alternative splicing. Further analysis in gene-disrupted mutants was consistent with a function for multiple red-light photoreceptors in the upstream regulation of light-responsive alternative splicing. Conclusions Our results indicate that intensive alternative splicing occurs in non-vascular plants and that, during photomorphogenesis, light regulates alternative splicing with transcript selectivity. We further suggest that alternative splicing is rapidly fine-tuned by light to modulate gene expression and reorganize metabolic processes, and that pre-mRNA cis elements are involved in photoreceptor-mediated splicing regulation. PMID:24398233

2014-01-01

87

AVISPA: a web tool for the prediction and analysis of alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome complexity and its relation to numerous diseases underpins the need to predict in silico splice variants and the regulatory elements that affect them. Building upon our recently described splicing code, we developed AVISPA, a Galaxy-based web tool for splicing prediction and analysis. Given an exon and its proximal sequence, the tool predicts whether the exon is alternatively spliced, displays tissue-dependent splicing patterns, and whether it has associated regulatory elements. We assess AVISPA's accuracy on an independent dataset of tissue-dependent exons, and illustrate how the tool can be applied to analyze a gene of interest. AVISPA is available at http://avispa.biociphers.org. PMID:24156756

2013-01-01

88

An EMT–Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA–Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT–dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell–cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT–associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT–associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT–associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT–associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT–dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT–associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT–associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression. PMID:21876675

Flytzanis, Nicholas C.; Balsamo, Michele; Condeelis, John S.; Oktay, Maja H.; Burge, Christopher B.; Gertler, Frank B.

2011-01-01

89

FULL-GENOME ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SPLICING IN MOUSE LIVER AFTER HEPATOTOXICANT EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative splicing plays a role in determining gene function and protein diversity. We have employed whole genome exon profiling using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays to understand the significance of alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale in response to multiple toxic...

90

Alternative Splicing of Agrin Alters Its Binding to Heparin, Dystroglycan, and the Putative Agrin Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that induces aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular synapse. This aggregating activity is modulated by alternative splicing. Here, we compared binding of agrin isoforms to heparin, ?-dystroglycan, and cultured myotubes. We find that the alternatively spliced 4 amino acid insert (KSRK) is required for heparin binding. The binding affinity of agrin isoforms

Matthias Gesemann; Valeria Cavalli; Alain J Denzer; Andrea Brancaccio; Beat Schumacher; Markus A Ruegg

1996-01-01

91

Alternative splicing and proteome diversity in plants: the tip of the iceberg has just emerged  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing has recently emerged as one of the most significant generators of functional complexity in several relatively well-studied animal genomes, but little is known about the extent of this phenomenon in higher plants. However, recent computational and experimental studies discussed here suggest that alternative splicing probably plays a far more significant role in the generation of proteome diversity in

Kemal Kazan

2003-01-01

92

Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer.  

PubMed

Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4? and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4? have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4? (missing 168-245 nt of exon1), Fbx4? (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4?, Fbx4? and Fbx4? could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4? that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4?, Fbx4?, and Fbx4? locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant cyclin D1 expression in human cancers. PMID:24704453

Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

2014-04-25

93

Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)  

PubMed Central

Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery. PMID:23474544

Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

2013-01-01

94

Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor Is Not Sufficient for Embryonic Development  

PubMed Central

Tissue factor (TF) triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF) and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF). The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI) mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the ?-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival. PMID:24879059

Sluka, Susanna H. M.; Akhmedov, Alexander; Vogel, Johannes; Unruh, Dusten; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Ruf, Wolfram; Tanner, Felix C.

2014-01-01

95

Alternative Splicing of MEF2C pre-mRNA Controls Its Activity in Normal Myogenesis and Promotes Tumorigenicity in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Many cellular disruptions contribute to the progression of this pediatric cancer, including aberrant alternative splicing. The MEF2 family of transcription factors regulates many developmental programs, including myogenesis. MEF2 gene transcripts are subject to alternate splicing to generate protein isoforms with divergent functions. We found that MEF2C?1 was the ubiquitously expressed isoform that exhibited no myogenic activity and that MEF2C?2, the muscle-specific MEF2C isoform, was required for efficient differentiation. We showed that exon ? in MEF2C was aberrantly alternatively spliced in RMS cells, with the ratio of ?2/?1 highly down-regulated in RMS cells compared with normal myoblasts. Compared with MEF2C?2, MEF2C?1 interacted more strongly with and recruited HDAC5 to myogenic gene promoters to repress muscle-specific genes. Overexpression of the MEF2C?2 isoform in RMS cells increased myogenic activity and promoted differentiation in RMS cells. We also identified a serine protein kinase, SRPK3, that was down-regulated in RMS cells and found that expression of SRPK3 promoted the splicing of the MEF2C?2 isoform and induced differentiation. Restoration of either MEF2C?2 or SPRK3 inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of RMS cells. Together, our findings indicate that the alternative splicing of MEF2C plays an important role in normal myogenesis and RMS development. An improved understanding of alternative splicing events in RMS cells will potentially reveal novel therapeutic targets for RMS treatment. PMID:25404735

Zhang, Meiling; Zhu, Bo; Davie, Judith

2015-01-01

96

Characterization, phylogeny, alternative splicing and expression of Sox30 gene  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the Sox gene family isolated from both vertebrates and invertebrates have been proved to participate in a wide variety of developmental processes, including sex determination and differentiation. Among these members, Sox30 had been considered to exist only in mammals since its discovery, and its exact function remains unclear. Results Sox30 cDNA was cloned from the Nile tilapia by RT-PCR and RACE. Screening of available genome and EST databases and phylogenetic analysis showed that Sox30 also exists in non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates, which was further supported by synteny analyses. Tissue expression in human, mouse and tilapia suggested that Sox30 was probably a gonad-specific gene, which was also supported by the fact that Sox30 EST sequences were obtained from gonads of the animal species. In addition, four alternatively spliced isoforms were isolated from tilapia gonad. Their temporal and spatial expression patterns during normal and sex reversed gonadal development were investigated by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Our data suggest that expressions of Sox30 isoforms are related to stage and phenotypic-sex, observed in the germ cells of male gonad and in somatic cells of the female gonad. Conclusions Sox30 is not a gene only existed in mammals, but exists widely throughout the animal kingdom as supported by our bioinformatic, phylogenetic and syntenic analyses. It is very likely that Sox30 is expressed exclusively in gonads. Expression analyses revealed that Sox30 may be involved in female and male gonadal development at different stages by alternative splicing. PMID:21143990

2010-01-01

97

Integrative analysis of tissue-specific methylation and alternative splicing identifies conserved transcription factor binding motifs  

PubMed Central

The exact role of intragenic DNA methylation in regulating tissue-specific gene regulation is unclear. Recently, the DNA-binding protein CTCF has been shown to participate in the regulation of alternative splicing in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. To globally evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tissue-specific alternative splicing, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse retina and brain. In protein-coding genes, tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) were preferentially located in exons and introns. Gene ontology and evolutionary conservation analysis suggest that these T-DMRs are likely to be biologically relevant. More than 14% of alternatively spliced genes were associated with a T-DMR. T-DMR-associated genes were enriched for developmental genes, suggesting that a specific set of alternatively spliced genes may be regulated through DNA methylation. Novel DNA sequences motifs overrepresented in T-DMRs were identified as being associated with positive and/or negative regulation of alternative splicing in a position-dependent context. The majority of these evolutionarily conserved motifs contain a CpG dinucleotide. Some transcription factors, which recognize these motifs, are known to be involved in splicing. Our results suggest that DNA methylation-dependent alternative splicing is widespread and lay the foundation for further mechanistic studies of the role of DNA methylation in tissue-specific splicing regulation. PMID:23887936

Wan, Jun; Oliver, Verity F.; Zhu, Heng; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang; Merbs, Shannath L.

2013-01-01

98

Alternative splicing of the FMR1 gene in human fetal brain neurons  

SciTech Connect

The alternative splicing expression of the FMR1 gene was reported in several human and mouse tissues. Five regions of FMR1 gene can be alternatively spliced, but the combination of them has not been investigated fully. We reported here the analysis of alternative splicing pattern of the FMR1 gene in cultured fetal human neurons, using a RT-PCR and cloning strategy. Eleven splicing types were cloned and different isoforms were not equally represented. The dominant isoform represents nearly 40%, and the other isoforms were relatively rare. One isoform has a different carboxyl-terminus. Most of the alternative spliced regions appear hydrophilic; thus, they may locate on the surface of the FMR1 protein. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Tao Huang; Yan Shen; Xue-bin Qin; Guan-Yun Wu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)] [and others] [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); and others

1996-08-09

99

Increasing the Coding Potential of Genomes Through Alternative Splicing: The Case of PARK2 Gene.  

PubMed

The completion of the Human Genome Project aroused renewed interest in alternative splicing, an efficient and widespread mechanism that generates multiple protein isoforms from individual genes. Although our knowledge about alternative splicing is growing exponentially, its real impact on cellular life is still to be clarified. Connecting all splicing features (genes, splice transcripts, isoforms, and relative functions) may be useful to resolve this tangle. Herein, we will start from the case of a single gene, Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), one of the largest in our genome. This gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism and it has been recently linked to cancer, leprosy, autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification and protein diversity in tissues and cells. This review will provide an update of all human PARK2 alternative splice transcripts and isoforms presently known, and correlate them to those in rat and mouse, two common animal models for studying human disease genes. Alternative splicing relies upon a complex process that could be easily altered by both cis and trans-acting mutations. Although the contribution of PARK2 splicing in human disease remains to be fully explored, some evidences show disruption of this versatile form of genetic regulation may have pathological consequences. PMID:24955028

La Cognata, Valentina; Iemmolo, Rosario; D'Agata, Velia; Scuderi, Soraya; Drago, Filippo; Zappia, Mario; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

2014-06-01

100

Increasing the Coding Potential of Genomes Through Alternative Splicing: The Case of PARK2 Gene  

PubMed Central

The completion of the Human Genome Project aroused renewed interest in alternative splicing, an efficient and widespread mechanism that generates multiple protein isoforms from individual genes. Although our knowledge about alternative splicing is growing exponentially, its real impact on cellular life is still to be clarified. Connecting all splicing features (genes, splice transcripts, isoforms, and relative functions) may be useful to resolve this tangle. Herein, we will start from the case of a single gene, Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), one of the largest in our genome. This gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism and it has been recently linked to cancer, leprosy, autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification and protein diversity in tissues and cells. This review will provide an update of all human PARK2 alternative splice transcripts and isoforms presently known, and correlate them to those in rat and mouse, two common animal models for studying human disease genes. Alternative splicing relies upon a complex process that could be easily altered by both cis and trans-acting mutations. Although the contribution of PARK2 splicing in human disease remains to be fully explored, some evidences show disruption of this versatile form of genetic regulation may have pathological consequences. PMID:24955028

Cognata, Valentina La; Iemmolo, Rosario; D’Agata, Velia; Scuderi, Soraya; Drago, Filippo; Zappia, Mario; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

101

Alternative splicing of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor pre-mRNA: cloning and characterization of two alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycoprotein hormone receptors contain a large extracellular domain that\\u000a is encoded by multiple exons, facilitating the possibility of expressing\\u000a alternatively spliced transcripts. We have cloned two new splice variants\\u000a of the rat follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor gene: FSH-R1 and\\u000a FSH-R2. The splice variant FSH-R1 differs from the full-length FSH\\u000a receptor mRNA by the inclusion of a small extra exon between

R. Kraaij; M. Verhoef-Post; J. A. Grootegoed; A. P. N. Themmen

1998-01-01

102

Identification and characterization of alternative splicing in parasitic nematode transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) of mRNA is a vital mechanism for enhancing genomic complexity in eukaryotes. Spliced isoforms of the same gene can have diverse molecular and biological functions and are often differentially expressed across various tissues, times, and conditions. Thus, AS has important implications in the study of parasitic nematodes with complex life cycles. Transcriptomic datasets are available from many species, but data must be revisited with splice-aware assembly protocols to facilitate the study of AS in helminthes. Methods We sequenced cDNA from the model worm Caenorhabditis elegans using 454/Roche technology for use as an experimental dataset. Reads were assembled with Newbler software, invoking the cDNA option. Several combinations of parameters were tested and assembled transcripts were verified by comparison with previously reported C. elegans genes and transcript isoforms and with Illumina RNAseq data. Results Thoughtful adjustment of program parameters increased the percentage of assembled transcripts that matched known C. elegans sequences, decreased mis-assembly rates (i.e., cis- and trans-chimeras), and improved the coverage of the geneset. The optimized protocol was used to update de novo transcriptome assemblies from nine parasitic nematode species, including important pathogens of humans and domestic animals. Our assemblies indicated AS rates in the range of 20-30%, typically with 2-3 transcripts per AS locus, depending on the species. Transcript isoforms from the nine species were translated and searched for similarity to known proteins and functional domains. Some 21 InterPro domains, including several involved in nucleotide and chromatin binding, were statistically correlated with AS genetic loci. In most cases, the Roche/454 data explored in this study are the only sequences available from the species in question; however, the recently published genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus provided an additional opportunity to validate our results. Conclusions Our optimized assembly parameters facilitated the first survey of AS among parasitic nematodes. The nine transcriptome assemblies, their protein translations, and basic annotations are available from Nematode.net as a resource for the research community. These should be useful for studies of specific genes and gene families of interest as well as for curating draft genome assemblies as they become available. PMID:24690220

2014-01-01

103

Characterization of porcine TAP genes: alternative splicing of TAP1.  

PubMed

The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a heterodimer composed of TAP1 and TAP2 subunits that belong to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. TAP translocates small peptides (usually 8- to 12-amino-acid-long) from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum for subsequent loading onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The translocated peptides are required for the stable cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules. Virus-encoded proteins, which inhibit TAP activity, include ICP47 from herpes simplex virus and US6 from human cytomegalovirus. We have previously shown that ICP47 downregulated porcine MHC class I [swine leukocyte Ag class I (SLA I)] cell-surface expression in the pig epithelial cell line PK(15). Here we show that SLA I cell-surface expression in the pig epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 is relatively unaffected by expression of ICP47. Anticipating that this might be due to differences in the primary structure of TAP1 or TAP2 expressed by these two cell lines, cDNAs from PK(15) and LLC-PK1 encoding the complete open reading frames of porcine TAP1 and TAP2 were cloned and sequenced. Porcine TAP1 and TAP2 exhibited 80% amino acid identity with their human orthologs. Two splice variants of TAP1 were found. In LLC-PK1 cells, an alternatively spliced TAP1 transcript was detected, which was predicted to encode a protein with nine fewer amino acids. While the deleted amino acids may be in close proximity to the putative peptide/ICP47-binding site, we were unable to demonstrate that this imparted an apparent resistance to the effects of ICP47 on SLA I surface expression. PMID:16555068

García-Borges, Carmen N; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Crew, Mark D

2006-06-01

104

Position-dependent alternative splicing activity revealed by global profiling of alternative splicing events regulated by PTB  

PubMed Central

To gain global insights into the role of the well-known repressive splicing regulator PTB we analyzed the consequences of PTB knockdown in HeLa cells using high-density oligonucleotide splice-sensitive microarrays. The major class of identified PTB-regulated splicing event was PTB-repressed cassette exons, but there was also a substantial number of PTB-activated splicing events. PTB repressed and activated exons showed a distinct arrangement of motifs with pyrimidine-rich motif enrichment within and upstream of repressed exons, but downstream of activated exons. The N-terminal half of PTB was sufficient to activate splicing when recruited downstream of a PTB-activated exon. Moreover, insertion of an upstream pyrimidine tract was sufficient to convert a PTB-activated to a PTB-repressed exon. Our results demonstrate that PTB, an archetypal splicing repressor, has variable splicing activity that predictably depends upon its binding location with respect to target exons. PMID:20711188

Llorian, Miriam; Schwartz, Schraga; Clark, Tyson A.; Hollander, Dror; Tan, Lit-Yeen; Spellman, Rachel; Gordon, Adele; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; de la Grange, Pierre; Ast, Gil; Smith, Christopher WJ

2010-01-01

105

Aberrant splicing of U12-type introns is the hallmark of ZRSR2 mutant myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene ZRSR2-located on the X chromosome-are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). ZRSR2 is involved in the recognition of 3'-splice site during the early stages of spliceosome assembly; however, its precise role in RNA splicing has remained unclear. Here we characterize ZRSR2 as an essential component of the minor spliceosome (U12 dependent) assembly. shRNA-mediated knockdown of ZRSR2 leads to impaired splicing of the U12-type introns and RNA-sequencing of MDS bone marrow reveals that loss of ZRSR2 activity causes increased mis-splicing. These splicing defects involve retention of the U12-type introns, while splicing of the U2-type introns remain mostly unaffected. ZRSR2-deficient cells also exhibit reduced proliferation potential and distinct alterations in myeloid and erythroid differentiation in vitro. These data identify a specific role for ZRSR2 in RNA splicing and highlight dysregulated splicing of U12-type introns as a characteristic feature of ZRSR2 mutations in MDS. PMID:25586593

Madan, Vikas; Kanojia, Deepika; Li, Jia; Okamoto, Ryoko; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Kohlmann, Alexander; Sanada, Masashi; Grossmann, Vera; Sundaresan, Janani; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Miyano, Satoru; Thol, Felicitas; Ganser, Arnold; Yang, Henry; Haferlach, Torsten; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

2015-01-01

106

Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms  

SciTech Connect

Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A. [Universite de Paris (France)] [and others

1995-09-20

107

Alternative Splicing of PTC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Determines Protein Localization  

PubMed Central

It is well established that higher eukaryotes use alternative splicing to increase proteome complexity. In contrast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-cell eukaryote, conducts predominantly regulated splicing through retention of nonfunctional introns. In this article we describe our discovery of a functional intron in the PTC7 (YHR076W) gene that can be alternatively spliced to create two mRNAs that code for distinct proteins. These two proteins localize to different cellular compartments and have distinct cellular roles. The protein translated from the spliced mRNA localizes to the mitochondria and its expression is carbon-source dependent. In comparison, the protein translated from the unspliced mRNA contains a transmembrane domain, localizes to the nuclear envelope, and mediates the toxic effects of Latrunculin A exposure. In conclusion, we identified a definitive example of functional alternative splicing in S. cerevisiae that confers a measurable fitness benefit. PMID:19564484

Juneau, Kara; Nislow, Corey; Davis, Ronald W.

2009-01-01

108

Computational Evidence of NAGNAG Alternative Splicing in Human Large Intergenic Noncoding RNA  

PubMed Central

NAGNAG alternative splicing plays an essential role in biological processes and represents a highly adaptable system for posttranslational regulation of gene function. NAGNAG alternative splicing impacts a myriad of biological processes. Previous studies of NAGNAG largely focused on messenger RNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing the hypothesis that NAGNAG alternative splicing is also operative in large intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA). The RNA-seq data sets from recent deep sequencing studies were queried to test our hypothesis. NAGNAG alternative splicing of human lincRNA was identified while querying two independent RNA-seq data sets. Within these datasets, 31 NAGNAG alternative splicing sites were identified in lincRNA. Notably, most exons of lincRNA containing NAGNAG acceptors were longer than those from protein-coding genes. Furthermore, presence of CAG coding appeared to participate in the splice site selection. Finally, expression of the isoforms of NAGNAG lincRNA exhibited tissue specificity. Together, this study improves our understanding of the NAGNAG alternative splicing in lincRNA. PMID:24995327

Sun, Xiaoyong; Lin, Simon M.; Yan, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

109

Nova1 is a master regulator of alternative splicing in pancreatic beta cells.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. It affects more than 90% of human genes but its role in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells, the producers of insulin, remains unknown. Our recently published data indicated that the 'neuron-specific' Nova1 splicing factor is expressed in pancreatic beta cells. We have presently coupled specific knockdown (KD) of Nova1 with RNA-sequencing to determine all splice variants and downstream pathways regulated by this protein in beta cells. Nova1 KD altered the splicing of nearly 5000 transcripts. Pathway analysis indicated that these genes are involved in exocytosis, apoptosis, insulin receptor signaling, splicing and transcription. In line with these findings, Nova1 silencing inhibited insulin secretion and induced apoptosis basally and after cytokine treatment in rodent and human beta cells. These observations identify a novel layer of regulation of beta cell function, namely AS controlled by key splicing regulators such as Nova1. PMID:25249621

Villate, Olatz; Turatsinze, Jean-Valery; Mascali, Loriana G; Grieco, Fabio A; Nogueira, Tatiane C; Cunha, Daniel A; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Sammeth, Michael; Salunkhe, Vishal A; Esguerra, Jonathan L S; Eliasson, Lena; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L

2015-01-01

110

An evolutionary analysis of cAMP-specific Phosphodiesterase 4 alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each gene isoform termed long, short, super-short and truncated super-short. Many species across the vertebrate lineage contain multiple splice variants of each gene type, which are characterized by length and amino termini. Results A phylogenetic approach was used to visualize splice variant form genesis and identify conserved splice variants (genome conservation with EST support) across the vertebrate taxa. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference indicated PDE4 gene duplication occurred at the base of the vertebrate lineage and reveals additional gene duplications specific to the teleost lineage. Phylogenetic inference and PDE4 splice variant presence, or absence as determined by EST screens, were further supported by the genomic analysis of select vertebrate taxa. Two conserved PDE4 long form splice variants were found in each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4C genes, and eight conserved long forms from the PDE4 D gene. Conserved short and super-short splice variants were found from each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4 D genes, while truncated super-short variants were found from the PDE4C and PDE4 D genes. PDE4 long form splice variants were found in all taxa sampled (invertebrate through mammals); short, super-short, and truncated super-short are detected primarily in tetrapods and mammals, indicating an increasing complexity in both alternative splicing and cAMP metabolism through vertebrate evolution. Conclusions There was a progressive independent incorporation of multiple PDE4 splice variant forms and amino termini, increasing PDE4 proteome complexity from primitive vertebrates to humans. While PDE4 gene isoform duplicates with limited alternative splicing were found in teleosts, an expansion of both PDE4 splice variant forms, and alternatively spliced amino termini predominantly occurs in mammals. Since amino termini have been linked to intracellular targeting of the PDE4 enzymes, the conservation of amino termini in PDE4 splice variants in evolution highlights the importance of compartmentalization of PDE4-mediated cAMP hydrolysis. PMID:20701803

2010-01-01

111

INTEGRATIVE GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PRE-MRNA SPLICING REGULATION BY THE DROSOPHILA SR PROTEIN FAMILY  

E-print Network

to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in Drosophila. Genome-wide analysis of SR-dependent splicing by RNA-seq, reveals that SR proteins are required for the regulation of many types of alternative splicing events, and can act as positive or negative...

Bradley, Todd Christopher

2013-05-31

112

Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5? splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress adaptation in plants. It is also envisioned that alternative splicing of the clock genes plays more complex roles than previously expected. PMID:24885185

2014-01-01

113

A Novel, Non-canonical Splice Variant of the Ikaros Gene Is Aberrantly Expressed in B-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Ikaros gene encodes a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor involved in hematopoiesis regulation. Ikaros has been established as one of the most clinically relevant tumor suppressors in several hematological malignancies. In fact, expression of dominant negative Ikaros isoforms is associated with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia and adult and juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia. Here, we report the isolation of a novel, non-canonical Ikaros splice variant, called Ikaros 11 (Ik11). Ik11 is structurally related to known dominant negative Ikaros isoforms, due to the lack of a functional DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, Ik11 is the first Ikaros splice variant missing the transcriptional activation domain. Indeed, we demonstrated that Ik11 works as a dominant negative protein, being able to dimerize with Ikaros DNA-binding isoforms and inhibit their functions, at least in part by retaining them in the cytoplasm. Notably, we demonstrated that Ik11 is the first dominant negative Ikaros isoform to be aberrantly expressed in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Aberrant expression of Ik11 interferes with both proliferation and apoptotic pathways, providing a mechanism for Ik11 involvement in tumor pathogenesis. Thus, Ik11 could represent a novel marker for B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:23874502

Mancarelli, Maria Michela; Verzella, Daniela; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Di Tommaso, Ambra; Maccarone, Rita; Plebani, Sara; Di Ianni, Mauro; Gulino, Alberto; Alesse, Edoardo

2013-01-01

114

Co-transcriptional regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing  

PubMed Central

While studies of alternative pre-mRNA splicing regulation have typically focused on RNA-binding proteins and their target sequences within nascent message, it is becoming increasingly evident that mRNA splicing, RNA polymerase II (pol II) elongation and chromatin structure are intricately intertwined. The majority of introns in higher eukaryotes are excised prior to transcript release in a manner that is dependent on transcription through pol II. As a result of co-transcriptional splicing, variations in pol II elongation influence alternative splicing patterns, wherein a slower elongation rate is associated with increased inclusion of alternative exons within mature mRNA. Physiological barriers to pol II elongation, such as repressive chromatin structure, can thereby similarly impact splicing decisions. Surprisingly, pre-mRNA splicing can reciprocally influence pol II elongation and chromatin structure. Here, we highlight recent advances in co-transcriptional splicing that reveal an extensive network of coupling between splicing, transcription and chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:22326677

Shukla, Sanjeev; Oberdoerffer, Shalini

2012-01-01

115

RBM24 is a major regulator of muscle-specific alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Cell-type-specific splicing generates numerous alternatively spliced transcripts playing important roles for organ development and homeostasis, but only a few tissue-specific splicing factors have been identified. We found that RBM24 governs a large number of muscle-specific splicing events that are critically involved in cardiac and skeletal muscle development and disease. Targeted inactivation of RBM24 in mice disrupted cardiac development and impaired sarcomerogenesis in striated muscles. In vitro splicing assays revealed that recombinant RBM24 is sufficient to promote muscle-specific exon inclusion in nuclear extracts of nonmuscle cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that binding of RBM24 to an intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) is essential and sufficient to overcome repression of exon inclusion by an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) containing PTB and hnRNP A1/A2 binding sites. Introduction of ESS and ISE converted a constitutive exon into an RMB24-dependent alternative exon. We reason that RBM24 is a major regulator of alternative splicing in striated muscles. PMID:25313962

Yang, Jiwen; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Licht, Thomas; Kostin, Sawa; Looso, Mario; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Bindereif, Albrecht; Schneider, Andre; Braun, Thomas

2014-10-13

116

Differences in aberrant expression and splicing of sarcomeric proteins in the myotonic dystrophies DM1 and DM2  

PubMed Central

Aberrant transcription and mRNA processing of multiple genes due to RNA-mediated toxic gain-of-function has been suggested to cause the complex phenotype in myotonic dystrophies type 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2). However, the molecular basis of muscle weakness and wasting and the different pattern of muscle involvement in DM1 and DM2 are not well understood. We have analyzed the mRNA expression of genes encoding muscle-specific proteins and transcription factors by microarray profiling and studied selected genes for abnormal splicing. A subset of the abnormally regulated genes was further analyzed at the protein level. TNNT3 and LDB3 showed abnormal splicing with significant differences in proportions between DM2 and DM1. The differential abnormal splicing patterns for TNNT3 and LDB3 appeared more pronounced in DM2 relative to DM1 and are among the first molecular differences reported between the two diseases. In addition to these specific differences, the majority of the analyzed genes showed an overall increased expression at the mRNA level. In particular, there was a more global abnormality of all different myosin isoforms in both DM1 and DM2 with increased transcript levels and a differential pattern of protein expression. Atrophic fibers in DM2 patients expressed only the fast myosin isoform, while in DM1 patients they co-expressed fast and slow isoforms. However, there was no increase of total myosin protein levels, suggesting that aberrant protein translation and/or turnover may also be involved. PMID:20066428

Vihola, Anna; Bachinski, Linda L.; Sirito, Mario; Olufemi, Shodimu-Emmanuel; Hajibashi, Shohrae; Baggerly, Keith A.; Raheem, Olayinka; Haapasalo, Hannu; Suominen, Tiina; Holmlund-Hampf, Jeanette; Paetau, Anders; Cardani, Rosanna; Meola, Giovanni; Kalimo, Hannu; Edström, Lars

2014-01-01

117

Ancient nature of alternative splicing and functions of introns  

SciTech Connect

Using four genomes: Chamydomonas reinhardtii, Agaricus bisporus, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Sporotricum thermophile with EST coverage of 2.9x, 8.9x, 29.5x, and 46.3x respectively, we identified 11 alternative splicing (AS) types that were dominated by intron retention (RI; biased toward short introns) and found 15, 35, 52, and 63percent AS of multiexon genes respectively. Genes with AS were more ancient, and number of AS correlated with number of exons, expression level, and maximum intron length of the gene. Introns with tendency to be retained had either stop codons or length of 3n+1 or 3n+2 presumably triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), but introns retained in major isoforms (0.2-6percent of all introns) were biased toward 3n length and stop codon free. Stopless introns were biased toward phase 0, but 3n introns favored phase 1 that introduced more flexible and hydrophilic amino acids on both ends of introns which would be less disruptive to protein structure. We proposed a model in which minor RI intron could evolve into major RI that could facilitate intron loss through exonization.

Zhou, Kemin; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Aerts, Andrea; Grigoriev, Igor

2011-03-21

118

Discovery of Gene Families and Alternatively Spliced Variants by RecA-Mediated Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probing the functional complexity of the human genome will require new gene cloning techniques, not only to discover intraspecies gene homologs and interspecies gene orthologs, but also to identify alternatively spliced gene variants. We report homologous cDNA cloning methods that allow cloning of gene family members, genes from different species, and alternatively spliced gene variants. We cloned human 14-3-3 gene

Hong Zeng; Elizabeth Allen; Chris W. Lehman; R. Geoffrey Sargent; Sushma Pati; David A. Zarling

2002-01-01

119

The snoRNA HBII-52 Regulates Alternative Splicing of the Serotonin Receptor 2C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Prader-Willi syndrome is a congenital disease that is caused by the loss of paternal gene expression from a maternally imprinted region on chromosome 15. This region contains a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), HBII-52, that exhibits sequence complementarity to the alternatively spliced exon Vb of the serotonin receptor 5-HT2CR. We found that HBII-52 regulates alternative splicing of 5-HT2CR by binding

Shivendra Kishore; Stefan Stamm

2006-01-01

120

An evolutionary analysis of cAMP-specific Phosphodiesterase 4 alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each

Keven R Johnson; Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson; Robert S Danziger

2010-01-01

121

Extensive relationship between antisense transcription and alternative splicing in the human genome  

PubMed Central

To analyze the relationship between antisense transcription and alternative splicing, we developed a computational approach for the detection of antisense-correlated exon splicing events using Affymetrix exon array data. Our analysis of expression data from 176 lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed that the majority of expressed sense–antisense genes exhibited alternative splicing events that were correlated to the expression of the antisense gene. Most of these events occurred in areas of sense–antisense (SAS) gene overlap, which were significantly enriched in both exons and nucleosome occupancy levels relative to nonoverlapping regions of the same genes. Nucleosome occupancy was highly correlated with Pol II abundance across overlapping regions and with concomitant increases in local alternative exon usage. These results are consistent with an antisense transcription-mediated mechanism of splicing regulation in normal human cells. A comparison of the prevalence of antisense-correlated splicing events between individuals of Mormon versus African descent revealed population-specific events that may indicate the continued evolution of new SAS loci. Furthermore, the presence of antisense transcription was correlated to alternative splicing across multiple metazoan species, suggesting that it may be a conserved mechanism contributing to splicing regulation. PMID:21719572

Morrissy, A. Sorana; Griffith, Malachi; Marra, Marco A.

2011-01-01

122

SRSF10 Regulates Alternative Splicing and Is Required for Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

During adipocyte differentiation, significant alternative splicing changes occur in association with the adipogenic process. However, little is known about roles played by splicing factors in this process. We observed that mice deficient for the splicing factor SRSF10 exhibit severely impaired development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) as a result of defects in adipogenic differentiation. To identify splicing events responsible for this, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed using embryonic fibroblast cells. Several SRSF10-affected splicing events that are implicated in adipogenesis have been identified. Notably, lipin1, known as an important regulator during adipogenesis, was further investigated. While lipin1? is mainly involved in lipogenesis, its alternatively spliced isoform lipin1?, generated through the skipping of exon 7, is primarily required for initial adipocyte differentiation. Skipping of exon 7 is controlled by an SRSF10-regulated cis element located in the constitutive exon 8. The activity of this element depends on the binding of SRSF10 and correlates with the relative abundance of lipin1? mRNA. A series of experiments demonstrated that SRSF10 controls the production of lipin1? and thus promotes adipocyte differentiation. Indeed, lipin1? expression could rescue SRSF10-mediated adipogenic defects. Taken together, our results identify SRSF10 as an essential regulator for adipocyte differentiation and also provide new insights into splicing control by SRSF10 in lipin1 pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:24710272

Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wu, Wenwu; Liu, Yuguo; Wei, Ning; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin

2014-01-01

123

Alternative splicing: Functional diversity among voltage-gated calcium channels and behavioral consequences?  

PubMed Central

Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels generate rapid, transient intracellular calcium signals in response to membrane depolarization. Neuronal CaV channels regulate a range of cellular functions and are implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Each mammalian Cacna1 gene has the potential to generate tens to thousands of CaV channels by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, a process that adds fine granulation to the pool of CaV channel structures and functions. The precise composition of CaV channel splice isoform mRNAs expressed in each cell are controlled by cell-specific splicing factors. The activity of splicing factors are in turn regulated by molecules that encode various cellular features, including cell-type, activity, metabolic states, developmental state, and other factors. The cellular and behavioral consequences of individual sites of CaV splice isoforms are being elucidated, as are the cell-specific splicing factors that control splice isoform selection. Altered patterns of alternative splicing of CaV pre-mRNAs can alter behavior in subtle but measurable ways, with the potential to influence drug efficacy and disease severity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. PMID:23022282

Lipscombe, Diane; Andrade, Arturo; Allen, Summer E.

2012-01-01

124

Functional variations modulating PRKCA expression and alternative splicing predispose to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene, encoding a Th17-cell-selective kinase, was repeatedly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. We replicated the association in Italians (409 cases, 723 controls), identifying a protective signal in the PRKCA promoter (P = 0.033), and a risk haplotype in intron 3 (P = 7.7 × 10(-4); meta-analysis with previously published data: P = 4.01 × 10(-8)). Expression experiments demonstrated that the protective signal is associated with alleles conferring higher PRKCA expression levels, well fitting our observation that MS patients have significantly lower PRKCA mRNA levels in blood. The risk haplotype was shown to be driven by a GGTG ins/del polymorphism influencing the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H-dependent inclusion/skipping of a PRKCA alternative exon 3*. Indeed, exon 3* can be present in two different versions in PRKCA mRNAs (out-of-frame 61 bp or in-frame 66 bp long), and is preferentially included in transcripts generated through a premature polyadenylation event. The GGTG insertion downregulates 3* inclusion and shifts splicing towards the 66 bp isoform. Both events reduce the nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay-induced degradation of exon 3*-containing mRNAs. Since we demonstrated that the protein isoform produced through premature polyadenylation aberrantly localizes to the plasma membrane and/or in cytoplasmic clusters, dysregulated PRKCA 3* inclusion may represent an additional mechanism relevant to MS susceptibility. PMID:25080502

Paraboschi, Elvezia M; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Tabaglio, Tommaso; Dall'Osso, Claudia; Saba, Elena; Vigliano, Marco; Salviati, Alessandro; Leone, Maurizio; Benedetti, Maria D; Fornasari, Diego; Saarela, Janna; De Jager, Philip L; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Gemmati, Donato; Duga, Stefano; Asselta, Rosanna

2014-12-20

125

Regulation of alternative splicing by local histone modifications: potential roles for RNA-guided mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms through which alternative splicing and histone modifications regulate gene expression are now understood in considerable detail. Here, we discuss recent studies that connect these two previously separate avenues of investigation, beginning with the unexpected discoveries that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned over exons and DNA methylation and certain histone modifications also show exonic enrichment. These findings have profound implications linking chromatin structure, histone modification and splicing regulation. Complementary single gene studies provided insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation and histones modifications modulate alternative splicing patterns. Here, we review an emerging theme resulting from these studies: RNA-guided mechanisms integrating chromatin modification and splicing. Several groundbreaking papers reported that small noncoding RNAs affect alternative exon usage by targeting histone methyltransferase complexes to form localized facultative heterochromatin. More recent studies provided evidence that pre-messenger RNA itself can serve as a guide to enable precise alternative splicing regulation via local recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes, and emerging evidence points to a similar role for long noncoding RNAs. An exciting challenge for the future is to understand the impact of local modulation of transcription elongation rates on the dynamic interplay between histone modifications, alternative splicing and other processes occurring on chromatin. PMID:24081581

Zhou, Hua-Lin; Luo, Guangbin; Wise, Jo Ann; Lou, Hua

2014-01-01

126

Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression  

PubMed Central

Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

2014-01-01

127

Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.  

PubMed

Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R; Yadav, Ajay K; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Miller, Tyler E; Masilamani, Anie P; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M; Yu, Irene L Y; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N; Carro, Maria S; Bredel, Markus

2014-07-01

128

Alternative Splicing of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor IgIII Loops in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of the IgIII loop of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) 1–3 produces b- and c-variants of the receptors with distinctly different biological impact based on their distinct ligand-binding spectrum. Tissue-specific expression of these splice variants regulates interactions in embryonic development, tissue maintenance and repair, and cancer. Alterations in FGFR2 splicing are involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition that produces invasive, metastatic features during tumor progression. Recent research has elucidated regulatory factors that determine the splice choice both on the level of exogenous signaling events and on the RNA-protein interaction level. Moreover, methodology has been developed that will enable the in depth analysis of splicing events during tumorigenesis and provide further insight on the role of FGFR 1–3 IIIb and IIIc in the pathophysiology of various malignancies. This paper aims to summarize expression patterns in various tumor types and outlines possibilities for further analysis and application. PMID:22203889

Holzmann, Klaus; Grunt, Thomas; Heinzle, Christine; Sampl, Sandra; Steinhoff, Heinrich; Reichmann, Nicole; Kleiter, Miriam; Hauck, Marlene; Marian, Brigitte

2012-01-01

129

Conserved RNA cis-elements regulate alternative splicing of Lepidopteran doublesex.  

PubMed

Doublesex (dsx) is a downstream key regulator in insect sex determination pathway. In Drosophila, alternative splicing of Dm-dsx gene is sex-specifically regulated by transformer (tra), in which the functional TRA promotes female-specific Dm-dsx. However, the sex determination pathway in Lepidoptera is not well understood; here we focused on alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) in two agricultural pests, Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), as well as the silkworm (Bombyx mori). More than a dozen new alternative splicing isoforms of dsx were found in the Lepidopteran females, which exist in all tested developmental stages and differentiated tissues. Alignment of mRNA and protein sequences of doublesex revealed high conservation of this gene in Lepidoptera. Strength analysis of splice sites revealed a weak 5' splice site at intron 3 in Lepidopteran dsx, which was experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, we identified highly conserved RNA sequences in the Lepidopteran dsx, including RNA elements I (14 nt), II (11 nt), III (26 nt), IV (17 nt), 3E-1 (8 nt) and 3E-2 (8 nt). The RNA elements III and IV were previously found in exon 4 of B. mori dsx and bound with Bm-PSI, which suppressed the inclusion of exons 3 & 4 into the male-specific Bm-dsx. Then we identified and analyzed the homologous genes of Bm-psi in the two Lepidopteran pests, which expressed at similar levels and exhibited a unique isoform in the males and females from each Lepidoptera. Importantly, mutagenesis of Bm-dsx mini-genes and their expression in BmN cell line demonstrated that three RNA elements are involved in the female-specific alternative splicing of Bm-dsx. Mutations in the RNA cis-elements 3E-1 and 3E-2 resulted in decreased inclusion of exon 3 into the female-specific dsx mRNA, suggesting that these two elements would be exonic splicing enhancers that facilitate the recognition of the weak 5' splice site at intron 3 of Lepidopteran dsx. We propose that the 5' splice sites at intron 3 are weak, resulting in multiple alternative splicing events in intron 3 of female Lepidoptera dsx. Activation of the 5' splice site requires regulatory cis-elements in exons 3 for female-specific splicing of Lepidoptera dsx. PMID:24239545

Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zheng, Zeng-Zhang; Song, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Zhen

2014-01-01

130

Modulation of alternative splicing by expression of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, catalyzed by small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), plays an important role in proteome complexity and the modulation of cellular functions. snRNP polypeptide N (SmN), is tissue-specifically expressed, where it replaces snRNP polypeptide B (SmB)/B' in the Sm core assembly of snRNPs. Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbation of snRNPs leads to alternative splicing, but whether SmN modulates functions of the splicing machinery remains unclear. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of SmN increased utilization of the proximal 5' splice site on an adenovirus early gene 1A reporter. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying SmN-dependent alternative splicing, we generated a HeLa cell line with an inducible expression system for SmN. Upon SmN induction, SmB/B' expression decreased dramatically, despite only small changes in the level and splicing pattern of SNRPB mRNA. In addition, SmN was incorporated into the U2 snRNP but not into the U1 snRNP after induction. Sedimentation analysis revealed a decrease in the level of mature U2 snRNP. This result suggests that SmN incorporation into the Sm core may impede processing, decreasing the level of functional U2 snRNP. We also found that the inclusion frequencies of alternatively spliced exons in the bridging integrator 1 and exocyst complex component 7 (EXOC7) genes were modulated by SmN expression. An enhanced GFP-EXOC7 reporter was used to confirm that SmN increases the inclusion frequency of EXOC7 exon 7. Taken together, our findings indicate that SmN expression reduces the level of mature U2 snRNP, leading to alternative splicing. PMID:25238490

Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Yu-Shan; Deng, Yi-Fang; Hsu, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chiung-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Yao-Ting; Li, Chin

2014-12-01

131

Extensive Alternative Splicing of the Repressor Element Silencing Transcription Factor Linked to Cancer  

PubMed Central

The repressor element silencing transcription factor (REST) is a coordinate transcriptional and epigenetic regulator which functions as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on cellular context, and a truncated splice variant REST4 has been linked to various types of cancer. We performed a comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing (AS) of REST by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR amplification of cDNAs from various tissues and cell lines with specific primers. We identified 8 novel alternative exons including an alternate last exon which doubles the REST gene boundary, along with numerous 5?/3? splice sites and ends in the constitutive exons. With the combination of various splicing patterns (e.g. exon skipping and alternative usage of the first and last exons) that are predictive of altered REST activity, at least 45 alternatively spliced variants of coding and non-coding mRNA were expressed in a species- and cell-type/tissue-specific manner with individual differences. By examining the repertoire of REST pre-mRNA splicing in 27 patients with kidney, liver and lung cancer, we found that all patients without exception showed differential expression of various REST splice variants between paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues, with striking cell-type/tissue and individual differences. Moreover, we revealed that exon 3 skipping, which causes no frame shift but loss of a domain essential for nuclear translocation, was affected by pioglitazone, a highly selective activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) which contributes to cell differentiation and tumorigenesis besides its metabolic actions. Accordingly, this study demonstrates an extensive AS of REST pre-mRNA which redefines REST gene boundary and structure, along with a general but differential link between REST pre-mRNA splicing and various types of cancer. These findings advance our understanding of the complex, context-dependent regulation of REST gene expression and function, and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer. PMID:23614038

Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory M.

2013-01-01

132

Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators  

PubMed Central

Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

133

A FRET-based assay for characterization of alternative splicing events using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a quantitative method for detecting RNA alternative splicing variants that combines in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes with confocal microscopy Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The use of PNA probes complementary to sequences flank- ing a given splice junction allows to specifically quantify, within the cell, the RNA isoform generating such splice junction

Ana M. Blanco; Laura Rausell; Begona Aguado; Manuel Perez-Alonso; Ruben Artero

2009-01-01

134

Psip1/Ledgf p52 Binds Methylated Histone H3K36 and Splicing Factors and Contributes to the Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that chromatin modifications have important roles in modulating constitutive or alternative splicing. Here we demonstrate that the PWWP domain of the chromatin-associated protein Psip1/Ledgf can specifically recognize tri-methylated H3K36 and that, like this histone modification, the Psip1 short (p52) isoform is enriched at active genes. We show that the p52, but not the long (p75), isoform of Psip1 co-localizes and interacts with Srsf1 and other proteins involved in mRNA processing. The level of H3K36me3 associated Srsf1 is reduced in Psip1 mutant cells and alternative splicing of specific genes is affected. Moreover, we show altered Srsf1 distribution around the alternatively spliced exons of these genes in Psip1 null cells. We propose that Psip1/p52, through its binding to both chromatin and splicing factors, might act to modulate splicing. PMID:22615581

Pradeepa, Madapura M.; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Ule, Jernej; Grimes, Graeme R.; Bickmore, Wendy A.

2012-01-01

135

Aberrant Splicing and Transcription Termination Caused by P Element Insertion into the Intron of a Drosophila Gene  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5' untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce a mRNA composed of 5' sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3' sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. PMID:7705633

Horowitz, H.; Berg, C. A.

1995-01-01

136

Detection of Splicing Aberrations Caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2 Sequence Variants Encoding Missense Substitutions: Implications for Prediction of Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Missense substitutions in high-risk cancer susceptibility genes create clinical uncertainty in the genetic counseling process. Multifactorial likelihood classification approaches and in vitro assays are useful for the classification of exonic sequence variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, but these currently rely on the assumption that changes in protein function are the major biological mechanism of pathogenicity. This study investigates the potentially pathogenic role of aberrant splicing for exonic variants predicted to encode missense substitutions using patient-derived RNA. No splicing aberrations were identified for BRCA1c.5054C>T and BRCA2c.7336A>G, c.8839G>A, and c.9154C>T. However, RT-PCR analysis identified a major splicing aberration for BRCA1c.4868C>G(p.Ala1623Gly), a variant encoding a missense substitution considered likely to be neutral. Splicing aberrations were also observed for BRCA2c.7988A>T(p.Glu2663Val) and c.8168A>G(p.Asp2723Gly), but both variant and wildtype alleles were shown to be present in full-length mRNA transcripts, suggesting that variant protein may be translated. BRCA2 protein function assays indicated that BRCA2p.Glu2663Val, p.Asp2723Gly and p.Arg3052Trp missense proteins have abrogated function consistent with pathogenicity. Multifactorial likelihood analysis provided evidence for pathogenicity for BRCA1 c.5054C>T(p.Thr1685Ile) and BRCA2c.7988A>T(p.Glu2663Val), c.8168A>G(p.Asp2723Gly) and c.9154C>T(p.Arg3052Trp), supporting experimentally derived evidence. These findings highlight the need for improved bioinformatic prediction of splicing aberrations and to refine multifactorial likelihood models used to assess clinical significance. PMID:20513136

Walker, Logan C.; Whiley, Phillip J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Farrugia, Daniel J.; Healey, Sue; Eccles, Diana M.; Lin, Feng; Butler, Samantha A.; Goff, Sheila A.; Thompson, Bryony A.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Da Silva, Leonard M.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Goldgar, David E.; Brown, Melissa A.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

2010-01-01

137

Alternative Splicing in the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiac Precursors  

PubMed Central

The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org), we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation. PMID:19893621

Salomonis, Nathan; Nelson, Brandon; Vranizan, Karen; Pico, Alexander R.; Hanspers, Kristina; Kuchinsky, Allan; Ta, Linda; Mercola, Mark; Conklin, Bruce R.

2009-01-01

138

Alternative splicing and exon duplication generates 10 unique porcine 5-HT 4 receptor splice variants including a functional homofusion variant.  

PubMed

5-HT(4) receptors are present in human and porcine atrial myocytes while they are absent from the hearts of small laboratory animals. The pig is therefore the only available nonprimate animal model in which to study cardiac 5-HT(4) receptor function under physiological conditions. While several human splice variants of the 5-HT(4) receptor have been described, the splicing behavior of this receptor in porcine tissue is currently unknown. Here we report on the identification of nine novel COOH-terminal splice variants of the porcine 5-HT(4) receptor, which were named 5-HT(4(b2, j, k, l, m, o, p, q, r)). The internal h-variant was found in combination with several COOH-terminal exons. In addition, splice variants were found that comprised duplicated exons fused to the common region of the 5-HT(4) receptor, thereby providing evidence for a duplication of the porcine HTR4 gene. One of these variants putatively encoded a nine transmembrane-spanning domain homofusion receptor, 5-HT(4(9TM)); also the other variants with a duplicated region might translate into functional, transcriptionally fused dimeric 5-HT(4) receptor variants. The elucidation of the genomic context confirmed that the variants were not genomic artefacts but originated from alternative splicing. This was further corroborated by a functional analysis of the variants 5-HT(4(a)), 5-HT(4(r)), and 5-HT(4(9TM)). To our knowledge, our data are the first to report on a functional GPCR with more than seven predicted transmembrane domains. These findings urge for caution when interpreting data on 5-HT(4) receptor-related pharmacology obtained in the pig; validation at the molecular level might be needed before extrapolating results to human. PMID:18430808

De Maeyer, Joris H; Aerssens, Jeroen; Verhasselt, Peter; Lefebvre, Romain A

2008-06-12

139

A network of conserved co-occurring motifs for the regulation of alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Cis-acting short sequence motifs play important roles in alternative splicing. It is now possible to identify such sequence motifs as conserved sequence patterns in genome sequence alignments. Here, we report the systematic search for motifs in the neighboring introns of alternatively spliced exons by using comparative analysis of mammalian genome alignments. We identified 11 conserved sequence motifs that might be involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. These motifs are not only significantly overrepresented near alternatively spliced exons, but they also co-occur with each other, thus, forming a network of cis-elements, likely to be the basis for context-dependent regulation. Based on this finding, we applied the motif co-occurrence to predict alternatively skipped exons. We verified exon skipping in 29 cases out of 118 predictions (25%) by EST and mRNA sequences in the databases. For the predictions not verified by the database sequences, we confirmed exon skipping in 10 additional cases by using both RT–PCR experiments and the publicly available RNA-Seq data. These results indicate that even more alternative splicing events will be found with the progress of large-scale and high-throughput analyses for various tissue samples and developmental stages. PMID:20702423

Suyama, Mikita; Harrington, Eoghan D.; Vinokourova, Svetlana; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Ohara, Osamu; Bork, Peer

2010-01-01

140

Alternative splicing of mouse IL-15 is due to the use of an internal splice site in exon 5.  

PubMed

IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine modulating growth and differentiation of several hematopoietic cell types. Recently, we have demonstrated that mouse microglial cells, the brain macrophages, express both IL-15 and IL-15/IL-2 receptors. Based on single-cell RT-PCR data, we describe here an alternatively spliced IL-15 mRNA variant found in a small subpopulation of mouse microglia (5%, 3 out of 60 cells expressing IL-15 transcripts). PCR cycle sequencing of this larger transcript revealed the mouse homologue of the alternatively spliced exon A as it is known from the human IL-15 gene. Analysis of the corresponding mouse IL-15 gene region shows that the larger IL-15 transcript contains an yet unidentified 5' sequence of exon 5 while the shorter transcript uses an internal splice acceptor site. The mouse exon 5A segment has a length of 136 nt (17 nt longer than the human exon A). It contains five in-frame stop codons at its 5' end and a new translation initiation site at its 3' end. This new start site is surrounded by a favourable Kozak consensus sequence suggesting a more efficient translation rate. Further translational control by stem-loop binding factors is inferred by a predicted RNA stem-loop structure around the start site. Insertion of exon 5A would lead to an IL-15 polypeptide with a shortened leader sequence of 26 amino acids, as compared to the 48 amino acid leader sequence encoded by the transcript lacking exon 5A. Thus, the final IL-15 protein of the two splice variants is identical; different leader sequences could, however, lead to differences in the intracellular sorting, processing and/or secretion of IL-15. PMID:9838089

Prinz, M; Hanisch, U K; Kettenmann, H; Kirchhoff, F

1998-12-10

141

The evolving roles of alternative splicing Liana F Lareau1  

E-print Network

the expression of proteins. A recent paper provides a modern definition of functional splicing: ``An mRNA variant by a role in regulation. For instance, protein function can be regulated by the removal of interaction-mediated mRNA decay PTB polypyrimidine tract binding protein PTC premature termination codon RUST regulated

142

Control of alternative splicing by forskolin through hnRNP K during neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of cell signal-regulated alternative splicing at the 3? splice site remains largely unknown. We isolated a protein kinase A-responsive ribonucleic acid (RNA) element from a 3? splice site of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene for forskolin-inhibited splicing during neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The element binds specifically to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo protein (hnRNP) K in a phosphatase-sensitive way, which directly competes with the U2 auxiliary factor U2AF65, an essential component of early spliceosomes. Transcripts with similarly localized hnRNP K target motifs upstream of alternative exons are enriched in genes often associated with neurological diseases. We show that such motifs upstream of the Runx1 exon 6 also bind hnRNP K, and importantly, hnRNP K is required for forskolin-induced repression of the exon. Interestingly, this exon encodes the peptide domain that determines the switch of the transcriptional repressor/activator activity of Runx1, a change known to be critical in specifying neuron lineages. Consistent with an important role of the target genes in neurons, knocking down hnRNP K severely disrupts forskolin-induced neurite growth. Thus, through hnRNP K, the neuronal differentiation stimulus forskolin targets a critical 3? splice site component of the splicing machinery to control alternative splicing of crucial genes. This also provides a regulated direct competitor of U2AF65 for cell signal control of 3? splice site usage. PMID:22684629

Cao, Wenguang; Razanau, Aleh; Feng, Dairong; Lobo, Vincent G.; Xie, Jiuyong

2012-01-01

143

Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5? splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5? exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. PMID:24214997

McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M.; Zimmerly, Steven

2014-01-01

144

Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program  

SciTech Connect

A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

2006-06-15

145

Regulation of Dscam exon 17 alternative splicing by steric hindrance in combination with RNA secondary structures  

PubMed Central

The gene Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) potentially encodes 38 016 distinct isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster via mutually exclusive splicing. Here we reveal a combinatorial mechanism of regulation of Dscam exon 17 mutually exclusive splicing through steric hindrance in combination with RNA secondary structure. This mutually exclusive behavior is enforced by steric hindrance, due to the close proximity of the exon 17.2 branch point to exon 17.1 in Diptera, and the interval size constraint in non-Dipteran species. Moreover, intron-exon RNA structures are evolutionarily conserved in 36 non-Drosophila species of six distantly related orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Phthiraptera), which regulates the selection of exon 17 variants via masking the splice site. By contrast, a previously uncharacterized RNA structure specifically activated exon 17.1 by bringing splice sites closer together in Drosophila, while the other moderately suppressed exon 17.1 selection by hindering the accessibility of polypyrimidine sequences. Taken together, these data suggest a phylogeny of increased complexity in regulating alternative splicing of Dscam exon 17 spanning more than 300 million years of insect evolution. These results also provide models of the regulation of alternative splicing through steric hindrance in combination with dynamic structural codes. PMID:24448213

Yue, Yuan; Li, Guoli; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Huawei; Chen, Ran; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yongfeng

2013-01-01

146

New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases. PMID:25414781

Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

2014-10-01

147

CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF)-mediated alternative splicing regulation in the brain during health and disease  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating transcript and protein diversity. In the brain, alternative splicing is particularly prevalent, and alternative splicing factors are highly enriched. These include the six members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF). This review summarizes what is known about the expression of different CELF proteins in the nervous system and the evidence that they are important in neural development and function. The involvement of CELF proteins in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including myotonic dystrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, fragile X syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is discussed. Finally, the known targets of CELF-mediated alternative splicing regulation in the nervous system and the functional consequences of these splicing events are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “RNA and splicing regulation in neurodegeneration”. PMID:23247071

Ladd, Andrea N.

2013-01-01

148

A cytoplasmic quaking I isoform regulates the hnRNP F/H-dependent alternative splicing pathway in myelinating glia  

PubMed Central

The selective RNA-binding protein quaking I (QKI) plays important roles in controlling alternative splicing (AS). Three QKI isoforms are broadly expressed, which display distinct nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution. However, molecular mechanisms by which QKI isoforms control AS, especially in distinct cell types, still remain elusive. The quakingviable (qkv) mutant mice carry deficiencies of all QKI isoforms in oligodendrocytes (OLs) and Schwann cells (SWCs), the myelinating glia of central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS), respectively, resulting in severe dysregulation of AS. We found that the cytoplasmic isoform QKI-6 regulates AS of polyguanine (G-run)-containing transcripts in OLs and rescues aberrant AS in the qkv mutant by repressing expression of two canonical splicing factors, heterologous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) F and H. Moreover, we identified a broad spectrum of in vivo functional hnRNP F/H targets in OLs that contain conserved exons flanked by G-runs, many of which are dysregulated in the qkv mutant. Interestingly, AS targets of the QKI-6-hnRNP F/H pathway in OLs are differentially affected in SWCs, suggesting that additional cell-type-specific factors modulate AS during CNS and PNS myelination. Together, our studies provide the first evidence that cytoplasmic QKI-6 acts upstream of hnRNP F/H, which forms a novel pathway to control AS in myelinating glia. PMID:24792162

Mandler, Mariana D.; Ku, Li; Feng, Yue

2014-01-01

149

Genome-wide detection of condition-sensitive alternative splicing in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a world-wide nutritional disorder in both plants and humans, resulting from its restricted bioavailability for plants and, subsequently, low Fe concentration in edible plant parts. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to alleviate Fe deficiency, with the aim of recalibrating metabolic fluxes and maintaining cellular Fe homeostasis. To analyze condition-sensitive changes in precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing pattern, we mapped the transcriptome of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots using the RNA sequencing technology and a newly developed software toolbox, the Read Analysis & Comparison Kit in Java (RACKJ). In alternatively spliced genes, stress-related Gene Ontology categories were overrepresented, while housekeeping cellular functions were mainly transcriptionally controlled. Fe deficiency increased the complexity of the splicing pattern and triggered the differential alternative splicing of 313 genes, the majority of which had differentially retained introns. Several genes with important functions in Fe acquisition and homeostasis were both differentially expressed and differentially alternatively spliced upon Fe deficiency, indicating a complex regulation of gene activity in Fe-deficient conditions. A comparison with a data set for phosphate-deficient plants suggests that changes in splicing patterns are nutrient specific and not or not chiefly caused by stochastic fluctuations. In sum, our analysis identified extensive posttranscriptional control, biasing the abundance and activity of proteins in a condition-dependent manner. The production of a mixture of functional and nonfunctional transcripts may provide a means to fine-tune the abundance of transcripts with critical importance in cellular Fe homeostasis. It is assumed that differential gene expression and nutrient deficiency-induced changes in pre-mRNA splicing represent parallel, but potentially interacting, regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23735510

Li, Wenfeng; Lin, Wen-Dar; Ray, Prasun; Lan, Ping; Schmidt, Wolfgang

2013-07-01

150

Alternative splicing and gene duplication differentially shaped the regulation of isochorismate synthase in Populus and Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Isochorismate synthase (ICS) converts chorismate to isochorismate for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone, an essential cofactor for photosynthetic electron transport. ICS is also required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis during Arabidopsis defense. In several other species, including Populus, SA is derived primarily from the phenylpropanoid pathway. We therefore sought to investigate ICS regulation in Populus to learn the extent of ICS involvement in SA synthesis and defense. Arabidopsis harbors duplicated AtICS genes that differ in their exon-intron structure, basal expression, and stress inducibility. In contrast, we found a single ICS gene in Populus and six other sequenced plant genomes, pointing to the AtICS duplication as a lineage-specific event. The Populus ICS encodes a functional plastidic enzyme, and was not responsive to stresses that stimulated phenylpropanoid accumulation. Populus ICS underwent extensive alternative splicing that was rare for the duplicated AtICSs. Sequencing of 184 RT-PCR Populus clones revealed 37 alternative splice variants, with normal transcripts representing ?50% of the population. When expressed in Arabidopsis, Populus ICS again underwent alternative splicing, but did not produce normal transcripts to complement AtICS1 function. The splice-site sequences of Populus ICS are unusual, suggesting a causal link between junction sequence, alternative splicing, and ICS function. We propose that gene duplication and alternative splicing of ICS evolved independently in Arabidopsis and Populus in accordance with their distinct defense strategies. AtICS1 represents a divergent isoform for inducible SA synthesis during defense. Populus ICS primarily functions in phylloquinone biosynthesis, a process that can be sustained at low ICS transcript levels. PMID:19996170

Yuan, Yinan; Chung, Jeng-Der; Fu, Xueyan; Johnson, Virgil E.; Ranjan, Priya; Booth, Sarah L.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2009-01-01

151

A deep survey of alternative splicing in grape reveals changes in the splicing machinery related to tissue, stress condition and genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity. It is differentially regulated in a wide variety of cell types and plays a role in several cellular processes. Here we describe a detailed survey of alternative splicing in grape based on 124 SOLiD RNAseq analyses from different tissues, stress conditions and genotypes. Results We used the RNAseq data to update the existing grape gene prediction with 2,258 new coding genes and 3,336 putative long non-coding RNAs. Several gene structures have been improved and alternative splicing was described for about 30% of the genes. A link between AS and miRNAs was shown in 139 genes where we found that AS affects the miRNA target site. A quantitative analysis of the isoforms indicated that most of the spliced genes have one major isoform and tend to simultaneously co-express a low number of isoforms, typically two, with intron retention being the most frequent alternative splicing event. Conclusions As described in Arabidopsis, also grape displays a marked AS tissue-specificity, while stress conditions produce splicing changes to a minor extent. Surprisingly, some distinctive splicing features were also observed between genotypes. This was further supported by the observation that the panel of Serine/Arginine-rich splicing factors show a few, but very marked differences between genotypes. The finding that a part the splicing machinery can change in closely related organisms can lead to some interesting hypotheses for evolutionary adaptation, that could be particularly relevant in the response to sudden and strong selective pressures. PMID:24739459

2014-01-01

152

Use of a cryptic splice donor site in the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-SV40 small-t antigen cassette generates alternative transcripts in transgenic rats.  

PubMed

The bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) is a widely used reporter in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of genetic regulation. We have recently generated novel rat transgenic lines carrying an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) promoter-reporter construct in which CAT (with associated SV40 small-t antigen sequence) is the reporter. In addition to the predicted transgene transcript (1.9 kb), we identified an abundant 1.5 kb transcript which derives from an alternative splicing event that utilises a cryptic splice donor site located within the CAT gene. The native CAT open reading frame (ORF) is lost in the 1.5 kb transcript, and a western analysis has shown that protein deriving from an aberrant open reading frame is not expressed at detectable levels. PMID:10853270

Burke, Z D; Wells, T; Carter, D A; Baler, R

2000-02-01

153

The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

2014-04-01

154

Identification of genetic variants associated with alternative splicing using sQTLseekeR  

PubMed Central

Identification of genetic variants affecting splicing in RNA sequencing population studies is still in its infancy. Splicing phenotype is more complex than gene expression and ought to be treated as a multivariate phenotype to be recapitulated completely. Here we represent the splicing pattern of a gene as the distribution of the relative abundances of a gene’s alternative transcript isoforms. We develop a statistical framework that uses a distance-based approach to compute the variability of splicing ratios across observations, and a non-parametric analogue to multivariate analysis of variance. We implement this approach in the R package sQTLseekeR and use it to analyze RNA-Seq data from the Geuvadis project in 465 individuals. We identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as splicing QTLs (sQTLs), including some falling in genome-wide association study SNPs. By developing the appropriate metrics, we show that sQTLseekeR compares favorably with existing methods that rely on univariate approaches, predicting variants that behave as expected from mutations affecting splicing. PMID:25140736

Monlong, Jean; Calvo, Miquel; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Guigó, Roderic

2014-01-01

155

ALS-Associated FUS Mutations Result in Compromised FUS Alternative Splicing and Autoregulation  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding a DNA/RNA binding protein FUS/TLS is frequently mutated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations commonly affect its carboxy-terminal nuclear localization signal, resulting in varying deficiencies of FUS nuclear localization and abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation. Increasing evidence suggests deficiencies in FUS nuclear function may contribute to neuron degeneration. Here we report a novel FUS autoregulatory mechanism and its deficiency in ALS-associated mutants. Using FUS CLIP-seq, we identified significant FUS binding to a highly conserved region of exon 7 and the flanking introns of its own pre-mRNAs. We demonstrated that FUS is a repressor of exon 7 splicing and that the exon 7-skipped splice variant is subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Overexpression of FUS led to the repression of exon 7 splicing and a reduction of endogenous FUS protein. Conversely, the repression of exon 7 was reduced by knockdown of FUS protein, and moreover, it was rescued by expression of EGFP-FUS. This dynamic regulation of alternative splicing describes a novel mechanism of FUS autoregulation. Given that ALS-associated FUS mutants are deficient in nuclear localization, we examined whether cells expressing these mutants would be deficient in repressing exon 7 splicing. We showed that FUS harbouring R521G, R522G or ?Exon15 mutation (minor, moderate or severe cytoplasmic localization, respectively) directly correlated with respectively increasing deficiencies in both exon 7 repression and autoregulation of its own protein levels. These data suggest that compromised FUS autoregulation can directly exacerbate the pathogenic accumulation of cytoplasmic FUS protein in ALS. We showed that exon 7 skipping can be induced by antisense oligonucleotides targeting its flanking splice sites, indicating the potential to alleviate abnormal cytoplasmic FUS accumulation in ALS. Taken together, FUS autoregulation by alternative splicing provides insight into a molecular mechanism by which FUS-regulated pre-mRNA processing can impact a significant number of targets important to neurodegeneration. PMID:24204307

Zhou, Yueqin; Liu, Songyan; Liu, Guodong; Öztürk, Arzu; Hicks, Geoffrey G.

2013-01-01

156

Eukaryotic TPP riboswitch regulation of alternative splicing involving long-distance base pairing.  

PubMed

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitches are found in organisms from all three domains of life. Examples in bacteria commonly repress gene expression by terminating transcription or by blocking ribosome binding, whereas most eukaryotic TPP riboswitches are predicted to regulate gene expression by modulating RNA splicing. Given the widespread distribution of eukaryotic TPP riboswitches and the diversity of their locations in precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), we sought to examine the mechanism of alternative splicing regulation by a fungal TPP riboswitch from Neurospora crassa, which is mostly located in a large intron separating protein-coding exons. Our data reveal that this riboswitch uses a long-distance (?530-nt separation) base-pairing interaction to regulate alternative splicing. Specifically, a portion of the TPP-binding aptamer can form a base-paired structure with a conserved sequence element (?) located near a 5' splice site, which greatly increases use of this 5' splice site and promotes gene expression. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that many fungal species carry a TPP riboswitch with similar intron architecture, and therefore the homologous genes in these fungi are likely to use the same mechanism. Our findings expand the scope of genetic control mechanisms relying on long-range RNA interactions to include riboswitches. PMID:23376932

Li, Sanshu; Breaker, Ronald R

2013-03-01

157

Regulation of constitutive and alternative splicing by PRMT5 reveals a role for Mdm4 pre-mRNA in sensing defects in the spliceosomal machinery.  

PubMed

The tight control of gene expression at the level of both transcription and post-transcriptional RNA processing is essential for mammalian development. We here investigate the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a putative splicing regulator and transcriptional cofactor, in mammalian development. We demonstrate that selective deletion of PRMT5 in neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to postnatal death in mice. At the molecular level, the absence of PRMT5 results in reduced methylation of Sm proteins, aberrant constitutive splicing, and the alternative splicing of specific mRNAs with weak 5' donor sites. Intriguingly, the products of these mRNAs are, among others, several proteins regulating cell cycle progression. We identify Mdm4 as one of these key mRNAs that senses the defects in the spliceosomal machinery and transduces the signal to activate the p53 response, providing a mechanistic explanation of the phenotype observed in vivo. Our data demonstrate that PRMT5 is a master regulator of splicing in mammals and uncover a new role for the Mdm4 pre-mRNA, which could be exploited for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24013503

Bezzi, Marco; Teo, Shun Xie; Muller, Julius; Mok, Wei Chuen; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Vardy, Leah A; Bonday, Zahid Q; Guccione, Ernesto

2013-09-01

158

ASPIC: a web resource for alternative splicing prediction and transcript isoforms characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) is now emerging as a major mechanism contributing to the expansion of the tran- scriptome and proteome complexity of multicellular organisms. The fact that a single gene locus may give risetomultiplemRNAsandproteinisoforms,showing both major and subtle structural variations, is an exceptionally versatile tool in the optimization of the coding capacity of the eukaryotic genome. The hugeandcontinuouslyincreasingnumberofgenome and transcript

Tiziana Castrignanò; Raffaella Rizzi; Ivano Giuseppe Talamo; Paolo D'onorio De Meo; Anna Anselmo; Paola Bonizzoni; Graziano Pesole

2006-01-01

159

The Dscam Homologue of the Crustacean Daphnia Is Diversified by Alternative Splicing Like in Insects  

E-print Network

The Dscam Homologue of the Crustacean Daphnia Is Diversified by Alternative Splicing Like, and evolutionary aspects of a Dscam homolog in 2 species of the crustacean Daphnia. The Dscam of Daphnia generates's Dscam. In Daphnia, we detected exon usage variability in both the brain and hemocytes (the effector

Obbard, Darren

160

ALTERNATE PATCHED SPLICE FORMS ARE EXPRESSED IN A TISSUE SPECIFIC MANNER DURING EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is critical for embryonic patterning of nearly every organ system in the developing fetus and is highly conserved across phylogeny. We have previously characterized three alternate splice forms of the Ptc gene, including a novel Exon 1C isoform in the mouse, but...

161

A Subtle Alternative Splicing Event Gives Rise to a Widely Expressed Human RNase k Isoform  

PubMed Central

Subtle alternative splicing leads to the formation of RNA variants lacking or including a small number of nucleotides. To date, the impact of subtle alternative splicing phenomena on protein biosynthesis has been studied in frame-preserving incidents. On the contrary, mRNA isoforms derived from frame-shifting events were poorly studied and generally characterized as non-coding. This work provides evidence for a frame-shifting subtle alternative splicing event which results in the production of a novel protein isoform. We applied a combined molecular approach for the cloning and expression analysis of a human RNase ? transcript (RNase ?-02) which lacks four consecutive bases compared to the previously isolated RNase ? isoform. RNase ?-02 mRNA is expressed in all human cell lines tested end encodes the synthesis of a 134-amino-acid protein by utilizing an alternative initiation codon. The expression of RNase ?-02 in the cytoplasm of human cells was verified by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis using a specific polyclonal antibody developed on the basis of the amino-acid sequence difference between the two protein isoforms. The results presented here show that subtle changes during mRNA splicing can lead to the expression of significantly altered protein isoforms. PMID:24797913

Karousis, Evangelos D.; Sideris, Diamantis C.

2014-01-01

162

Assessing the contribution of alternative splicing to proteome diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana using proteomics data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background - Large-scale analyses of genomics and transcriptomics data have revealed that alternative splicing (AS) substantially increases the complexity of the transcriptome in higher eukaryotes. However, the extent to which this complexity is reflected at the level of the proteome remains unclear. On the basis of a lack of conservation of AS between species, we previously concluded that AS does

E. I. Severing; Dijk van A. D. J; Ham van R. C. H. J

2011-01-01

163

Lariat sequencing in a unicellular yeast identifies regulated alternative splicing of exons that are evolutionarily conserved with humans  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a potent regulator of gene expression that vastly increases proteomic diversity in multicellular eukaryotes and is associated with organismal complexity. Although alternative splicing is widespread in vertebrates, little is known about the evolutionary origins of this process, in part because of the absence of phylogenetically conserved events that cross major eukaryotic clades. Here we describe a lariat-sequencing approach, which offers high sensitivity for detecting splicing events, and its application to the unicellular fungus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism that shares many of the hallmarks of alternative splicing in mammalian systems but for which no previous examples of exon-skipping had been demonstrated. Over 200 previously unannotated splicing events were identified, including examples of regulated alternative splicing. Remarkably, an evolutionary analysis of four of the exons identified here as subject to skipping in S. pombe reveals high sequence conservation and perfect length conservation with their homologs in scores of plants, animals, and fungi. Moreover, alternative splicing of two of these exons have been documented in multiple vertebrate organisms, making these the first demonstrations of identical alternative-splicing patterns in species that are separated by over 1 billion y of evolution. PMID:23861491

Awan, Ali R.; Manfredo, Amanda; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

164

Regulation of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR Signalling Pathways by Alternative Splicing in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a fundamental step in regulation of gene expression of many tumor suppressors and oncogenes in cancer. Signalling through the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR pathways is misregulated and hyperactivated in most types of cancer. However, the regulation of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signalling pathways by alternative splicing is less well established. Recent studies have shown the contribution of alternative splicing regulation of these signalling pathways which can lead to cellular transformation, cancer development, and tumor maintenance. This review will discuss findings in the literature which describe new modes of regulation of components of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signalling pathways by alternative splicing. We will also describe the mechanisms by which signals from extracellular stimuli can be communicated to the splicing machinery and to specific RNA-binding proteins that ultimately control exon definition events. PMID:24078813

Bonomi, Serena

2013-01-01

165

Differentially expressed alternatively spliced genes in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma identified using massively parallel transcriptome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) databases suggest that most human genes have multiple alternative splice variants. The alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is tightly regulated during development and in different tissue types. Changes in splicing patterns have been described in disease states. Recently, we used whole-transcriptome shotgun pryrosequencing to characterize 4 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumors, 1 lung adenocarcinoma and 1 normal lung. We hypothesized that alternative splicing profiles might be detected in the sequencing data for the expressed genes in these samples. Methods We developed a software pipeline to map the transcriptome read sequences of the 4 MPM samples and 1 normal lung sample onto known exon junction sequences in the comprehensive AceView database of expressed sequences and to count how many reads map to each junction. 13,274,187 transcriptome reads generated by the Roche/454 sequencing platform for 5 samples were compared with 151,486 exon junctions from the AceView database. The exon junction expression index (EJEI) was calculated for each exon junction in each sample to measure the differential expression of alternative splicing events. Top ten exon junctions with the largest EJEI difference between the 4 mesothelioma and the normal lung sample were then examined for differential expression using Quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the 5 sequenced samples. Two of the differentially expressed exon junctions (ACTG2.aAug05 and CDK4.aAug05) were further examined with qRT-PCR in additional 18 MPM and 18 normal lung specimens. Results We found 70,953 exon junctions covered by at least one sequence read in at least one of the 5 samples. All 10 identified most differentially expressed exon junctions were validated as present by RT-PCR, and 8 were differentially expressed exactly as predicted by the sequence analysis. The differential expression of the AceView exon junctions for the ACTG2 and CDK4 genes were also observed to be statistically significant in an additional 18 MPM and 18 normal lung samples examined using qRT-PCR. The differential expression of these two junctions was shown to successfully classify these mesothelioma and normal lung specimens with high sensitivity (89% and 78%, respectively). Conclusion Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing, combined with a downstream bioinformatics pipeline, provides powerful tools for the identification of differentially expressed exon junctions resulting from alternative splice variants. The alternatively spliced genes discovered in the study could serve as useful diagnostic markers as well as potential therapeutic targets for MPM. PMID:20043850

2009-01-01

166

Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system. PMID:23734144

Blechman, Janna; Levkowitz, Gil

2013-01-01

167

FIRMA: a method for detection of alternative splicing from exon array data  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Analyses of EST data show that alternative splicing is much more widespread than once thought. The advent of exon and tiling microarrays means that researchers now have the capacity to experimentally measure alternative splicing on a genome wide level. New methods are needed to analyze the data from these arrays. Results: We present a method, finding isoforms using robust multichip analysis (FIRMA), for detecting differential alternative splicing in exon array data. FIRMA has been developed for Affymetrix exon arrays, but could in principle be extended to other exon arrays, tiling arrays or splice junction arrays. We have evaluated the method using simulated data, and have also applied it to two datasets: a panel of 11 human tissues and a set of 10 pairs of matched normal and tumor colon tissue. FIRMA is able to detect exons in several genes confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR. Availability: R code implementing our methods is contributed to the package aroma.affymetrix. Contact: epurdom@stat.berkeley.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18573797

Purdom, E.; Simpson, K. M.; Robinson, M. D.; Conboy, J. G.; Lapuk, A. V.; Speed, T.P.

2008-01-01

168

Regulation of TMEM16A Chloride Channel Properties by Alternative Splicing*  

PubMed Central

Expression of TMEM16A protein is associated with the activity of Ca2+-activated Cl? channels. TMEM16A primary transcript undergoes alternative splicing. thus resulting in the generation of multiple isoforms. We have determined the pattern of splicing and assessed the functional properties of the corresponding TMEM16A variants. We found three alternative exons, 6b, 13, and 15, coding for segments of 22, 4, and 26 amino acids, respectively, which are differently spliced in human organs. By patch clamp experiments on transfected cells, we found that skipping of exon 6b changes the Ca2+ sensitivity by nearly 4-fold, resulting in Cl? currents requiring lower Ca2+ concentrations to be activated. At the membrane potential of 80 mV, the apparent half-effective concentration decreases from 350 to 90 nm when the segment corresponding to exon 6b is excluded. Skipping of exon 13 instead strongly reduces the characteristic time-dependent activation observed for Ca2+-activated Cl? channels at positive membrane potentials. This effect was also obtained by deleting only the second pair of amino acids corresponding to exon 13. Alternative splicing appears as an important mechanism to regulate the voltage and Ca2+ dependence of the TMEM16A-dependent Cl? channels in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:19819874

Ferrera, Loretta; Caputo, Antonella; Ubby, Ifeoma; Bussani, Erica; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2009-01-01

169

Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24213538

Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

2013-12-01

170

Protein interaction network of alternatively spliced isoforms from brain links genetic risk factors for autism  

PubMed Central

Increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is attributed to hundreds of genetic loci. The convergence of ASD variants have been investigated using various approaches, including protein interactions extracted from the published literature. However, these datasets are frequently incomplete, carry biases and are limited to interactions of a single splicing isoform, which may not be expressed in the disease-relevant tissue. Here we introduce a new interactome mapping approach by experimentally identifying interactions between brain-expressed alternatively spliced variants of ASD risk factors. The Autism Spliceform Interaction Network reveals that almost half of the detected interactions and about 30% of the newly identified interacting partners represent contribution from splicing variants, emphasizing the importance of isoform networks. Isoform interactions greatly contribute to establishing direct physical connections between proteins from the de novo autism CNVs. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of spliceform networks for translating genetic knowledge into a better understanding of human diseases. PMID:24722188

Corominas, Roser; Yang, Xinping; Lin, Guan Ning; Kang, Shuli; Shen, Yun; Ghamsari, Lila; Broly, Martin; Rodriguez, Maria; Tam, Stanley; Trigg, Shelly A.; Fan, Changyu; Yi, Song; Tasan, Murat; Lemmens, Irma; Kuang, Xingyan; Zhao, Nan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Michaelson, Jacob J.; Vacic, Vladimir; Calderwood, Michael A.; Roth, Frederick P.; Tavernier, Jan; Horvath, Steve; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Korkin, Dmitry; Sebat, Jonathan; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Vidal, Marc; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

2014-01-01

171

Alternative Splicing at the Intersection of Biological Timing, Development, and Stress Responses[OPEN  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely. PMID:24179132

Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W.S.

2013-01-01

172

Exon-level microarray analyses identify alternative splicing programs in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing (AS) of many genes have been implicated in several aspects of cancer genesis and progression. These observations motivated a genome-wide assessment of AS in breast cancer. We accomplished this by measuring exon level expression in 31 breast cancer and nonmalignant immortalized cell lines representing luminal, basal and claudin-low breast cancer subtypes using Affymetrix Human Junction Arrays (HJAY). We analyzed these data using a computational pipeline specifically designed to detect AS with a low false positive rate. This identified 181 splice events representing 156 genes as candidates for AS. RT-PCR validation of a subset of predicted AS events confirmed 90%. Approximately half of the AS events were associated with basal, luminal or claudin-low breast cancer subtypes. Exons involved in claudin-low subtype-specific AS were significantly associated with the presence of evolutionarily conserved binding motifs for the tissue-specific Fox2 splicing factor. siRNA knockdown of Fox2 confirmed the involvement of this splicing factor in subtype specific AS. The subtype specific AS detected in this study likely reflects the splicing pattern in the breast cancer progenitor cells in which the tumor arose and suggests the utility of assays for Fox-mediated AS in cancer subtype definition and early detection. These data also suggest the possibility of reducing the toxicity of protein-targeted breast cancer treatments by targeting protein isoforms that are not present in limiting normal tissues. PMID:20605923

Lapuk, Anna; Marr, Henry; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Pedro, Helder; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Purdom, Elizabeth; Hu, Zhi; Simpson, Ken; Pachter, Lior; Durinck, Steffen; Wang, Nicholas; Parvin, Bahram; Fontenay, Gerald; Speed, Terence; Garbe, James; Stampfer, Martha; Bayandorian, Hovig; Dorton, Shannon; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Wyrobek, Andrew; Feiler, Heidi; Spellman, Paul; Conboy, John; Gray, Joe W.

2010-01-01

173

Alternative splicing governs cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel sensitivity to regulation by phosphoinositides.  

PubMed

Precursor mRNA encoding CNGA3 subunits of cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels undergoes alternative splicing, generating isoforms differing in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region of the protein. In humans, four variants arise from alternative splicing, but the functional significance of these changes has been a persistent mystery. Heterologous expression of the four possible CNGA3 isoforms alone or with CNGB3 subunits did not reveal significant differences in basic channel properties. However, inclusion of optional exon 3, with or without optional exon 5, produced heteromeric CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels exhibiting an ?2-fold greater shift in K1/2,cGMP after phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate application compared with channels lacking the sequence encoded by exon 3. We have previously identified two structural features within CNGA3 that support phosphoinositides (PIPn) regulation of cone CNG channels: N- and C-terminal regulatory modules. Specific mutations within these regions eliminated PIPn sensitivity of CNGA3 + CNGB3 channels. The exon 3 variant enhanced the component of PIPn regulation that depends on the C-terminal region rather than the nearby N-terminal region, consistent with an allosteric effect on PIPn sensitivity because of altered N-C coupling. Alternative splicing of CNGA3 occurs in multiple species, although the exact variants are not conserved across CNGA3 orthologs. Optional exon 3 appears to be unique to humans, even compared with other primates. In parallel, we found that a specific splice variant of canine CNGA3 removes a region of the protein that is necessary for high sensitivity to PIPn. CNGA3 alternative splicing may have evolved, in part, to tune the interactions between cone CNG channels and membrane-bound phosphoinositides. PMID:24675082

Dai, Gucan; Sherpa, Tshering; Varnum, Michael D

2014-05-01

174

Expression Microarray Analysis Reveals Alternative Splicing of LAMA3 and DST Genes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors. Experimental Design We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score—the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES) – designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort. Results After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST) validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001). Conclusion Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression. PMID:24675808

Li, Ryan; Ochs, Michael F.; Ahn, Sun Mi; Hennessey, Patrick; Tan, Marietta; Soudry, Ethan; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Uemura, Mamoru; Brait, Mariana; Shao, Chunbo; Westra, William; Bishop, Justin; Fertig, Elana J.; Califano, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

175

Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1?, Nrxn1?, Nrxn2?, Nrxn3?, and Nrxn3? mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1? and Nrxn3? (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-?, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that ?-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing. PMID:24639501

Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

2014-04-01

176

Self-splicing of a group IIC intron: 5? exon recognition and alternative 5? splicing events implicate the stem–loop motif of a transcriptional terminator  

PubMed Central

Bacterial IIC introns are a newly recognized subclass of group II introns whose ribozyme properties have not been characterized in detail. IIC introns are typically located downstream of transcriptional terminator motifs (inverted repeat followed by T's) or other inverted repeats in bacterial genomes. Here we have characterized the self-splicing activity of a IIC intron, B.h.I1, from Bacillus halodurans. B.h.I1 self-splices in vitro through hydrolysis to produce linear intron, but interestingly, additional unexpected products were formed that were highly dependent on ionic conditions. These products were determined to represent alternative splicing events at the 5? junction and cleavages throughout the RNA transcript. The alternative splicing and cleavage events occurred at cryptic splice sites containing stem–loop and IBS1 motifs, suggesting that the 5? exon is recognized by both elements. These results provide the first example of a group II intron that uses 5? splice sites nonadjacent to the ribozyme structure. Furthermore, the data suggest that IIC introns differ from IIA and IIB introns with respect to 5? exon definition, and that the terminator stem–loop substitutes in part for the missing IBS2–EBS2 (intron and exon binding sites 2) interaction. PMID:17130159

Toor, Navtej; Robart, Aaron R.; Christianson, Joshua; Zimmerly, Steven

2006-01-01

177

SnoI, a novel alternatively spliced isoform of the ski protooncogene homolog, sno.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and sequenced a novel human isoform of sno, snoI for insertion. SnoI contains 1330 nucleotides inserted in place of 7 nucleotides of the snoN mRNA. Sno is a member of the ski protooncogene family, which has been implicated in muscle development. The two previously known sno alternatively spliced isoforms are snoN (684 amino acids), and snoA (415 amino acids); snoI encodes a truncated isoform of 399 amino acids (44,298 MW). Southern blot experiments show that snoI contains a third alternative exon from the sno gene; a single sno gene can express all three isoforms of sno by alternative splicing. All three isoforms contain the region that is most similar to the ski proto-oncogene. The relationship between snoI and snoN is analogous to that between delta fosB and fosB, where a truncated form of the fosB transcription factor is produced by alternative splicing. We find conservation of human snoI-specific sequences in several mammalian species, in monkey, dog, cow, rabbit and pig, but not in rodents, whereas the common portion of the sno gene is conserved in all vertebrate species tested. SnoN, snoA, and ski mRNAs accumulate in many human tissues including skeletal muscle; the snoI alternative mRNA accumulates more specifically in skeletal muscle. SnoI is also expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma tumor, a tumor that contains differentiated skeletal muscle. The tissue-specific alternative splicing of human snoI, an mRNA in the ski/sno gene family, and the presence of sno mRNAs in muscle are consistent with a proposed role for the sno oncogene in muscle gene regulation. Images PMID:8233802

Pearson-White, S

1993-01-01

178

Alternative splicing of the sheep MITF gene: novel transcripts detectable in skin.  

PubMed

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor, which regulates the differentiation and development of melanocytes and pigment cell-specific transcription of the melanogenesis enzyme genes. Though multiple splice variants of MITF have been reported in humans, mice and other vertebrate species, in merino sheep (Ovis aries), MITF gene splicing has not yet been investigated until now. To investigate the sheep MITF isoforms, the full length mRNA/cDNAs from the skin of merino sheep were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis and molecular prediction revealed two basic splice variants with (+) and without (-) an 18 bp insertion viz. CGTGTATTTTCCCCACAG, in the coding region (CDS) for the amino acids 'ACIFPT'. It was further confirmed by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering intron-6 (2463 bp), wherein an 18bp intronic sequence is retained into the CDS of MITF (+) isoform. Further, full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). A total of seven sheep MITF splice variants, with distinct N-terminus sequences such as MITF-A, B, E, H, and M, the counterparts of human and mouse MITF, were identified by 5' RACE. The other two 5' RACE products were found to be novel splice variants of MITF and represented as 'MITF truncated form (Trn)-1, 2'. These alternative splice (AS) variants were illustrated using comparative genome analysis. By means of 3' RACE three different MITF 3' UTRs (625, 1083, 3167bp) were identified and characterized. We also demonstrated that the MITF gene expression determined at transcript level is mediated via an intron-6 splicing event. Here we summarize for the first time, the expression of seven MITF splice variants with three distinct 3' UTRs in the skin of merino sheep. Our data refine the structure of the MITF gene in sheep beyond what was previously known in humans, mice, dogs and other mammals. PMID:25239663

Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

2014-11-15

179

Alternative splicing during Arabidopsis flower development results in constitutive and stage-regulated isoforms  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is a process in eukaryotic gene expression, in which the primary transcript of a multi-exon gene is spliced into two or more different mature transcripts, thereby increasing proteome diversity. AS is often regulated differentially between different tissues or developmental stages. Recent studies suggested that up to 60% of intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana undergo AS. Yet little is known about this complicated and important process during floral development. To investigate the preferential expression of different isoforms of individual alternatively spliced genes, we used high throughput RNA-Seq technology to explore the transcriptomes of three floral development stages of Arabidopsis thaliana and obtained information of various AS events. We identified approximately 24,000 genes that were expressed at one or more of these stages, and found that nearly 25% of multi-exon genes had two or more spliced variants. This is less frequent than the previously reported 40–60% for multiple organs and stages of A. thaliana, indicating that many genes expressed in floral development function with a single predominant isoform. On the other hand, 1716 isoforms were differentially expressed between the three stages, suggesting that AS might still play important roles in stage transition during floral development. Moreover, 337 novel transcribed regions were identified and most of them have a single exon. Taken together, our analyses provide a comprehensive survey of AS in floral development and facilitate further genomic and genetic studies. PMID:24575124

Wang, Haifeng; You, Chenjiang; Chang, Fang; Wang, Yingxiang; Wang, Lei; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

2014-01-01

180

Multiple cardiovascular defects caused by the absence of alternatively spliced segments of fibronectin  

PubMed Central

Alternatively spliced variants of fibronectin (FN) containing exons EIIIA and EIIIB are expressed around newly forming vessels in development and disease but are downregulated in mature vasculature. The sequences and patterns of expression of these splice variants are highly conserved among vertebrates, suggestive of their biological importance; however the functions of EIIIA and EIIIB-containing FNs are unknown. To understand the role(s) of these splice variants, we deleted both EIIIA and EIIIB exons from the FN gene and observed embryonic lethality with incomplete penetrance by embryonic day 10.5. Deletion of both EIIIA and EIIIB exons did not affect synthesis or cell surface deposition of FN, indicating that embryonic lethality was due specifically to the absence of EIIIA and EIIIB exons from FN. EIIIA/EIIIB double-null embryos displayed multiple embryonic cardiovascular defects, including vascular hemorrhage, failure of remodeling embryonic and yolk sac vasculature, defective placental angiogenesis and heart defects. In addition, we observed defects in coverage and association with dorsal aortae of alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. Our studies indicate that the presence or absence of EIIIA and EIIIB exons alters the function of FN and demonstrate the requirement for these alternatively spliced exons in cardiovascular development. PMID:17706958

Astrof, Sophie; Crowley, Denise; Hynes, Richard O.

2007-01-01

181

Specific CLK Inhibitors from a Novel Chemotype for Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a growing recognition of the importance of protein kinases in the control of alternative splicing. To define the underlying regulatory mechanisms, highly selective inhibitors are needed. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of the dichloroindolyl enaminonitrile KH-CB19, a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the CDC2-like kinase isoforms 1 and 4 (CLK1/CLK4). Cocrystal structures of KH-CB19 with CLK1 and CLK3 revealed a non-ATP mimetic binding mode, conformational changes in helix ?C and the phosphate binding loop and halogen bonding to the kinase hinge region. KH-CB19 effectively suppressed phosphorylation of SR (serine/arginine) proteins in cells, consistent with its expected mechanism of action. Chemical inhibition of CLK1/CLK4 generated a unique pattern of splicing factor dephosphorylation and had at low nM concentration a profound effect on splicing of the two tissue factor isoforms flTF (full-length TF) and asHTF (alternatively spliced human TF). PMID:21276940

Fedorov, Oleg; Huber, Kilian; Eisenreich, Andreas; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; King, Oliver; Bullock, Alex N.; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars J.; Fabbro, Doriano; Trappe, Jörg; Rauch, Ursula; Bracher, Franz; Knapp, Stefan

2011-01-01

182

Alternative Splicing Regulates Kv3.1 Polarized Targeting to Adjust Maximal Spiking Frequency*  

PubMed Central

Synaptic inputs received at dendrites are converted into digital outputs encoded by action potentials generated at the axon initial segment in most neurons. Here, we report that alternative splicing regulates polarized targeting of Kv3.1 voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels to adjust the input-output relationship. The spiking frequency of cultured hippocampal neurons correlated with the level of endogenous Kv3 channels. Expression of axonal Kv3.1b, the longer form of Kv3.1 splice variants, effectively converted slow-spiking young neurons to fast-spiking ones; this was not the case for Kv1.2 or Kv4.2 channel constructs. Despite having identical biophysical properties as Kv3.1b, dendritic Kv3.1a was significantly less effective at increasing the maximal firing frequency. This suggests a possible role of channel targeting in regulating spiking frequency. Mutagenesis studies suggest the electrostatic repulsion between the Kv3.1b N/C termini, created by its C-terminal splice domain, unmasks the Kv3.1b axonal targeting motif. Kv3.1b axonal targeting increased the maximal spiking frequency in response to prolonged depolarization. This finding was further supported by the results of local application of channel blockers and computer simulations. Taken together, our studies have demonstrated that alternative splicing controls neuronal firing rates by regulating the polarized targeting of Kv3.1 channels. PMID:22105078

Gu, Yuanzheng; Barry, Joshua; McDougel, Robert; Terman, David; Gu, Chen

2012-01-01

183

Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event - leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a - prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

Hulse, R P; Beazley-Long, N; Hua, J; Kennedy, H; Prager, J; Bevan, H; Qiu, Y; Fernandes, E S; Gammons, M V; Ballmer-Hofer, K; Gittenberger de Groot, A C; Churchill, A J; Harper, S J; Brain, S D; Bates, D O; Donaldson, L F

2014-11-01

184

Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia?  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event – leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a – prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

Hulse, R.P.; Beazley-Long, N.; Hua, J.; Kennedy, H.; Prager, J.; Bevan, H.; Qiu, Y.; Fernandes, E.S.; Gammons, M.V.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Gittenberger de Groot, A.C.; Churchill, A.J.; Harper, S.J.; Brain, S.D.; Bates, D.O.; Donaldson, L.F.

2014-01-01

185

Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay regulate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression during virus-induced lymphomagenesis in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Telomerase activation, a critical step in cell immortalization and oncogenesis, is partly regulated by alternative splicing. In this study, we aimed to use the Marek's disease virus (MDV) T-cell lymphoma model to evaluate TERT regulation by splicing during lymphomagenesis in vivo, from the start point to tumor establishment. Results We first screened cDNA libraries from the chicken MDV lymphoma-derived MSB-1 T- cell line, which we compared with B (DT40) and hepatocyte (LMH) cell lines. The chTERT splicing pattern was cell line-specific, despite similar high levels of telomerase activity. We identified 27 alternative transcripts of chicken TERT (chTERT). Five were in-frame alternative transcripts without in vitro telomerase activity in the presence of viral or chicken telomerase RNA (vTR or chTR), unlike the full-length transcript. Nineteen of the 22 transcripts with a premature termination codon (PTC) harbored a PTC more than 50 nucleotides upstream from the 3' splice junction, and were therefore predicted targets for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). The major PTC-containing alternatively spliced form identified in MSB1 (ie10) was targeted to the NMD pathway, as demonstrated by UPF1 silencing. We then studied three splicing events separately, and the balance between in-frame alternative splice variants (d5f and d10f) plus the NMD target i10ec and constitutively spliced chTERT transcripts during lymphomagenesis induced by MDV indicated that basal telomerase activity in normal T cells was associated with a high proportion of in-frame non functional isoforms and a low proportion of constitutively spliced chTERT. Telomerase upregulation depended on an increase in active constitutively spliced chTERT levels and coincided with a switch in alternative splicing from an in-frame variant to NMD-targeted variants. Conclusions TERT regulation by splicing plays a key role in telomerase upregulation during lymphomagenesis, through the sophisticated control of constitutive and alternative splicing. Using the MDV T-cell lymphoma model, we identified a chTERT splice variant as a new NMD target. PMID:20964812

2010-01-01

186

Expanded alternative splice isoform profiling of the mouse Cav3.1/?1G T-type calcium channel  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels contributes to the molecular and functional diversity mediating complex network oscillations in the normal brain. Transcript scanning of the human CACNA1G gene has revealed the presence of 11 regions within the coding sequence subjected to alternative splicing, some of which enhance T-type current. In mouse models of absence epilepsy, elevated T-type calcium currents without clear increases in channel expression are found in thalamic neurons that promote abnormal neuronal synchronization. To test whether enhanced T-type currents in these models reflect pathogenic alterations in channel splice isoforms, we determined the extent of alternative splicing of mouse Cacna1g transcripts and whether evidence of altered transcript splicing could be detected in mouse absence epilepsy models. Results Transcript scanning of the murine Cacna1g gene detected 12 regions encoding alternative splice isoforms of Cav3.1/?1G T-type calcium channels. Of the 12 splice sites, six displayed homology to the human CACNA1G splice sites, while six novel mouse-specific splicing events were identified, including one intron retention, three alternative acceptor sites, one alternative donor site, and one exon exclusion. In addition, two brain region-specific alternative splice patterns were observed in the cerebellum. Comparative analyses of brain regions from four monogenic absence epilepsy mouse models with altered thalamic T-type currents and wildtype controls failed to reveal differences in Cacna1g splicing patterns. Conclusion The determination of six novel alternative splice sites within the coding region of the mouse Cacna1g gene greatly expands the potential biophysical diversity of voltage-gated T-type channels in the mouse central nervous system. Although alternative splicing of Cav3.1/?1G channels does not explain the enhancement of T-type current identified in four mouse models of absence epilepsy, post-transcriptional modification of T-type channels through this mechanism may influence other developmental neurological phenotypes. PMID:19480703

Ernst, Wayne L; Noebels, Jeffrey L

2009-01-01

187

Differential expression of alternative splice variants of CTLA4 in Kuwaiti autoimmune disease patients.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen4 (CTLA4) is a candidate susceptibility gene for the study of autoimmune diseases. The present study sought to explore the expression profile of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 88 (22 RA, 22 SLE 22 HT, 22 HC) age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched individuals were recruited. The hypersensitive capillary electrophoresis method was employed to detect the CTLA4 splice variants. PCR of the patient's cDNA using CTLA4-specific primers followed by cloning and sequencing were used to distinguish the various splice variants. The biochemical properties of all known CTLA4 variants were analysed using the Expasy and ESE Finder programs. Six alternatively spliced variants of the CTLA4 gene were detected in this study. These included mCTLA4-672, sCTLA4-562, N-CTLA4-292, L-CTLA4-277, ssCTLA4-214 and K-CTLA4-142bp. K-CTLA4-142bp and N-CTLA4-292bp represented two novel splice variants of the CTLA4 gene. A reduction in the frequency of mCTLA4-672bp and sCTLA4-562bp was observed in SLE and RA patients compared to healthy controls. The shortest splice variant, K-CTLA4-142bp, was predominantly detected in all of the tested cohorts, while the decreased expression of the N-CTLA4-292bp variant was observed in the autoimmune subjects. The exonic splice enhancer motifs of the SRp40 protein were found exactly at the splice junction of wCTLA4 (-ACAGAG C-, 2.7) and K-CTLA4 (-TGAAAAG-, 3.37), and that of the SRp55 protein was found at the splice junction of L-CTLA4 (-TGTGTG-, 2.82). Our study highlights the discrepancies in the expression spectrum of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients and healthy subjects. The abnormal expression pattern of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients suggests that in addition to allelic variation, the expression pattern of CTLA4 could contribute to autoimmunity. PMID:24513332

Alfadhli, Suad; Nizam, Rasheeba

2013-10-25

188

Differential expression of alternative splice variants of CTLA4 in Kuwaiti autoimmune disease patients.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen4 (CTLA4) is a candidate susceptibility gene for the study of autoimmune diseases. The present study sought to explore the expression profile of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 88 (22 RA, 22 SLE 22 HT, 22 HCs) age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched individuals were recruited. The hypersensitive capillary electrophoresis method was employed to detect the CTLA4 splice variants. PCRs of the patient's cDNA using CTLA4-specific primers followed by cloning and sequencing were used to distinguish the various splice variants. The biochemical properties of all known CTLA4 variants were analysed using the ExPASy and ESEfinder programmes. Six alternatively spliced variants of the CTLA4 gene were detected in this study. These included mCTLA4-672, sCTLA4-562, N-CTLA4-292, L-CTLA4-277, ssCTLA4-214 and K-CTLA4-142 bp. K-CTLA4-142 bp and N-CTLA4-292 bp represented two novel splice variants of the CTLA4 gene. A reduction in the frequency of mCTLA4-672 bp and sCTLA4-562 bp was observed in SLE and RA patients compared to healthy controls. The shortest splice variant, K-CTLA4-142 bp, was predominantly detected in all of the tested cohorts,while the decreased expression of the N-CTLA4-292 bp variant was observed in the autoimmune subjects. The exonic splice enhancer motifs of the SRp40 protein were found exactly at the splice junction of wCTLA4 (-ACAGAGC-, 2.7) and K-CTLA4 (-TGAAAAG-, 3.37), and that of the SRp55 protein was found at the splice junction of L-CTLA4 (-TGTGTG-, 2.82). Our study highlights the discrepancies in the expression spectrum of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients and healthy subjects. The abnormal expression pattern of the CTLA4 gene in autoimmune patients suggests that in addition to allelic variation, the expression pattern of CTLA4 could contribute to autoimmunity. PMID:24498648

AlFadhli, Suad; Nizam, Rasheeba

2014-01-25

189

Discrimination of Alternative Spliced Isoforms by Real-Time PCR Using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Substituted Primer  

E-print Network

Determination of quantitative expression levels of alternatively spliced isoforms provides an important approach to the understanding of the functional significance of each isoform. Real-time PCR using exon junction ...

Wan, Guoqiang

190

Assessing the contribution of alternative splicing to proteome diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana using proteomics data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Large-scale analyses of genomics and transcriptomics data have revealed that alternative splicing (AS) substantially increases\\u000a the complexity of the transcriptome in higher eukaryotes. However, the extent to which this complexity is reflected at the\\u000a level of the proteome remains unclear. On the basis of a lack of conservation of AS between species, we previously concluded\\u000a that AS does not frequently

Edouard I Severing; Aalt DJ van Dijk; Roeland CHJ van Ham

2011-01-01

191

Role of tissue specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the differentiation of the erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed Central

Regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing is neither as widely appreciated as a fundamental aspect of controlled gene expression nor as thoroughly studied as transcriptional regulation. However, as exemplified by the phenomena cited in this review, alternative splicing is a fundamentally important mechanism used in the eukaryotic world to enhance the range, versatility and plasticity of the structural information contained within a gene, and to create additional strategies by which the net quantitative output of a given gene product can be controlled. Regulation of RNA splicing gives genes a modularity that adds flexibility, and, therefore, selective advantage, to eukaryotes. It is likely, though unproven, that this opportunity for refined regulation and diversification provides at least one basis for the existence of the tandem exon-intron-exon structure found in the vast majority of eukaryotic genes and many viral genes. Many examples of alternative splicing are known, but, for the majority, no obvious biological impact of the alternatively spliced proteins on known cellular functions can be appreciated. Examples by which selectively regulated splicing pathways alter both the physiology and pathology of a major cellular event, such as differentiation and mechanical function of the red cell membrane, are thus relatively rare. The protein 4.1 gene and mRNA products thus provide an instructive and unusual system in which to explore the broader issue of the role of these regulatory mechanisms in the overall scheme of gene regulation and adaptation. The fact that hereditary hemolytic anemias result from mutations that directly or indirectly disrupt the splicing system emphasized the relevance of these mechanisms to molecular medicine. The features of splicing that we have reviewed in this paper, and the specific impact that regulated splicing exerts on differentiating red cells have, we hope, convinced the reader that RNA splicing is an important, fascinating, and potentially fruitful area for future study of human disease processes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9108669

Benz, E. J.; Huang, S. C.

1997-01-01

192

Alternative Splicing Regulation of Cancer-Related Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: An In Vivo Model System with a Powerful Reverse Genetics Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing allows for the generation of protein diversity and fine-tunes gene expression. Several model systems have been used for the in vivo study of alternative splicing. Here we review the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to study splicing regulation in vivo. Recent studies have shown that close to 25% of genes in the worm genome undergo alternative splicing. A big proportion of these events are functional, conserved, and under strict regulation either across development or other conditions. Several techniques like genome-wide RNAi screens and bichromatic reporters are available for the study of alternative splicing in worms. In this review, we focus, first, on the main studies that have been performed to dissect alternative splicing in this system and later on examples from genes that have human homologs that are implicated in cancer. The significant advancement towards understanding the regulation of alternative splicing and cancer that the C. elegans system has offered is discussed. PMID:24069034

Barberán-Soler, Sergio; Ragle, James Matthew

2013-01-01

193

A High Throughput Assay to Identify Small Molecule Modulators of Alternative pre-mRNA Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is an efficient mechanism that involves the generation of transcriptome and protein diversity from a single gene. Defects in pre-mRNA splicing are an important cause of numerous diseases, including cancer. AS of pre-mRNA as a target for cancer therapy has not been well studied. We have reported previously that a splicing factor, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is overexpressed in ovarian tumors, compared to matched normal controls, and knockdown (KD) of PTB expression by shRNA impairs ovarian tumor cell growth, colony formation and invasiveness. Given the complexity of PTB’s molecular functions, a chemical method for controlling PTB activity might provide a therapeutic and experimental tool. However, no commercially available PTB inhibitors have yet been described. To expand our ability to find novel inhibitors, we developed a robust, fluorometric, cell-based high throughput screening HTS assay in 96-well plates that reports on the splicing activity of PTB. In an attempt to use the cells for large-scale chemical screens to identify PTB modulators, we established cell lines stably expressing the reporter gene. Our results suggest that this high throughput assay could be used to identify small molecule modulators of PTB activity. Based on these findings and the role that upregulated PTB has on cell proliferation and malignant properties of tumors targeting PTB for inhibition with small molecules offers a promising strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:22972848

Arslan, Ahmet Dirim; He, Xiaolong; Wang, Minxiu; Rumschlag-Booms, Emily; Rong, Lijun; Beck, William T.

2012-01-01

194

Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing  

SciTech Connect

Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

2008-08-04

195

ELAVL1 regulates alternative splicing of eIF4E transporter to promote postnatal angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Posttranscriptional RNA regulation is important in determining the plasticity of cellular phenotypes. However, mechanisms of how RNA binding proteins (RBPs) influence cellular behavior are poorly understood. We show here that the RBP embryonic lethal abnormal vision like 1 (ELAVL1, also know as HuR) regulates the alternative splicing of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1 (Eif4enif1), which encodes an eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E transporter (4E-T) protein and suppresses the expression of capped mRNAs. In the absence of ELAVL1, skipping of exon 11 of Eif4enif1 forms the stable, short isoform, 4E-Ts. This alternative splicing event results in the formation of RNA processing bodies (PBs), enhanced turnover of angiogenic mRNAs, and suppressed sprouting behavior of vascular endothelial cells. Further, endothelial-specific Elavl1 knockout mice exhibited reduced revascularization after hind limb ischemia and tumor angiogenesis in oncogene-induced mammary cancer, resulting in attenuated blood flow and tumor growth, respectively. ELAVL1-regulated alternative splicing of Eif4enif1 leading to enhanced formation of PB and mRNA turnover constitutes a novel posttranscriptional mechanism critical for pathological angiogenesis. PMID:25422430

Chang, Sung-Hee; Elemento, Olivier; Zhang, Jiasheng; Zhuang, Zhen W; Simons, Michael; Hla, Timothy

2014-12-23

196

The role played by alternative splicing in antigenic variability in human endo-parasites  

PubMed Central

Endo-parasites that affect humans include Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, which remains one of the leading causes of death in human beings. Despite decades of research, vaccines to this and other endo-parasites remain elusive. This is in part due to the hyper-variability of the parasites surface proteins. Generally these surface proteins are encoded by a large family of genes, with only one being dominantly expressed at certain life stages. Another layer of complexity can be introduced through the alternative splicing of these surface proteins. The resulting isoforms may differ from each other with regard to cell localisation, substrate affinities and functions. They may even differ in structure to the extent that they are no longer recognised by the host’s immune system. In many cases this leads to changes in the N terminus of these proteins. The geographical localisation of endo-parasitic infections around the tropics and the highest incidences of HIV-1 infection in the same areas, adds a further layer of complexity as parasitic infections affect the host immune system resulting in higher HIV infection rates, faster disease progression, and an increase in the severity of infections and complications in HIV diagnosis. This review discusses some examples of parasite surface proteins that are alternatively spliced in trypanosomes, Plasmodium and the parasitic worm Schistosoma as well as what role alternate splicing may play in the interaction between HIV and these endo-parasites. PMID:24472559

2014-01-01

197

RAN-Binding Protein 9 is Involved in Alternative Splicing and is Critical for Male Germ Cell Development and Male Fertility  

PubMed Central

As a member of the large Ran-binding protein family, Ran-binding protein 9 (RANBP9) has been suggested to play a critical role in diverse cellular functions in somatic cell lineages in vitro, and this is further supported by the neonatal lethality phenotype in Ranbp9 global knockout mice. However, the exact molecular actions of RANBP9 remain largely unknown. By inactivation of Ranbp9 specifically in testicular somatic and spermatogenic cells, we discovered that Ranbp9 was dispensable for Sertoli cell development and functions, but critical for male germ cell development and male fertility. RIP-Seq and proteomic analyses revealed that RANBP9 was associated with multiple key splicing factors and directly targeted >2,300 mRNAs in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Many of the RANBP9 target and non-target mRNAs either displayed aberrant splicing patterns or were dysregulated in the absence of Ranbp9. Our data uncovered a novel role of Ranbp9 in regulating alternative splicing in spermatogenic cells, which is critical for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:25474150

Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Ying; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

2014-01-01

198

RAN-Binding Protein 9 is Involved in Alternative Splicing and is Critical for Male Germ Cell Development and Male Fertility.  

PubMed

As a member of the large Ran-binding protein family, Ran-binding protein 9 (RANBP9) has been suggested to play a critical role in diverse cellular functions in somatic cell lineages in vitro, and this is further supported by the neonatal lethality phenotype in Ranbp9 global knockout mice. However, the exact molecular actions of RANBP9 remain largely unknown. By inactivation of Ranbp9 specifically in testicular somatic and spermatogenic cells, we discovered that Ranbp9 was dispensable for Sertoli cell development and functions, but critical for male germ cell development and male fertility. RIP-Seq and proteomic analyses revealed that RANBP9 was associated with multiple key splicing factors and directly targeted >2,300 mRNAs in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Many of the RANBP9 target and non-target mRNAs either displayed aberrant splicing patterns or were dysregulated in the absence of Ranbp9. Our data uncovered a novel role of Ranbp9 in regulating alternative splicing in spermatogenic cells, which is critical for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:25474150

Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Ying; Bhetwal, Bhupal P; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

2014-12-01

199

The role of evolutionarily conserved sequences in alternative splicing at the 3' end of Drosophila melanogaster myosin heavy chain RNA.  

PubMed Central

Exon 18 of the muscle myosin heavy chain gene (Mhc) of Drosophila melanogaster is excluded from larval transcripts but included in most adult transcripts. To identify cis-acting elements regulating this alternative RNA splicing, we sequenced the 3' end of Mhc from the distantly related species D. virilis. Three noncoding regions are conserved: (1) the nonconsensus splice junctions at either end of exon 18; (2) exon 18 itself; and (3) a 30-nucleotide, pyrimidine-rich sequence located about 40 nt upstream of the 3' splice site of exon 18. We generated transgenic flies expressing Mhc mini-genes designed to test the function of these regions. Improvement of both splice sites of adult-specific exon 18 toward the consensus sequence switches the splicing pattern to include exon 18 in all larval transcripts. Thus nonconsensus splice junctions are critical to stage-specific exclusion of this exon. Deletion of nearly all of exon 18 does not affect stage-specific utilization. However, splicing of transcripts lacking the conserved pyrimidine sequence is severely disrupted in adults. Disruption is not rescued by insertion of a different polypyrimidine tract, suggesting that the conserved pyrimidine-rich sequence interacts with tissue-specific splicing factors to activate utilization of the poor splice sites of exon 18 in adult muscle. PMID:9872965

Hodges, D; Cripps, R M; O'Connor, M E; Bernstein, S I

1999-01-01

200

Induction of soluble AChE expression via alternative splicing by chemical stress in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Various molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have been characterized in insects. Post-translational modification is known to be a major mechanism for the molecular diversity of insect AChE. However, multiple forms of Drosophila melanogaster AChE (DmAChE) were recently suggested to be generated via alternative splicing (Kim and Lee, 2013). To confirm alternative splicing as the mechanism for generating the soluble form of DmAChE, we generated a transgenic fly strain carrying the cDNA of DmAChE gene (Dm_ace) that predominantly expressed a single transcript variant encoding the membrane-anchored dimer. 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and western blotting were performed to compare Dm_ace transcript variants and DmAChE forms between wild-type and transgenic strains. Various Dm_ace transcripts and DmAChE molecular forms were observed in wild-type flies, whereas the transgenic fly predominantly expressed Dm_ace transcript variant encoding the membrane-anchored dimer. This supports alternative splicing as the major determinant in the generation of multiple forms of DmAChE. In addition, treatment with DDVP as a chemical stress induced the expression of the Dm_ace splice variant without the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor site in a dose-dependent manner and, accordingly, the soluble form of DmAChE in wild-type flies. In contrast, little soluble DmAChE was expressed in the transgenic fly upon exposure to DDVP. DDVP bioassays revealed that transgenic flies, which were unable to express a sufficient amount of soluble monomeric DmAChE, were more sensitive to DDVP compared to wild-type flies, suggesting that the soluble monomer may exert non-neuronal functions, such as chemical defense against xenobiotics. PMID:24637386

Kim, Young Ho; Kwon, Deok Ho; Ahn, Hyo Min; Koh, Young Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

2014-05-01

201

FOX-2 PROTEIN REGULATES THE ALTERNATE SPLICING OF SCLERODERMA -ASSOCIATED LYSYL HYDROXYLASE 2 mRNA  

PubMed Central

Objective Scleroderma is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen cross-links derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternately-spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively-spliced LH2 exon 13A thereby increasing levels of the long transcript of LH2 [LH2(long)], are linked to scleroderma pathology. In this study we have examined the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion that leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) mRNA. Methods and Results We report that over-expression of Fox-2 enhances inclusion of exon 13A and increases the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreases the LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that two of the four Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for its inclusion. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with systemic scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Conclusions Fox-2 appears to play an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease the levels of fibrosis-associated LH2(long) mRNA in primary scleroderma cells may suggest a novel approach to strategies directed against scleroderma. PMID:20131247

Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N.

2010-01-01

202

Roles of alternative splicing in the functional properties of inner ear-specific KCNQ4 channels.  

PubMed

The function of the KCNQ4 channel in the auditory setting is crucial to hearing, underpinned by the finding that mutations of the channel result in an autosomal dominant form of nonsyndromic progressive high frequency hearing loss. The precise function of KCNQ4 in the inner ear has not been established. However, recently we demonstrated that there is differential expression among four splice variants of KCNQ4 (KCNQ4_v1-v4) along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea. Alternative splicing specifies the outcome of functional channels by modifying the amino acid sequences within the C terminus at a site designated as the membrane proximal region. We show that variations within the C terminus of splice variants produce profound differences in the voltage-dependent phenotype and functional expression of the channel. KCNQ4_v4 lacks exons 9-11, resulting in deletion of 54 amino acid residues adjacent to the S6 domain compared with KCNQ4_v1. Consequently, the voltage-dependent activation of KCNQ4_v4 is shifted leftward by approximately 20 mV, and the number of functional channels is increased severalfold compared with KCNQ4_v1. The properties of KCNQ4_v2 and KCNQ4_v3 fall between KCNQ4_v1 and KCNQ4_v4. Because of variations in the calmodulin binding domains of the splice variants, the channels are differentially modulated by calmodulin. Co-expression of these splice variants yielded current magnitudes suggesting that the channels are composed of heterotetramers. Indeed, a dominant negative mutant of KCNQ4_v1 cripples the currents of the entire KCNQ4 channel family. Furthermore, the dominant negative KCNQ4 mutant stifles the activity of KCNQ2-5, raising the possibility of a global disruption of KCNQ channel activity and the ensuing auditory phenotype. PMID:17561493

Xu, Tonghui; Nie, Liping; Zhang, Yi; Mo, Jiling; Feng, Weihong; Wei, Dongguang; Petrov, Evgueni; Calisto, Lilian E; Kachar, Bechara; Beisel, Kirk W; Vazquez, Ana E; Yamoah, Ebenezer N

2007-08-17

203

Mammalian cells have two functional RCC1 proteins produced by alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Previously we cloned two human RCC1 cDNAs that differed in their noncoding region. In this study, we have found new human and hamster RCC1 cDNAs, which have an even more different coding region from that of the previously cloned RCC1 cDNAs yet can complement the RCC1 mutation in the tsBN2 cell line. The newly found RCC1 cDNAs encode a protein (designated as RCC1-I) that has an insertion of 31 (human) and 13 (hamster) amino acids at valine25 in the N-terminal region outside the RCC1-seven repeat. The inserted nucleotide sequence was searched for, within the human RCC1 genomic sequence that had already been determined, and was found to be located between the 6th and 7th exons, designated as the 6' exon. Both the 5' and 3' ends of the 6' exon correspond to the GT-AG rules for splicing, indicating that human RCC1-I mRNAs are produced by alternative splicing. The finding that both humans and hamsters have the insertion at the same RCC1 site suggests that the pattern of alternative splicing in the RCC1 gene has been conserved through evolution. PMID:7983178

Miyabashira, J; Sekiguchi, T; Nishimoto, T

1994-08-01

204

Alternative Splicing in Class V Myosins Determines Association with Rab10*S?  

PubMed Central

Rab proteins influence vesicle trafficking pathways through the assembly of regulatory protein complexes. Previous investigations have documented that Rab11a and Rab8a can interact with the tail region of myosin Vb and regulate distinct trafficking pathways. We have now determined that a related Rab protein, Rab10, can interact with myosin Va, myosin Vb, and myosin Vc. Rab10 localized to a system of tubules and vesicles that have partially overlapping localization with Rab8a. Both Rab8a and Rab10 were mislocalized by the expression of dominant-negative myosin V tails. Interaction with Rab10 was dependent on the presence of the alternatively spliced exon D in myosin Va and myosin Vb and the homologous region in myosin Vc. Yeast two-hybrid assays and fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies confirmed that Rab10 binding to myosin V tails in vivo required the alternatively spliced exon D. In contrast to our previous work, we found that Rab11a can interact with both myosin Va and myosin Vb tails independent of their splice isoform. These results indicate that Rab GTPases regulate diverse endocytic trafficking pathways through recruitment of multiple myosin V isoforms. PMID:19008234

Roland, Joseph T.; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Goldenring, James R.

2009-01-01

205

The distribution of phosphorylated SR proteins and alternative splicing are regulated by RANBP2  

PubMed Central

The mammalian cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized into various substructures. Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are enriched with SR splicing factors and are implicated in gene expression. Here we report that nuclear speckle formation is developmentally regulated; in certain cases phosphorylated SR proteins are absent from the nucleus and are instead localized at granular structures in the cytoplasm. To investigate how the nuclear architecture is formed, we performed a phenotypic screen of HeLa cells treated with a series of small interfering RNAs. Depletion of Ran-binding protein 2 induced cytoplasmic intermediates of nuclear speckles in G1 phase. Detailed analyses of these structures suggested that a late step in the sequential nuclear entry of mitotic interchromatin granule components was disrupted and that phosphorylated SR proteins were sequestered in an SR protein kinase–dependent manner. As a result, the cells had an imbalanced subcellular distribution of phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated SR proteins, which affected alternative splicing patterns. This study demonstrates that the speckled distribution of phosphorylated pre-mRNA processing factors is regulated by the nucleocytoplasmic transport system in mammalian cells and that it is important for alternative splicing. PMID:22262462

Saitoh, Noriko; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Agredano-Moreno, Lourdes T.; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

2012-01-01

206

Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, forms the intermediate cytoskeleton in cells of the glial lineage. Besides the common GFAPa transcript, the GFAPe and GFAPi transcripts are generated by alternative mRNA 3'-end processing. Here we use a GFAP minigene to characterize molecular mechanisms participating in alternative GFAP expression. Usage of a polyadenylation signal within the alternatively spliced exon 7a is

Jenny Blechingberg; Søren Lykke-Andersen; Torben Heick Jensen; A. L. Jorgensen; Anders Lade Nielsen

2007-01-01

207

Human growth hormone DNA sequence and mRNA structure: possible alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the complete sequence of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene and the position of the mature 5' end of the hGH mRNA within the sequence. Comparison of this sequence with that of a cloned hGH cDNA shows that the gene is interrupted by four intervening sequences. S1 mapping shows that one of these intervening sequences has two different 3' splice sites. These alternate splicing pathways generate hGH peptides of different sizes which are found in normal pituitaries. Comparison of sequences near the 5' end of the hGH mRNA with a similar region of the alpha subunit of the human glycoprotein hormones reveals an unexpected region of homology between these otherwise unrelated peptide hormones. Images PMID:6269091

DeNoto, F M; Moore, D D; Goodman, H M

1981-01-01

208

ASPicDB: A Database Web Tool for Alternative Splicing Analysis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is a basic molecular phenomenon that increases the functional complexity of higher eukaryotic transcriptomes. Indeed, through AS individual gene loci can generate multiple RNAs from the same pre-mRNA. AS has been investigated in a variety of clinical and pathological studies, such as the transcriptome regulation in cancer. In human, recent works based on massive RNA sequencing indicate that >95 % of pre-mRNAs are processed to yield multiple transcripts. Given the biological relevance of AS, several computational efforts have been done leading to the implementation of novel algorithms and specific specialized databases. Here we describe the web application ASPicDB that allows the recovery of detailed biological information about the splicing mechanism. ASPicDB provides powerful querying systems to interrogate AS events at gene, transcript, and protein levels. Finally, ASPicDB includes web visualization instruments to browse and export results for further off-line analyses. PMID:25577391

D'Antonio, Mattia; Castrgnanò, Tiziana; Pallocca, Matteo; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Picardi, Ernesto; Pesole, Graziano

2015-01-01

209

CADM1 is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced functional and dysfunctional isoforms in human mast cells  

PubMed Central

Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases and is responsible for adhesion and survival of mast cells (MCs). Differential expression of CADM1 isoforms was found in different species. We previously cloned SP4, SP1, SP6 and a dysfunctional isoform from human lung MCs (HLMCs) and the MC line HMC-1. The aim of this study was to identify all isoforms expressed in human MCs. The functional isoforms SP4, SP1, SP6 and SP3, with alternative splicing between exons 7/11, were detected in human MCs by RT-PCR. Two dysfunctional isoforms with alternative splicing of cryptic exons A and B between exons 1/2, leading to premature termination of translation, were found in ?40% of MC specimens. Sequencing of genomic DNA showed that splicing of cryptic exon B did not result from specific SNPs within this exon or its putative splice branch point. Highly glycosylated CADM1 (?105 kDa) was detected by western blotting, but an extracellular domain (?95 kDa) was found only in the culture medium from HLMCs, but not HMC-1 cells, indicating differential protein expression. Transfection of SP1 and SP6, but not SP4, reduced adhesion of HMC-1 cells to human lung fibroblasts but not airway smooth muscle cells. Hence, dysfunctional and functional CADM1 isoforms are found in human MCs. The longer SP1 and SP6 were most evident in differentiated HLMCs and displayed differential adhesion compared to SP4. These multiple isoforms are likely to contribute to MC function in both health and disease. PMID:23063768

Moiseeva, Elena P.; Leyland, Mark L.; Bradding, Peter

2013-01-01

210

PTBP-dependent PSD-95 and CamKII? alternative splicing in the lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose Parallels described between neurons and lens fiber cells include detailed similarities in sub-cellular structures that increasingly show shared expression of genes involved in the construction and function of these structures in neurons. Intriguingly, associated modes of molecular regulation of these genes that had been thought to distinguish neurons have been identified in the lens as well. Both elongated cell types form membrane protrusions with similar size, shape, and spacing that exclude microtubules, contain F-actin, and are coated with the clathrin/AP-2 adaptor. Lenses express glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors with signaling and channel proteins shown to act together at neuronal membranes. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII?) expression and functions illustrate the integration of aspects of neuronal molecular and cell biology and were investigated here in the lens. Methods Immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and RT–PCR methods were used to assess protein expression and alternative transcript splicing. Results We showed the essential dendritic spine scaffold protein PSD-95 is expressed in lenses and demonstrated lens PSD-95 transcripts undergo polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP)-dependent alternative splicing of its pivotal exon 18 required to avoid nonsense-mediated decay, and showed PTBP-dependent alternative splicing of CaMKII? transcripts in the lens. The PSD-95 protein was observed at fiber cell membranes overlapping with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate and GABA receptor proteins, tyrosine phosphatase STEP, CaMKII?, the Ca(V)1.3 calcium channel, and clathrin, which were previously identified at lens fiber cell membranes. During neurogenesis, miR-124 is expressed that suppresses PTBP1 and promotes these splicing events. miR-124 is also expressed in mammalian lenses and upregulated during lens regeneration in amphibians, consistent with previous demonstrations of PTBP1,2 and PTBP-dependent PTBP2 exon 10 splicing in rodent lenses. Conclusions Findings of this dendritic spine scaffold protein and conservation of its key mode of molecular regulation in the lens provides further evidence that key aspects of the neuron morphogenetic program are shared with the lens. PMID:25540577

Nandanoor, Anoop; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

2014-01-01

211

Reduced fidelity of branch point recognition and alternative splicing induced by the anti-tumor drug spliceostatin A  

PubMed Central

Spliceostatin A (SSA) is a stabilized derivative of a Pseudomonas bacterial fermentation product that displays potent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities in cancer cells and animal models. The drug inhibits pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo and binds SF3b, a protein subcomplex of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), which is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA branch point. We report that SSA prevents interaction of an SF3b 155-kDa subunit with the pre-mRNA, concomitant with nonproductive recruitment of U2 snRNP to sequences 5? of the branch point. Differences in base-pairing potential with U2 snRNA in this region lead to different sensitivity of 3? splice sites to SSA, and to SSA-induced changes in alternative splicing. Indeed, rather than general splicing inhibition, splicing-sensitive microarray analyses reveal specific alternative splicing changes induced by the drug that significantly overlap with those induced by knockdown of SF3b 155. These changes lead to down-regulation of genes important for cell division, including cyclin A2 and Aurora A kinase, thus providing an explanation for the anti-proliferative effects of SSA. Our results reveal a mechanism that prevents nonproductive base-pairing interactions in the spliceosome, and highlight the regulatory and cancer therapeutic potential of perturbing the fidelity of splice site recognition. PMID:21363963

Corrionero, Anna; Miñana, Belén; Valcárcel, Juan

2011-01-01

212

The alternative splicing regulator tra2b is required for somitogenesis and regulates splicing of an inhibitory wnt11b isoform.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is pervasive in vertebrates, yet little is known about most isoforms or their regulation. transformer-2b (tra2b) encodes a splicing regulator whose endogenous function is poorly understood. Tra2b knockdown in Xenopus results in embryos with multiple defects, including defective somitogenesis. Using RNA sequencing, we identify 142 splice changes (mostly intron retention and exon skipping), 89% of which are not in current annotations. A previously undescribed isoform of wnt11b retains the last intron, resulting in a truncated ligand (Wnt11b-short). We show that this isoform acts as a dominant-negative ligand in cardiac gene induction and pronephric tubule formation. To determine the contribution of Wnt11b-short to the tra2b phenotype, we induce retention of intron 4 in wnt11b, which recapitulates the failure to form somites but not other tra2b morphant defects. This alternative splicing of a Wnt ligand adds intricacy to a complex signaling pathway and highlights intron retention as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:25620705

Dichmann, Darwin S; Walentek, Peter; Harland, Richard M

2015-02-01

213

Leydig cells express the myelin proteolipid protein gene and incorporate a new alternatively spliced exon.  

PubMed

Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) is highly expressed in the central nervous system encoding the most abundant myelin protein in oligodendrocytes, it is also expressed in other tissues, including testis. Transgenic studies with mice that harbor Plp1-lacZ fusion genes suggest that Leydig cells are the source of Plp1 gene expression in testis. However, virtually nothing is known about Plp1 gene regulation in Leydig cells, which is the focus of this study. The first intron contains both positive and negative regulatory elements that are important in regulating Plp1 gene expression in oligodendrocytes. To test whether these elements are functional in Leydig cells, a battery of Plp1-lacZ fusion genes with partial deletion of Plp1 intron 1 sequence was transfected into the mouse Leydig cell line, TM3. Results presented here suggest that an enhancer, which is very potent in oligodendrocytes, is only nominally active in TM3 cells. The intron also contains several negative regulatory elements that are operative in TM3 cells. Moreover a new exon (exon 1.2) was identified within the first 'intron' resulting in novel splice variants in TM3 cells. Western blot analysis suggests that these splice variants, along with those containing another alternatively spliced exon (exon 1.1) derived from intron 1 sequence, give rise to multiple Plp1 gene products in the mouse testis. PMID:19232385

Li, Shenyang; Greuel, Brian T; Meng, Fanxue; Pereira, Glauber B; Pitts, Adria; Dobretsova, Anna; Wight, Patricia A

2009-05-01

214

SRp38 regulates alternative splicing and is required for Ca2+ handling in the embryonic heart  

PubMed Central

Summary SRp38 is an atypical SR protein splicing regulator. To define the functions of SRp38 in vivo, we generated SRp38-null mice. The majority of homozygous mutants survived only until E15.5 and displayed multiple cardiac defects. Evaluation of gene expression profiles in the SRp38(?/?) embryonic heart revealed a defect in processing of the pre-mRNA encoding cardiac triadin, a protein that functions in regulation of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation-contraction coupling. This defect resulted in significantly reduced levels of triadin, as well as of the interacting protein calsequestrin 2. Purified SRp38 was shown to bind specifically to the regulated exon, and to modulate triadin splicing in vitro. Extending these results, isolated SRp38(?/?) embryonic cardiomyocytes displayed defects in Ca2+ handling compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SRp38 regulates cardiac-specific alternative splicing of triadin pre-mRNA and reflecting this is essential for proper Ca2+ handling during embryonic heart development. PMID:19386262

Feng, Ying; Valley, Matthew T.; Lazar, Josef; Yang, Allison L.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Firestein, Stuart; Coetzee, William A.; Manley, James L.

2009-01-01

215

Alternative splicing resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay: what is the meaning of nonsense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) strongly affects gene expres- sion by generating protein isoform diversity. However, up to one-third of human AS events create a premature termination codon that would cause the resulting mRNA to be degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The extent to which such events represent func- tionally selected post-transcriptional gene control, as opposed to noise in the splicing

Nicholas J. McGlincy; Christopher W. J. Smith

2008-01-01

216

Species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression of sno-lncRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Intron-derived long noncoding RNAs with snoRNA ends (sno-lncRNAs) are highly expressed from the imprinted Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) region on human chromosome 15. However, sno-lncRNAs from other regions of the human genome or from other genomes have not yet been documented. Results By exploring non-polyadenylated transcriptomes from human, rhesus and mouse, we have systematically annotated sno-lncRNAs expressed in all three species. In total, using available data from a limited set of cell lines, 19 sno-lncRNAs have been identified with tissue- and species-specific expression patterns. Although primary sequence analysis revealed that snoRNAs themselves are conserved from human to mouse, sno-lncRNAs are not. PWS region sno-lncRNAs are highly expressed in human and rhesus monkey, but are undetectable in mouse. Importantly, the absence of PWS region sno-lncRNAs in mouse suggested a possible reason why current mouse models fail to fully recapitulate pathological features of human PWS. In addition, a RPL13A region sno-lncRNA was specifically revealed in mouse embryonic stem cells, and its snoRNA ends were reported to influence lipid metabolism. Interestingly, the RPL13A region sno-lncRNA is barely detectable in human. We further demonstrated that the formation of sno-lncRNAs is often associated with alternative splicing of exons within their parent genes, and species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression pattern of sno-lncRNAs in different animals. Conclusions Comparative transcriptomes of non-polyadenylated RNAs among human, rhesus and mouse revealed that the expression of sno-lncRNAs is species-specific and that their processing is closely linked to alternative splicing of their parent genes. This study thus further demonstrates a complex regulatory network of coding and noncoding parts of the mammalian genome. PMID:24734784

2014-01-01

217

Alternative role of HuD splicing variants in neuronal differentiation.  

PubMed

HuD is a neuronal RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in neuronal differentiation of the nervous system. HuD has been reported to have three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and three splice variants (SVs) that differ in their amino acid sequences between RRM2 and RRM3. This study investigates whether these SVs have specific roles in neuronal differentiation. In primary neural epithelial cells under differentiating conditions, HuD splice variant 1 (HuD-sv1), which is a general form, and HuD-sv2 were expressed at all tested times, whereas HuD-sv4 was transiently expressed at the beginning of differentiation, indicating that HuD-sv4 might play a role compared different from that of HuD-sv1. Indeed, HuD-sv4 did not promote neuronal differentiation in epithelial cells, whereas HuD-sv1 did promote neuronal differentiation. HuD-sv4 overexpression showed less neurite-inducing activity than HuD-sv1 in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells; however, HuD-sv4 showed stronger growth-arresting activity. HuD-sv1 was localized only in the cytoplasm, whereas HuD-sv4 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei. The Hu protein has been reported to be involved in translation and alternative splicing in the cytoplasm and nuclei, respectively. Consistent with this observation, HuD-sv1 showed translational activity on p21, which plays a role in growth arrest and neuronal differentiation, whereas HuD-sv4 did not. By contrast, HuD-sv4 showed stronger pre-mRNA splicing activity than did HuD-sv1 on Clasp2, which participates in cell division. Therefore, HuD SVs might play a role in controlling the timing of proliferation/differentiation switching by controlling the translation and alternative splicing of target genes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25332105

Hayashi, Satoru; Yano, Masato; Igarashi, Mana; Okano, Hirotaka James; Okano, Hideyuki

2015-03-01

218

Genome-Wide Identification of Fas/CD95 Alternative Splicing Regulators Reveals Links with Iron Homeostasis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of Fas/CD95 exon 6 generates either a membrane-bound receptor that promotes, or a soluble isoform that inhibits, apoptosis. Using an automatized genome-wide siRNA screening for alternative splicing regulators of endogenous transcripts in mammalian cells, we identified 200 genes whose knockdown modulates the ratio between Fas/CD95 isoforms. These include classical splicing regulators; core spliceosome components; and factors implicated in transcription and chromatin remodeling, RNA transport, intracellular signaling, and metabolic control. Coherent effects of genes involved in iron homeostasis and pharmacological modulation of iron levels revealed a link between intracellular iron and Fas/CD95 exon 6 inclusion. A splicing regulatory network linked iron levels with reduced activity of the Zinc-finger-containing splicing regulator SRSF7, and in vivo and in vitro assays revealed that iron inhibits SRSF7 RNA binding. Our results uncover numerous links between cellular pathways and RNA processing and a mechanism by which iron homeostasis can influence alternative splicing. PMID:25482508

Tejedor, J Ramón; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Valcárcel, Juan

2015-01-01

219

Skipping of Exons by Premature Termination of Transcription and Alternative Splicing within Intron-5 of the Sheep SCF Gene: A Novel Splice Variant  

PubMed Central

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (?) or soluble (+) forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin of white merino sheep via cloning and sequencing. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and molecular prediction revealed two different cDNA products of SCF. Full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). Nucleotide sequencing and molecular prediction revealed that the primary 1519 base pair (bp) cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 274 amino acids (aa), commonly known as ‘soluble’ isoform. In contrast, the shorter (835 and/or 725 bp) cDNA was found to be a ‘novel’ mRNA splice variant. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) corresponding to a truncated protein of 181 aa (vs 245 aa) with an unique C-terminus lacking the primary proteolytic segment (28 aa) right after the D175G site which is necessary to produce ‘soluble’ form of SCF. This alternative splice (AS) variant was explained by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering exon 5-intron (5)-exon 6 (948 bp) with a premature termination codon (PTC) whereby exons 6 to 9/10 are skipped (Cassette Exon, CE 6–9/10). We also demonstrated that the Northern blot analysis at transcript level is mediated via an intron-5 splicing event. Our data refine the structure of SCF gene; clarify the presence (+) and/or absence (?) of primary proteolytic-cleavage site specific SCF splice variants. This work provides a basis for understanding the functional role and regulation of SCF in hair follicle melanogenesis in sheep beyond what was known in mice, humans and other mammals. PMID:22719917

Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

2012-01-01

220

rMATS: Robust and flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data  

PubMed Central

Ultra-deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We previously developed multivariate analysis of transcript splicing (MATS), a statistical method for detecting differential alternative splicing between two RNA-Seq samples. Here we describe a new statistical model and computer program, replicate MATS (rMATS), designed for detection of differential alternative splicing from replicate RNA-Seq data. rMATS uses a hierarchical model to simultaneously account for sampling uncertainty in individual replicates and variability among replicates. In addition to the analysis of unpaired replicates, rMATS also includes a model specifically designed for paired replicates between sample groups. The hypothesis-testing framework of rMATS is flexible and can assess the statistical significance over any user-defined magnitude of splicing change. The performance of rMATS is evaluated by the analysis of simulated and real RNA-Seq data. rMATS outperformed two existing methods for replicate RNA-Seq data in all simulation settings, and RT-PCR yielded a high validation rate (94%) in an RNA-Seq dataset of prostate cancer cell lines. Our data also provide guiding principles for designing RNA-Seq studies of alternative splicing. We demonstrate that it is essential to incorporate biological replicates in the study design. Of note, pooling RNAs or merging RNA-Seq data from multiple replicates is not an effective approach to account for variability, and the result is particularly sensitive to outliers. The rMATS source code is freely available at rnaseq-mats.sourceforge.net/. As the popularity of RNA-Seq continues to grow, we expect rMATS will be useful for studies of alternative splicing in diverse RNA-Seq projects. PMID:25480548

Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Lin, Lan; Henry, Michael D.; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhou, Qing; Xing, Yi

2014-01-01

221

NR0B1A: an alternatively spliced form of NR0B1.  

PubMed

The orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal-AHC critical region on the X chromosome gene 1), encoded by the NR0B1 gene, plays important roles in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPAG) axis as well as in sex determination. Mutations in NR0B1 cause the X-linked cytomegalic form of adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC), and associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Over-expression of NR0B1 results in sex reversal in mice and duplication of the 160kb DSS locus in human patients results in a sex-reversed phenotype (XY females). The purpose of these investigations was to determine if alternatively spliced forms of NR0B1 existed. Analysis of expressed sequence tag data predicted a truncated isoform of DAX1. We confirmed the presence of an alternatively spliced form of NR0B1, which we will refer to as NR0B1A, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and will refer to the deduced protein isoform as DAX1A. Sequencing of the NR0B1A cDNA revealed slight differences from the recently described splice form, DAX1alpha. NR0B1A is encoded by NR0B1 exon 1 and exon 2A located within the 3385 nt intron between NR0B1 exons 1 and 2. Exon 2A includes 35 nt of coding sequence. NR0B1A encodes a deduced protein sequence, DAX1A, of 400 amino acids compared with 470 amino acids for DAX1. RT-PCR detected expression of NR0B1A in adrenal gland, testis, ovary, and pancreas. The identification of NR0B1A and the deduced DAX1A requires reinterpretation of many previous experiments involving expression and knockout of NR0B1 and DAX1. PMID:15589120

Ho, John; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Huang, Bing-Ling; McCabe, Edward R B

2004-12-01

222

Identification of alternatively spliced Dab1 and Fyn isoforms in pig  

PubMed Central

Background Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an adaptor protein that is essential for the intracellular transduction of Reelin signaling, which regulates the migration and differentiation of postmitotic neurons during brain development in vertebrates. Dab1 function depends on its tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases, especially Fyn. Results We have isolated alternatively spliced forms of porcine Dab1 from brain (sDab1) and liver (sDab1-Li) and Fyn from brain (sFyn-B) and spleen (sFyn-T). Radiation hybrid mapping localized porcine Dab1 (sDab1) and Fyn (sFyn) to chromosomes 6q31-35 and 1p13, respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that different isoforms of Dab1 and Fyn have tissue-specific expression patterns, and sDab1 and sFyn-B display similar temporal expression characteristics in the developing porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Both sDab1 isoforms function as nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins. It was further shown that sFyn phosphorylates sDab1 at tyrosyl residues (Tyr) 185, 198/200 and 232, whereas sDab1-Li was phosphorylated at Tyr 185 and Tyr 197 (corresponding to Y232 in sDab1) in vitro. Conclusions Alternative splicing generates natural sDab1-Li that only carries Y185 and Y197 (corresponding to Y232 in sDab1) sites, which can be phosphorylated by Fyn in vitro. sDab1-Li is an isoform that is highly expressed in peripheral organs. Both isoforms are suggested to be nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins. Our results imply that the short splice form sDab1-Li might regulate cellular responses to different cell signals by acting as a dominant negative form against the full length sDab1 variant and that both isoforms might serve different signaling functions in different tissues. PMID:21294906

2011-01-01

223

Aberrant posttranscriptional processing of hyaluronan synthase 1 in malignant transformation and tumor progression.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly apparent that splicing defects play a key role in cancer, and that alterations in genomic splicing elements promote aberrant splicing. Alternative splicing increases the diversity of the human transcriptome and increases the numbers of functional gene products. However, dysregulation that leads to aberrant pre-mRNA splicing can contribute to cancer. Hyaluronan (HA), known to be an important component of cancer progression, is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs). In cancer cells, hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) pre-mRNA is abnormally spliced to generate a family of aberrant splice variants (HAS1Vs) that synthesize extracellular and intracellular HA. HAS1Vs are clinically relevant, being found almost exclusively in malignant cells. Expression of aberrant HAS1Vs predicts poor survival in multiple myeloma. In this review, we summarize the unusual properties of HAS1Vs and their relationship to cancer. HAS1Vs form heterogeneous multimers with normally spliced HAS1 as well as with each other and with HAS3. Aberrant variants of HAS1 synthesize HA. Extracellular HA synthesized by HAS1Vs is likely to promote malignant spread. We speculate that synthesis of intracellular HA plays a fundamental and early role in oncogenesis by promoting genetic instability and the emergence of viable cancer variants that lead to aggressive disease. PMID:25081526

Adamia, Sophia; Kriangkum, Jitra; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

2014-01-01

224

Genome-wide survey of alternative splicing in the grass Brachypodium distachyon: a emerging model biosystem for plant functional genomics.  

PubMed

A draft sequence of the genome of Brachypodium distachyon, the emerging grass model, was recently released. This represents a unique opportunity to determine its functional diversity compared to the genomes of other model species. Using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags with chromosome scale pseudomolecules, we identified 128 alternative splicing events in B. distachyon. Our study identified that retention of introns is the major type of alternative splicing events (53%) in this plant and highlights the prevalence of splicing site recognition for definition of introns in plants. We have analyzed the compositional profiles of exon-intron junctions by base-pairing nucleotides with U1 snRNA which serves as a model for describing the possibility of sequence conservation. The alternative splicing isoforms identified in this study are novel and represent one of the potentially biologically significant means by which B. distachyon controls the function of its genes. Our observations serve as a basis to understand alternative splicing events of cereal crops with more complex genomes, like wheat or barley. PMID:21107652

Sablok, Gaurav; Gupta, P K; Baek, Jong-Min; Vazquez, Franck; Min, Xiang Jia

2011-03-01

225

Divergent Functions Through Alternative Splicing: The Drosophila CRMP Gene in Pyrimidine Metabolism, Brain, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

DHP and CRMP proteins comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that perform divergent functions, DHP in pyrimidine catabolism in most organisms and CRMP in neuronal dynamics in animals. In vertebrates, one DHP and five CRMP proteins are products of six genes; however, Drosophila melanogaster has a single CRMP gene that encodes one DHP and one CRMP protein through tissue-specific, alternative splicing of a pair of paralogous exons. The proteins derived from the fly gene are identical over 90% of their lengths, suggesting that unique, novel functions of these proteins derive from the segment corresponding to the paralogous exons. Functional homologies of the Drosophila and mammalian CRMP proteins are revealed by several types of evidence. Loss-of-function CRMP mutation modifies both Ras and Rac misexpression phenotypes during fly eye development in a manner that is consistent with the roles of CRMP in Ras and Rac signaling pathways in mammalian neurons. In both mice and flies, CRMP mutation impairs learning and memory. CRMP mutant flies are defective in circadian activity rhythm. Thus, DHP and CRMP proteins are derived by different processes in flies (tissue-specific, alternative splicing of paralogous exons of a single gene) and vertebrates (tissue-specific expression of different genes), indicating that diverse genetic mechanisms have mediated the evolution of this protein family in animals. PMID:22649077

Morris, Deanna H.; Dubnau, Josh; Park, Jae H.; Rawls, John M.

2012-01-01

226

Alternative splicing modulates Disabled-1 (Dab1) function in the developing chick retina  

PubMed Central

The Reelin–Disabled 1 (Dab1)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in neuronal cell positioning in the brain. We have isolated two alternatively spliced variants of Dab1 from chick retina, an early form (chDab1-E) expressed in undifferentiated cells and a late form (chDab1-L) expressed in amacrine and ganglion cells. A key difference between the two forms is the exclusion in chDab1-E of two Src-related tyrosine kinase recognition sites implicated in Reelin-mediated Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Retinal cultures transfected with a chDab1-L expression construct undergo a dramatic change in morphology, accompanied by the formation of numerous thin elongated processes, increased tyrosine phosphorylation, activation of Src family kinase(s) and increased levels of the axonal outgrowth protein growth-associated protein-43. In contrast, chDab1-E transfectants retain an undifferentiated morphology. Mutational analysis implicates a specific tyrosine (tyr-198) in the morphological and biochemical alterations associated with chDab1-L expression. We propose that alternative splicing of chDab1 represents an effective and flexible way of regulating the Reelin–Dab1-signaling pathway in a mixed cell population, by ensuring that secreted Reelin activates the signaling cascade only in target neuronal cells. PMID:15057276

Katyal, Sachin; Godbout, Roseline

2004-01-01

227

Detection of alternative splice and gene duplication by RNA sequencing in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.  

PubMed

Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of "omics" data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 "single-nucleotide polymorphisms" were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

2014-12-01

228

Gene structure, multiple alternative splicing, and expression in gonads of zebrafish Dmrt1.  

PubMed

Many basic cellular processes are shared across vast phylogenetic distances, whereas sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla although the existence of two sexes is nearly universal in the animal kingdom. The only molecular similarity in sex determination found so far between phyla is among the fly doublesex, worm mab-3, and vertebrate Dmrt1/DMY, which contain a zinc-finger-like DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Here we report that three isoforms of the zebrafish Dmrt1 were generated in gonads by multiple alternative splicing, which encoded predicted proteins with 267, 246, and 132 amino acids, respectively. By cDNA cloning and genomic structure analysis, we found that there were seven exons of Dmrt1, which were alternatively spliced to generate the Dmrt1 isoforms. Northern blotting analysis revealed that expression of zebrafish Dmrt1 was higher in testis than ovary. Real time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR indicated that expression of isoform a of Dmrt1 was dominantly higher than those of Dmrt1 b and c. Furthermore, in situ hybridization to gonads sections showed that Dmrt1 was expressed in developing germ cells of both testis and ovary, suggesting that the Dmrt1 gene is not only associated with testis development, but also, may be important in ovary differentiation of zebrafish. PMID:15809088

Guo, Yiqing; Cheng, Hanhua; Huang, Xiao; Gao, Shang; Yu, Hongshi; Zhou, Rongjia

2005-05-13

229

Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells  

PubMed Central

The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

2014-01-01

230

Features of evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing events between Brassica and Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) generates multiple types of mRNA from a single type of pre-mRNA by differential intron splicing. It can result in new protein isoforms or down-regulation of gene expression by transcript decay. The evolutionary conservation of AS events in plants is largely unexplored and only a small number of AS events have been identified as conserved between divergent species. We performed a large-scale analysis of cDNA data from Brassica and Arabidopsis to identify and further characterize conserved AS events. We identified 537 conserved AS events in 485 genes. Alternative donor and acceptor events are significantly overrepresented among conserved events, whereas intron retention and exon skipping events are underrepresented. Conserved AS events are significantly shorter, less likely to be in the 3'UTR, and they are enriched for genes whose products function in the chloroplast. AS modified a functional domain for about half of the genes with conserved events. We further characterized three genes with conserved AS events. This study identifies many AS events that are conserved between Brassica and Arabidopsis, revealing features of conserved AS events. Many of the conserved AS events may have important, but uncharacterized, functions. PMID:23551259

Darracq, Aude; Adams, Keith L

2013-07-01

231

Detection of Alternative Splice and Gene Duplication by RNA Sequencing in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

PubMed Central

Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of “omics” data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 “single-nucleotide polymorphisms” were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

2014-01-01

232

Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP) – data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due to alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background It is often the case that mammalian genes are alternatively spliced; the resulting alternate transcripts often encode protein isoforms that differ in amino acid sequences. Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. The effect can range from a subtle modulation to a complete loss of function. Results (i) We examined human splice-mediated protein isoforms (as extracted from a manually curated data set, and from a computationally predicted data set) for differences in the annotation for protein signatures (Pfam domains and PRINTS fingerprints) and we characterized the differences & their effects on protein functionalities. An important question addressed relates to the extent of protein isoforms that may lack any known function in the cell. (ii) We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences. Conclusion (i) Characterization: The work points to distinct sets of alternatively spliced genes with varying degrees of annotation for the splice-mediated protein isoforms. Protein molecular functions seen to be often affected are those that relate to: binding, catalytic, transcription regulation, structural molecule, transporter, motor, and antioxidant; and the processes that are often affected are nucleic acid binding, signal transduction, and protein-protein interactions. Signatures are often included/excluded and truncated in length among protein isoforms; truncation is seen as the predominant type of change. Analysis points to the following novel aspects: (a) Analysis using data from the manually curated Vega indicates that one in 8.9 genes can lead to a protein isoform of no "known" function; and one in 18 expressed protein isoforms can be such an "orphan" isoform; the corresponding numbers as seen with computationally predicted ASD data set are: one in 4.9 genes and one in 9.8 isoforms. (b) When swapping of signatures occurs, it is often between those of same functional classifications. (c) Pfam domains can occur in varying lengths, and PRINTS fingerprints can occur with varying number of constituent motifs among isoforms – since such a variation is seen in large number of genes, it could be a general mechanism to modulate protein function. (ii) Data: The reported resource (at ) provides the community ability to access data on splice-mediated protein isoforms (with value-added annotation such as association with diseases) through changes in protein signatures. PMID:18831736

Floris, Matteo; Orsini, Massimiliano; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

2008-01-01

233

Alternatively spliced protein arginine methyltransferase 1 isoform PRMT1v2 promotes the survival and invasiveness of breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Protein arginine methylation is catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and plays an important role in many cellular processes. Aberrant PRMT expression has been observed in several common cancer types; however, their precise contribution to the cell transformation process is not well understood. We previously reported that the PRMT1 gene generates several alternatively spliced isoforms, and our initial biochemical characterization of these isoforms revealed that they exhibit distinct substrate specificity and subcellular localization. We focus here on the PRMT1v2 isoform, which is the only predominantly cytoplasmic isoform, and we have found that its relative expression is increased in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Specific depletion of PRMT1v2 using RNA interference caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival due to an induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, depletion of PRMT1v2 in an aggressive cancer cell line significantly decreased cell invasion. We also demonstrate that PRMT1v2 overexpression in a non-aggressive cancer cell line was sufficient to render them more invasive. Importantly, this novel activity is specific to PRMT1v2, as overexpression of other isoforms did not enhance invasion. Moreover, this activity requires both proper subcellular localization and methylase activity. Lastly, PRMT1v2 overexpression altered cell morphology and reduced cell-cell adhesion, a phenomenon that we convincingly linked with reduced ?-catenin protein expression. Overall, we demonstrate a specific role for PRMT1v2 in breast cancer cell survival and invasion, underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the distinct functional differences between PRMT1 isoforms. PMID:23187807

Baldwin, R Mitchell; Morettin, Alan; Paris, Genevieve; Goulet, Isabelle; Côté, Jocelyn

2012-12-15

234

EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism. PMID:23707073

Babic, Ivan; Anderson, Erik S.; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Guo, Deliang; Masui, Kenta; Li, Bing; Zhu, Shaojun; Gu, Yuchao; Villa, Genaro; Akhavan, David; Nathanson, David; Gini, Beatrice; Mareninov, Sergey; Li, Rui; Espindola C., Carolina; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F.; Yong, William H.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Christofk, Heather R.; Black, Douglas L.; Mischel, Paul S.

2013-01-01

235

Alternative splicing of Wilms tumor suppressor 1 (Wt1) exon 4 results in protein isoforms with different functions.  

PubMed

The Wilms tumor suppressor gene Wt1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that is essential for development of multiple organs including kidneys, gonads, spleen and heart. In mammals Wt1 comprises 10 exons with two characteristic splicing events: inclusion or skipping of exon 5 and alternative usage of two splice donor sites between exons 9 and 10. Most fish including zebrafish and medaka possess two wt1 paralogs, wt1a and wt1b, both lacking exon 5. Here we have characterized wt1 in guppy, platyfish and the short-lived African killifish Nothobranchius furzeri. All fish except zebrafish show alternative splicing of exon 4 of wt1a but not of wt1b with the wt1a(-exon 4) isoform being the predominant splice variant. With regard to function, Wt1a(+exon 4) showed less dimerization but stimulated transcription more effectively than the Wt1a(-exon 4) isoform. A specific knockdown of wt1a exon 4 in zebrafish was associated with anomalies in kidney development demonstrating a physiological function for Wt1a exon 4. Interestingly, alternative splicing of exon 4 seems to be an early evolutionary event as it is observed in the single wt1 gene of the sturgeon, a species that has not gone through teleost-specific genome duplication. PMID:25014653

Schnerwitzki, Danny; Perner, Birgit; Hoppe, Beate; Pietsch, Stefan; Mehringer, Rebecca; Hänel, Frank; Englert, Christoph

2014-09-01

236

Alternative 5' exons and differential splicing regulate expression of protein 4.1R isoforms with distinct n-termini  

SciTech Connect

Among the alternative pre-mRNA splicing events that characterize protein 4.1R gene expression, one involving exon 2' plays a critical role in regulating translation initiation and N-terminal protein structure. Exon 2' encompasses translation initiation site AUG1 and is located between alternative splice acceptor sites at the 5' end of exon 2; its inclusion or exclusion from mature 4.1R mRNA regulates expression of longer or shorter isoforms of 4.1R protein, respectively. The current study reports unexpected complexity in the 5' region of the 4.1R gene that directly affects alternative splicing of exon 2'. Three mutually exclusive alternative 5' exons, designated 1A, 1B, and 1C, were identified far upstream of exon 2 in both mouse and human genomes; all three are associated with strong transcriptional promoters in the flanking genomic sequence. Importantly, exons 1A and 1B splice differentially with respect to exon 2', generating transcripts with different 5' ends and distinct N-terminal protein coding capacity. Exon 1A-type transcripts splice so as to exclude exon 2' and therefore utilize the downstream AUG2 for translation of 80kD 4.1R protein, whereas exon 1B transcripts include exon 2' and initiate at AUG1 to synthesize 135kD isoforms. RNA blot analyses revealed that 1A transcripts increase in abundance in late erythroblasts, consistent with the previously demonstrated upregulation of 80kD 4.1R during terminal erythroid differentiation. Together these results suggest that synthesis of structurally distinct 4.1R protein isoforms in various cell types is regulated by a novel mechanism requiring coordination between upstream transcription initiation events and downstream alternative splicing events.

Parra, Marilyn K.; Gee, Sherry L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2003-03-25

237

Cell type-restricted activity of hnRNPM promotes breast cancer metastasis via regulating alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Tumor metastasis remains the major cause of cancer-related death, but its molecular basis is still not well understood. Here we uncovered a splicing-mediated pathway that is essential for breast cancer metastasis. We show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNPM) promotes breast cancer metastasis by activating the switch of alternative splicing that occurs during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Genome-wide deep sequencing analysis suggests that hnRNPM potentiates TGF? signaling and identifies CD44 as a key downstream target of hnRNPM. hnRNPM ablation prevents TGF?-induced EMT and inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice, whereas enforced expression of the specific CD44 standard (CD44s) splice isoform overrides the loss of hnRNPM and permits EMT and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed hnRNPM acts in a mesenchymal-specific manner to precisely control CD44 splice isoform switching during EMT. This restricted cell-type activity of hnRNPM is achieved by competition with ESRP1, an epithelial splicing regulator that binds to the same cis-regulatory RNA elements as hnRNPM and is repressed during EMT. Importantly, hnRNPM is associated with aggressive breast cancer and correlates with increased CD44s in patient specimens. These findings demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism through which tumor metastasis is endowed by the hnRNPM-mediated splicing program. PMID:24840202

Xu, Yilin; Gao, Xin D.; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Huang, Huilin; Tan, Haiyan; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Reinke, Lauren M.; Peter, Marcus E.; Feng, Yue; Gius, David; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P.; Peng, Junmin; Xiao, Xinshu; Cheng, Chonghui

2014-01-01

238

Aberrant Alternative Splicing of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in a TSH-Secreting Pituitary Tumor Is  

E-print Network

and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and Surgical Neurology Branch (E.H.O.), National Institute of Neurological­1538, 2001) THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS is tightly regu- lated by a negative feedback system involving

239

Alternative splicing generates different parkin protein isoforms: evidences in human, rat, and mouse brain.  

PubMed

Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. Parkin deficiency has also been linked to other human pathologies, for example, sporadic Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and cancer. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification. To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. By analyzing the literature, we highlight the existing data showing the presence of multiple parkin isoforms in the brain. Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. PMID:25136611

Scuderi, Soraya; La Cognata, Valentina; Drago, Filippo; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

2014-01-01

240

Ametantrone-based compounds as potential regulators of Tau pre-mRNA alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Tau pre-mRNA contains a stem-loop structure involved in the regulation of the alternative splicing of tau protein. We describe here a new family of Tau RNA ligands selected by dynamic combinatorial chemistry based on the combination of ametantrone with small RNA-binding molecules. The most promising compound results from derivatization of one of the side chains of the anthraquinone ring with the small aminoglycoside neamine through a short spacer. This compound binds the RNA target with a high affinity in a preferred binding site, in which the heteroaromatic moiety intercalates in the bulged region of the stem-loop and its side chains and neamine interact with the major groove of the RNA. Importantly, binding of this compound to mutated RNA sequences involved in the onset of some tauopathies such as FTDP-17 restores their thermodynamic stability to a similar or even higher levels than that of the wild-type sequence, thereby revealing its potential as a modulator of Tau pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25372055

Artigas, Gerard; López-Senín, Paula; González, Carlos; Escaja, Núria; Marchán, Vicente

2015-01-14

241

Evidence for differential alternative splicing in blood of young boys with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Since RNA expression differences have been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for blood and brain, and differential alternative splicing (DAS) has been reported in ASD brains, we determined if there was DAS in blood mRNA of ASD subjects compared to typically developing (TD) controls, as well as in ASD subgroups related to cerebral volume. Methods RNA from blood was processed on whole genome exon arrays for 2-4–year-old ASD and TD boys. An ANCOVA with age and batch as covariates was used to predict DAS for ALL ASD (n=30), ASD with normal total cerebral volumes (NTCV), and ASD with large total cerebral volumes (LTCV) compared to TD controls (n=20). Results A total of 53 genes were predicted to have DAS for ALL ASD versus TD, 169 genes for ASD_NTCV versus TD, 1 gene for ASD_LTCV versus TD, and 27 genes for ASD_LTCV versus ASD_NTCV. These differences were significant at P <0.05 after false discovery rate corrections for multiple comparisons (FDR <5% false positives). A number of the genes predicted to have DAS in ASD are known to regulate DAS (SFPQ, SRPK1, SRSF11, SRSF2IP, FUS, LSM14A). In addition, a number of genes with predicted DAS are involved in pathways implicated in previous ASD studies, such as ROS monocyte/macrophage, Natural Killer Cell, mTOR, and NGF signaling. The only pathways significant after multiple comparison corrections (FDR <0.05) were the Nrf2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidative response (superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, peroxiredoxin 1, PIK3C3, DNAJC17, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3) and superoxide radical degradation (SOD2, CAT). Conclusions These data support differences in alternative splicing of mRNA in blood of ASD subjects compared to TD controls that differ related to head size. The findings are preliminary, need to be replicated in independent cohorts, and predicted alternative splicing differences need to be confirmed using direct analytical methods. PMID:24007566

2013-01-01

242

Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2?) and Tra2? have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2? and Tra2? induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2? target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2?–Tra2? control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. PMID:25208576

Best, Andrew; James, Katherine; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Hong, Elaine; Kheirolahi-Kouhestani, Mahsa; Curk, Tomaz; Xu, Yaobo; Danilenko, Marina; Hussain, Rafiq; Keavney, Bernard; Wipat, Anil; Klinck, Roscoe; Cowell, Ian G.; Cheong Lee, Ka; Austin, Caroline A.; Venables, Julian P.; Chabot, Benoit; Santibanez Koref, Mauro; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Elliott, David J.

2014-01-01

243

Identication and expression of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) cDNAs from zebrash with  

E-print Network

hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a member of the PAS family of transcription factorsIdenti¢cation and expression of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) signaling pathways

Tullos, Desiree

244

RNA interference knockdown of DNA methyl-transferase 3 affects gene alternative splicing in the honey bee  

PubMed Central

Studies of DNA methylation from fungi, plants, and animals indicate that gene body methylation is ancient and highly conserved in eukaryotic genomes, but its role has not been clearly defined. It has been postulated that regulation of alternative splicing of transcripts was an original function of DNA methylation, but a direct experimental test of the effect of methylation on alternative slicing at the whole genome level has never been performed. To do this, we developed a unique method to administer RNA interference (RNAi) in a high-throughput and noninvasive manner and then used it to knock down the expression of DNA methyl-transferase 3 (dnmt3), which is required for de novo DNA methylation. We chose the honey bee (Apis mellifera) for this test because it has recently emerged as an important model organism for studying the effects of DNA methylation on development and social behavior, and DNA methylation in honey bees is predominantly on gene bodies. Here we show that dnmt3 RNAi decreased global genomic methylation level as expected and in addition caused widespread and diverse changes in alternative splicing in fat tissue. Four different types of splicing events were affected by dnmt3 gene knockdown, and change in two types, exon skipping and intron retention, was directly related to decreased methylation. These results demonstrate that one function of gene body DNA methylation is to regulate alternative splicing. PMID:23852726

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Li, Yang; Stroud, Hume; Feng, Suhua; Newman, Thomas C.; Kaneda, Megan; Hou, Kirk K.; Worley, Kim C.; Elsik, Christine G.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ma, Jian; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

245

Cartography of neurexins: More than 1000 isoforms generated by alternative splicing and expressed in distinct subsets of neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurexins, a family of cell surface proteins specific to brain, are transcribed from two promoters in three genes, resulting in three ?- and three ?-neurexins. In situ hybridization revealed differential but overlapping distributions of neurexin isoforms in different classes of neurons. PCRs demonstrated that a-neurexins are alternatively spliced at five canonical positions, and ?-neurexins at two. Characterization of many independent

Beate Ullrich; Yuri A Ushkaryov; Thomas C Südhof

1995-01-01

246

Small changes in ambient temperature affect alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) gives rise to multiple mRNA isoforms from the same gene, providing possibilities to regulate gene expression beyond the level of transcription. In a recent paper in Nucleic Acids Research we used a high resolution RT-PCR based panel to study changes in AS patterns in plants with altered levels of an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we detected significant changes in AS patterns between different Arabidopsis ecotypes. Here we investigated how small changes in ambient temperature affect AS. We found significant changes in AS for 12 of 28 investigated events (43%) upon transfer of Arabidopsis plants from 20°C to 16°C and for 6 of the 28 investigated events (21%) upon transfer from 20°C to 24°C. PMID:23656882

Streitner, Corinna; Simpson, Craig G.; Shaw, Paul; Danisman, Selahattin; Brown, John W.S.; Staiger, Dorothee

2013-01-01

247

Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

1992-09-01

248

Kinetic and structural characterization of an alternatively spliced variant of human mitochondrial 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase.  

PubMed

Abstract Human mitochondrial 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase (mdN) catalyzes dephosphorylation of nucleoside monophosphates, and thus helps maintain homeostasis of deoxynucleosides required for mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Mature mdN is a 23-kDa dimeric protein with highest expression levels in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle. We have identified an alternative splice variant of the mdN gene containing an 18-nucleotide insertion encoding 6 amino acids (GKWPAT) at the 3'-end of the penultimate exon 4. We recombinantly expressed this enzyme variant and characterized its biochemical and kinetic properties as well as its three-dimensional structure. Our high-resolution (1.27?Å) crystal structure revealed that the insertion forms a loop located in the vicinity of the active site pocket and affects enzyme kinetic parameters as well as protein thermal stability. PMID:24506201

Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Veverka, Václav; Brynda, Ji?í; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína

2015-02-01

249

Alternative splicing: a missing piece in the puzzle of intron gain.  

PubMed

Spliceosomal introns, a hallmark of eukaryotic gene organization, were an unexpected discovery. After three decades, crucial issues such as when and how introns first appeared in evolution remain unsettled. An issue yet to be answered is how intron positions arise de novo. Phylogenetic investigations concur that intron positions continue to emerge, at least in some lineages. Yet genomic scans for the sources of introns occupying new positions have been fruitless. Two alternative solutions to this paradox are: (i) formation of new intron positions halted before the recent past and (ii) it continues to occur, but through processes different from those generally assumed. One process generally dismissed is intron sliding--the relocation of a preexisting intron over short distances--because of supposed associated deleterious effects. The puzzle of intron gain arises owing to a pervasive operational definition of introns, which sees them as precisely demarcated segments of the genome separated from the neighboring nonintronic DNA by unmovable limits. Intron homology is defined as position homology. Recent studies of pre-mRNA processing indicate that this assumption needs to be revised. We incorporate recent advances on the evolutionarily frequent process of alternative splicing, by which exons of primary transcripts are spliced in different patterns, into a new model of intron sliding that accounts for the diversity of intron positions. We posit that intron positional diversity is driven by two overlapping processes: (i) background process of continuous relocation of preexisting introns by sliding and (ii) spurts of extensive gain/loss of new intron sequences. PMID:18463286

Tarrío, Rosa; Ayala, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Trelles, Francisco

2008-05-20

250

Negative feedback control of jasmonate signaling by an alternative splice variant of JAZ10.  

PubMed

The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

Moreno, Javier E; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L; Patel, Lalita C; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A

2013-06-01

251

Intronic Non-CG DNA hydroxymethylation and alternative mRNA splicing in honey bees  

PubMed Central

Background Previous whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing experiments showed that DNA cytosine methylation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is almost exclusively at CG dinucleotides in exons. However, the most commonly used method, bisulfite sequencing, cannot distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine that is catalyzed by the TET family of dioxygenases. Furthermore, some analysis software programs under-represent non-CG DNA methylation and hydryoxymethylation for a variety of reasons. Therefore, we used an unbiased analysis of bisulfite sequencing data combined with molecular and bioinformatics approaches to distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. By doing this, we have performed the first whole genome analyses of DNA modifications at non-CG sites in honey bees and correlated the effects of these DNA modifications on gene expression and alternative mRNA splicing. Results We confirmed, using unbiased analyses of whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) data, with both new data and published data, the previous finding that CG DNA methylation is enriched in exons in honey bees. However, we also found evidence that cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Using antibodies against 5-hydroxmethylcytosine, we confirmed that DNA hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Additionally, using a new technique, Pvu-seq (which employs the enzyme PvuRts1l to digest DNA at 5-hydroxymethylcytosine sites followed by next-generation DNA sequencing), we further confirmed that hydroxymethylation is enriched in introns at non-CG sites. Conclusions Cytosine hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites might have more functional significance than previously appreciated, and in honey bees these modifications might be related to the regulation of alternative mRNA splicing by defining the locations of the introns. PMID:24079845

2013-01-01

252

Alternatively Spliced Myeloid Differentiation Protein-2 Inhibits TLR4-Mediated Lung Inflammation.  

PubMed

We previously identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2s) that competitively inhibits binding of MD-2 to TLR4 in vitro. In this study, we investigated the protective role of MD-2s in LPS-induced acute lung injury by delivering intratracheally an adenovirus construct that expressed MD-2s (Ad-MD-2s). After adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, MD-2s was strongly expressed in lung epithelial cells and readily detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Compared to adenovirus serotype 5 containing an empty vector lacking a transgene control mice, Ad-MD-2s delivery resulted in significantly less LPS-induced inflammation in the lungs, including less protein leakage, cell recruitment, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and MIP-2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from Ad-MD-2s mice transferred into lungs of naive mice before intratracheal LPS challenge diminished proinflammatory cytokine levels. As house dust mite (HDM) sensitization is dependent on TLR4 and HDM Der p 2, a structural homolog of MD-2, we also investigated the effect of MD-2s on HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. Ad-MD-2s given before HDM sensitization significantly inhibited subsequent allergic airway inflammation after HDM challenge, including reductions in eosinophils, goblet cell hyperplasia, and IL-5 levels. Our study indicates that the alternatively spliced short isoform of human MD-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat human diseases induced or exacerbated by TLR4 signaling, such as Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced lung injury and HDM-triggered allergic lung inflammation. PMID:25576596

Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Jones, Heather D; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

2015-02-15

253

Misregulated alternative splicing of BIN1 is associated with T tubule alterations and muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults and the first recognized example of an RNA-mediated disease. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM1) and myotonic dystrophy of type 1 (DM1) or of type 2 (DM2) are caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG or CCUG repeats, respectively. These mutant RNAs sequester the splicing regulator Muscleblind-like-1 (MBNL1), resulting in specific misregulation of the alternative splicing of other pre-mRNAs. We found that alternative splicing of the bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) pre-mRNA is altered in skeletal muscle samples of people with CDM1, DM1 and DM2. BIN1 is involved in tubular invaginations of membranes and is required for the biogenesis of muscle T tubules, which are specialized skeletal muscle membrane structures essential for excitation-contraction coupling. Mutations in the BIN1 gene cause centronuclear myopathy, which shares some histopathological features with myotonic dystrophy. We found that MBNL1 binds the BIN1 pre-mRNA and regulates its alternative splicing. BIN1 missplicing results in expression of an inactive form of BIN1 lacking phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate-binding and membrane-tubulating activities. Consistent with a defect of BIN1, muscle T tubules are altered in people with myotonic dystrophy, and membrane structures are restored upon expression of the normal splicing form of BIN1 in muscle cells of such individuals. Finally, reproducing BIN1 splicing alteration in mice is sufficient to promote T tubule alterations and muscle weakness, a predominant feature of myotonic dystrophy. PMID:21623381

Fugier, Charlotte; Klein, Arnaud F; Hammer, Caroline; Vassilopoulos, Stéphane; Ivarsson, Ylva; Toussaint, Anne; Tosch, Valérie; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Messaddeq, Nadia; Kokunai, Yosuke; Tsuburaya, Rie; de la Grange, Pierre; Dembele, Doulaye; Francois, Virginie; Precigout, Guillaume; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Hummel, Marie-Christine; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Sergeant, Nicolas; Laquerrière, Annie; Thibault, Christelle; Deryckere, François; Auboeuf, Didier; Garcia, Luis; Zimmermann, Pascale; Udd, Bjarne; Schoser, Benedikt; Takahashi, Masanori P; Nishino, Ichizo; Bassez, Guillaume; Laporte, Jocelyn; Furling, Denis; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

2011-06-01

254

TUMOR-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION AND ALTERNATIVE SPLICING OF THE COL6A3 GENE IN PANCREATIC CANCER  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal disease in which a prominent desmoplastic reaction is a defining characteristic. Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen I and to a lesser extent, collagen III and V comprise the majority of this stromal fibrosis. Type VI collagen (COL6) forms a microfibrillar network associated with type I collagen fibrils. The expression of COL6 has been linked to inflammation and survival. Importantly, tumor-specific alternative splicing in COL6A3 has been identified in several cancers by genome exon arrays. We evaluated the expression and localization of COL6A3 in PDA and premalignant lesions and explored the presence of alternative splicing events. Methods We analyzed paired PDA-normal (n=18), IPMN (n=5), pancreatic cystadenoma (n=5), and eight PDA cell lines with RT-PCR, using unique primers that identify total COL6A3 gene and alternative splicing sites in several of its exons. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression levels and localization of COL6A3 protein in the different lesions, and in two animal models of PDA. Results COL6A3 protein levels were significantly upregulated in 77% of the paired PDA-adjacent tissue examined. COL6A3 was mainly present in the desmoplastic stroma of PDA, with high deposition around the malignant ducts and in between the sites of stromal fatty infiltration. Analysis of the COL6A3 splice variants showed tumor-specific consistent inclusion of exons 3 and 6 in 17 of the 18 (94%) paired PDA-adjacent tissues. Inclusion of exon 4 was exclusively tumor-specific, with barely detectable expression in the adjacent tissues. IPMN and pancreatic cystadenomas showed no expression of any of the examined exons. Total COL6A3 mRNA and exon 6 were identified in six PDA cell lines, but only two cell lines (MIA PACA-2 and ASPC-1) expressed exons 3 and 4. In both the xenograft and transgenic models of PDA, COL6A3 immunoreactivity was present in the stroma and some PDA cells. Conclusions We describe, for the first time, a dynamic process of tumor-specific alternative splicing in several exons of stromal COL6A3. Alternatively spliced proteins may contribute to the etiology or progression of cancer and may serve as markers for cancer diagnosis. Identification of COL6A3 isoforms as PDA-specific provides the basis for future studies to explore the oncogenic and diagnostic potential of these alternative splicing events. PMID:21719059

Arafat, Hwyda; Lazar, Melissa; Salem, Khalifa; Chipitsyna, Galina; Gong, Qiaoke; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Yeo, Charles J.; Chu, Mon-Li

2011-01-01

255

G to A substitution in 5{prime} donor splice site of introns 18 and 48 of COL1A1 gene of type I collagen results in different splicing alternatives in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a G to A substitution in the 5{prime} donor splice site of intron 18 of one COL1A1 allele in two unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. A third OI type I family has a G to A substitution at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele. Both mutations abolish normal splicing and lead to reduced steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant COL1A1 allele. The intron 18 mutation leads to both exon 18 skipping in the mRNA and to utilization of a single alternative splice site near the 3{prime} end of exon 18. The latter results in deletion of the last 8 nucleotides of exon 18 from the mRNA, a shift in the translational reading-frame, and the creation of a premature termination codon in exon 19. Of the potential alternative 5{prime} splice sites in exon 18 and intron 18, the one utilized has a surrounding nucleotide sequence which most closely resembles that of the natural splice site. Although a G to A mutation was detected at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele in another OI type I family, nine complex alternative splicing patterns were identified by sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from fibroblast mRNA from this cell strain. All result in partial or complete skipping of exon 48, with in-frame deletions of portions of exons 47 and/or 49. The different patterns of RNA splicing were not explained by their sequence homology with naturally occuring 5{prime} splice sites, but rather by recombination between highly homologous exon sequences, suggesting that we may not have identified the major splicing alternative(s) in this cell strain. Both G to A mutations result in decreased production of type I collagen, the common biochemical correlate of OI type I.

Willing, M.; Deschenes, S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-09-01

256

Alternative splicing isoform in succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C causes downregulation of succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase activity in mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for the redox of succinic acid. SDH is a tetrameric iron-sulfur flavoprotein of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain. The SDH complex, subunit C (SDHC) transcript has deletion-type alternative splicing sites. Generally, alternative splicing produces variant proteins and expression patterns, as products of different genes. In certain cases, specific alternative splicing variants (ASVs) have been associated with human disease. Due to a frameshift mutation causing loss of the heme binding region, the SDHC ?5 isoform (lacking exon 5) exhibits no SDHC activity. To investigate whether the SDHC splicing variants can function as dominant-negative inhibitors, SDHC ASVs were overexpressed in HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a dominant-negative effect of the ?5 isoform on SDHC mRNA was shown. In addition, ?5 overexpression increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in the ?5 isoform-overexpressing cells, SDH activity was reduced. SDHC activation is a significant event during the electron transport chain, and the function of the SDHC ?5 variant may be significant for the differentiation of tumor cells. PMID:25435987

Satoh, Nana; Yokoyama, Chikako; Itamura, Noriaki; Miyajima-Nakano, Yoshiharu; Hisatomi, Hisashi

2015-01-01

257

The transcriptional co-activator SND1 is a novel regulator of alternative splicing in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Splicing abnormalities have profound impact in human cancer. Several splicing factors, including SAM68, have pro-oncogenic functions, and their increased expression often correlates with human cancer development and progression. Herein, we have identified using mass spectrometry proteins that interact with endogenous SAM68 in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Among other interesting proteins, we have characterized the interaction of SAM68 with SND1, a transcriptional co-activator that binds spliceosome components, thus coupling transcription and splicing. We found that both SAM68 and SND1 are upregulated in PCa cells with respect to benign prostate cells. Upregulation of SND1 exerts a synergic effect with SAM68 on exon v5 inclusion in the CD44 mRNA. The effect of SND1 on CD44 splicing required SAM68, as it was compromised after knockdown of this protein or mutation of the SAM68-binding sites in the CD44 pre-mRNA. More generally, we found that SND1 promotes the inclusion of CD44 variable exons by recruiting SAM68 and spliceosomal components on CD44 pre-mRNA. Inclusion of the variable exons in CD44 correlates with increased proliferation, motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. Strikingly, we found that knockdown of SND1, or SAM68, reduced proliferation and migration of PCa cells. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that SND1 is a novel regulator of alternative splicing that promotes PCa cell growth and survival. PMID:23995791

Cappellari, M; Bielli, P; Paronetto, M P; Ciccosanti, F; Fimia, G M; Saarikettu, J; Silvennoinen, O; Sette, C

2014-07-17

258

Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homologues from Arabidopsis underlie regulatory circuits based on alternative splicing and downstream control.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNAs is a widespread phenomenon in plants; however, many questions, especially regarding its regulation and functional implications, remain to be elucidated. In vertebrates, polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins (PTBs) have been identified as key splicing factors influencing splice site selection and orchestrating coordinated splicing programmes during developmental processes. Here, we analysed three PTB homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana and provide evidence for their gene regulatory potential based on AS and a splicing-independent mechanism. Our data reveal that Arabidopsis PTB homologues are subject to extensive auto- and cross-regulation via AS-coupled nonsense-mediated decay, thereby establishing a basis for interlinking their expression. Furthermore, the multiple modes of action of Arabidopsis PTB homologues are reflected in their subcellular localization in the nucleus, cytosol and processing bodies. This work provides insight into the regulation of AS in plants and highlights the regulatory potential of the multifunctional plant PTB homologues, which might have important implications in diverse biological processes. PMID:20735772

Stauffer, Eva; Westermann, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriele; Wachter, Andreas

2010-10-01

259

Translation of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-? mRNA Is Controlled by Alternative Splicing Within the 5? Untranslated Region  

PubMed Central

Objective Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) blocks the initiation of coagulation by inhibiting TF-activated factor VII, activated factor X, and early prothrombinase. Humans produce two 3? splice variants, TFPI? and TFPI?, which are differentially expressed in endothelial cells and platelets and possess distinct structural features affecting their inhibitory function. TFPI also undergoes alternative splicing of exon 2 within its 5? untranslated region. The role of exon 2 splicing in translational regulation of human TFPI isoform expression is investigated. Approach and Results Exon 2 splicing occurs in TFPI? and TFPI? transcripts. Human tissue mRNA analysis uncovered a wide variability of exon 2 expression. Polysome analysis revealed a repressive effect of exon 2 on TFPI? translation but not on TFPI?. Luciferase reporter assays further exposed strong translational repression of TFPI? (90%) but not TFPI?. Use of a Morpholino to remove exon 2 from TFPI mRNA increased cell surface expression of endogenous TFPI?. Exon 2 also repressed luciferase production (80% to 90%) when paired with the ?-actin 3? untranslated region, suggesting that it is a general translational negative element whose effects are overcome by the TFPI? 3? untranslated region. Conclusions Exon 2 is a molecular switch that prevents translation of TFPI?. This is the first demonstration of a 5? untranslated region alternative splicing event that alters translation of isoforms produced via independent 3? splicing events within the same gene. Therefore, it represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for translational control of protein expression. Differential expression of exon 2 denotes a mechanism to provide temporal and tissue-specific regulation of TFPI?-mediated anticoagulant activity. PMID:24233486

Ellery, Paul E.R.; Maroney, Susan A.; Martinez, Nicholas D.; Wickens, Marvin P.; Mast, Alan E.

2014-01-01

260

Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing.  

PubMed

We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly homologous to the orthologues in cattle, mouse, rat and human. Extensive cloning and analysis of Izumo1 cDNA revealed three (del 69, del 182 and del 217) and two (del 69 and ins 30) alternative splicing isoforms in goat and sheep, respectively. All of the isoforms are derived from splicing at typical GT-AG sites leading to partial or complete truncation of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed that caprine and ovine Izumo1 proteins share similar structure with their murine orthologue. There are a signal peptide at the N-terminus (1-22 aa), a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus (302-319 aa), and an extracellular Ig-like region in the middle (161-252 aa) with a putative N-linked glycosylation site (N(205)-N-S). Alignment of Izumo1 protein sequences among 15 mammalian species displayed several highly conserved regions, including LDC and YRC motifs with cysteine residues for potential disulfide bridge formation, CPNKCG motif upstream of the Ig-like domain, GLTDYSFYRVW motif upstream of the putative N-linked glycosylation site, and a number of scattered cysteine residues. These distinctive features are very informative to pinpoint the important gene motifs and functions. The C-terminal regions, however, are more variable across species. Izumo1 cDNA sequences of goat, sheep, and cow were found to be largely homologous, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis is consistent with their morphological taxonomy. This implies the Izumo1 gene evolves from the same ancestor, and the mechanism of sperm-egg fusion in mammals may be under the same principle in which Izumo1 plays an important role. PMID:20963501

Xing, Wan-Jin; Han, Bao-Da; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Li; Bao, Xiao-Hong; Bou, Shorgan

2011-03-01

261

Molecular analysis of human argininosuccinate lyase: mutant characterization and alternative splicing of the coding region.  

PubMed Central

Argininosuccinic acid lyase (ASAL) deficiency is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder. We previously established by complementation analysis that 28 ASAL-deficient patients have heterogeneous mutations in a single gene. To prove that the ASAL structural gene is the affected locus, we sequenced polymerase chain reaction-amplified ASAL cDNA of a representative mutant from the single complementation group. Fibroblast strain 944 (approximately 1% of residual ASAL activity), from a late-onset patient who was the product of a consanguineous mating, had only a single base-pair change in the coding region, a C-283----T transition at a CpG dinucleotide in exon 3. This substitution converts Arg-95 to Cys (R95C), occurs in a stretch of 13 residues that is identical in yeast and human ASAL, and was present in both of the patient's alleles but not in 14 other mutant or 10 normal alleles. Expression in COS cells demonstrated that the R95C mutation produces normal amounts of ASAL mRNA but little protein and less than 1% ASAL activity. We observed that amplified cDNA from mutant 944 and normal cells (liver, keratinocytes, lymphoblasts, and fibroblasts) contained, in addition to the expected 5' 513-base-pair band, a prominent 318-base-pair ASAL band formed by the splicing of exon 2 from the transcript. The short transcript maintains the ASAL reading frame but removes Lys-51, a residue that may be essential for catalysis, since it binds the argininosuccinate substrate. We conclude (i) that the identification of the R95C mutation in strain 944 demonstrates that virtually all ASAL deficiency results from defects in the ASAL structural gene and (ii) that minor alternative splicing of the coding region occurs at the ASAL locus. Images PMID:2263616

Walker, D C; McCloskey, D A; Simard, L R; McInnes, R R

1990-01-01

262

A Japanese plum ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/?-d-xylosidase gene is developmentally regulated by alternative splicing.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA clone named PsARF/XYL was obtained from Prunus salicina Lindl., and determined to encode a putative ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/?-d-xylosidase belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH, EC 3.2.1.-) family 3. Two related PsARF/XYL cDNAs were amplified, one from a fully-spliced transcript (PsARF/XYLa) and another one from an intron-retained transcript (PsARF/XYLb). The protein deduced from PsARF/XYLb is a truncated peptide at C-terminus that conserves the active-site amino acid sequence. High levels of PsARF/XYLa and PsARF/XYLb transcripts are detectable in several plant tissues. PsARF/XYLb transcripts accumulate progressively during the phase of exponential fruit growth but they become barely noticeable during on-tree ripening, or after a 6-h exposure of preclimacteric full-size plums to ethylene. In contrast, PsARF/XYLa is expressed throughout fruit development, and transcript accumulation parallels the climacteric rise in ethylene production during ripening. PsARF/XYLa expression is strongly induced in preclimacteric full-size plums after a 6-h treatment with physiologically active concentrations of ethylene. These findings suggest that PsARF/XYL gene is post-transcriptionally regulated by alternative splicing during development and that ethylene may be involved in this regulation. The isolation of a partial cDNA clone, PsARF1, is also reported. It encodes a putative cell-wall ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and its transcription is rapidly inhibited by ethylene in mature green plums. PMID:25576002

Di Santo, M Carolina; Ilina, Natalia; Pagano, Eduardo A; Sozzi, Gabriel O

2015-02-01

263

Exon Array Analysis using re-defined probe sets results in reliable identification of alternatively spliced genes in non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with novel targeted therapies is a major unmet clinical need. Alternative splicing is a mechanism which generates diverse protein products and is of functional relevance in cancer. RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide analysis of the alteration of splicing patterns between lung cancer and normal lung tissue was performed. We generated an exon

Wolfram Langer; Florian Sohler; Gabriele Leder; Georg Beckmann; Henrik Seidel; Jörn Gröne; Michael Hummel; Anette Sommer

2010-01-01

264

Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)  

PubMed Central

A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a “head to head” fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge. PMID:24763285

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

265

Tissue-specific alternative splicing of the CSE1L/CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility) gene.  

PubMed

CSE1L/CAS (CAS) is a nuclear transport factor that plays a role in proliferation and apoptosis. The CAS gene consists of 25 exons. mRNA homologous over its entire length to the yeast homologue CSE1 is the predominant transcript in proliferating tissues. Additional mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing in a tissue-specific manner. An extended 3'-end is found in fetal and adult brain. A mRNA containing the 5'-end of CAS up to position 690 and an alternative 3'-end is expressed in trachea and encodes a truncated Ran-binding domain. Fetal liver expresses a mRNA with deletions of a central portion of CAS and additional sequences encoded by the last intron. SW480 colon cancer cells express another approximately 1500-base mRNA. Western blot analyses of various human tissues and immunohistology of mouse embryos show a correlation of CAS transcripts and CAS protein in different tissues. CAS isoforms may control nuclear transport of tissue-specific proteins. PMID:10331944

Brinkmann, U; Brinkmann, E; Bera, T K; Wellmann, A; Pastan, I

1999-05-15

266

Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling by the Alternatively Spliced Isoform of PDLIM4/RIL Protein*  

PubMed Central

RIL (product of PDLIM4 gene) is an actin-associated protein that has previously been shown to stimulate actin bundling by interacting with actin-cross-linking protein ?-actinin-1 and increasing its affinity to filamentous actin. Here, we report that the alternatively spliced isoform of RIL, denoted here as RILaltCterm, functions as a dominant-negative modulator of RIL-mediated actin reorganization. RILaltCterm is regulated at the level of protein stability, and this protein isoform accumulates particularly in response to oxidative stress. We show that the alternative C-terminal segment of RILaltCterm has a disordered structure that directs the protein to rapid degradation in the core 20 S proteasomes. Such degradation is ubiquitin-independent and can be blocked by binding to NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase NQO1, a detoxifying enzyme induced by prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. We show that either overexpression of RILaltCterm or its stabilization by stresses counteracts the effects produced by full-length RIL on organization of actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Taken together, the data suggest a mechanism for fine-tuning actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in response to stresses. PMID:21636573

Guryanova, Olga A.; Drazba, Judith A.; Frolova, Elena I.; Chumakov, Peter M.

2011-01-01

267

Identification of Novel Alternative Splice Isoforms of Circulating Proteins in a Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

To assess the potential of tumor-associated alternatively spliced gene products as a source of biomarkers in biological fluids, we have analyzed a large dataset of mass spectra derived from the plasma proteome of a mouse model of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. MS/MS spectra were interrogated for novel splice isoforms using a non-redundant database containing an exhaustive 3-frame translation of Ensembl transcripts and gene models from ECgene. This integrated analysis identified 420 distinct splice isoforms, of which 92 did not match any previously annotated mouse protein sequence. We chose seven of those novel variants for validation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were concordant with the proteomic analysis. All seven novel peptides were successfully amplified in pancreas specimens from both wild-type and mutant mice. Isotopic labeling of cysteine-containing peptides from tumor-bearing mice and wild-type controls enabled relative quantification of the proteins. Differential expression between tumor-bearing and control mice was notable for peptides from novel variants of muscle pyruvate kinase, malate dehydrogenase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, proteoglycan 4, minichromosome maintenance, complex component 9, high mobility group box 2 and hepatocyte growth factor activator. Our results show that, in a mouse model for human pancreatic cancer, novel and differentially expressed alternative splice isoforms are detectable in plasma and may be a source of candidate biomarkers. PMID:19118015

Menon, Rajasree; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Fermin, Damian; Bardeesy, Nabeel; DePinho, Ronald A.; Lu, Chunxia; Hanash, Samir M.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; States, David J.

2008-01-01

268

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs from Arabidopsis are key regulators of alternative splicing with implications in fundamental developmental processes.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5' splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid-dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

2012-11-01

269

Alternative splicing and differential expression of two transcripts of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase B gene from Zea mays.  

PubMed

With the exception of rice, little is known about the existence of respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) gene in cereals. The present study reports the cloning and analysis of a novel rboh gene, termed ZmrbohB, from maize (Zea mays L.). The full-length cDNA of ZmrbohB encodes a 942 amino acid protein containing all of the respiratory burst oxidase homolog catalytically critical motifs. Alternative splicing of ZmrbohB has generated two transcript isoforms, ZmrbohB-alpha and -beta. Spliced transcript ZmrbohB-beta retains an unspliced intron 11 that carries a premature termination codon and probably leads to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression analysis showed that two splice isoforms were differentially expressed in various tissues and at different developmental stages, and the major product was ZmrbohB-alpha. The transcripts of ZmrbohB-alpha accumulated markedly when the maize seedlings were subjected to various abiotic stimuli, such as wounding, cold (4 degrees C), heat (40 degrees C), UV and salinity stress. In addition, several abiotic stimuli also affected the alternative splicing pattern of ZmrbohB except wounding. These results provide new insight into roles in the expression regulation of plant rboh genes and suggest that ZmrbohB gene may play a role in response to environmental stresses. PMID:19261072

Lin, Fan; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Ming-Yi

2009-03-01

270

The Cancer Exome Generated by Alternative mRNA Splicing Dilutes Predicted HLA Class I Epitope Density  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that cancers actively regulate alternative splicing. Altered splicing mechanisms in cancer lead to cancer-specific transcripts different from the pool of transcripts occurring only in healthy tissue. At the same time, altered presentation of HLA class I epitopes is frequently observed in various types of cancer. Down-regulation of genes related to HLA class I antigen processing has been observed in several cancer types, leading to fewer HLA class I antigens on the cell surface. Here, we use a peptidome wide analysis of predicted alternative splice forms, based on a publicly available database, to show that peptides over-represented in cancer splice variants comprise significantly fewer predicted HLA class I epitopes compared to peptides from normal transcripts. Peptides over-represented in cancer transcripts are in the case of the three most common HLA class I supertype representatives consistently found to contain fewer predicted epitopes compared to normal tissue. We observed a significant difference in amino acid composition between protein sequences associated with normal versus cancer tissue, as transcripts found in cancer are enriched with hydrophilic amino acids. This variation contributes to the observed significant lower likelihood of cancer-specific peptides to be predicted epitopes compared to peptides found in normal tissue. PMID:23049726

Stranzl, Thomas; Larsen, Mette V.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Brunak, Søren

2012-01-01

271

Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative splicing.  

PubMed

The family Polyomaviridae is comprised of circular double-stranded DNA viruses, several of which are associated with diseases, including cancer, in immunocompromised patients. Here we describe a novel polyomavirus recovered from the fecal microbiota of a child in Malawi, provisionally named STL polyomavirus (STLPyV). We detected STLPyV in clinical stool specimens from USA and The Gambia at up to 1% frequency. Complete genome comparisons of two STLPyV strains demonstrated 5.2% nucleotide divergence. Alternative splicing of the STLPyV early region yielded a unique form of T antigen, which we named 229T, in addition to the expected large and small T antigens. STLPyV has a mosaic genome and shares an ancestral recombinant origin with MWPyV. The discovery of STLPyV highlights a novel alternative splicing strategy and advances our understanding of the complex evolutionary history of polyomaviruses. PMID:23276405

Lim, Efrem S; Reyes, Alejandro; Antonio, Martin; Saha, Debasish; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, O Colin; Skelton, Rebecca; Brennan, Daniel C; Mkakosya, Rajhab S; Manary, Mark J; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Wang, David

2013-02-20

272

Direct interaction between hnRNP-M and CDC5L/PLRG1 proteins affects alternative splice site choice.  

PubMed

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-M (hnRNP-M) is an abundant nuclear protein that binds to pre-mRNA and is a component of the spliceosome complex. A direct interaction was detected in vivo between hnRNP-M and the human spliceosome proteins cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) and pleiotropic regulator 1 (PLRG1) that was inhibited during the heat-shock stress response. A central region in hnRNP-M is required for interaction with CDC5L/PLRG1. hnRNP-M affects both 5' and 3' alternative splice site choices, and an hnRNP-M mutant lacking the CDC5L/PLRG1 interaction domain is unable to modulate alternative splicing of an adeno-E1A mini-gene substrate. PMID:20467437

Llères, David; Denegri, Marco; Biggiogera, Marco; Ajuh, Paul; Lamond, Angus I

2010-06-01

273

Alternative splicing regulates the expression of G9A and SUV39H2 methyltransferases, and dramatically changes SUV39H2 functions.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is the main source of proteome diversity. Here, we have investigated how alternative splicing affects the function of two human histone methyltransferases (HMTase): G9A and SUV39H2. We show that exon 10 in G9A and exon 3 in SUV39H2 are alternatively included in a variety of tissues and cell lines, as well as in a different species. The production of these variants is likely tightly regulated because both constitutive and alternative splicing factors control their splicing profiles. Based on this evidence, we have assessed the link between the inclusion of these exons and the activity of both enzymes. We document that these HMTase genes yield several protein isoforms, which are likely issued from alternative splicing regulation. We demonstrate that inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 is a determinant of the stability, the sub-nuclear localization, and the HMTase activity. Genome-wide expression analysis further revealed that alternative inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 differentially modulates the expression of target genes. Our data also suggest that a variant of G9A may display a function that is independent of H3K9 methylation. Our work emphasizes that expression and function of genes are not collinear; therefore alternative splicing must be taken into account in any functional study. PMID:25605796

Mauger, Oriane; Klinck, Roscoe; Chabot, Benoit; Muchardt, Christian; Allemand, Eric; Batsché, Eric

2015-02-18

274

Molecular Characterization and Alternative Splicing of a Sodium Channel and DSC1 Ortholog Genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

275

Molecular characterization and alternative splicing of a sodium channel and DSC1 ortholog genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).  

PubMed

Alternative splicing greatly contributes to the structural and functional diversity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by generating various isoforms with unique functional and pharmacological properties. Here, we identified a new optional exon 23 located in the linker between domains II and III, and four mutually exclusive exons (exons 27A, 27B, 27C, and 27D) in domains IIIS3 and IIIS4 of the sodium channel of Liposcelis bostrychophila (termed as LbVGSC). This suggested that more alternative splicing phenomena remained to be discovered in VGSCs. Inclusion of exon 27C might lead to generation of non-functional isoforms. Meanwhile, identification of three alternative exons (exons 11, 13A, and 13B), which were located in the linker between domains II and III, indicated that abundant splicing events occurred in the DSC1 ortholog channel of L. bostrychophila (termed as LbSC1). Exons 13A and 13B were generated by intron retention, and the presence of exon 13B relied on the inclusion of exon 13A. Exon 13B was specifically expressed in the embryonic stage and contained an in-frame stop codon, inclusion of which led to generation of truncated proteins with only the first two domains. Additionally, several co-occurring RNA editing events were identified in LbSC1. Furthermore, remarkable similarity between the structure and expression patterns of LbVGSC and LbSC1 were discovered, and a closer evolutionary relationship between VGSCs and DSC1 orthologs was verified. Taken together, the data provided abundant molecular information on VGSC and DSC1 orthologs in L. bostrychophila, a representative Psocoptera storage pest, and insights into the alternative splicing of these two channels. PMID:24155671

Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yang, Wen-Jia; Dou, Wei; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

276

Characterization of the Sesbania rostrata Phytochelatin Synthase Gene: Alternative Splicing and Function of Four Isoforms  

PubMed Central

Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. PCs are synthesized from glutathione by phytochelatin synthase (PCS), a dipeptidyltransferase. Sesbania rostrata is a tropical legume plant that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd and Zn. In this study, the S. rostrata PCS gene (SrPCS) and cDNAs were isolated and characterized. Southern blot and sequence analysis revealed that a single copy of the SrPCS gene occurs in the S. rostrata genome, and produces four different SrPCS mRNAs and proteins, SrPCS1–SrPCS4, by alternative splicing of the SrPCS pre-mRNA. The SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 proteins conferred Cd tolerance when expressed in yeast cells, whereas the SrPCS2 and SrPCS4 proteins, which lack the catalytic triad and the N-terminal domains, did not. These results suggested that SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 have potential applications in genetic engineering of plants for enhancing heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:20111680

Li, An-Ming; Yu, Bing-Yun; Chen, Fu-Hua; Gan, Hui-Yan; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Qiu, Rongliang; Huang, Jun-Chao; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2009-01-01

277

Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

Wada, Akihiro, E-mail: a-wada@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Wong, Pooi-Fong [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hojo, Hironobu [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan)] [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan); Ichinose, Akitoyo [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Llanes, Rafael [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba)] [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba); Kubo, Yoshinao [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Senba, Masachika [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Ichinose, Yoshio [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)] [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)

2013-05-03

278

Characterization of the human beta -glucan receptor and its alternatively spliced isoforms.  

PubMed

beta-1,3-d-Glucans are biological response modifiers with potent effects on the immune system. A number of receptors are thought to play a role in mediating these responses, including murine Dectin-1, which we recently identified as a beta-glucan receptor. In this study we describe the characterization of the human homologue of this receptor and show that it is structurally and functionally similar to the mouse receptor. The human beta-glucan receptor is a type II transmembrane receptor with a single extracellular carbohydrate recognition domain and an immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif in its cytoplasmic tail. The human beta-glucan receptor is widely expressed and functions as a pattern recognition receptor, recognizing a variety of beta-1,3- and/or beta-1,6-linked glucans as well as intact yeast. In contrast to the murine receptor, the human receptor mRNA is alternatively spliced, resulting in two major (A and B) and six minor isoforms. The two major isoforms differ by the presence of a stalk region separating the carbohydrate recognition domain from the transmembrane region and are the only isoforms that are functional for beta-glucan binding. The human receptor also binds T-lymphocytes at a site distinct from the beta-glucan binding site, indicating that this receptor can recognize both endogenous and exogenous ligands. PMID:11567029

Willment, J A; Gordon, S; Brown, G D

2001-11-23

279

Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by the Alternate-Splicing Regulator CUG-Binding Protein 1  

SciTech Connect

CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We describe crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen-bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, whereas filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation, and mRNA decay.

M Teplova; J Song; H Gaw; A Teplov; D Patel

2011-12-31

280

Alternatively spliced, truncated GCSF receptor promotes leukemogenic properties and sensitivity to JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) drives the production of myeloid progenitor and precursor cells toward neutrophils via the GCSF receptor (GCSFR, gene name CSF3R). Children with severe congenital neutropenia chronically receive pharmacologic doses of GCSF, and ?30% will develop myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with GCSFR truncation mutations. In addition to mutations, multiple isoforms of CSF3R have also been reported. We found elevated expression of the alternatively spliced isoform, class IV CSF3R in adult myelodysplastic syndrome/AML patients. Aside from its association with monosomy 7 and higher rates of relapse in pediatric AML patients, little is known about the biology of the class IV isoform. We found developmental regulation of CSF3R isoforms with the class IV expression more representative of a progenitor cell stage. Striking differences were found in phosphoprotein signaling involving Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and cell cycle gene expression. Enhanced proliferation by class IV GCSFR was associated with diminished STAT3 and STAT5 activation, yet showed sensitivity to JAK2 inhibitors. Alterations in the C-terminal domain of the GCSFR result in leukemic properties of enhanced growth, impaired differentiation and resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that they can behave as oncogenic drivers, sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. PMID:24170028

Mehta, H M; Futami, M; Glaubach, T; Lee, D W; Andolina, J R; Yang, Q; Whichard, Z; Quinn, M; Lu, H F; Kao, W M; Przychodzen, B; Sarkar, C A; Minella, A; Maciejewski, J P; Corey, S J

2014-05-01

281

Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in Digitalis purpurea by strand-specific RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health. PMID:25167195

Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

282

Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Digitalis purpurea by Strand-Specific RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health. PMID:25167195

Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

283

Alternative Splicing of SNAP-25 Regulates Secretion through Nonconservative Substitutions in the SNARE Domain  

PubMed Central

The essential membrane fusion apparatus in mammalian cells, the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, consists of four ?-helices formed by three proteins: SNAP-25, syntaxin 1, and synaptobrevin 2. SNAP-25 contributes two helices to the complex and is targeted to the plasma membrane by palmitoylation of four cysteines in the linker region. It is alternatively spliced into two forms, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, differing by nine amino acids substitutions. When expressed in chromaffin cells from SNAP-25 null mice, the isoforms support different levels of secretion. Here, we investigated the basis of that different secretory phenotype. We found that two nonconservative substitutions in the N-terminal SNARE domain and not the different localization of one palmitoylated cysteine cause the functional difference between the isoforms. Biochemical and molecular dynamic simulation experiments revealed that the two substitutions do not regulate secretion by affecting the property of SNARE complex itself, but rather make the SNAP-25b-containing SNARE complex more available for the interaction with accessory factor(s). PMID:16195346

Nagy, Gábor; Milosevic, Ira; Fasshauer, Dirk; Müller, E. Matthias; de Groot, Bert L.; Lang, Thorsten; Wilson, Michael C.; Sørensen, Jakob B.

2005-01-01

284

Ectopic expression of new alternative splice variant of Smac/DIABLO increases mammospheres formation  

PubMed Central

Smac-? is a mitochondrial protein that, during apoptosis, is translocated to the cytoplasm, where it negatively regulates members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family via the IAP-binding motif (IBM) contained within its amino-terminus. Here, we describe a new alternative splice variant from Smac gene, which we have named Smac-?. Smac-? lacks both an IBM and a mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS) element. Smac-? mRNA exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in healthy human tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The steady-state levels of endogenous Smac-? protein is regulated by the proteasomal pathway. When ectopically expressed, this isoform presents a cytosolic localization and is unable to associate with or to regulate the expression of X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the best-studied member of IAP family. Nevertheless, over-expression of Smac-? increases mammosphere formation. Whole genome expression analyses from these mammospheres show activation of several pro-survival and growth pathways, including Estrogen-Receptor signaling. In conclusion, our results support the functionality of this new Smac isoform. PMID:25337193

Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo U; Victoria-Acosta, Georgina; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla I; Jimenez-Hernandez, Luis; Muñoz-Galindo, Laura; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

2014-01-01

285

Expression and functional significance of alternatively spliced CS1 fibronectin in rheumatoid arthritis microvasculature.  

PubMed Central

Expression of fibronectin (FN) isoforms containing CS1, a 25-amino acid sequence present within the alternatively spliced IIICS region of FN, has been analyzed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. Unexpectedly, CS1-containing FN variants were exclusively found on endothelium but not extracellular matrix (ECM) of RA synovium. Lumenal expression of CS1 on RA endothelial cells, as observed by electron microscopy, correlated with inflammation in RA, since normal synovium expressed little CS1 without appreciable decrease in ECM FN. CS1 expression on human endothelial cells was further shown by FN mRNA analyses. In adhesion assays on frozen RA synovial sections, T lymphoblastoid cells expressing functionally activated alpha 4 beta 1 integrin specifically attached to the intravascular surface of RA endothelium. Binding was abrogated by both anti-alpha 4 integrin and CS1 peptides. Our observations suggest direct involvement of CS1-containing FN in recruitment of alpha 4 beta 1-expressing mononuclear leukocytes in synovitis, and provide basis for therapeutic intervention in RA. Images PMID:8282813

Elices, M J; Tsai, V; Strahl, D; Goel, A S; Tollefson, V; Arrhenius, T; Wayner, E A; Gaeta, F C; Fikes, J D; Firestein, G S

1994-01-01

286

Alternatively Spliced Genes as Biomarkers for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis: A Blood-Based Spliceome-Profiling Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Transcriptomic biomarkers of psychiatric diseases obtained from a query of peripheral tissues that are clinically accessible (e.g., blood cells instead of post-mortem brain tissue) have substantial practical appeal to discern the molecular subtypes of common complex diseases such as major psychosis. To this end, spliceome-profiling is a new methodological approach that has considerable conceptual relevance for discovery and clinical translation of novel biomarkers for psychiatric illnesses. Advances in microarray technology now allow for improved sensitivity in measuring the transcriptome while simultaneously querying the “exome” (all exons) and “spliceome” (all alternatively spliced variants). The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of spliceome-profiling to discern transcriptomic biomarkers of psychosis. Methods We measured exome and spliceome expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 schizophrenia patients, nine bipolar disorder patients, and eight healthy control subjects. Each diagnostic group was compared to each other, and the combined group of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients was also compared to the control group. Furthermore, we compared subjects with a history of psychosis to subjects without such history. Results After applying Bonferroni corrections for the 21,866 full-length gene transcripts analyzed, we found significant interactions between diagnostic group and exon identity, consistent with group differences in rates or types of alternative splicing. Relative to the control group, 18 genes in the bipolar disorder group, eight genes in the schizophrenia group, and 15 genes in the combined bipolar disorder and schizophrenia group appeared differentially spliced. Importantly, thirty-three genes showed differential splicing patterns between the bipolar disorder and schizophrenia groups. More frequent exon inclusion and/or over-expression was observed in psychosis. Finally, these observations are reconciled with an analysis of the ontologies, the pathways and the protein domains significantly over-represented among the alternatively spliced genes, several of which support prior discoveries. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first blood-based spliceome-profiling study of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to be reported. The battery of alternatively spliced genes and exons identified in this discovery-oriented exploratory study, if replicated, may have potential utility to discern the molecular subtypes of psychosis. Spliceome-profiling, as a new methodological approach in transcriptomics, warrants further work to evaluate its utility in personalized medicine. Potentially, this approach could also permit the future development of tissue-sampling methodologies in a form that is more acceptable to patients and thereby allow monitoring of dynamic and time-dependent plasticity in disease severity and response to therapeutic interventions in clinical psychiatry. PMID:21532980

Glatt, S.J.; Chandler, S.D.; Bousman, C.A.; Chana, G.; Lucero, G.R.; Tatro, E.; May, T.; Lohr, J.B.; Kremen, W.S.; Everall, I.P.; Tsuang, M.T.

2010-01-01

287

Identification of two novel, alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein hormone receptors contain large extracellular domains encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Using human ovarian surface epithelium, we cloned two new splice variants of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) gene, hFSH-R2 and hFSH-R3. The hFSH-R2 splice variant differed from the full-length FSH-R mRNA by the deletion of exon 10 and inclusion of two small exons after exon 9 whereas the hFSH-R3 splice variant retained only exons 1-6 of the full-length transcript. Both variants were expressed at low levels, but were detected in cells from follicular fluid derived from 30 different subjects. Transfection of these two variants individually into KGN cells, an ovarian cancer cell line that expresses wild-type FSH-R, reduced FSH-mediated phosphorylation of ERK(1/2), Akt, and p38/MAPK. Furthermore, in vitro co-expression of either hFSH-R2 or hFSH-R3 and full-length FSH-R in HEK293T cells reduced signal transduction through full-length FSH-R. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the functions of these receptor isoforms. PMID:24009160

Zhou, Jun; Huang, Yiting; Li, Lili; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Suzhan; Chen, Yiding

2013-11-01

288

Ott1 (Rbm15) regulates thrombopoietin response in hematopoietic stem cells through alternative splicing of c-Mpl.  

PubMed

Thrombopoietin (Thpo) signaling through the c-Mpl receptor promotes either quiescence or proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner; however, in vivo Thpo serum levels are responsive to platelet mass rather than HSC demands, suggesting additional regulation exists. Ott1 (Rbm15), a spliceosomal component originally identified as a fusion partner in t(1;22)-associated acute megakaryocytic leukemia, is also essential for maintaining HSC quiescence under stress. Ott1 controls the alternative splicing of a dominant negative isoform, Mpl-TR, capable of inhibiting HSC engraftment and attenuating Thpo signaling. Ott1, which associates with Hdac3 and the histone methyltransferase, Setd1b, binds to both c-Mpl RNA and chromatin and regulates H4 acetylation and H3K4me3 marks. Histone deacetylase or histone methyltransferase inhibition also increases Mpl-TR levels, suggesting that Ott1 uses an underlying epigenetic mechanism to control alternative splicing of c-Mpl. Manipulation of Ott1-dependent alternative splicing may therefore provide a novel pharmacologic avenue for regulating HSC quiescence and proliferation in response to Thpo. PMID:25468569

Xiao, Nan; Laha, Suparna; Das, Shankar P; Morlock, Kayla; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Raffel, Glen D

2015-02-01

289

Steroid responsive regulation of IFN?2 alternative splicing and its possible role in germ cell proliferation in medaka.  

PubMed

Interferon gamma (IFN?) is an active player in estrogen dependent immuno-regulation of fish. The present work was aimed to characterize the alternatively spliced isoforms of IFN?2 in the gonadal sex development in medaka. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that IFN?2a and 2b were clustered with fish specific interferon gamma. Our in vitro promoter and mini-genome analysis data confirmed that alternative splicing of IFN?2 is regulated by estrogens and androgens. Tissue distribution, quantitative PCR and ISH data demonstrated ubiquitous expression of IFN?2a, while IFN?2b was only expressed predominantly in female germ cells than males. This was further confirmed by germ cell specific GFP signals in the IFN?2b-GFP over-expressed embryos and specific induction of IFN?2b expression in the BrdU positive cells. All together our data suggest that steroid responsive alternatively spliced IFN?2b isoforms might have some indirect roles in germ cell proliferation and thus can be an important candidate for immuno-reproductive interaction studies. PMID:25458697

Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Zhou, Linyan; Ohta, Kohei; Iguchi, Taisen; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

2015-01-15

290

Functionality of alternative splice forms of the first enzymes involved in human molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.  

PubMed

In humans, genetic deficiencies of enzymes involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis trigger an autosomal recessive and usually fatal disease with severe mostly neurological symptoms. In each of the three biosynthesis steps, at least two proteins or domains are linked for catalysis. For steps 1 and 2, bicistronic mocs (molybdenum cofactor synthesis) mRNAs were found (mocs1 and mocs2) that have been proposed to encode two separate proteins (A and B). In both cases, the A proteins share a highly conserved ubiquitin-like double glycine motif, which is functionally important at least for the small subunit of molybdopterin (MPT) synthase (MOCS2A). Besides the bicistronic form of mocs1, two alternative splice transcripts were found, resulting in the expression of multidomain proteins embodying both MOCS1A, but without the double glycine motif, and the entire MOCS1B. Here we describe the first functional characterization of the human proteins MOCS1A and MOCS1B as well as the MOCS1A-MOCS1B fusion proteins that catalyze the formation of precursor Z, a 6-alkyl pterin with a cyclic phosphate, the immediate precursor of MPT in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. High level expression of MOCS1A and MOCS1B in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation and accumulation of precursor Z that was subsequently converted to MPT. We showed that for catalytic activity MOCS1A needs an accessible C-terminal double glycine motif. In the MOCS1A-MOCS1B fusion proteins lacking the MOCS1A double glycines, only MOCS1B activity could be detected. No evidence was found for an expression of MOCS1B from the bicistronic mocs1A-mocs1B splice type I cDNA, indicating that MOCS1B is only expressed as a fusion to an inactive MOCS1A. Comparative mutational studies of MOCS1A and the small subunit of the E. coli MPT synthase (MoaD) indicate a different function of the double glycine motifs in both proteins. PMID:11891227

Hänzelmann, Petra; Schwarz, Gunter; Mendel, Ralf R

2002-05-24

291

Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

292

Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution  

E-print Network

Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist ...

Bradley, Robert K.

293

Tau Splicing and the Intricacies of Dementia  

PubMed Central

Tau is a microtubule associated protein that fulfills several functions critical for neuronal formation and health. Tau discharges its functions by producing multiple isoforms via regulated alternative splicing. These isoforms modulate tau function in normal brain by altering the domains of the protein, thereby influencing its localization, conformation and post-translational modifications and hence its availability and affinity for microtubules and other ligands. Disturbances in tau expression result in disruption of the neuronal cytoskeleton and formation of tau structures (neurofibrillary tangles) found in brains of dementia sufferers. More specifically, aberrations in tau splicing regulation directly cause several neurodegenerative diseases which lead to dementia. In this review, I present our cumulative knowledge of tau splicing regulation in connection with neurodegeneration and also briefly go over the still-extensive list of questions that are connected to tau (dys)function. PMID:21604267

Andreadis, Athena

2011-01-01

294

Rhythmic U2af26 alternative splicing controls PERIOD1 stability and the circadian clock in mice.  

PubMed

The circadian clock drives daily rhythms in gene expression to control metabolism, behavior, and physiology; while the underlying transcriptional feedback loops are well defined, the impact of alternative splicing on circadian biology remains poorly understood. Here we describe a robust circadian and light-inducible splicing switch that changes the reading frame of the mouse mRNA encoding U2-auxiliary-factor 26 (U2AF26). This results in translation far into the 3' UTR, generating a C terminus with homology to the Drosophila clock regulator TIMELESS. This new U2AF26 variant destabilizes PERIOD1 protein, and U2AF26-deficient mice show nearly arrhythmic PERIOD1 protein levels and broad defects in circadian mRNA expression in peripheral clocks. At the behavioral level, these mice display increased phase advance adaptation following experimental jet lag. These data suggest light-induced U2af26 alternative splicing to be a buffering mechanism that limits PERIOD1 induction, thus stabilizing the circadian clock against abnormal changes in light:dark conditions. PMID:24837677

Preußner, Marco; Wilhelmi, Ilka; Schultz, Astrid-Solveig; Finkernagel, Florian; Michel, Monika; Möröy, Tarik; Heyd, Florian

2014-05-22

295

Conserved alternative splicing of Arabidopsis transthyretin-like determines protein localization and S-allantoin synthesis in peroxisomes.  

PubMed

S-allantoin, a major ureide compound, is produced in plant peroxisomes from oxidized purines. Sequence evidence suggested that the Transthyretin-like (TTL) protein, which interacts with brassinosteroid receptors, may act as a bifunctional enzyme in the synthesis of S-allantoin. Here, we show that recombinant TTL from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyzes two enzymatic reactions leading to the stereoselective formation of S-allantoin, hydrolysis of hydroxyisourate through a C-terminal Urah domain, and decarboxylation of 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline through an N-terminal Urad domain. We found that two different mRNAs are produced from the TTL gene through alternative use of two splice acceptor sites. The corresponding proteins differ in the presence (TTL(1-)) and the absence (TTL(2-)) of a rare internal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2). The two proteins have similar catalytic activity in vitro but different in vivo localization: TTL(1-) localizes in peroxisomes, whereas TTL(2-) localizes in the cytosol. Similar splice variants are present in monocots and dicots. TTL originated in green algae through a Urad-Urah fusion, which entrapped an N-terminal PTS2 between the two domains. The presence of this gene in all Viridiplantae indicates that S-allantoin biosynthesis has general significance in plant nitrogen metabolism, while conservation of alternative splicing suggests that this mechanism has general implications in the regulation of the ureide pathway in flowering plants. PMID:20511299

Lamberto, Ilaria; Percudani, Riccardo; Gatti, Rita; Folli, Claudia; Petrucco, Stefania

2010-05-01

296

Identification by high-throughput imaging of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2 as an epigenetic regulator of VEGFA alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence points to a role of chromatin in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS). In order to identify novel chromatin regulators of AS, we screened an RNAi library of chromatin proteins using a cell-based high-throughput in vivo assay. We identified a set of chromatin proteins that regulate AS. Using simultaneous genome-wide expression and AS analysis, we demonstrate distinct and non-overlapping functions of these chromatin modifiers on transcription and AS. Detailed mechanistic characterization of one dual function chromatin modifier, the H3K9 methyltransferase EHMT2 (G9a), identified VEGFA as a major chromatin-mediated AS target. Silencing of EHMT2, or its heterodimer partner EHMT1, affects AS by promoting exclusion of VEGFA exon 6a, but does not alter total VEGFA mRNA levels. The epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS by EHMT2 involves an adaptor system consisting of the chromatin modulator HP1?, which binds methylated H3K9 and recruits splicing regulator SRSF1. The epigenetic regulation of VEGFA is physiologically relevant since EHMT2 is transcriptionally induced in response to hypoxia and triggers concomitant changes in AS of VEGFA. These results characterize a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS and they demonstrate separate roles of epigenetic modifiers in transcription and alternative splicing. PMID:25414343

Salton, Maayan; Voss, Ty C.; Misteli, Tom

2014-01-01

297

Alternative Splicing Events Identified in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Neural Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and neural progenitor (NP) cells are excellent models for recapitulating early neuronal development in vitro, and are key to establishing strategies for the treatment of degenerative disorders. While much effort had been undertaken to analyze transcriptional and epigenetic differences during the transition of hESC to NP, very little work has been performed to understand post-transcriptional changes during neuronal differentiation. Alternative RNA splicing (AS), a major form of post-transcriptional gene regulation, is important in mammalian development and neuronal function. Human ESC, hESC-derived NP, and human central nervous system stem cells were compared using Affymetrix exon arrays. We introduced an outlier detection approach, REAP (Regression-based Exon Array Protocol), to identify 1,737 internal exons that are predicted to undergo AS in NP compared to hESC. Experimental validation of REAP-predicted AS events indicated a threshold-dependent sensitivity ranging from 56% to 69%, at a specificity of 77% to 96%. REAP predictions significantly overlapped sets of alternative events identified using expressed sequence tags and evolutionarily conserved AS events. Our results also reveal that focusing on differentially expressed genes between hESC and NP will overlook 14% of potential AS genes. In addition, we found that REAP predictions are enriched in genes encoding serine/threonine kinase and helicase activities. An example is a REAP-predicted alternative exon in the SLK (serine/threonine kinase 2) gene that is differentially included in hESC, but skipped in NP as well as in other differentiated tissues. Lastly, comparative sequence analysis revealed conserved intronic cis-regulatory elements such as the FOX1/2 binding site GCAUG as being proximal to candidate AS exons, suggesting that FOX1/2 may participate in the regulation of AS in NP and hESC. In summary, a new methodology for exon array analysis was introduced, leading to new insights into the complexity of AS in human embryonic stem cells and their transition to neural stem cells. PMID:17967047

Yeo, Gene W; Xu, Xiangdong; Liang, Tiffany Y; Muotri, Alysson R; Carson, Christian T; Coufal, Nicole G; Gage, Fred H

2007-01-01

298

Specificity in splicing.  

PubMed

Considerable information about the process of pre-mRNA splicing has accumulated, but the mechanism by which highly accurate splicing is achieved is unresolved. Fifteen years ago we proposed that accuracy in splicing might depend on small RNA molecules (splicer RNAs) which hybridise across adjacent exon termini, or intron termini. Gene expression, including alternative splicing, could be controlled by the transcription of specific splicer RNA genes. We re-assess our model here, in the light of subsequent developments. PMID:7980482

Holliday, R; Murray, V

1994-10-01

299

The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

2015-02-01

300

Alternative splicing determines mRNA translation initiation and function of human K2P10.1 K+ channels  

PubMed Central

Abstract Potassium-selective ion channels regulate cardiac and neuronal excitability by stabilizing the resting membrane potential and by modulating shape and frequency of action potentials. The delicate control of membrane voltage requires structural and functional diversity of K+ channel subunits expressed in a given cell. Here we reveal a previously unrecognized biological mechanism. Tissue-specific mRNA splicing regulates alternative translation initiation (ATI) of human K2P10.1 K+ background channels via recombination of 5? nucleotide motifs. ATI-dependent expression of full-length protein or truncated subunits initiated from two downstream start codons determines macroscopic current amplitudes and biophysical properties of hK2P10.1 channels. The interaction between hK2P10.1 mRNA splicing, translation and function increases K+ channel complexity and is expected to contribute to electrophysiological plasticity of excitable cells. PMID:21669980

Staudacher, Kathrin; Baldea, Ioana; Kisselbach, Jana; Staudacher, Ingo; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Schweizer, Patrick A; Becker, Rüdiger; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

2011-01-01

301

Alternative splicing in osteoclasts and Paget’s disease of bone  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the SQSTM1/p62 gene have been reported in Paget’s disease of bone (PDB), but they are not sufficient to induce the pagetic osteoclast (OC) phenotype. We hypothesized that specific RNA isoforms of OC-related genes may contribute to the overactivity of pagetic OCs, along with other genetic predisposing factors. Methods Alternative splicing (AS) events were studied using a PCR-based screening strategy in OC cultures from 29 patients with PDB and 26 healthy donors (HD), all genotyped for the p62P392L mutation. Primer pairs targeting 5223 characterized AS events were used to analyze relative isoform ratios on pooled cDNA from samples of the four groups (PDB, PDBP392L, HD, HDP392L). Of the 1056 active AS events detected in the screening analysis, 192 were re-analyzed on non-amplified cDNA from each subject of the whole cohort. Results This analysis led to the identification of six AS events significantly associated with PDB, but none with p62P392L. The corresponding genes included LGALS8, RHOT1, CASC4, USP4, TBC1D25, and PIDD. In addition, RHOT1 and LGALS8 genes were upregulated in pagetic OCs, as were CASC4 and RHOT1 genes in the presence of p62P392L. Finally, we showed that the proteins encoded by LGALS8, RHOT1, USP4, TBC1D25, and PIDD were expressed in human OCs. Conclusion This study allowed the identification of hitherto unknown players in OC biology, and our findings of a differential AS in pagetic OCs may generate new concepts in the pathogenesis of PDB. PMID:25115182

2014-01-01

302

Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher. PMID:18315870

Münk, Carsten; Beck, Thomas; Zielonka, Jörg; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Chareza, Sarah; Battenberg, Marion; Thielebein, Jens; Cichutek, Klaus; Bravo, Ignacio G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lochelt, Martin; Yuhki, Naoya

2008-01-01

303

MAp19, the alternative splice product of the MASP2 gene.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of complement is a central part of innate immunity, but as a powerful inducer of inflammation it needs to be tightly controlled. The MASP2 gene encodes two proteins, MASP-2 and MAp19. MASP-2 is the serine protease responsible for lectin pathway activation. The smaller alternative splice product, MAp19, lacks a catalytic domain but retains two of three domains involved in association with the pattern-recognition molecules (PRMs): mannan-binding lectin (MBL), H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin. MAp19 reportedly acts as a competitive inhibitor of MASP-2-mediated complement activation. In light of a ten times lower affinity of MAp19, versus MASP-2, for association with the PRMs, much higher serum concentrations of MAp19 than MASP-2 would be required for MAp19 to exert such an inhibitory activity. Just four amino acid residues distinguish MAp19 from MASP-2, and these are conserved between man, mouse and rat. Nonetheless we generated monoclonal rat anti-MAp19 antibodies and established a quantitative assay. We found the concentration of MAp19 in serum to be 217 ng/ml, i.e., 11nM, comparable to the 7 nM of MASP-2. In serum all MASP-2, but only a minor fraction of MAp19, was associated with PRMs. In contrast to previous reports we found that MAp19 could not compete with MASP-2 for binding to MBL, nor could it inhibit MASP-2-mediated complement activation. Immunohistochemical analyses combined with qRT-PCR revealed that both MAp19 and MASP-2 were mainly expressed in hepatocytes. High levels of MAp19 were found in urine, where MASP-2 was absent. PMID:21871896

Degn, Søren E; Thiel, Steffen; Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Annette G; Steffensen, Rudi; Jensenius, Jens C

2011-10-28

304

Identification of novel alternative splicing events in the huntingtin gene and assessment of the functional consequences using structural protein homology modelling.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the large multi-exon gene, huntingtin (HTT). Although multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed for HD, there is increasing interest in the RNA processing of the HTT gene. In mammals, most multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced; however, few alternative transcripts have been described for HTT. Given the numerous protein bands detected in mouse and human brain tissue by Western blotting using anti-huntingtin antibodies, we examined whether alternative splicing of HTT may account for some of these fragments. Using RT-PCR in mouse brain, we detected two novel splice variants of Htt that lacked the 111-bp exon 29 (Htt?ex29) or retained a 57-bp portion of intron 28 (Htt(+57)in28) via use of a cryptic splice site. The alternative transcripts were present in wild-type and homozygous Hdh(Q150/Q150) mouse brain at all ages and in all brain regions and peripheral tissues studied. Differential splicing of Htt?ex29 was found in the cerebellum of Hdh(Q150/Q150) mice with a significant reduction in transcript levels in mutant animals. In human brain, we detected similar splice variants lacking exons 28 and 29. The ability of alternatively spliced transcripts to encode different protein isoforms with individual functions in the cell, combined with the known role of splicing in disease, renders these novel transcripts of interest in the context of HD pathogenesis. PMID:24389360

Hughes, Alis C; Mort, Matthew; Elliston, Lyn; Thomas, Rhian M; Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B; Jones, Lesley

2014-04-01

305

Alternative Splice Variants in TIM Barrel Proteins from Human Genome Correlate with the Structural and Evolutionary Modularity of this Versatile Protein Fold  

PubMed Central

After the surprisingly low number of genes identified in the human genome, alternative splicing emerged as a major mechanism to generate protein diversity in higher eukaryotes. However, it is still not known if its prevalence along the genome evolution has contributed to the overall functional protein diversity or if it simply reflects splicing noise. The (??)8 barrel or TIM barrel is one of the most frequent, versatile, and ancient fold encountered among enzymes. Here, we analyze the structural modifications present in TIM barrel proteins from the human genome product of alternative splicing events. We found that 87% of all splicing events involved deletions; most of these events resulted in protein fragments that corresponded to the (??)2, (??)4, (??)5, (??)6, and (??)7 subdomains of TIM barrels. Because approximately 7% of all the splicing events involved internal ?-strand substitutions, we decided, based on the genomic data, to design ?-strand and ?-helix substitutions in a well-studied TIM barrel enzyme. The biochemical characterization of one of the chimeric variants suggests that some of the splice variants in the human genome with ?-strand substitutions may be evolving novel functions via either the oligomeric state or substrate specificity. We provide results of how the splice variants represent subdomains that correlate with the independently folding and evolving structural units previously reported. This work is the first to observe a link between the structural features of the barrel and a recurrent genetic mechanism. Our results suggest that it is reasonable to expect that a sizeable fraction of splice variants found in the human genome represent structurally viable functional proteins. Our data provide additional support for the hypothesis of the origin of the TIM barrel fold through the assembly of smaller subdomains. We suggest a model of how nature explores new proteins through alternative splicing as a mechanism to diversify the proteins encoded in the human genome. PMID:23950966

Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Montero-Morán, Gabriela; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G.; Soberón, Xavier

2013-01-01

306

Alternative splice variants of the USH3A gene Clarin 1 (CLRN1)  

PubMed Central

Clarin 1 (CLRN1) is a four-transmembrane protein expressed in cochlear hair cells and neural retina, and when mutated it causes Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). The main human splice variant of CLRN1 is composed of three exons that code for a 232-aa protein. In this study, we aimed to refine the structure of CLRN1 by an examination of transcript splice variants and promoter regions. Analysis of human retinal cDNA revealed 11 CLRN1 splice variants, of which 5 have not been previously reported. We studied the regulation of gene expression by several promoter domains using a luciferase assay, and identified 1000?nt upstream of the translation start site of the primary CLRN1 splice variant as the principal promoter region. Our results suggest that the CLRN1 gene is significantly more complex than previously described. The complexity of the CLRN1 gene and the identification of multiple splice variants may partially explain why mutations in CLRN1 result in substantial variation in clinical phenotype. PMID:20717163

Västinsalo, Hanna; Jalkanen, Reetta; Dinculescu, Astra; Isosomppi, Juha; Geller, Scott; Flannery, John G; Hauswirth, William W; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

2011-01-01

307

Splicing factor SRSF6 promotes hyperplasia of sensitized skin  

PubMed Central

Summary Many biological processes involve gene-expression regulation by alternative splicing. Here, we identify the splicing factor SRSF6 as a regulator of wound healing and tissue homeostasis in skin. We show that SRSF6 is a proto-oncogene that is frequently overexpressed in human skin cancer. Overexpressing it in transgenic mice induces hyperplasia of sensitized skin and promotes aberrant alternative splicing. We identify 139 target genes of SRSF6 in skin, and show that this SR protein binds to alternative exons of the extracellular-matrix protein tenascin C pre-mRNA, promoting the expression of isoforms characteristic of invasive and metastatic cancer in a cell-type-independent manner. SRSF6 overexpression additionally results in depletion of Lgr6+ stem cells, and excessive keratinocyte proliferation and response to injury. Furthermore, the effects of SRSF6 in wound healing assayed in vitro depend on the TNC isoforms. Thus, abnormal SR-protein expression can perturb tissue homeostasis. PMID:24440982

Jensen, Mads A.; Wilkinson, John E.; Krainer, Adrian R.

2014-01-01

308

Mutational bias is the driving force for shaping the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays important roles in diverse aspects of plant development, metabolism, and stress responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms of alternative splicing of genes still remain incompletely elucidated, especially in plants. In this study, the synonymous codon usage pattern of alternatively spliced (AS) genes in rice was firstly explored using the combination of correspondence analysis (CA), internal CA, correlation and ANOVA analyses. The results show that alternatively and non-alternatively spliced (non-AS) genes have similar tendency for overall codon usage, but exhibit significant difference in 58 out of 64 codons. AS and non-AS genes are both under strong purifying selection, but the former ones have significant lower mutation rate and are prone to be enriched towards the chromosomal ends. In the group of AS genes, the variability in synonymous codon usage between genes is mainly due to the variations in GC content, CDS length, as well as gene functions. Mutational bias that accounts for 25.85 % of the total codon usage variability plays a major role in shaping the codon usage pattern of AS genes. In contrast, no obvious evidence is found for the contributions of translational selection, AS types, the conservation of AS events, and numbers of AS variants to the codon usage divergence between AS genes. These findings may be useful for further understanding the mechanisms of origination, differentiation and regulation of alternatively spliced genes in plants. PMID:25407289

Liu, Qingpo; Hu, Haichao; Wang, Hong

2014-11-19

309

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency caused by alternative splicing due to a novel intronic mutation in the AMPD1 gene.  

PubMed

We have examined two Caucasian brothers with myoadenylate deaminase (AMPD) deficiency who presented with exercise intolerance and muscle cramps. Allele-specific PCR amplification assays demonstrated that the common Q12X (C34T) and P48L (C143T) mutations were not found within their AMPD1 genes. Further analysis revealed that both brothers were compound heterozygotes for a previously reported K287I (A860T) mutation in exon 7 and a novel deletion within intron 2 (IVS2-(4-7)delCTTT). The intronic deletion appears to affect the splicing machinery since characterization of AMPD1 mRNA from skeletal muscle of one brother identified multiple alternatively spliced transcripts resulting in multiple deletions in exon 3, the complete deletion of either exon 3 or exons 3 and 4, and the activation of a cryptic splice site that resulted in an insertion at the 5' end of exon 4. The predominant transcript contains a 51 base deletion at the 5' end of exon 3 that is predicted to produce a functional form of AMPD containing a 17-amino acid residue deletion within its N-terminal region. Analysis of 137 Caucasian normal control patients determined that the K287I mutation is relatively frequent (5.1% carrier frequency), whereas the IVS2-(4-7)delCTTT mutation is rare and not present in 274 chromosomes. PMID:16040263

Isackson, Paul J; Bujnicki, Heather; Harding, Cary O; Vladutiu, Georgirene D

2005-01-01

310

Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

Sørensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jörg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2007-01-01

311

The developing xylem transcriptome and genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) populations  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein structure and function. AS variation has been observed between tissues, cell types, and different treatments in non-woody plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. However, little is known about AS patterns in wood-forming tissues and how much AS variation exists within plant populations. Results Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa) xylem transcriptome in 20 individuals from different populations across much of its range in western North America. Deep transcriptome sequencing and mapping of reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome identified a suite of xylem-expressed genes common to all accessions. Our analysis suggests that at least 36% of the xylem-expressed genes in P. trichocarpa are alternatively spliced. Extensive AS was observed in cell-wall biosynthesis related genes such as glycosyl transferases and C2H2 transcription factors. 27902 AS events were documented and most of these events were not conserved across individuals. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that 7% and 13% of AS events showed significant differences between individuals within geographically separated southern and northern populations, a level that is in general agreement with AS variation in human populations. Conclusions This genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing reveals high levels of AS in P. trichocarpa and extensive inter-individual AS variation. We provide the most comprehensive analysis of AS in P. trichocarpa to date, which will serve as a valuable resource for the plant community to study transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during wood formation. PMID:23718132

2013-01-01

312

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12  

PubMed Central

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-01-01

313

Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression and Splicing Differences in Brain Regions Affected by Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies strongly indicate that aberrations in the control of gene expression might contribute to the initiation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, alternative splicing has been suggested to play a role in spontaneous cases of AD. Previous transcriptome profiling of AD models and patient samples using microarrays delivered conflicting results. This study provides, for the first time,

Natalie A. Twine; Karolina Janitz; Marc R. Wilkins; Michal Janitz

2011-01-01

314

Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

2014-01-01

315

Alternative Splicing Variants and DNA Methylation Status of BDNF in Inbred Chicken Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays essential roles in neuronal survival and differentiation, synaptic plasticity, central regulation of energy homeostasis, and neuronal development of the central and peripheral nerve system. Here, we report two new splicing variants of the chicken BDNF g...

316

Regulation of mRNA Abundance by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Controlled Alternate 5? Splice Site Choice  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5? and 3? splice site (5?ss and 3?ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5?ss (u5?ss and d5?ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5?ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5?ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5?ss and d5?ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5?ss is intrinsically weaker than d5?ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5?ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5?ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

Hamid, Fursham M.; Makeyev, Eugene V.

2014-01-01

317

Alternative splice isoforms of small conductance calcium-activated SK2 channels differ in molecular interactions and surface levels.  

PubMed

Small conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (SK2) channels are voltage-independent, Ca(2+)-activated ion channels that conduct potassium cations and thereby modulate the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of neurons and sensory hair cells. In the cochlea, SK2 channels are functionally coupled to the highly Ca(2+) permeant ?9/10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at olivocochlear postsynaptic sites. SK2 activation leads to outer hair cell hyperpolarization and frequency-selective suppression of afferent sound transmission. These inhibitory responses are essential for normal regulation of sound sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and suppression of background noise. However, little is known about the molecular interactions of these key functional channels. Here we show that SK2 channels co-precipitate with ?9/10-nAChRs and with the actin-binding protein ?-actinin-1. SK2 alternative splicing, resulting in a 3 amino acid insertion in the intracellular 3' terminus, modulates these interactions. Further, relative abundance of the SK2 splice variants changes during developmental stages of synapse maturation in both the avian cochlea and the mammalian forebrain. Using heterologous cell expression to separately study the 2 distinct isoforms, we show that the variants differ in protein interactions and surface expression levels, and that Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-bound calmodulin differentially regulate their protein interactions. Our findings suggest that the SK2 isoforms may be distinctly modulated by activity-induced Ca(2+) influx. Alternative splicing of SK2 may serve as a novel mechanism to differentially regulate the maturation and function of olivocochlear and neuronal synapses. PMID:24394769

Scholl, Elizabeth Storer; Pirone, Antonella; Cox, Daniel H; Duncan, R Keith; Jacob, Michele H

2014-01-01

318

HuR regulates alternative splicing of the TRA2? gene in human colon cancer cells under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Hu antigen R (HuR) regulates stress responses through stabilizing and/or facilitating the translation of target mRNAs. The human TRA2? gene encodes splicing factor transformer 2? (Tra2?) and generates 5 mRNA isoforms (TRA2?1 to -5) through alternative splicing. Exposure of HCT116 colon cancer cells to sodium arsenite stimulated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2)- and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38(MAPK))-mediated phosphorylation of HuR at positions S88 and T118. This induced an association between HuR and the 39-nucleotide (nt) proximal region of TRA2? exon 2, generating a TRA2?4 mRNA that includes exon 2, which has multiple premature stop codons. HuR knockdown or Chk2/p38(MAPK) double knockdown inhibited the arsenite-stimulated production of TRA2?4 and increased Tra2? protein, facilitating Tra2?-dependent inclusion of exons in target pre-mRNAs. The effects of HuR knockdown or Chk2/p38(MAPK) double knockdown were also confirmed using a TRA2? minigene spanning exons 1 to 4, and the effects disappeared when the 39-nt region was deleted from the minigene. In endogenous HuR knockdown cells, the overexpression of a HuR mutant that could not be phosphorylated (with changes of serine to alanine at position 88 [S88A], S100A, and T118A) blocked the associated TRA2?4 interaction and TRA2?4 generation, while the overexpression of a phosphomimetic HuR (with mutations S88D, S100D, and T118D) restored the TRA2?4-related activities. Our findings revealed the potential role of nuclear HuR in the regulation of alternative splicing programs under oxidative stress. PMID:24865968

Akaike, Yoko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishida, Kensei; Kajita, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Satake, Yuzuru; Shoda, Katsutoshi; Imoto, Issei; Rokutan, Kazuhito

2014-08-01

319

HuR Regulates Alternative Splicing of the TRA2? Gene in Human Colon Cancer Cells under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Hu antigen R (HuR) regulates stress responses through stabilizing and/or facilitating the translation of target mRNAs. The human TRA2? gene encodes splicing factor transformer 2? (Tra2?) and generates 5 mRNA isoforms (TRA2?1 to -5) through alternative splicing. Exposure of HCT116 colon cancer cells to sodium arsenite stimulated checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2)- and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation of HuR at positions S88 and T118. This induced an association between HuR and the 39-nucleotide (nt) proximal region of TRA2? exon 2, generating a TRA2?4 mRNA that includes exon 2, which has multiple premature stop codons. HuR knockdown or Chk2/p38MAPK double knockdown inhibited the arsenite-stimulated production of TRA2?4 and increased Tra2? protein, facilitating Tra2?-dependent inclusion of exons in target pre-mRNAs. The effects of HuR knockdown or Chk2/p38MAPK double knockdown were also confirmed using a TRA2? minigene spanning exons 1 to 4, and the effects disappeared when the 39-nt region was deleted from the minigene. In endogenous HuR knockdown cells, the overexpression of a HuR mutant that could not be phosphorylated (with changes of serine to alanine at position 88 [S88A], S100A, and T118A) blocked the associated TRA2?4 interaction and TRA2?4 generation, while the overexpression of a phosphomimetic HuR (with mutations S88D, S100D, and T118D) restored the TRA2?4-related activities. Our findings revealed the potential role of nuclear HuR in the regulation of alternative splicing programs under oxidative stress. PMID:24865968

Akaike, Yoko; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishida, Kensei; Kajita, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Satake, Yuzuru; Shoda, Katsutoshi; Imoto, Issei; Rokutan, Kazuhito

2014-01-01

320

Alternative Splicing of Arabidopsis IBR5 Pre-mRNA Generates Two IBR5 Isoforms with Distinct and Overlapping Functions  

PubMed Central

The INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE5 (IBR5) gene encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that regulates plant auxin responses. IBR5 has been predicted to generate two transcripts through alternative splicing, but alternative splicing of IBR5 has not been confirmed experimentally. The previously characterized ibr5-1 null mutant exhibits many auxin related defects such as auxin insensitive primary root growth, defective vascular development, short stature and reduced lateral root development. However, whether all these defects are caused by the lack of phosphatase activity is not clear. Here we describe two new auxin insensitive IBR5 alleles, ibr5-4, a catalytic site mutant, and ibr5-5, a splice site mutant. Characterization of these new mutants indicates that IBR5 is post-transcriptionally regulated to generate two transcripts, AT2G04550.1 and AT2G04550.3, and consequently two IBR5 isoforms, IBR5.1 and IBR5.3. The IBR5.1 isoform exhibits phosphatase catalytic activity that is required for both proper degradation of Aux/IAA proteins and auxin-induced gene expression. These two processes are independently regulated by IBR5.1. Comparison of new mutant alleles with ibr5-1 indicates that all three mutant alleles share many phenotypes. However, each allele also confers distinct defects implicating IBR5 isoform specific functions. Some of these functions are independent of IBR5.1 catalytic activity. Additionally, analysis of these new mutant alleles suggests that IBR5 may link ABP1 and SCFTIR1/AFBs auxin signaling pathways. PMID:25144378

Jayaweera, Thilanka; Siriwardana, Chamindika; Dharmasiri, Sunethra; Quint, Marcel; Gray, William M.; Dharmasiri, Nihal

2014-01-01

321

Inhibitory Activity of Alternative Splice Variants of the Bullfrog GnRH Receptor3 on Wild-Type Receptor Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently we characterized three distinct GnRH receptors in the bullfrog (bfGnRHR-1, bfGnRHR-2, and bfGnRHR-3). In the present study, we further investigated the expression and function of splice variants, generated from the primary bfGnRHR-3 transcript by exon skipping (splice variant 1), in- tron retention (splice variants 2 and 3), and\\/or transcriptional slippage (splice variant 4), apart from the constitutively spliced form

LI WANG; Y. OH; JAN BOGERD; HUENG S. CHOI; RYUN S. AHN; JAE Y. SEONG; HYUK B. KWON

2010-01-01

322

Comparative Analysis of Serine/Arginine-Rich Proteins across 27 Eukaryotes: Insights into Sub-Family Classification and Extent of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and “basal” eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes). AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3? or 5? splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%–88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%–54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms. PMID:21935421

Richardson, Dale N.; Rogers, Mark F.; Labadorf, Adam; Ben-Hur, Asa; Guo, Hui; Paterson, Andrew H.; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

2011-01-01

323

Alternative Splicing Of The Trout Pax5 Gene And Identification Of Novel B Cell Populations Using Pax5 Signatures*  

PubMed Central

Pax5 is an alternatively spliced transcription factor that regulates B cell development and activation. The function of specific Pax5 isoforms is unknown. Here we report the existence of seven alternatively spliced isoforms of Pax5 in the rainbow trout. We hypothesized that B cells differentially express specific Pax5 isoforms as a means of modulating Pax5 activity during cell maturation. Flow cytometric analyses using Pax5-specific antibodies recognizing the paired domain, a central (exon 6-encoding) domain, or the C-terminus, revealed the existence of distinct Pax5-expressing cell populations in trout immune tissues. Additionally, using the transcription factor EBF, we show that Pax5 isoforms lacking a paired domain are already expressed at the earliest stages of trout (B) lymphopoiesis, and unexpectedly, that minor populations of such cells reside in blood and spleen. These data support use of differentially expressed Pax5 isoforms to identify novel B cell subsets in the form of Pax5 tissue signatures, and as such, provides new biomarkers for malignancy, infectious disease, and disease resistance in trout and humans. PMID:23796789

MacMurray, Elizabeth; Barr, Maggie; Bruce, Amber; Epp, Lidia; Zwollo, Patty

2013-01-01

324

A Mef2 gene that generates a muscle-specific isoform via alternative mRNA splicing.  

PubMed Central

Members of the myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors bind a conserved A/T-rich sequence in the control regions of numerous muscle-specific genes. Mammalian MEF2 proteins have been shown previously to be encoded by three genes, Mef2, xMef2, and Mef2c, each of which gives rise to multiple alternatively spliced transcripts. We describe the cloning of a new member of the MEF2 family from mice, termed MEF2D, which shares extensive homology with other MEF2 proteins but is the product of a separate gene. MEF2D binds to and activates transcription through the MEF2 site and forms heterodimers with other members of the MEF2 family. Deletion mutations show that the carboxyl terminus of MEF2D is required for efficient transactivation. MEF2D transcripts are widely expressed, but alternative splicing of MEF2D transcripts gives rise to a muscle-specific isoform which is induced during myoblast differentiation. The mouse Mef2, Mef2c, and Mef2d genes map to chromosomes 7, 13, and 3, respectively. The complexity of the MEF2 family of regulatory proteins provides the potential for fine-tuning of transcriptional responses as a consequence of combinatorial interactions among multiple MEF2 isoforms encoded by the four Mef2 genes. Images PMID:8114702

Martin, J F; Miano, J M; Hustad, C M; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Olson, E N

1994-01-01

325

Human cyclo-oxygenase-1 and an alternative splice variant: contrasts in expression of mRNA, protein and catalytic activities  

PubMed Central

The two COX (cyclo-oxygenase) isoenzymes COX-1 and -2 catalyse the initial step in the conversion of arachidonic acid into PG (prostaglandin) hormones. The identification of an mRNA transcript encoding a splice variant of human COX-1 was reported more than a decade ago [Diaz, Reginato and Jimenez (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10816–10822], yet catalytic activity and tissue expression of the corresponding spliced protein remained uncharacterized. The splice variant lacks amino acids 396–432, corresponding to the last 37 amino acids of exon 9 of the gene encoding COX-1. These amino acids form a loop at one side of the peroxidase active site of the protein. We expressed the full-length and spliced COX-1 cDNAs in COS-7 and Sf9 insect cells, and determined the PG-forming activity using incubations with radiolabelled arachidonic acid and HPLC analyses. When expressed in either system, abundant PG formation was observed with the full-length COX-1, whereas the spliced protein did not form any detectable product. Peroxidase activity was readily detected in microsomes prepared from COS-7 cells transfected with COX-1 but not with the splice variant. In reverse transcriptase–PCR experiments, we detected the mRNA for the alternatively spliced and full-length COX-1 in human brain, tonsil and colon tissue, yet we were unable to detect expression of the spliced protein in the same tissues using immunoprecipitation and Western-blot analyses. We conclude that, whereas the mRNA transcript for the spliced COX-1 is present in various human tissues, the corresponding protein is either not formed or subject to rapid proteolytic degradation. PMID:15361066

2004-01-01

326

SIAH1 targets the alternative splicing factor T-STAR for degradation by the proteasome  

Microsoft Academic Search

T-STAR is one of three members of the SAM68 family of RNA-binding proteins that have been shown to be involved in various gene expression pathways including the control of pre-mRNA splicing. We employed a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with human T-STAR. The predominant interacting proteins were the E3 ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. We found that SIAH1

Julian P. Venables; Caroline Dalgliesh; Maria Paolo Paronetto; Lindi Skitt; Jared K. Thornton; Philippa T. Saunders; Claudio Sette; Keith T. Jones; David J. Elliott

2004-01-01

327

An autoregulatory loop controlling Arabidopsis HsfA2 expression: role of heat shock-induced alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Heat shock transcription factorA2 (HsfA2) is a key regulator in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and its heat shock (HS)-induced transcription regulation has been extensively studied. Recently, alternative splicing, a critical posttranscriptional event, has been shown to regulate HS-inducible expression of HsfA2; however, the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a new heat stress-induced splice variant, HsfA2-III, is involved in the self-regulation of HsfA2 transcription in Arabidopsis. HsfA2-III is generated through a cryptic 5' splice site in the intron, which is activated by severe heat (42°C-45°C). We confirmed that HsfA2-III encodes a small truncated HsfA2 isoform (S-HsfA2) by an immunoblot assay with anti-S-HsfA2 antiserum. S-HsfA2 has an extra leucine-rich motif next to its carboxyl-terminal truncated DNA-binding domain. The biological significance of S-HsfA2 was further demonstrated by its nuclear localization and heat shock element (HSE)-binding ability. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the leucine-rich motif can inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of S-HsfA2, while it appears not to be required for the truncated DNA-binding domain-mediated binding ability of S-HsfA2-HSE. Further results reveal that S-HsfA2 could bind to the TATA box-proximal clusters of HSE in the HsfA2 promoter to activate its own transcription. This S-HsfA2-modulated HsfA2 transcription is not mediated through homodimer or heterodimer formation with HsfA1d or HsfA1e, which are known transcriptional activators of HsfA2. Altogether, our findings provide new insights into how HS posttranscriptionally regulates HsfA2 expression. Severe HS-induced alternative splicing also occurs in four other HS-inducible Arabidopsis Hsf genes, suggesting that it is a common feature among Arabidopsis Hsfs. PMID:23503691

Liu, Jinjie; Sun, Na; Liu, Meng; Liu, Jiancheng; Du, Bojing; Wang, Xinjing; Qi, Xiaoting

2013-05-01

328

Stress-Induced Alternative Splice Forms of MDM2 and MDMX Modulate the p53-Pathway in Distinct Ways  

PubMed Central

MDM2 and MDMX are the chief negative regulators of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 and are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the cell. In response to genotoxic stress and also in several cancer types, MDM2 and MDMX are alternatively spliced. The splice variants MDM2-ALT1 and MDMX-ALT2 lack the p53-binding domain and are incapable of negatively regulating p53. However, they retain the RING domain that facilitates dimerization of the full-length MDM proteins. Concordantly, MDM2-ALT1 has been shown to lead to the stabilization of p53 through its interaction with and inactivation of full-length MDM2. The impact of MDM2-ALT1 expression on the p53 pathway and the nature of its interaction with MDMX remain unclear. Also, the role of the architecturally similar MDMX-ALT2 and its influence of the MDM2-MDMX-p53 axis are yet to be elucidated. We show here that MDM2-ALT1 is capable of binding full-length MDMX as well as full-length MDM2. Additionally, we demonstrate that MDMX-ALT2 is able to dimerize with both full-length MDMX and MDM2 and that the expression of MDM2-ALT1 and MDMX-ALT2 leads to the upregulation of p53 protein, and also of its downstream target p21. Moreover, MDM2-ALT1 expression causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in a p53 and p21 dependent manner, which is consistent with the increased levels of p21. Finally we present evidence that MDM2-ALT1 and MDMX-ALT2 expression can activate subtly distinct subsets of p53-transcriptional targets implying that these splice variants can modulate the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in unique ways. In summary, our study shows that the stress-inducible alternative splice forms MDM2-ALT1 and MDMX-ALT2 are important modifiers of the p53 pathway and present a potential mechanism to tailor the p53-mediated cellular stress response. PMID:25105592

Comiskey, Daniel F.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Mohammad, Fuad; Bebee, Thomas W.; Chandler, Dawn S.

2014-01-01

329

NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML.  

PubMed

Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34(+) bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

Adamia, Sophia; Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G; Stone, Richard M; Griffin, James D

2014-05-01

330

1. Alternative splicing of viral receptors: A review of the diverse morphologies and physiologies of adenoviral receptors  

PubMed Central

Understanding the biology of cell surface proteins is important particularly when they are utilized as viral receptors for viral entry. By manipulating the expression of cell surface receptors that have been coopted by viruses, the susceptibility of an individual to virus-induced disease or, alternatively, the effectiveness of viral-based gene therapy can be modified. The most commonly studied vector for gene therapy is adenovirus. The majority of adenovirus types utilize the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a primary receptor to enter cells. Species B adenovirus do not interact with CAR, but instead interact with the cell surface proteins desmoglein-2 (DSG-2) and cluster of differentiation 46 (CD46). These cell surface proteins exhibit varying degrees of alternative mRNA splicing, creating an estimated 20 distinct protein isoforms. It is likely that alternative splice forms have allowed these proteins to optimize their effectiveness in a plethora of niches, including roles as cell adhesion proteins and regulators of the innate immune system. Interestingly, there are soluble isoforms of these viral receptors, which lack the transmembrane domain. These soluble isoforms can potentially bind to the surface of a virus in the extracellular compartment, blocking the ability of the virus to bind to the host cell, reducing viral infectivity. Finally, the diversity of viral receptor isoforms appears to facilitate an assortment of interactions between viral receptor proteins and cytosolic proteins, leading to differential sorting in polarized cells. Using adenoviral receptors as a model system, the purpose of this review is to highlight the role that isoform-specific protein localization plays in the entry of pathogenic viruses from the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells.

Excoffon, Katherine J.D.A.; Bowers, Jonathan R.; Sharma, Priyanka

2015-01-01

331

Crystallographic Analysis of Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Raver1 Interactions Involved in Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Summary The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is an important regulator of alternative splicing. PTB-regulated splicing of ?-tropomyosin is enhanced by Raver1, a protein with four PTB-Raver1 interacting motifs (PRIs) that bind to the helical face of the second RNA recognition motif (RRM2) in PTB. We present the crystal structures of RRM2 in complex with PRI3 and PRI4 from Raver1, which—along with structure-based mutagenesis—reveal the molecular basis of their differential binding. High-affinity binding by Raver1 PRI3 involves shape-matched apolar contacts complemented by specific hydrogen bonds, a new variant of an established mode of peptide-RRM interaction. Our results refine the sequence of the PRI motif and place important structural constraints on functional models of PTB-Raver1 interactions. Our analysis indicates that the observed Raver1-PTB interaction is a general mode of binding that applies to Raver1 complexes with PTB paralogues such as nPTB and to complexes of Raver2 with PTB. PMID:22153504

Joshi, Amar; Coelho, Miguel B.; Kotik-Kogan, Olga; Simpson, Peter J.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Smith, Christopher W.J.; Curry, Stephen

2011-01-01

332

Suggestive evidence on the involvement of polypyrimidine-tract binding protein in regulating alternative splicing of MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 in glioma.  

PubMed

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates microtubule-associated proteins taking part in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. MARK4 is expressed in two spliced isoforms characterized by inclusion (MARK4S) or exclusion (MARK4L) of exon 16. The distinct expression profiles in the central nervous system and their imbalance in gliomas point to roles of MARK4L and MARK4S in cell proliferation and cell differentiation, respectively. Having ruled out mutations and transcription defects, we hypothesized that alterations in the expression of splicing factors may underlie deregulated MARK4 expression in gliomas. Bioinformatic analysis revealed four putative polypyrimidine-tract binding (PTB) protein binding sites in MARK4 introns 15 and 16. Glioma tissues and glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells showed, compared with normal brain, significant overexpression of PTB, correlated with high MARK4L mRNA expression. Splicing minigene assays revealed a functional intronic splicing silencer in MARK4 intron 15, but mutagenesis of the PTB binding site in this region did not affect minigene splicing, suggesting that PTB may bind to a splicing silencer other than the predicted one and synergistically acting with the other predicted PTB sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays coupled with mass spectrometry confirmed binding of PTB to the polypyrimidine tract of intron 15, and thus its involvement in MARK4 alternative splicing. This finding, along with evidence of PTB overexpression in gliomas and glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells and differentiated progeny, merged in pointing out the involvement of PTB in the switch to MARK4L, consistent with its established role in driving oncogenic splicing in brain tumors. PMID:25578778

Fontana, L; Rovina, D; Novielli, C; Maffioli, E; Tedeschi, G; Magnani, I; Larizza, L

2015-04-01

333

The Orthologue of the Fruitfly Sex Behaviour Gene Fruitless in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti: Evolution of Genomic Organisation and Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila melanogaster the doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) regulatory genes act at the bottom of the somatic sex determination pathway. Both are regulated via alternative splicing by an upstream female-specific TRA/TRA-2 complex, recognizing a common cis element. dsx controls somatic sexual differentiation of non-neural as well as of neural tissues. fru, on the other hand, expresses male-specific functions only in neural system where it is required to built the neural circuits underlying proper courtship behaviour. In the mosquito Aedes aegypti sex determination is different from Drosophila. The key male determiner M, which is located on one of a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sex-specific splicing of the mosquito dsx orthologue. In this study we report the genomic organization and expression of the fru homologue in Ae. aegypti (Aeafru). We found that it is sex-specifically spliced suggesting that it is also under the control of the sex determination pathway. Comparative analyses between the Aeafru and Anopheles gambiae fru (Angfru) genomic loci revealed partial conservation of exon organization and extensive divergence of intron lengths. We find that Aeadsx and Aeafru share novel cis splicing regulatory elements conserved in the alternatively spliced regions. We propose that in Aedes aegypti sex-specific splicing of dsx and fru is most likely under the control of splicing regulatory factors which are different from TRA and TRA-2 found in other dipteran insects and discuss the potential use of fru and dsx for developing new genetic strategies in vector control. PMID:23418412

Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Aceto, Serena; Nimmo, Derric; Neira, Marco; Alphey, Luke; Polito, Lino C.; Saccone, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

334

LAR tyrosine phosphatase receptor: alternative splicing is preferential to the nervous system, coordinated with cell growth and generates novel isoforms containing extensive CAG repeats  

PubMed Central

Receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases regulate cell growth by dephosphorylating proteins involved in tyrosine kinase signal transduction. The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) tyrosine phosphatase receptor has sequence similarity to the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM and is located in a chromosomal region (1p32- 33) frequently altered in neuroectodermal tumors. To understand the function of receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases in neural development, we sought to identify LAR isoforms preferentially expressed in the nervous system and cellular processes regulating LAR alternative splicing. We report here the isolation of a series of rat LAR cDNA clones arising from complex combinatorial alternative splicing, not previously demonstrated for the tyrosine phosphatase- receptor gene family in general. Isoforms included: (a) deletions of the fourth, sixth and seventh fibronectin type III-like domains; (b) an alternatively spliced novel cassette exon in the fifth fibronectin type III-like domain; (c) two alternatively spliced novel cassette exons in the juxtamembrane region; (d) a retained intron in the extracellular region with in-frame stop codons predicting a secreted LAR isoform; and (e) an LAR transcript including an alternative 3' untranslated region containing multiple stretches of tandem CAG repeats up to 21 repeats in length. This number of repeats was in the range found in normal alleles of genes in which expansions of repeats are associated with neurodegenerative disease and the genetic phenomenon of anticipation. RT-PCR and Northern analysis demonstrated that LAR alternative splicing occurred preferentially in neuromuscular tissue in vivo and in neurons compared to astrocytes in vitro and was developmentally regulated. Alternative splicing was also regulated in PC12 cells by NGF, in 3T3 fibroblasts by cell confluence and in sciatic nerve and muscle subsequent to nerve transection. Western blot analysis demonstrated that alternatively spliced cassette exons result in the presence of corresponding amino acid segments of LAR protein in vivo. These studies suggest specialized functions of LAR isoforms in the nervous system and support our hypothesis that LAR-like tyrosine phosphatase receptors play a role in neural development and regeneration. PMID:7844155

1995-01-01

335

Human Pot1 (Protection of Telomeres) Protein: Cytolocalization, Gene Structure, and Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Fission yeast Pot1 (protection of telomeres) is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein with a critical role in ensuring chromosome stability. A putative human homolog (hPot1) was previously identified, based on moderate sequence similarity with fission yeast Pot1 and telomere end-binding proteins from ciliated protozoa. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we show here that epitope-tagged hPot1 localizes to telomeres in interphase nuclei of human cells, consistent with a direct role in telomere end protection. The hPOT1 gene contains 22 exons, most of which are present in all cDNAs examined. However, four exons are subject to exon skipping in some transcripts, giving rise to five splice variants. Four of these are ubiquitously expressed, whereas the fifth appears to be specific to leukocytes. The resultant proteins vary significantly in their ability to form complexes with single-stranded telomeric DNA as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition to these splice variants, the Pot1 family is expanded by the identification of six more genes from diverse species. Pot1-like proteins have now been found in plants, animals, yeasts, and microsporidia. PMID:12391173

Baumann, Peter; Podell, Elaine; Cech, Thomas R.

2002-01-01

336

Rescue of cardiac failing and remodelling by inhibition of protein phosphatase 1? is associated with suppression of the alternative splicing factor-mediated splicing of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ?.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?) exacerbates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through promotion of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ? (CaMKII?) splicing. Here we determine the role of PP1? in abdominal aorta constriction-induced hypertrophy and remodelling in rat hearts. Systolic blood pressure and echocardiographic measurements were used to evaluate the model of cardiac hypertrophy. Sirius red staining and invasive haemodynamic/cardiac index measurements were used to evaluate the effects of PP1? or inhibitor 1 of PP1 transfection. Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and co-immunoprecipitation were applied to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Transfection of PP1? increased the value of the heart mass index, left ventricular mass index and cardiac fibrosis, and simultaneously decreased the value of maximal left ventricular pressure increase and decline rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, as well as left ventricular systolic pressure. Transfection of inhibitor 1 of PP1, however, showed opposite effects on the aforementioned indexes. Overexpression of PP1? potentiated CaMKII?C production and decreased CaMKII?B production in the hypertrophic heart. In contrast, inhibition of PP1? re-balanced the CaMKII? splicing. Furthermore, CaMKII activity was found to be augmented or attenuated by PP1? overexpression or inhibition, respectively. Further mechanistic studies showed that abdominal aorta constriction stress specifically increased the association of alternative splicing factor with PP1?, but not with PP1?. Overexpression of PP1?, but not inhibitor 1 of PP1, further potentiated this association. These results suggest that PP1? alters the cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling likely through promotion of the alternative splicing factor-mediated splicing of CaMKII?. PMID:25224648

Liao, Ru-Jia; Tong, Li-Juan; Huang, Chao; Cao, Wen-Wen; Wang, Yu-Zhe; Wang, Jia; Chen, Xiang-Fan; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Zhang, Wei

2014-12-01

337

An EMT-Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype  

E-print Network

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative ...

Shapiro, Irina M.

338

The soluble form of the EIAV receptor encoded by an alternative splicing variant inhibits EIAV infection of target cells.  

PubMed

Equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been identified as the sole receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. In addition to the previously described membrane-associated form of ELR1, two other major alternative splicing variant mRNAs were identified in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs). One major spliced species (ELR1-IN) contained an insertion of 153 nt, which resulted in a premature stop codon situated 561 nt upstream of the predicted membrane spanning domain. The other major species (ELR1-DE) has a deletion of 109 nt that causes a shift of the open reading frame and generates a stop codon 312 nt downstream. Because ELR1-DE presumably encodes a peptide of a mere 23 residues, only ELR1-IN was further analyzed. The expression of a soluble form of ELR1 (sELR1) by ELR1-IN was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Similar to ELR1, the transcription level of ELR1-IN varied among individual horses and at different time points in the same individuals. The ratio of ELR1-IN mRNA species to ELR1 mRNA was approximately 1?2.5. Pre-incubation of the recombinant sELR1 with EIAV significantly inhibited EIAV infection in equine macrophages, the primary in vivo target cell of the virus. Fetal equine dermal (FED) cells are susceptible to EIAV in vitro, and the replication of EIAV in FED cells transiently transfected with ELR1-IN was markedly reduced when compared with replication in cells transfected with the empty vector. Finally, the expression levels of both forms of the EIAV receptor were significantly regulated by infection with this virus. Taken together, our data indicate that sELR1 acts as a secreted cellular factor that inhibits EIAV infection in host cells. PMID:24278125

Lin, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Sun, Liu-Ke; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Zhou, Jian-Hua

2013-01-01

339

Alternative splicing of TIA-1 in human colon cancer regulates VEGF isoform expression, angiogenesis, tumour growth and bevacizumab resistance.  

PubMed

The angiogenic capability of colorectal carcinomas (CRC), and their susceptibility to anti-angiogenic therapy, is determined by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms. The intracellular protein T-cell Intracellular Antigen (TIA-1) alters post-transcriptional RNA processing and binds VEGF-A mRNA. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TIA-1 could regulate VEGF-A isoform expression in colorectal cancers. TIA-1 and VEGF-A isoform expression was measured in colorectal cancers and cell lines. We discovered that an endogenous splice variant of TIA-1 encoding a truncated protein, short TIA-1 (sTIA-1) was expressed in CRC tissues and invasive K-Ras mutant colon cancer cells and tissues but not in adenoma cell lines. sTIA-1 was more highly expressed in CRC than in normal tissues and increased with tumour stage. Knockdown of sTIA-1 or over-expression of full length TIA-1 (flTIA-1) induced expression of the anti-angiogenic VEGF isoform VEGF-A165b. Whereas flTIA-1 selectively bound VEGF-A165 mRNA and increased translation of VEGF-A165b, sTIA-1 prevented this binding. In nude mice, xenografted colon cancer cells over-expressing flTIA-1 formed smaller, less vascular tumours than those expressing sTIA-1, but flTIA-1 expression inhibited the effect of anti-VEGF antibodies. These results indicate that alternative splicing of an RNA binding protein can regulate isoform specific expression of VEGF providing an added layer of complexity to the angiogenic profile of colorectal cancer and their resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:25224594

Hamdollah Zadeh, Maryam A; Amin, Elianna M; Hoareau-Aveilla, Coralie; Domingo, Enric; Symonds, Kirsty E; Ye, Xi; Heesom, Katherine J; Salmon, Andrew; D'Silva, Olivia; Betteridge, Kai B; Williams, Ann C; Kerr, David J; Salmon, Andrew H J; Oltean, Sebastian; Midgley, Rachel S; Ladomery, Michael R; Harper, Steven J; Varey, Alexander H R; Bates, David O

2015-01-01

340

Alternative splicing of TIA-1 in human colon cancer regulates VEGF isoform expression, angiogenesis, tumour growth and bevacizumab resistance  

PubMed Central

The angiogenic capability of colorectal carcinomas (CRC), and their susceptibility to anti-angiogenic therapy, is determined by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms. The intracellular protein T-cell Intracellular Antigen (TIA-1) alters post-transcriptional RNA processing and binds VEGF-A mRNA. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TIA-1 could regulate VEGF-A isoform expression in colorectal cancers. TIA-1 and VEGF-A isoform expression was measured in colorectal cancers and cell lines. We discovered that an endogenous splice variant of TIA-1 encoding a truncated protein, short TIA-1 (sTIA-1) was expressed in CRC tissues and invasive K-Ras mutant colon cancer cells and tissues but not in adenoma cell lines. sTIA-1 was more highly expressed in CRC than in normal tissues and increased with tumour stage. Knockdown of sTIA-1 or over-expression of full length TIA-1 (flTIA-1) induced expression of the anti-angiogenic VEGF isoform VEGF-A165b. Whereas flTIA-1 selectively bound VEGF-A165 mRNA and increased translation of VEGF-A165b, sTIA-1 prevented this binding. In nude mice, xenografted colon cancer cells over-expressing flTIA-1 formed smaller, less vascular tumours than those expressing sTIA-1, but flTIA-1 expression inhibited the effect of anti-VEGF antibodies. These results indicate that alternative splicing of an RNA binding protein can regulate isoform specific expression of VEGF providing an added layer of complexity to the angiogenic profile of colorectal cancer and their resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:25224594

Hamdollah Zadeh, Maryam A.; Amin, Elianna M.; Hoareau-Aveilla, Coralie; Domingo, Enric; Symonds, Kirsty E.; Ye, Xi; Heesom, Katherine J.; Salmon, Andrew; D'Silva, Olivia; Betteridge, Kai B.; Williams, Ann C.; Kerr, David J.; Salmon, Andrew H.J.; Oltean, Sebastian; Midgley, Rachel S.; Ladomery, Michael R.; Harper, Steven J.; Varey, Alexander H.R.; Bates, David O.

2015-01-01

341

Exonic Splicing Enhancer-Dependent Selection of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 Nucleotide 3225 3' Splice Site Can Be Rescued in a Cell Lacking Splicing Factor ASF\\/SF2 through Activation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase\\/Akt Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) late pre-mRNAs are spliced in keratinocytes in a differentiation- specific manner: the late leader 5 splice site alternatively splices to a proximal 3 splice site (at nucleotide 3225) to express L2 or to a distal 3 splice site (at nucleotide 3605) to express L1. Two exonic splicing enhancers, each containing two ASF\\/SF2 (alternative splicing factor\\/splicing

Xuefeng Liu; Akila Mayeda; Mingfang Tao; Zhi-Ming Zheng

2003-01-01

342

Alternatively spliced VEGF receptor-2 is an essential endogenous inhibitor of lymphatic vessels  

PubMed Central

Disruption of the precise balance of positive and negative molecular regulators of blood and lymphatic vessels can lead to myriad diseases that affect one in four people worldwide. Although dozens of natural inhibitors of hemangiogenesis have been identified, an endogenous selective inhibitor of lymphatic vessels has not yet been described. We report the existence of a secreted, splice variant of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVegfr-2) that inhibits developmental and reparative lymphangiogenesis by blocking Vegf-c. Tissue-specific loss of sVegfr-2 in mice induced, at birth, spontaneous lymphatic invasion of the normally alymphatic cornea and hyperplasia of skin lymphatics without accompanying changes in blood vasculature. sVegfr-2 inhibited lymphangiogenesis but not hemangiogenesis induced by corneal suture injury or transplantation, enhanced corneal allograft survival, and suppressed lymphangioma cellular proliferation. Naturally occurring sVegfr-2 is a molecular uncoupler of blood and lymphatic vessels whose modulation might have a therapeutic role in lymphatic vascular malformations, transplantation, and potentially in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphedema. PMID:19668192

Albuquerque, Romulo J.C.; Hayashi, Takahiko; Cho, Won Gil; Kleinman, Mark E.; Dridi, Sami; Takeda, Atsunobu; Baffi, Judit Z.; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Hiroki; Green, Martha G.; Chappell, Joe; Wilting, Jörg; Weich, Herbert A.; Yamagami, Satoru; Amano, Shiro; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Alexander, Jonathan S.; Peterson, Martha L.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Hirashima, Masanori; Capoor, Seema; Usui, Tomohiko; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Ambati, Jayakrishna

2010-01-01

343

Environmental Stresses Modulate Abundance and Timing of Alternatively Spliced Circadian Transcripts in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Environmental stresses profoundly altered accumulation of nonsense mRNAs including intron-retaining (IR) transcripts in Arabidopsis. Temporal patterns of stress-induced IR mRNAs were dissected using both oscillating and non-oscillating transcripts. Broad-range thermal cycles triggered a sharp increase in the long IR CCA1 isoforms and altered their phasing to different times of day. Both abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought or Pseudomonas syringae infection induced a similar increase. Thermal stress induced a time delay in accumulation of CCA1 I4Rb transcripts, whereas functional mRNA showed steady oscillations. Our data favor a hypothesis that stress-induced instabilities of the central oscillator can be in part compensated through fluctuations in abundance and out-of-phase oscillations of CCA1 IR transcripts. Taken together, our results support a concept that mRNA abundance can be modulated through altering ratios between functional and nonsense/IR transcripts. SR45 protein specifically bound to the retained CCA1 intron in vitro, suggesting that this splicing factor could be involved in regulation of intron retention. Transcriptomes of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)-impaired and heat-stressed plants shared a set of retained introns associated with stress- and defense-inducible transcripts. Constitutive activation of certain stress response networks in an NMD mutant could be linked to disequilibrium between functional and nonsense mRNAs. PMID:25680774

Filichkin, Sergei A; Cumbie, Jason S; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Chang, Jeff H; Palusa, Saiprasad G; Reddy, A S N; Megraw, Molly; Mockler, Todd C

2015-02-01

344

Environmental Stresses Modulate Abundance and Timing of Alternatively Spliced Circadian Transcripts in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Environmental stresses profoundly altered accumulation of nonsense mRNAs including intron retaining (IR) transcripts in Arabidopsis. Temporal patterns of stress-induced IR mRNAs were dissected using both oscillating and non-oscillating transcripts. Broad range thermal cycles triggered a sharp increase in the long intron retaining CCA1 isoforms and altered their phasing to different times of day. Both abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought or P. syringae infection induced similar increase. Thermal stress induced a time delay in accumulation of CCA1 I4Rb transcripts whereas functional mRNA showed steady oscillations. Our data favor a hypothesis that stress-induced instabilities of the central oscillator can be in part compensated through fluctuations in abundance and out of phase oscillations of CCA1 IR transcripts. Altogether, our results support a concept that mRNA abundance can be modulated through altering ratios between functional and nonsense/IR transcripts. SR45 protein specifically bound to the retained CCA1 intron in vitro, suggesting that this splicing factor could be involved in regulation of intron retention. Transcriptomes of NMD-impaired and heat-stressed plants shared a set of retained introns associated with stress- and defense-inducible transcripts. Constitutive activation of certain stress response networks in an NMD mutant could be linked to disequilibrium between functional and nonsense mRNAs. PMID:25366180

Filichkin, Sergei A; Cumbie, Jason S; Dharmawadhana, J Palitha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Chang, Jeff H; Palusa, Saiprasad G; Reddy, A S N; Megraw, Molly; Mockler, Todd C

2014-11-01

345

Human biliary glycoprotein gene: characterization of a family of novel alternatively spliced RNAs and their expressed proteins.  

PubMed Central

Eight different human biliary glycoprotein (BGP) isoantigens, structurally related members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, CD66/67 family, and immunoglobulin superfamily, are derived by alternative splicing from a single genomic transcription unit. Novel BGP isoforms have been identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and by DNA sequencing of amplified cDNA segments. In addition to verifying previously documented BGPs, we describe four new forms, two of which have unusual nonimmunoglobulin exons contributed by inverted Alu repeats. Determination of the genomic DNA sequence encompassing most of the known extracellular and intracellular domains demonstrates that the translatable Alu-like sequences are encoded in bona fide exons. The third novel BGP isoform contains none of the extracellular disulfide-linked immunoglobulin-like domains typical of these molecules but retains N-terminal and intracellular domains, suggesting distinct functions for N-terminal versus other disulfide-linked domains. cDNAs coding for each identified isoform have been transfected into COS7 monkey cells, and the resulting polypeptides are heavily N glycosylated but can be deglycosylated to their expected primary sizes. Many of these deglycosylated forms can be correlated with unique patterns of BGP expression in different cell lines, while in granulocytes, some previously undescribed or alternatively modified forms may predominate. The BGP family represents a potentially large but unknown source of functional diversity among cells of epithelial and hematopoietic origin. The availability of a defined set of expressed of BGP cDNAs should permit critical definition of their function. Images PMID:8423792

Barnett, T R; Drake, L; Pickle, W

1993-01-01

346

Post-Transcriptional Regulation of 5-Lipoxygenase mRNA Expression via Alternative Splicing and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay  

PubMed Central

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LT), a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. Here, we investigated the regulation of 5-LO mRNA expression by alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). In the present study, we report the identification of 2 truncated transcripts and 4 novel 5-LO splice variants containing premature termination codons (PTC). The characterization of one of the splice variants, 5-LO?3, revealed that it is a target for NMD since knockdown of the NMD factors UPF1, UPF2 and UPF3b in the human monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 (MM6) altered the expression of 5-LO?3 mRNA up to 2-fold in a cell differentiation-dependent manner suggesting that cell differentiation alters the composition or function of the NMD complex. In contrast, the mature 5-LO mRNA transcript was not affected by UPF knockdown. Thus, the data suggest that the coupling of alternative splicing and NMD is involved in the regulation of 5-LO gene expression. PMID:22363630

Ochs, Meike J.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Pufahl, Laura; Grez, Manuel; Suess, Beatrix; Steinhilber, Dieter

2012-01-01

347

Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5? splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

2012-01-01

348

NFAT1 and NFAT3 Cooperate with HDAC4 during Regulation of Alternative Splicing of PMCA Isoforms in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background The bulk of human genes undergo alternative splicing (AS) upon response to physiological stimuli. AS is a great source of protein diversity and biological processes and is associated with the development of many diseases. Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, characterized by an excessive Ca2+-dependent secretion of catecholamines. This underlines the importance of balanced control of calcium transport via regulation of gene expression pattern, including different calcium transport systems, such as plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs), abundantly expressed in pheochromocytoma chromaffin cells (PC12 cells). PMCAs are encoded by four genes (Atp2b1, Atp2b2, Atp2b3, Atp2b4), whose transcript products undergo alternative splicing giving almost 30 variants. Results In this scientific report, we propose a novel mechanism of regulation of PMCA alternative splicing in PC12 cells through cooperation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Luciferase assays showed increased activity of NFAT in PC12 cells, which was associated with altered expression of PMCA. RT-PCR experiments suggested that inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NFAT might result in the rearrangement of PMCA splicing variants in PC12 cells. NFAT inhibition led to dominant expression of 2x/c, 3x/a and 4x/a PMCA variants, while in untreated cells the 2w,z/b, 3z,x/b,c,e,f, and 4x/b variants were found as well. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that NFAT1-HDAC4 or NFAT3-HDAC4 complexes might be involved in regulation of PMCA2x splicing variant generation. Conclusions We suggest that the influence of NFAT/HDAC on PMCA isoform composition might be important for altered dopamine secretion by PC12 cells. PMID:24905014

Kosiorek, Michalina; Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Paulina; Zylinska, Ludmila; Pikula, Slawomir

2014-01-01

349

Alternative splicing produces transcripts coding for alpha and beta chains of a hetero-dimeric phosphagen kinase.  

PubMed

Glycocyamine kinase (GK) catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of glycocyamine (guanidinoacetate), a reaction central to cellular energy homeostasis in certain animals. GK is a member of the phosphagen kinase enzyme family and appears to have evolved from creatine kinase (CK) early in the evolution of multi-cellular animals. Prior work has shown that GK from the polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) diversicolor exits as a hetero-dimer in vivo and that the two polypeptide chains (termed alpha and beta) are coded for by unique transcripts. In the present study, we demonstrate that the GK from a congener Nereis virens is also hetero-dimeric and is coded for by alpha and beta transcripts, which are virtually identical to the corresponding forms in N. diversicolor. The GK gene from N. diversicolor was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the alpha and beta chains are the result of alternative splicing of the GK primary mRNA transcript. These results also strongly suggest that this gene underwent an early tandem exon duplication event. Full-length cDNAs for N. virens GKalpha and GKbeta were individually ligated into expression vectors and the resulting constructs used to transform Escherichia coli expression hosts. Regardless of expression conditions, minimal GK activity was observed in both GKalpha and GKbeta constructs. Inclusion bodies for both were harvested, unfolded in urea and alpha chains, beta chains and mixtures of alpha and beta chains were refolded by sequential dialysis. Only modest amounts of GK activity were observed when alpha and beta were refolded individually. In contrast, when refolded the alpha and beta mixture yielded highly active hetero-dimers, as validated by size exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, with a specific activity comparable to that of natural GK. The above evidence suggests that there is a preference for hetero-dimer formation in the GKs from these two polychaetes. The evolution of the alternate splicing and an additional exon in these GKs, producing alpha and beta transcripts, can be viewed as a possible compensation for a mutation(s) in the original gene, which most likely coded for a homo-dimeric protein. PMID:15256266

Ellington, W Ross; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiko

2004-06-01

350

Alternative splicing and developmental and hormonal regulation of porcine comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) mRNA.  

PubMed

The process of lipolysis is essential for regulating the catabolism of cellular fat stores. Therefore, knowledge of lipolysis contributes to improving porcine production, such as reducing back fat, enhancing lean meat, and controlling marbling. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) plays an important role in the multi-enzyme-mediated process of lipolysis. It was identified as the co-activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which performs the first step in breaking down triacylglycerol and generating diacylglycerol and NEFA. We cloned and sequenced the CGI-58 cDNA and deduced the AA sequences in 3 breeds of swine (Duroc, Berkshire, and Landrace). Homologies were found with the human, mouse, and chicken for the lipid droplet binding domain, the ?/? hydrolase domain, and the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) domain, which demonstrates conservation of CGI-58 across species. An alternatively spliced isoform with an exon 3 deletion was identified. Interestingly, this unique isoform contains the lipid droplet-binding domain but lacks the LPAAT domain due to an open reading frame (ORF) shift that creates a premature stop codon. Furthermore, porcine CGI-58 is expressed in multiple organs and tissues but is most predominant in adipose tissue. Porcine adipose and stromal-vascular (SV) cell fractionation reveals that CGI-58 and ATGL are highly expressed (P < 0.01) in mature adipocytes. The expressions of both CGI-58 and ATGL mRNA were found to increase (P < 0.05) at d 6 of SV cell culture, confirming their upregulation during adipogenesis and differentiation. Also, the results from in vitro cell culture showed that insulin decreased (P < 0.05) the expressions of both CGI-58 and ATGL in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these results report the cDNA and AA sequences of porcine CGI-58 with identification of its unique alternatively spliced variant. The results of the study also reveal the developmental and hormonal regulation of porcine CGI-58 gene, which contributes to the understanding of the role of CGI-58 in lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that CGI-58 may be a new target for enhancing the quality of pork products as well as offering the potential of CGI-58 for human obesity treatment. PMID:22829614

Li, X; Suh, Y; Kim, E; Moeller, S J; Lee, K

2012-12-01

351

Changes in type II procollagen isoform expression during chondrogenesis by disruption of an alternative 5' splice site within Col2a1 exon 2.  

PubMed

This study describes a new mechanism controlling the production of alternatively spliced isoforms of type II procollagen (Col2a1) in vivo. During chondrogenesis, precursor chondrocytes predominantly produce isoforms containing alternatively spliced exon 2 (type IIA and IID) while Col2a1 mRNA devoid of exon 2 (type IIB) is the major isoform produced by differentiated chondrocytes. We previously identified an additional Col2a1 isoform containing a truncated exon 2 and premature termination codons in exon 6 (type IIC). This transcript is produced by utilization of another 5' splice site present in exon 2. To determine the role of this IIC splicing event in vivo, we generated transgenic mice containing silent knock-in mutations at the IIC 5' splice site (Col2a1-mIIC), thereby inhibiting production of IIC transcripts. Heterozygous and homozygous knock-in mice were viable and display no overt skeletal phenotype to date. However, RNA expression profiles revealed that chondrocytes in cartilage from an age range of Col2a1-mIIC mice produced higher levels of IIA and IID mRNAs and decreased levels of IIB mRNAs throughout pre-natal and post-natal development, when compared to chondrocytes from littermate control mice. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a clear increase in expression of embryonic type II collagen protein isoforms (i.e. containing the exon 2-encoded cysteine-rich (CR) protein domain) in cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Interestingly, at P14, P28 and P56, expression of embryonic Col2a1 isoforms in Col2a1-mIIC mice persisted in the pericellular domain of the ECM in articular and growth plate cartilage. We also show that persistent expression of the exon 2-encoded CR domain in the ECM of post-natal cartilage tissue may be due, in part, to the embryonic form of type XI collagen (the ?3 chain of which is also encoded by the Col2a1 gene). In conclusion, expression of the Col2a1 IIC splice form may have a regulatory function in controlling alternative splicing of exon 2 to generate defined proportions of IIA, IID and IIB procollagen isoforms during cartilage development. Future studies will involve ultrastructural and biomechanical analysis of the collagen ECM to determine the effects of persistent mis-expression of embryonic collagen isoforms in mature cartilage tissue. PMID:24735995

Hering, Thomas M; Wirthlin, Louisa; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey

2014-06-01

352

Comparative In Vitro and In Silico Analyses of Variants in Splicing Regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes and Characterization of Novel Pathogenic Mutations  

PubMed Central

Several unclassified variants (UVs) have been identified in splicing regions of disease-associated genes and their characterization as pathogenic mutations or benign polymorphisms is crucial for the understanding of their role in disease development. In this study, 24 UVs located at BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice sites were characterized by transcripts analysis. These results were used to evaluate the ability of nine bioinformatics programs in predicting genetic variants causing aberrant splicing (spliceogenic variants) and the nature of aberrant transcripts. Eleven variants in BRCA1 and 8 in BRCA2, including 8 not previously characterized at transcript level, were ascertained to affect mRNA splicing. Of these, 16 led to the synthesis of aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs), 2 to the up-regulation of naturally occurring alternative transcripts containing PTCs, and one to an in-frame deletion within the region coding for the DNA binding domain of BRCA2, causing the loss of the ability to bind the partner protein DSS1 and ssDNA. For each computational program, we evaluated the rate of non-informative analyses, i.e. those that did not recognize the natural splice sites in the wild-type sequence, and the rate of false positive predictions, i.e., variants incorrectly classified as spliceogenic, as a measure of their specificity, under conditions setting sensitivity of predictions to 100%. The programs that performed better were Human Splicing Finder and Automated Splice Site Analyses, both exhibiting 100% informativeness and specificity. For 10 mutations the activation of cryptic splice sites was observed, but we were unable to derive simple criteria to select, among the different cryptic sites predicted by the bioinformatics analyses, those actually used. Consistent with previous reports, our study provides evidences that in silico tools can be used for selecting splice site variants for in vitro analyses. However, the latter remain mandatory for the characterization of the nature of aberrant transcripts. PMID:23451180

Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanna; Caleca, Laura; Foglia, Claudia; Ripamonti, Carla B.; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Varesco, Liliana; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo

2013-01-01

353

Solution structure of the HIV-1 exon splicing silencer 3.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA is necessary to produce the complete viral protein complement, and aberrations in the splicing pattern impair HIV-1 replication. Genome splicing in HIV-1 is tightly regulated by the dynamic assembly/disassembly of trans host factors with cis RNA control elements. The host protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1, regulates splicing at several highly conserved HIV-1 3' splice sites by binding 5'-UAG-3' elements embedded within regions containing RNA structure. The physical determinants of hnRNP A1 splice site recognition remain poorly defined in HIV-1, thus precluding a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of the splicing pattern. Here, the three-dimensional structure of the exon splicing silencer 3 (ESS3) from HIV-1 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy. ESS3 adopts a 27-nucleotide hairpin with a 10-bp A-form stem that contains a pH-sensitive A(+)C wobble pair. The seven-nucleotide hairpin loop contains the high-affinity hnRNP-A1-responsive 5'-UAGU-3' element and a proximal 5'-GAU-3' motif. The NMR structure shows that the heptaloop adopts a well-organized conformation stabilized primarily by base stacking interactions reminiscent of a U-turn. The apex of the loop is quasi-symmetric with UA dinucleotide steps from the 5'-GAU-3' and 5'-UAGU-3' motifs stacking on opposite sides of the hairpin. As a step towards understanding the binding mechanism, we performed calorimetric and NMR titrations of several hnRNP A1 subdomains into ESS3. The data show that the UP1 domain forms a high-affinity (K(d)=37.8±1.1 nM) complex with ESS3 via site-specific interactions with the loop. PMID:22154809

Levengood, Jeffrey D; Rollins, Carrie; Mishler, Clay H J; Johnson, Charles A; Miner, Grace; Rajan, Prashant; Znosko, Brent M; Tolbert, Blanton S

2012-01-27

354

The evolution of mRNA splicing in mammals  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I describe investigations into the evolution of splicing in mammals. I first investigate a small class of alternative splicing events, tandem splice sites, and show how they are used to introduce and remove ...

Merkin, Jason Jay

2014-01-01

355

Transcriptome profiling and sequencing of differentiated human hematopoietic stem cells reveal lineage-specific expression and alternative splicing of genes  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic differentiation is strictly regulated by complex network of transcription factors that are controlled by ligands binding to cell surface receptors. Disruptions of the intricate sequences of transcriptional activation and suppression of multiple genes cause hematological diseases, such as leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, or myeloproliferative syndromes. From a clinical standpoint, deciphering the pattern of gene expression during hematopoiesis may help unravel disease-specific mechanisms in hematopoietic malignancies. Herein, we describe a human in vitro hematopoietic model system where lineage-specific differentiation of CD34+ cells was accomplished using specific cytokines. Microarray and RNAseq-based whole transcriptome and exome analysis was performed on the differentiated erythropoietic, granulopoietic, and megakaryopoietic cells to delineate changes in expression of whole transcripts and exons. Analysis on the Human 1.0 ST exon arrays indicated differential expression of 172 genes (P < 0.0000001) and significant alternate splicing of 86 genes during differentiation. Pathway analysis identified these genes to be involved in Rac/RhoA signaling, Wnt/B-catenin signaling and alanine/aspartate metabolism. Comparison of the microarray data to next generation RNAseq analysis during erythroid differentiation demonstrated a high degree of correlation in gene (R = 0.72) and exon (R = 0.62) expression. Our data provide a molecular portrait of events that regulate differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Knowledge of molecular processes by which the cells acquire their cell-specific fate would be beneficial in developing cell-based therapies for human diseases. PMID:21828245

Liu, Poching; Barb, Jennifer; Woodhouse, Kimberly; Taylor, James G.; Munson, Peter J.

2011-01-01

356

Activated T cells secrete an alternatively spliced form of common ?-chain that inhibits cytokine signaling and exacerbates inflammation.  

PubMed

The common ?-chain (?c) plays a central role in signaling by IL-2 and other ?c-dependent cytokines. Here we report that activated T cells produce an alternatively spliced form of ?c mRNA that results in protein expression and secretion of the ?c extracellular domain. The soluble form of ?c (s?c) is present in serum and directly binds to IL-2R? and IL-7R? proteins on T cells to inhibit cytokine signaling and promote inflammation. s?c suppressed IL-7 signaling to impair naive T cell survival during homeostasis and exacerbated Th17-cell-mediated inflammation by inhibiting IL-2 signaling upon T cell activation. Reciprocally, the severity of Th17-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases was markedly diminished in mice lacking s?c. Thus, s?c expression is a naturally occurring immunomodulator that regulates ?c cytokine signaling and controls T cell activation and differentiation. PMID:24909888

Hong, Changwan; Luckey, Megan A; Ligons, Davinna L; Waickman, Adam T; Park, Joo-Young; Kim, Grace Y; Keller, Hilary R; Etzensperger, Ruth; Tai, Xuguang; Lazarevic, Vanja; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Catalfamo, Marta; Walsh, Scott T R; Park, Jung-Hyun

2014-06-19

357

Characterization of Tissue-Specific and Developmentally Regulated Alternative Splicing of Exon 64 in the COL5A1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The COL5A1 gene, a member of the clade B fibrillar collagen gene family, was recently shown to contain two alternatively spliced exons (64A and 64B) that encode 23 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal propeptide. The two are identical in length, very similar in sequence, and used in a mutually exclusive fashion because of the small intron that separates them. Each COL5A1 allele uses both exons, but a given transcript will contain only one of the two exons. The sequences in other species are highly conserved at the amino acid level. The expression profile of the two isoforms was determined from analysis of RNA levels in a panel of murine tissues. While both isoforms were found in all tissues studied, actively proliferating tissues (liver, lung) used isoform B more often, while a less mitotically-active tissue, brain, had a higher proportion of exon 64A. The high degree of conservation between the two exons is consistent with a regional genomic duplication. The presence of the two isoforms as far back as pufferfish (tetraodon) implies an important functional significance. The exact role determined by the two sequences is not known, but involvement in the determination of chain composition of mature type V collagen or regulation of cell activity are possible, given the differences in tissue distribution. PMID:22149965

Mitchell, Anna L.; Judis, LuAnn M.; Schwarze, Ulrike; Vaynshtok, Polina M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Byers, Byers

2014-01-01

358

Nematogalectin, a nematocyst protein with GlyXY and galectin domains, demonstrates nematocyte-specific alternative splicing in Hydra  

PubMed Central

Taxonomically restricted genes or lineage-specific genes contribute to morphological diversification in metazoans and provide unique functions for particular taxa in adapting to specific environments. To understand how such genes arise and participate in morphological evolution, we have investigated a gene called nematogalectin in Hydra, which has a structural role in the formation of nematocysts, stinging organelles that are unique to the phylum Cnidaria. Nematogalectin is a 28-kDa protein with an N-terminal GlyXY domain (glycine followed by two hydrophobic amino acids), which can form a collagen triple helix, followed by a galactose-binding lectin domain. Alternative splicing of the nematogalectin transcript allows the gene to encode two proteins, nematogalectin A and nematogalectin B. We demonstrate that expression of nematogalectin A and B is mutually exclusive in different nematocyst types: Desmonemes express nematogalectin B, whereas stenoteles and isorhizas express nematogalectin B early in differentiation, followed by nematogalectin A. Like Hydra, the marine hydrozoan Clytia also has two nematogalectin transcripts, which are expressed in different nematocyte types. By comparison, anthozoans have only one nematogalectin gene. Gene phylogeny indicates that tandem duplication of nematogalectin B exons gave rise to nematogalectin A before the divergence of Anthozoa and Medusozoa and that nematogalectin A was subsequently lost in Anthozoa. The emergence of nematogalectin A may have played a role in the morphological diversification of nematocysts in the medusozoan lineage. PMID:20937891

Hwang, Jung Shan; Takaku, Yasuharu; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Adamczyk, Patrizia; Özbek, Suat; Ikeo, Kazuho; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Holstein, Thomas W.; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

2010-01-01

359

Alternative splicing of the human gene SYBL1 modulates protein domain architecture of longin VAMP7\\/TI-VAMP, showing both non-SNARE and synaptobrevin-like isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The control of intracellular vesicle trafficking is an ideal target to weigh the role of alternative splicing in shaping genomes\\u000a to make cells. Alternative splicing has been reported for several Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptors of the vesicle (v-SNAREs) or of the target membrane (t-SNARES),\\u000a which are crucial to intracellular membrane fusion and protein and lipid traffic in Eukaryotes.

Marcella Vacca; Della Floriana Ragione; Andrea Carpi; Valeria Rossi; Maria Strazzullo; Nicola De Franceschi; Ornella Rossetto; Francesco Filippini; Maurizio D’Esposito

2011-01-01

360

RBFOX and PTBP1 proteins regulate the alternative splicing of micro-exons in human brain transcripts.  

PubMed

Ninety-four percent of mammalian protein-coding exons exceed 51 nucleotides (nt) in length. The paucity of micro-exons (? 51 nt) suggests that their recognition and correct processing by the splicing machinery present greater challenges than for longer exons. Yet, because thousands of human genes harbor processed micro-exons, specialized mechanisms may be in place to promote their splicing. Here, we survey deep genomic data sets to define 13,085 micro-exons and to study their splicing mechanisms and molecular functions. More than 60% of annotated human micro-exons exhibit a high level of sequence conservation, an indicator of functionality. While most human micro-exons require splicing-enhancing genomic features to be processed, the splicing of hundreds of micro-exons is enhanced by the adjacent binding of splice factors in the introns of pre-messenger RNAs. Notably, splicing of a significant number of micro-exons was found to be facilitated by the binding of RBFOX proteins, which promote their inclusion in the brain, muscle, and heart. Our analyses suggest that accurate regulation of micro-exon inclusion by RBFOX proteins and PTBP1 plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue-specific protein-protein interactions. PMID:25524026

Li, Yang I; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Haerty, Wilfried; Ponting, Chris P

2015-01-01

361

RBFOX and PTBP1 proteins regulate the alternative splicing of micro-exons in human brain transcripts  

PubMed Central

Ninety-four percent of mammalian protein-coding exons exceed 51 nucleotides (nt) in length. The paucity of micro-exons (? 51 nt) suggests that their recognition and correct processing by the splicing machinery present greater challenges than for longer exons. Yet, because thousands of human genes harbor processed micro-exons, specialized mechanisms may be in place to promote their splicing. Here, we survey deep genomic data sets to define 13,085 micro-exons and to study their splicing mechanisms and molecular functions. More than 60% of annotated human micro-exons exhibit a high level of sequence conservation, an indicator of functionality. While most human micro-exons require splicing-enhancing genomic features to be processed, the splicing of hundreds of micro-exons is enhanced by the adjacent binding of splice factors in the introns of pre-messenger RNAs. Notably, splicing of a significant number of micro-exons was found to be facilitated by the binding of RBFOX proteins, which promote their inclusion in the brain, muscle, and heart. Our analyses suggest that accurate regulation of micro-exon inclusion by RBFOX proteins and PTBP1 plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue-specific protein–protein interactions. PMID:25524026

Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Haerty, Wilfried

2015-01-01

362

Evolution of splicing regulatory networks in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The proteome expanding effects of alternative pre-mRNA splicing have had a profound impact on eukaryotic evolution. The events that create this diversity can be placed into four major classes: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5? splice sites, and alternative 3? splice sites. Although the regulatory mechanisms and evolutionary pressures among alternative splicing classes clearly differ, how these differences affect the evolution of splicing regulation remains poorly characterized. We used RNA-seq to investigate splicing differences in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and three strains of D. melanogaster. Regulation of exon skipping and tandem alternative 3? splice sites (NAGNAGs) were more divergent than other splicing classes. Splicing regulation was most divergent in frame-preserving events and events in noncoding regions. We further determined the contributions of cis- and trans-acting changes in splicing regulatory networks by comparing allele-specific splicing in F1 interspecific hybrids, because differences in allele-specific splicing reflect changes in cis-regulatory element activity. We find that species-specific differences in intron retention and alternative splice site usage are primarily attributable to changes in cis-regulatory elements (median ?80% cis), whereas species-specific exon skipping differences are driven by both cis- and trans-regulatory divergence (median ?50% cis). These results help define the mechanisms and constraints that influence splicing regulatory evolution and show that networks regulating the four major classes of alternative splicing diverge through different genetic mechanisms. We propose a model in which differences in regulatory network architecture among classes of alternative splicing affect the evolution of splicing regulation. PMID:24515119

McManus, C. Joel; Coolon, Joseph D.; Eipper-Mains, Jodi; Wittkopp, Patricia J.; Graveley, Brenton R.

2014-01-01

363

A review of mismatch repair gene transcripts: issues for interpretation of mRNA splicing assays.  

PubMed

Many mismatch repair (MMR) gene disease-causing mutations identified in cancer patients result in aberrant messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. However, mRNA assay interpretation can be complicated by the existence of naturally occurring alternative mRNA transcripts, most of which have not been formally described or fully characterized. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalogue of all MMR transcripts described to date, and a review of MMR nucleotide variants associated with an apparent upregulation of alternatively spliced transcripts. This work sets reference starting points for designing and interpreting MMR RNA analyses. Our database and literature searches retrieved 30 MLH1, 22 MSH2, 4 MSH6 and 9 PMS2 alternative transcripts, many predicted to introduce premature termination codons. Furthermore, we collected information on 66 MLH1, 24 MSH2 and 6 PMS2 nucleotide variants reported to be associated with altered expression of at least one of these alternative transcripts, and in many instances reported as splicing mutations. This review shows that there are many alternatively spliced MMR transcripts, which have potential to confound interpretation of splicing assays. These findings highlight the need to perform RNA analysis of patients systematically in parallel with control individuals, and call for the implementation of quantitative assessment of transcript levels for informed interpretation of mRNA assays. PMID:24989436

Thompson, B A; Martins, A; Spurdle, A B

2015-02-01

364

Alzheimer's risk variants in the clusterin gene are associated with alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in CLU encoding clusterin has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through replicated genome-wide studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Following earlier reports that tightly regulated CLU alternative transcripts have different functions, we tested CLU single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those associated with AD for quantitative effects on individual alternative transcripts. In 190 temporal lobe samples without pathology, we found that the risk allele of the AD-associated SNP rs9331888 increases the relative abundance of transcript NM_203339 (P=4.3 × 10?12). Using an independent set of 115 AD and control samples, we replicated this result (P=0.0014) and further observed that multiple CLU transcripts are at higher levels in AD compared with controls. The AD SNP rs9331888 is located in the first exon of NM_203339 and therefore, it is a functional candidate for the observed effects. We tested this hypothesis by in vitro dual luciferase assays using SK-N-SH cells and mouse primary cortical neurons and found allelic effects on enhancer function, consistent with our results on post-mortem human brain. These results suggest a biological mechanism for the genetic association of CLU with AD risk and indicate that rs9331888 is one of the functional DNA variants underlying this association. PMID:21892414

Szymanski, M; Wang, R; Bassett, S S; Avramopoulos, D

2011-01-01

365

Morphine and MK-801 administration leads to alternative NMDAR1 splicing and associated changes in reward seeking behavior and nociception on an operant orofacial assay  

PubMed Central

The NMDA receptor plays a large role in opioid-induced plastic changes in the nervous system. The expression levels of its NR1 subunit are altered dramatically by morphine but no changes in its alternative splicing have been reported. Changes in the splicing of the N1, C1, C2, and C2’ cassettes can alter the pharmacology and regulation of this receptor. Western blots run on brain tissue from rats made tolerant to morphine revealed altered splicing of the N1 cassettes in the accumbens and amygdala, and the C1 cassette in the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus. After three days of withdrawal C2’-containing NR1 subunits were down-regulated in each of these areas. These were not due to acute doses of morphine and may represent long term alterations in drug-induced neuroplasticity. We also examined the effects of morphine tolerance on an operant orofacial nociception assay which forces an animal to endure an aversive heat stimulus in order to receive a sweet milk reward. Morphine decreased pain sensitivity as expected but also increased motivational reward seeking in this task. NMDAR antagonism potentiated this reward seeking behavior suggesting that instead of attenuating tolerance, MK-801 may actually alter the rewarding and/or motivational properties of morphine. When combined, MK-801 and morphine had an additive effect which led to altered splicing in the accumbens, amygdala, and the dorsal hippocampus. In conclusion, NR1 splicing may play a major role in the cognitive behavioral aspects especially in motivational reward seeking behaviors. PMID:22531378

Anderson, Ethan M.; Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y.; Suckow, Shelby K.; Nolan, Todd A.; Neubert, John K.; Caudle, Robert M.