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Sample records for abeta oligomers show

  1. Alzheimer's-associated A{beta} oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, Jason Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B.; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul Klein, William L.

    2009-10-15

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-{beta}{sub 1-42} peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A{beta} oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A{beta} species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A{beta} antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A{beta}-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  2. Polyalanine and Abeta Aggregation Kinetics: Probing Intermediate Oligomer Formation and Structure Using Computer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Erin Melissa

    2011-12-01

    The aggregation of proteins into stable, well-ordered structures known as amyloid fibrils has been associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid fibrils are long straight, and un-branched structures containing several proto-filaments, each of which exhibits "cross beta structure," -- ribbon-like layers of large beta sheets whose strands run perpendicular to the fibril axis. It has been suggested in the literature that the pathway to fibril formation has the following steps: unfolded monomers associate into transient unstable oligomers, the oligomers undergo a rearrangement into the cross-beta structure and form into proto-filaments, these proto-filaments then associate and grow into fully formed fibrils. Recent experimental studies have determined that the unstable intermediate structures are toxic to cells and that their presence may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the amyloid diseases. Many efforts have been made to determine the structure of intermediate oligomer aggregates that form during the fibrillization process. The goal of this work is to provide details about the structure and formation kinetics of the unstable oligomers that appear in the fibril formation pathway. The specific aims of this work are to determine the steps in the fibril formation pathway and how the kinetics of fibrillization changes with variations in temperature and concentration. The method used is the application of discontinuous molecular dynamics to large systems of peptides represented with an intermediate resolution model, PRIME, that was previously developed in our group. Three different peptide sequences are simulated: polyalanine (KA14K), Abeta17-40, and Abeta17-42; the latter two are truncated sequences of the Alzheimer's peptide. We simulate the spontaneous assembly of these peptide chains from a random initial configuration of random coils. We investigate aggregation kinetics and oligomer formation of a system of 192 polyalanine (KA14K) chains over a

  3. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  4. Spontaneous Formation of Oligomers and Fibrils in Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of A-beta Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Protein aggregation is associated with serious and eventually-fatal neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. While atomic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have been useful in this regard, they are limited to examination of either oligomer formation by a small number of peptides or analysis of the stability of a moderate number of peptides placed in trial or known experimental structures. We describe large scale intermediate-resolution molecular dynamics simulations of the spontaneous formation of fibrils by systems containing large numbers (48) of peptides including A-beta (16-22), and A-beta (17-42) peptides. We trace out the aggregation process from an initial configuration of random coils to proto-filaments with cross- β structures and demonstrate how kinetics dictates the structural details of the fully formed fibril. Fibrillization kinetics depends strongly on the temperature. Nucleation and templated growth via monomer addition occur at and near a transition temperature above which fibrils are unlikely to form. Oligomeric merging and structural rearrangement are observed at lower temperatures. In collaboration with Mookyung Cheon, Iksoo Chang, Pusan University; and David Latshaw, North Carolina State University.

  5. Stability and structure of oligomers of the Alzheimer peptide Abeta16-22: from the dimer to the 32-mer.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Laio, Alessandro; Tantalo, Nazario; Parrinello, Michele; Petronzio, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases are associated with amyloid fibrils formed by different polypeptides. We probe the structure and stability of oligomers of different sizes of the fragment Abeta(16-22) of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide using atomic-detail molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. We find that only large oligomers form a stable beta-sheet aggregate, the minimum nucleus size being of the order of 8-16 peptides. This effect is attributed to better hydrophobic contacts and a better shielding of backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds from the solvent in bigger assemblies. Moreover, the observed stability of beta-sheet aggregates with a different number of layers can be explained on the basis of their solvent-accessible surface area. Depending on the stacking interface between the sheets, we observe straight or twisted structures, which could be linked to the experimentally observed polymorphism of amyloid fibrils. To compare our 32-mer structure to experimental data, we calculate its x-ray diffraction pattern. Good agreement is found between experimentally and theoretically determined reflections, suggesting that our model indeed closely resembles the structures found in vitro. PMID:16920832

  6. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these

  7. Microwave-assisted click polymerization for the synthesis of Abeta(16-22) cyclic oligomers and their self-assembly into polymorphous aggregates.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Ronald C; van Dijk, Maarten; Dechesne, Annemarie C; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Hennink, Wim E; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2009-11-01

    We report on the design, synthesis, and structural analysis of cyclic oligomers with an amyloidogenic peptide sequence as the repeating unit to obtain novel self-assembling bionanomaterials. The peptide was derived from the Alzheimer Abeta(16-22) sequence since its strong tendency to form antiparallel beta-sheets ensured the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bridges on which the supramolecular assembly of the individual cyclic oligomers was based. The synthesis of the cyclic oligomers was performed via a microwave-assisted Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azido-Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-Ala-Glu-propargyl amide as the monomer. The formation of cyclic oligomers, up to pentamers (35 amino acid residues), was verified by MALDI-TOF analysis and the individual cyclic monomer and dimer could be isolated by HPLC. Gelation behavior and the self-assembly of the linear monomer and the cyclic monomer and dimer were studied by TEM, FTIR and CD. Significant differences were observed in the morphology of the supramolecular aggregates of these three peptides that could be explained by alterations of the hydrogen bond network. PMID:19830304

  8. Unique physicochemical profile of beta-amyloid peptide variant Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils: conceivable neuropathogen in arctic mutant carriers.

    PubMed

    Päiviö, A; Jarvet, J; Gräslund, A; Lannfelt, L; Westlind-Danielsson, A

    2004-05-21

    A new early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was described recently where a point mutation was discovered in codon 693 of the beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein gene, the Arctic mutation. The mutation translates into a single amino acid substitution, glutamic acid-->glycine, in position 22 of the Abeta peptide. The mutation carriers have lower plasma levels of Abeta than normal, while in vitro studies show that Abeta1-40E22G protofibril formation is significantly enhanced. We have explored the nature of the Abeta1-40E22G peptide in more detail, in particular the protofibrils. Using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) kinetic and secondary structural characteristics were compared with other Abeta1-40 peptides and the Abeta12-28 fragment, all having single amino acid substitutions in position 22. We have found that Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils are a group of comparatively stabile beta-sheet-containing oligomers with a heterogeneous size distribution, ranging from >100 kDa to >3000 kDa. Small Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils are generated about 400 times faster than large ones. Salt promotes their formation, which significantly exceeds all the other peptides studied here, including the Dutch mutation Abeta1-40E22Q. Position 22 substitutions had significant effects on aggregation kinetics of Abeta1-40 and in Abeta12-28, although the qualitative aspects of the effects differed between the native peptide and the fragment, as no protofibrils were formed by the fragments. The rank order of protofibril formation of Abeta1-40 and its variants was the same as the rank order of the length of the nucleation/lag phase of the Abeta12-28 fragments, E22V>E22A?E22G>E22Q?E22, and correlated with the degree of hydrophobicity of the position 22 substituent. The molecular mass of peptide monomers and protofibrils were estimated better in SEC studies using linear rather than globular calibration standards. The characteristics of the Abeta1-40E22

  9. Overcoming synthetic Abeta peptide aging: a new approach to an age-old problem.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Claudia; Colombo, Laura; Messa, Massimo; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Cantù, Laura; Del Favero, Elena; Salmona, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of amyloidogenic diseases use synthetic peptides for cell-free and in vitro studies. However, amyloidogenic peptides often show intrinsic variability that markedly affects the reproducibility of experiments. Proof of physicochemical and biological variability with different batches of amyloidogenic peptides have been reported in literature. Here, we show that differences can be observed even within the same batch of Abeta1-42 peptide after storing lyophilised samples at -20 degrees C. This change (referred to as 'peptide aging') was reproduced with Abeta1-40 peptide samples by using a series of lyophilisation cycles, showing that lyophilisation, rather than preserving the physicochemical and biological features of Abeta peptides, introduces wide variability. To counteract synthetic peptide aging, we set up a procedure involving the sequential use of trifluoroacetic acid, formic acid and sodium hydroxide solutions that disaggregate preformed seeds and enriched Abeta peptide solutions into monomers and low-molecular-weight oligomers. This procedure enabled us to obtain reproducible physicochemical and biological features of Abeta peptides, irrespective of their age. PMID:20536398

  10. Stability of the transthyretin molecule as a key factor in the interaction with a-beta peptide--relevance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carlos A; Saraiva, Maria João; Cardoso, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) protects against A-Beta toxicity by binding the peptide thus inhibiting its aggregation. Previous work showed different TTR mutations interact differently with A-Beta, with increasing affinities correlating with decreasing amyloidogenecity of the TTR mutant; this did not impact on the levels of inhibition of A-Beta aggregation, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Our work aimed at probing differences in binding to A-Beta by WT, T119M and L55P TTR using quantitative assays, and at identifying factors affecting this interaction. We addressed the impact of such factors in TTR ability to degrade A-Beta. Using a dot blot approach with the anti-oligomeric antibody A11, we showed that A-Beta formed oligomers transiently, indicating aggregation and fibril formation, whereas in the presence of WT and T119M TTR the oligomers persisted longer, indicative that these variants avoided further aggregation into fibrils. In contrast, L55PTTR was not able to inhibit oligomerization or to prevent evolution to aggregates and fibrils. Furthermore, apoptosis assessment showed WT and T119M TTR were able to protect against A-Beta toxicity. Because the amyloidogenic potential of TTR is inversely correlated with its stability, the use of drugs able to stabilize TTR tetrameric fold could result in increased TTR/A-Beta binding. Here we showed that iododiflunisal, 3-dinitrophenol, resveratrol, [2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino] (DCPA) and [4-(3,5-difluorophenyl)] (DFPB) were able to increase TTR binding to A-Beta; however only DCPA and DFPB improved TTR proteolytic activity. Thyroxine, a TTR ligand, did not influence TTR/A-Beta interaction and A-Beta degradation by TTR, whereas RBP, another TTR ligand, not only obstructed the interaction but also inhibited TTR proteolytic activity. Our results showed differences between WT and T119M TTR, and L55PTTR mutant regarding their interaction with A-Beta and prompt the stability of TTR as a key factor in this interaction

  11. Human plasma contains cross-reactive Abeta conformer-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    O'Nuallain, Brian; Acero, Luis; Williams, Angela D; Koeppen, Helen P McWilliams; Weber, Alfred; Schwarz, Hans P; Wall, Jonathan S; Weiss, Deborah T; Solomon, Alan

    2008-11-25

    Two conformers of aggregated Abeta, i.e., fibrils and oligomers, have been deemed important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We now report that intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) derived from pools of human plasma contains IgGs that recognize conformational epitopes present on fibrils and oligomers, but not their soluble monomeric precursor. We have used affinity chromatography to isolate these antibodies and have shown that they cross-reacted with comparable nanomolar avidity with both types of Abeta aggregates; notably, binding was not inhibited by soluble Abeta monomers. Our studies provide further support for investigating the therapeutic use of IVIG in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18956886

  12. Immunodominant epitope and properties of pyroglutamate-modified Abeta-specific antibodies produced in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Vasilevko, V; Munguia, M E; Govezensky, T; Coronas, G; Luz-Madrigal, A; Cribbs, D H; Gevorkian, G

    2009-08-18

    N-truncated and N-modified forms of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide are found in diffused and dense core plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome patients as well as transgenic mouse models of AD. Although the pathological significance of these shortened forms Abeta is not completely understood, previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides are significantly more resistant to degradation, aggregate more rapidly in vitro and exhibit similar or, in some cases, increased toxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures compared to the full length peptides. In the present study we further investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of one of the most abundant N-truncated/modified Abeta peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3 (AbetaN3(pE)). We demonstrated that AbetaN3(pE) oligomers induce phosphatidyl serine externalization and membrane damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, we produced AbetaN3(pE)-specific polyclonal antibodies in rabbit and identified an immunodominant epitope recognized by anti-AbetaN3(pE) antibodies. Our results are important for developing new immunotherapeutic compounds specifically targeting AbetaN3(pE) aggregates since the most commonly used immunogens in the majority of vaccines for AD have been shown to induce antibodies that recognize the N-terminal immunodominant epitope (EFRH) of the full length Abeta, which is absent in N-amino truncated peptides. PMID:19545911

  13. Synthetic amyloid-beta oligomers impair long-term memory independently of cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Claudia; Beeg, Marten; Stravalaci, Matteo; Bastone, Antonio; Sclip, Alessandra; Biasini, Emiliano; Tapella, Laura; Colombo, Laura; Manzoni, Claudia; Borsello, Tiziana; Chiesa, Roberto; Gobbi, Marco; Salmona, Mario; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Inability to form new memories is an early clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is ample evidence that the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Soluble, bio-derived oligomers of Abeta are proposed as the key mediators of synaptic and cognitive dysfunction, but more tractable models of Abeta-mediated cognitive impairment are needed. Here we report that, in mice, acute intracerebroventricular injections of synthetic Abeta(1-42) oligomers impaired consolidation of the long-term recognition memory, whereas mature Abeta(1-42) fibrils and freshly dissolved peptide did not. The deficit induced by oligomers was reversible and was prevented by an anti-Abeta antibody. It has been suggested that the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) mediates the impairment of synaptic plasticity induced by Abeta. We confirmed that Abeta(1-42) oligomers interact with PrP(C), with nanomolar affinity. However, PrP-expressing and PrP knock-out mice were equally susceptible to this impairment. These data suggest that Abeta(1-42) oligomers are responsible for cognitive impairment in AD and that PrP(C) is not required. PMID:20133875

  14. Dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers show self- and cross-propagation properties

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, Matthew S; Exley, Sarah E; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein (αS) protein are the predominant species present within the intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Among various aggregates, the low-molecular weight ones broadly ranging between 2 and 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for the impairment of neuronal function. Recent research has indicated that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is one of the key physiological agents promoting and augmenting αS aggregation, which is thought to be a significant event in PD pathologenesis. Specifically, DA is known to induce the formation of soluble oligomers of αS, which in turn are responsible for inducing several important cellular changes leading to cellular toxicity. In this report, we present the generation, isolation, and biophysical characterization of five different dopamine-derived αS oligomers (DSOs) ranging between 3 and 15 mers, corroborating previously published reports. More importantly, we establish that these DSOs are also capable of replication by self-propagation, which leads to the replication of DSOs upon interaction with αS monomers, a process similar to that observed in mammilian prions. In addition, DSOs are also able to cross-propagate amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, while self-propagation of DSOs occur with no net gain in protein structure, cross-propagation proceeds with an overall gain in β-sheet conformation. These results implicate the involvement of DSOs in the progression of PD, and, in part, provide a molecular basis for the observed co-existence of AD-like pathology among PD patients. PMID:25044276

  15. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  16. The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.

    PubMed

    Sablina, Anna A; Chen, Wen; Arroyo, Jason D; Corral, Laura; Hector, Melissa; Bulmer, Sara E; DeCaprio, James A; Hahn, William C

    2007-06-01

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA. PMID:17540176

  17. Pretargeting in tumored mice with radiolabeled morpholino oligomer showing low kidney uptake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; He, Jiang; Dou, Shuping; Gupta, Suresh; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2004-03-01

    We have recently shown that accumulation in mouse kidneys of technetium-99m labeled phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (MORFs) increases with the number of cytosines in the base sequence. To improve tumor/kidney ratios in tumored mice, pretargeting studies were performed with a cytosine-free MORF. An 18-mer MORF (5'-TCTTCTACTTCACAACTA) was conjugated to the anti-CEA antibody MN14 (Immunomedics) and administered to nude mice bearing LS174T tumors. Thereafter, the (99m)Tc-labeled cytosine-free cMORF (5'-TAGTTGTGAAGTAGAAGA-amide-MAG(3)) was administered. For comparison, the identical study was repeated but with our original pair of 18-mer MORFs (5'-GGGTGTACGTCACAACTA-conjugated MN14 and (99m)Tc-labeled 5'-TAGTTGTGACGTACACCC-amide-MAG(3)). Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that the hybridization affinities of the original and the modified pair of MORFs were essentially equal. Hybridization of the cytosine-free cMORF-(99m)Tc to MN14-MORF was demonstrated in vitro by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. At 3 h, kidney levels in normal mice were 2.0%ID/organ for the modified cMORF vs. 4.1%ID/organ for the original cMORF sequence, while at 24 h, these values were 0.9% vs 1.8%ID/organ. Pretargeting studies in tumored mice receiving 25 microg of conjugated antibody, 0.5 microg of labeled cMORF 48 h later, followed by imaging and sacrifice at 3 h showed that kidney levels were reduced using the cytosine-free cMORF. Moreover, tumor accumulation was about 3.6%ID/g and was independent of sequence. The whole-body images clearly reflected the improved tumor to kidney ratios. By choosing a cytosine-free base sequence for pretargeting studies, kidney accumulation of cMORF-(99m)Tc was reduced without adversely influencing tumor accumulation. The lowering of kidney radioactivity levels in this way may be important to reduce toxicity to this organ in connection with pretargeting radiotherapy studies. PMID:14691611

  18. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  19. High throughput screens for the identification of compounds that alter the accumulation of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (Abeta).

    PubMed

    Haugabook, S J; Yager, D M; Eckman, E A; Golde, T E; Younkin, S G; Eckman, C B

    2001-07-30

    Evidence gathered over the last two decades suggests that beta amyloid (Abeta), the predominant proteinaceous component of senile plaques, plays an early and critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that compounds capable of reducing the accumulation of Abeta may be of value therapeutically. Additionally, compounds that influence Abeta accumulation may be useful as tools to further dissect the cellular pathways that regulate Abeta production and accumulation. To screen for compounds that affect Abeta levels, we have established high throughput, cell-based assays capable of the sensitive and selective detection of Abeta40 in parallel with the more amyloidogenic form of the peptide, Abeta42. To validate the approach, we examined the effects of several compounds previously identified to influence Abeta accumulation. Analysis of peptide accumulation following treatment with these compounds showed results similar to those previously published. Currently, we are using this assay to screen drugs that have already received FDA approval for the treatment of other diseases and over-the-counter natural product extracts. If compounds such as these can be identified that lower Abeta in the brain, they may represent one of the fastest and most cost effective methods to therapy. PMID:11478976

  20. Abeta42 gene vaccine prevents Abeta42 deposition in brain of double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bao-Xi; Xiang, Qun; Li, Liping; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Hynan, Linda S; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2007-09-15

    Abeta42 peptide aggregation and deposition is an important component of the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Gene-gun mediated gene vaccination targeting Abeta42 is a potential method to prevent and treat AD. APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 transgenic (Tg) mice were immunized with an Abeta42 gene construct delivered by the gene gun. The vaccinated mice developed Th2 antibodies (IgG1) against Abeta42. The Abeta42 levels in brain were decreased by 41% and increased in plasma 43% in the vaccinated compared with control mice as assessed by ELISA analysis. Abeta42 plaque deposits in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were reduced by 51% and 52%, respectively, as shown by quantitative immunolabeling. Glial cell activation was also significantly attenuated in vaccinated compared with control mice. One rhesus monkey was vaccinated and developed anti-Abeta42 antibody. These new findings advance significantly our knowledge that gene-gun mediated Abeta42 gene immunization effectively induces a Th2 immune response and reduces the Abeta42 levels in brain in APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 mice. Abeta42 gene vaccination may be safe and efficient immunotherapy for AD. PMID:17574274

  1. A[Beta] Deposits in Older Non-Demented Individuals with Cognitive Decline Are Indicative of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villemagne, V. L.; Pike, K. E.; Darby, D.; Maruff, P.; Savage, G.; Ng, S.; Ackermann, U.; Cowie, T. F.; Currie, J.; Chan, S. G.; Jones, G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; O'Keefe, G.; Masters, C. L.; Rowe, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 30% of healthy persons aged over 75 years show A[beta] deposition at autopsy. It is postulated that this represents preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the relationship between A[beta] burden as assessed by PiB PET and cognitive decline in a well-characterized, non-demented, elderly cohort. PiB PET studies and…

  2. Conversion of non-fibrillar {beta}-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cocera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    A{beta}(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular {beta}-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the A{beta}(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90 {mu}M peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar {beta}-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar {beta}-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar {beta}-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) {beta}-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  3. Identification of distinct physiochemical properties of toxic prefibrillar species formed by A{beta} peptide variants

    SciTech Connect

    Goeransson, Anna-Lena; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Kagedal, Katarina; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of toxic prefibrillar A{beta} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence measurements using a combined set of fluorophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology studies using transmission electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The formation of amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) aggregates at an early stage during the self-assembly process is an important factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The toxic effect is believed to be exerted by prefibrillar species of A{beta}. It is therefore important to identify which prefibrillar species are toxic and characterize their distinct properties. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro aggregation behavior of A{beta}-derived peptides possessing different levels of neurotoxic activity, using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of various A{beta} aggregates was assessed by using cultures of human neuroblastoma cells. Through combined use of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonate (ANS) and the novel luminescent probe pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid (p-FTAA), we were able to identify those A{beta} peptide-derived prefibrillar species which exhibited cellular toxicity. In particular, species, which formed early during the aggregation process and showed strong p-FTAA and ANS fluorescence, were the species that possessed toxic activities. Moreover, by manipulating the aggregation conditions, it was possible to change the capacity of the A{beta} peptide to form nontoxic versus toxic species.

  4. GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor antagonists prevent Abeta-mediated synaptic plasticity disruption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Neng-Wei; Klyubin, Igor; Anwyl, Roger; Anwy, Roger; Rowan, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Currently, treatment with the relatively low-affinity NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provides limited benefit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One probable dose-limiting factor in the use of memantine is the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to underlie certain forms of memory. Moreover, amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) oligomers that are implicated in causing the cognitive deficits of AD potently inhibit this form of plasticity. Here we examined if subtype-preferring NMDA receptor antagonists could preferentially protect against the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission by Abeta in the hippocampus in vivo. Using doses that did not affect control plasticity, antagonists selective for NMDA receptors containing GluN2B but not other GluN2 subunits prevented Abeta(1-42) -mediated inhibition of plasticity. Evidence that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha mediates this deleterious action of Ass was provided by the ability of TNFalpha antagonists to prevent Abeta(1-42) inhibition of plasticity and the abrogation of a similar disruptive effect of TNFalpha using a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Moreover, at nearby synapses that were resistant to the inhibitory effect of TNFalpha, Abeta(1-42) did not significantly affect plasticity. These findings suggest that preferentially targeting GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs may provide an effective means of preventing cognitive deficits in early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19918059

  5. Atomic View of a Toxic Amyloid Small Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Park, Jiyong; Zhao, Minglei; Pensalfini, Anna; Soriaga, Angela; Landau, Meytal; Teng, Poh K.; Cascio, Duilio; Glabe, Charles; Eisenberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and the prion conditions, are each associated with a particular protein in fibrillar form. These amyloid fibrils were long suspected to be the disease agents, but evidence suggests that smaller, often transient and polymorphic oligomers are the toxic entities. Here we identify a segment of the amyloid-forming protein, alphaB crystallin, which forms an oligomeric complex exhibiting properties of other amyloid oligomers: beta-sheet-rich structure, cytotoxicity, and recognition by an anti-oligomer antibody. The X-ray-derived atomic structure of the oligomer reveals a cylindrical barrel, formed from six anti-parallel, protein strands, which we term a cylindrin. The cylindrin structure is compatible with a sequence segment from the Abeta protein of Alzheimer's disease. Cylindrins offer models for the hitherto elusive structures of amyloid oligomers. PMID:22403391

  6. Disruption of corticocortical connections ameliorates amyloid burden in terminal fields in a transgenic model of Abeta amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jin G; Price, Donald L; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2002-11-15

    We demonstrated previously that amyloid precursor protein (APP) is anterogradely transported from the entorhinal cortex (ERC) to the dentate gyrus via axons of the perforant pathway. In the terminal fields of these inputs, APP undergoes proteolysis to generate C-terminal fragments containing the entire amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) domain. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that APP derived from ERC neurons is the source of the Abeta peptide deposited in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in transgenic mice with Abeta amyloidosis. We used mice harboring two familial AD-linked genes (human APP Swedish and presenilin1-DeltaE9), in which levels of Abeta (especially Abeta(42)) are elevated, leading to the formation of amyloid plaques, and lesioned the ERC to interrupt the transport of APP from ERC to hippocampus. Our results show that, on the side of ERC lesion, numbers of APP-immunoreactive dystrophic neurites and Abeta burden were significantly reduced by approximately 40 and 45%, respectively, in the dentate gyrus compared with the contralateral side. Reductions in APP and Abeta were more substantial in the molecular layer of the dentate, i.e., a region that contains the ERC terminals, and were associated with a parallel decrease in total APP and Abeta measured by Western blot and ProteinChip immunoassays. Silver and thioflavine staining confirmed the reduction of amyloid plaques on the side of deafferentation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ERC may be the primary source of amyloidogenic Abeta in the dentate gyrus, and they suggest an important role of corticocortical and corticolimbic forward connections in determining patterns of amyloid deposition in AD. PMID:12427835

  7. Disruption of Amyloid Plaques Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is currently accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or plaque-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from plaques, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta plaques whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545

  8. NMR reveals anomalous copper(II) binding to the amyloid Abeta peptide of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liming; Zagorski, Michael G

    2006-07-26

    The Abeta peptide is the major protein component of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related microenvironmental changes in the AD brain promote amyloid formation that leads to cell injury and death. Altered levels of metals (such as Cu and Zn) exist in the AD brain, and because Cu and Zn can be bound to the Abeta in the amyloid plaques, it is thought that these binding events in vivo may trigger or prevent Abeta amyloid formation in the AD brain. Although several structural models have been proposed, all of these are undefined due to the lack of definitive structural data. The present NMR studies utilized uniformly 15N-labeled Abeta(1-40) peptide and 1H-15N HSQC experiments and demonstrate for the first time that the Abeta binds Cu and Zn in a distinct manner. The binding promotes NH signal disappearance of E3-V18, which was not due to the paramagnetic effect of Cu2+, as identical NMR studies were seen with Zn2+, which is diamagnetic. NMR titration experiments showed that the amide NH peak intensities of R5-L17 showed the most pronounced intensity reduction, and that the 1H signals for the side chain aromatic signals of the three histidines shift upfield (H6, H13, and H14). We propose that initially Cu2+ is anchored to the Abeta monomer (fast exchange rate) and is followed by deprotonation and/or severe line broadening of the backbone amide NH for E3-V18 (intermediate exchange rate). By contrast, Cu2+ binding to soluble Abeta aggregates leads to rapid aggregation and nonfibrillar amorphous structures, and without metal, the Abeta can undergo the normal time-dependent aggregation, eventually producing more ordered, late-stage parallel beta-sheet structures. These anomalous (rare) binding events may account for some of the unique properties associated with the Abeta, such as its proposed "dual role", where sequestration of metal ions by the monomer is neuroprotective, while that by beta-aggregates generates oxygen radicals and causes neuronal death

  9. Blocking Abeta42 accumulation delays the onset and progression of tau pathology via the C terminus of heat shock protein70-interacting protein: a mechanistic link between Abeta and tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Tseng, Bert; Cheng, David; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David H; LaFerla, Frank M

    2008-11-19

    The molecular alterations that induce tau pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) are not known, particularly whether this is an amyloid-beta (Abeta)-dependent or -independent event. We addressed this issue in the 3xTg-AD mice using both genetic and immunological approaches and show that a selective decrease in Abeta(42) markedly delays the progression of tau pathology. The mechanism underlying this effect involves alterations in the levels of C terminus of heat shock protein70-interacting protein (CHIP) as we show that Abeta accumulation decreases CHIP expression and increases tau levels. We show that the Abeta-induced effects on tau were rescued by restoring CHIP levels. Our findings have profound clinical implications as they indicate that preventing Abeta accumulation will significantly alter AD progression. These data highlight the critical role CHIP plays as a link between Abeta and tau and identify CHIP as a new potential target not only for AD but for other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by tau accumulation. PMID:19020010

  10. Phosphate and HEPES buffers potently affect the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of Alzheimer's A{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Megan; Tepper, Katharina; Haupt, Caroline; Knuepfer, Uwe; Klement, Karolin; Meinhardt, Jessica; Horn, Uwe; Balbach, Jochen; Faendrich, Marcus

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Sodium phosphate buffer accelerated A{beta}(1-40) nucleation relative to HEPES. {yields} A{beta}(1-40) fibrils formed in the two buffers show only minor structural differences. {yields} NMR revealed that A{beta}(1-40) histidine residues mediate buffer dependent changes. -- Abstract: The oligomerization of A{beta} peptide into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Due to its biological relevance, phosphate is the most commonly used buffer system for studying the formation of A{beta} and other amyloid fibrils. Investigation into the characteristics and formation of amyloid fibrils frequently relies upon material formed in vitro, predominantly in phosphate buffers. Herein, we examine the effects on the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of A{beta} peptide that occur due solely to the influence of phosphate buffer. We reveal that significant differences in amyloid fibrillation are observed due to fibrillation being initiated in phosphate or HEPES buffer (at physiological pH and temperature). Except for the differing buffer ions, all experimental parameters were kept constant. Fibril formation was assessed using fluorescently monitored kinetic studies, microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Based on this set up, we herein reveal profound effects on the mechanism and speed of A{beta} fibrillation. The three histidine residues at positions 6, 13 and 14 of A{beta}(1-40) are instrumental in these mechanistic changes. We conclude that buffer plays a more significant role in fibril formation than has been generally acknowledged.

  11. Proteomic identification of less oxidized brain proteins in aged senescence-accelerated mice following administration of antisense oligonucleotide directed at the Abeta region of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Poon, H Fai; Farr, Susan A; Banks, William A; Pierce, William M; Klein, Jon B; Morley, John E; Butterfield, D Allan

    2005-07-29

    Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is the major constituent of senile plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. It is generally accepted that Abeta plays a central role in the pathophysiology of AD. Abeta is released from cells under entirely normal cellular conditions during the internalization and endosomal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, accumulation of Abeta can induce neurotoxicity. Our previous reports showed that decreasing the production of Abeta by giving an intracerebroventricular injection of a 42-mer phosphorothiolated antisense oligonucleotide (AO) directed at the Abeta region of the APP gene reduces lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and improves cognitive deficits in aged senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. In order to investigate how Abeta level reduction improves learning and memory performance of SAMP8 mice through reduction of oxidative stress in brains, we used proteomics to identify the proteins that are less oxidized in 12-month-old SAMP8 mice brains treated with AO against the Abeta region of APP (12 mA) compared to that of the age-control SAMP8 mice. We found that the specific protein carbonyl levels of aldoase 3 (Aldo3), coronin 1a (Coro1a) and peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2) are significantly decreased in the brains of 12 mA SAMP8 mice compared to the age-controlled SAMP8 treated with random AO (12 mR). We also found that the expression level of alpha-ATP synthase (Atp5a1) was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of profilin 2 (Pro-2) was significantly increased in brains from 12 mA SAMP8 mice. Our results suggest that decreasing Abeta levels in aged brain in aged accelerated mice may contribute to the mechanism of restoring the learning and memory improvement in aged SAMP8 mice and may provide insight into the role of Abeta in the memory and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:15932783

  12. Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40).

    PubMed

    Frackowiak, Teresa; Baczek, Tomasz; Roman, Kaliszana; Zbikowska, Beata; Gleńsk, Michał; Fecka, Izabela; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the interactions of an oxindole alkaloid (mitraphylline) isolated from Uncaria tomentosa with beta-amyloid 1-40 (Abeta1-40 protein) applying the capillary electrophoresis (CE) method. Specifically the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis were performed to study the binding of oxindole alkaloids with Abeta1-40 protein. Prior to these studies extraction of the alkaloid of interest was carried out. Identification of the isolated alkaloid was performed by the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The proposed approach was proved to be an efficient and accurate method for specific compound isolation and identification purposes. Moreover, analytical information from the CE approach can be considered as the valuable tool for binding constant determination. The binding constant of mitraphylline with Abeta1-40 protein determined by the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis equals K = 9.95 x 10(5) M(-1). The results obtained showed the significant binding of the tested compound with Abeta1-40 protein. These results are discussed and interpreted in the view of developing a strategy for identification of novel compounds of great importance in Alzheimer disease therapy. PMID:17294693

  13. Validation of Abeta1-40 administration into mouse cerebroventricles as an animal model for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuko; Sato, Naoyuki; Niisato, Kazue; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Kurinami, Hitomi; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi; Kano, Masanobu; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-07-14

    Valid animal models for a specific human disease are indispensable for development of new therapeutic agents. The conclusions drawn from animal models largely depend on the validity of the model. Several studies have shown that administration of Abeta into the brain causes some of the pathological events observed in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the validity of these models has not fully been examined. In this present study, we further characterized and validated Abeta1-40 injected mice as an animal model for AD, based on three major criteria: face, construct and predictive validity. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta1-40 into mice significantly impaired memory acquisition, but not memory retrieval, which implies similarity to the episodic anterograde memory deficit observed in the early stage of AD. Electrophysiological assessment showed that i.c.v. administration of Abeta1-40 significantly attenuated hippocampal long-term potentiation. Treatment with galantamine, a drug currently in clinical use for AD, significantly improved cognitive dysfunction in this model. These results demonstrate that i.c.v. injection of Abeta1-40 caused specific dysfunction of memory processes, which at least partly fulfills three validity criteria for AD. Symptomatic and pathophysiological similarities of this model to AD are quite important in considering the usefulness of this animal model. This validated animal model could be useful to develop and evaluate potential new drugs for AD. PMID:19464276

  14. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Four phenylethynyl amine compounds - 3 and 4-aminophenoxy-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, and 3 and 4-amino-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone - were readily prepared and were used to endcap imide oligomers. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers and phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers with various molecular weights and compositions were prepared and characterized. These oligomers were cured at 300 to 400 C to provide crosslinked polyimides with excellent solvent resistance, high strength and modulus, and good high temperature properties. Adhesive panels, composites, films, and moldings from these phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers gave excellent mechanical performance.

  16. Computational selection of inhibitors of Abeta aggregation and neuronal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deliang; Martin, Zane S; Soto, Claudio; Schein, Catherine H

    2009-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cerebral accumulation of misfolded and aggregated amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). Disease symptoms can be alleviated, in vitro and in vivo, by 'beta-sheet breaker' pentapeptides that reduce plaque load. However the peptide nature of these compounds, made them biologically unstable and unable to penetrate membranes with high efficiency. The main goal of this study was to use computational methods to identify small molecule mimetics with better drug-like properties. For this purpose, the docked conformations of the active peptides were used to identify compounds with similar activities. A series of related beta-sheet breaker peptides were docked to solid state NMR structures of a fibrillar form of Abeta. The lowest energy conformations of the active peptides were used to design three dimensional (3D)-pharmacophores, suitable for screening the NCI database with Unity. Small molecular weight compounds with physicochemical features and a conformation similar to the active peptides were selected, ranked by docking and biochemical parameters. Of 16 diverse compounds selected for experimental screening, 2 prevented and reversed Abeta aggregation at 2-3microM concentration, as measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and ELISA assays. They also prevented the toxic effects of aggregated Abeta on neuroblastoma cells. Their low molecular weight and aqueous solubility makes them promising lead compounds for treating AD. PMID:19540126

  17. Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

  18. Characteristics of Amyloid-Related Oligomers Revealed by Crystal Structures of Macrocyclic [beta]-Sheet Mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Nowick, James S.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Protein amyloid oligomers have been strongly linked to amyloid diseases and can be intermediates to amyloid fibers. {beta}-Sheets have been identified in amyloid oligomers. However, because of their transient and highly polymorphic properties, the details of their self-association remain elusive. Here we explore oligomer structure using a model system: macrocyclic peptides. Key amyloidogenic sequences from A{beta} and tau were incorporated into macrocycles, thereby restraining them to {beta}-strands, but limiting the growth of the oligomers so they may crystallize and cannot fibrillate. We determined the atomic structures for four such oligomers, and all four reveal tetrameric interfaces in which {beta}-sheet dimers pair together by highly complementary, dry interfaces, analogous to steric zippers found in fibers, suggesting a common structure for amyloid oligomers and fibers. In amyloid fibers, the axes of the paired sheets are either parallel or antiparallel, whereas the oligomeric interfaces display a variety of sheet-to-sheet pairing angles, offering a structural explanation for the heterogeneity of amyloid oligomers.

  19. Zinc and copper modulate Alzheimer Abeta levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Dorothea; Launer, Lenore J; Adlard, Paul A; Cherny, Robert A; Tsatsanis, Andrew; Volitakis, Irene; Blennow, Kaj; Petrovitch, Helen; White, Lon R; Bush, Ashley I

    2009-07-01

    Abnormal interaction of beta-amyloid 42 (Abeta42) with copper, zinc and iron induce peptide aggregation and oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in health, Abeta degradation is mediated by extracellular metalloproteinases, neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and matrix metalloproteinases. We investigated the relationship between levels of Abeta and biological metals in CSF. We assayed CSF copper, zinc, other metals and Abeta42 in ventricular autopsy samples of Japanese American men (N=131) from the population-based Honolulu Asia Aging Study. There was a significant inverse correlation of CSF Abeta42 with copper, zinc, iron, manganese and chromium. The association was particularly strong in the subgroup with high levels of both zinc and copper. Selenium and aluminum levels were not associated to CSF Abeta42. In vitro, the degradation of synthetic Abeta substrate added to CSF was markedly accelerated by low levels (2microM) of exogenous zinc and copper. While excessive interaction with copper and zinc may induce neocortical Abeta precipitation in AD, soluble Abeta degradation is normally promoted by physiological copper and zinc concentrations. PMID:18068270

  20. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Manuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  1. Erratum: Intracellular amyloid β oligomers impair organelle transport and induce dendritic spine loss in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Umeda, T; Ramser, E M; Yamashita, M; Nakajima, K; Mori, H; Silverman, M A; Tomiyama, T

    2016-01-01

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the presentation of Fig. 1 in both the PDF and HTML versions of this manuscript [1]. In the right panel of the corrected Fig. 1d, the images of Mock cells, which were visualized with GFP and stained with Abeta oligomer-specific antibody 11A1, were replaced with those of APPWT cells, and instead the images of APPWT cells were replaced with those of Mock cells. These images had been incorrectly placed in the original Fig. 1. The correct version of Fig. 1 is presented below. PMID:26822851

  2. Dynamics of Asp23-Lys28 salt-bridge formation in Abeta10-35 monomers.

    PubMed

    Tarus, Bogdan; Straub, John E; Thirumalai, D

    2006-12-20

    In the amyloid fibrils formed from long fragments of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta-protein), the monomers are arranged in parallel and lie perpendicular to the fibril axis. The structure of the monomers satisfies the amyloid self-organization principle; namely, the low free energy state of the monomer maximizes the number of intra- and interpeptide contacts and salt bridges. The formation of the intramolecular salt bridge between Asp(D)23 and Lys(K)28 ensures that unpaired charges are not buried in the low-dielectric interior. We have investigated, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water, whether the D23-K28 interaction forms spontaneously in the isolated Abeta10-35 monomer. To validate the simulation protocol, we show, using five independent trajectories spanning a total of 100 ns, that the pKa values of the titratable groups are in good agreement with experimental measurements. The computed free energy disconnectvity graph shows that broadly the ensemble of compact random coil conformations can be clustered into four basins that are separated by free energy barriers ranging from 0.3 to 2.7 kcal/mol. There is significant residual structure in the conformation of the peptide in each of the basins. Due to the desolvation penalty, the structural motif with a stable turn involving the residues VGSN and a preformed D23-K28 contact is a minor component of the simulated structures. The extent of solvation of the peptides in the four basins varies greatly, which underscores the dynamical fluctuations in the monomer. Our results suggest that the early event in the oligomerization process must be the expulsion of discrete water molecules that facilitates the formation of interpeptide-interaction-driven stable structures with an intramolecular D23-K28 salt bridge and an intact VGSN turn. PMID:17165769

  3. Probing the stability of insulin oligomers using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boga Raja, Uday Kumar; Injeti, Srilakshmi; Culver, Tiffany; McCabe, Jacob W; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone insulin is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body by controlling blood sugar levels. Insulin's most active form is the monomer and the extent of insulin oligomerization is related to insulin's activity of controlling blood sugar levels. Electrospray ionization (ESI) of human insulin produced a series of oligomers from the monomer to the undecamer identified using quadrupole ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Previous research suggested that only the monomer, dimer and hexamer are native forms of insulin in solution and the range of oligomers observed in the gas-phase are ESI artifacts. Here the properties of three distinct oligomer bands I, II and III, where both the charge state and number of insulin units of the oligomer increase incrementally, were investigated. When Zn(ii) was added to the insulin sample the same oligomers were observed but with 0-6 Zn(ii) ions bound to each of the oligomers. The oligomers of bands I, II and III were characterized by comparing their drift times, collision cross- sections, relative intensities, collision-induced dissociation (CID) patterns and relative breakdown energies. Insulin oligomers of band I dissociated primarily by releasing either the 2+ or 3+ monomer accompanied by an oligomer that conserved the mass, charge and Zn(ii) of the precursor. Insulin oligomers of bands II and III dissociated primarily by releasing the 2+ monomer accompanied by an oligomer which conserved the mass, charge and Zn(ii) of the precursor. Comparison of CID patterns and breakdown energies showed all the oligomers in band II required higher collision energies to dissociate than the oligomers in band I, and the oligomers of band III required higher energies to dissociate than oligomers of band II. These results show that the amount of excess charge on the oligomer in respect to the number of insulin monomers in the oligomer affects their stability. PMID:26764306

  4. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  5. SDS-PAGE/immunoblot detection of Abeta multimers in human cortical tissue homogenates using antigen-epitope retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Rebecca F; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Ghiso, Jorge A; Walker, Lary C

    2010-01-01

    The anomalous folding and polymerization of the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide is thought to initiate the neurodegenerative cascade in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis(1). Abeta is predominantly a 40- or 42-amino acid peptide that is prone to self-aggregation into beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils that are found in the cores of cerebral senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that low molecular weight, soluble Abeta multimers are more toxic than fibrillar Abeta amyloid(2). The identification and quantification of low- and high-molecular weight multimeric Abeta species in brain tissue is an essential objective in Alzheimer's disease research, and the methods employed also can be applied to the identification and characterization of toxic multimers in other proteopathies(3). Naturally occurring Abeta multimers can be detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with Abeta-specific antibodies. However, the separation and detection of multimeric Abeta requires the use of highly concentrated cortical homogenates and antigen retrieval in small pore-size nitrocellulose membranes. Here we describe a technique for the preparation of clarified human cortical homogenates, separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE, and antigen-epitope retrieval/Western blotting with antibody 6E10 to the N-terminal region of the Abeta peptide. Using this protocol, we consistently detect Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, tetramers, and higher molecular weight multimers in cortical tissue from humans with Alzheimer's pathology. PMID:20418805

  6. Transthyretin Val122Ile, accumulated Abeta, and inclusion-body myositis aspects in cultured muscle.

    PubMed

    Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King; McFerrin, Janis; Vattemi, Gaetano

    2003-07-22

    Cultured muscle fibers (CMF) from a patient with inclusion-body myositis (IBM) and cardiac amyloidosis associated with the transthyretin (TTR) Val122Ile mutation contained aspects of the IBM phenotype: vacuolation, congophilic inclusions, and clusters of immunocolocalizing amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) and TTR accumulations. These abnormalities are never present in normal human CMF. These perturbations were greatly increased after Abeta precursor protein gene transfer. The TTR mutation may be a genetic predisposition factor for the patient's IBM. PMID:12874414

  7. In vivo demonstration that α-synuclein oligomers are toxic

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Beate; Jappelli, Roberto; Maji, Samir K.; Desplats, Paula A.; Boyer, Leah; Aigner, Stefan; Hetzer, Claudia; Loher, Thomas; Vilar, Marçal; Campioni, Silvia; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Soragni, Alice; Jessberger, Sebastian; Mira, Helena; Consiglio, Antonella; Pham, Emiley; Masliah, Eliezer; Gage, Fred H.; Riek, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins into oligomers and amyloid fibrils is characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease (PD). In PD, the process of aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) from monomers, via oligomeric intermediates, into amyloid fibrils is considered the disease-causative toxic mechanism. We developed α-syn mutants that promote oligomer or fibril formation and tested the toxicity of these mutants by using a rat lentivirus system to investigate loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The most severe dopaminergic loss in the substantia nigra is observed in animals with the α-syn variants that form oligomers (i.e., E57K and E35K), whereas the α-syn variants that form fibrils very quickly are less toxic. We show that α-syn oligomers are toxic in vivo and that α-syn oligomers might interact with and potentially disrupt membranes. PMID:21325059

  8. Characterization of the Aalpha and Abeta subunit isoforms of protein phosphatase 2A: differences in expression, subunit interaction, and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Pham, Huong T; Ruediger, Ralf; Walter, Gernot

    2003-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is very versatile owing to a large number of regulatory subunits and its ability to interact with numerous other proteins. The regulatory A subunit exists as two closely related isoforms designated Aalpha and Abeta. Mutations have been found in both isoforms in a variety of human cancers. Although Aalpha has been intensely studied, little is known about Abeta. We generated Abeta-specific antibodies and determined the cell cycle expression, subcellular distribution, and metabolic stability of Abeta in comparison with Aalpha. Both forms were expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, but Aalpha was expressed at a much higher level than Abeta. Both forms were found predominantly in the cytoplasm, and both had a half-life of approx. 10 h. However, Aalpha and Abeta differed substantially in their expression patterns in normal tissues and in tumour cell lines. Whereas Aalpha was expressed at similarly high levels in all tissues and cell lines, Abeta expression varied greatly. In addition, in vivo studies with epitope-tagged Aalpha and Abeta subunits demonstrated that Abeta is a markedly weaker binder of regulatory B and catalytic C subunits than Aalpha. Construction of phylogenetic trees revealed that the conservation of Aalpha during the evolution of mammals is extraordinarily high in comparison with both Abeta and cytochrome c, suggesting that Aalpha is involved in more protein-protein interactions than Abeta. We also measured the binding of polyoma virus middle tumour antigen and simian virus 40 (SV40) small tumour antigen to Aalpha and Abeta. Whereas both isoforms bound polyoma virus middle tumour antigen equally well, only Aalpha bound SV40 small tumour antigen. PMID:12370081

  9. Increased expression of PAD2 after repeated intracerebroventricular infusions of soluble Abeta(25-35) in the Alzheimer's disease model rat brain: effect of memantine.

    PubMed

    Arif, Mohammad; Kato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) convert the arginine residues in proteins into citrulline residues in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We previously showed that a bilateral injection of ibotenic acid into the rat nucleus basalis magnocellularis elevated the PAD2 activity in the hippocampus and striatum. In this study, we examined whether repeated intracerebroventricular infusions of soluble Abeta25-35 would affect the PAD2 expression in any regions of the rat brain. We also assessed the protective effect of memantine on Abeta-induced PAD2 alterations. The infusion of Abeta(25-35) increased the activity and protein level of PAD2 in the hippocampus, and co-treatment with memantine suppressed these changes. An immunohistochemical analysis showed that an increased level of PAD2 was coincident with GFAP-positive astrocytes and CD11b-positive microglia. In addition, immunofluoresecence staining revealed that citrullinepostive immunoreactivity coincided with the occurrence of GFAP-positive astrocytes. Co-treatment with memantine reversed the activation of the astrocytes and microglia, thus attenuating the PAD2 increment. These biochemical and immunohistochemical results suggest that PAD2 might play an important role in the pathology of early Alzheimer's disease, and may correlate with the changes in glial cells that are recovered by memantine treatment. PMID:19641855

  10. Brain trauma in aged transgenic mice induces regression of established abeta deposits.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Reed, L; Nakamura, M; McIntosh, T K; Smith, D H; Saatman, K E; Raghupathi, R; Clemens, J; Saido, T C; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    2000-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is not known if TBI affects the progression of AD. To address this question, we studied the neuropathological consequences of TBI in transgenic (TG) mice with a mutant human Abeta precursor protein (APP) mini-gene driven by a platelet-derived (PD) growth factor promoter resulting in overexpression of mutant APP (V717F), elevated brain Abeta levels, and AD-like amyloidosis. Since brain Abeta deposits first appear in 6-month-old TG (PDAPP) mice and accumulate with age, 2-year-old PDAPP and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI or sham treatment. At 1, 9, and 16 weeks after TBI, neuron loss, gliosis, and atrophy were most prominent near the CCI site in PDAPP and WT mice. However, there also was a remarkable regression in the Abeta amyloid plaque burden in the hippocampus ipsilateral to TBI compared to the contralateral hippocampus of the PDAPP mice by 16 weeks postinjury. Thus, these data suggest that previously accumulated Abeta plaques resulting from progressive amyloidosis in the AD brain also may be reversible. PMID:10785464

  11. Antiparallel Triple-strand Architecture for Prefibrillar Aβ42 Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Liu, Cong; Stroud, James C.; Ngo, Sam; Jiang, Lin; Guo, Zhefeng

    2014-01-01

    Aβ42 oligomers play key roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but their structures remain elusive partly due to their transient nature. Here, we show that Aβ42 in a fusion construct can be trapped in a stable oligomer state, which recapitulates characteristics of prefibrillar Aβ42 oligomers and enables us to establish their detailed structures. Site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance studies provide structural restraints in terms of side chain mobility and intermolecular distances at all 42 residue positions. Using these restraints and other biophysical data, we present a novel atomic-level oligomer model. In our model, each Aβ42 protein forms a single β-sheet with three β-strands in an antiparallel arrangement. Each β-sheet consists of four Aβ42 molecules in a head-to-tail arrangement. Four β-sheets are packed together in a face-to-back fashion. The stacking of identical segments between different β-sheets within an oligomer suggests that prefibrillar oligomers may interconvert with fibrils via strand rotation, wherein β-strands undergo an ∼90° rotation along the strand direction. This work provides insights into rational design of therapeutics targeting the process of interconversion between toxic oligomers and non-toxic fibrils. PMID:25118290

  12. Elucidating molecular mass and shape of a neurotoxic Aβ oligomer.

    PubMed

    Sebollela, Adriano; Mustata, Gina-Mirela; Luo, Kevin; Velasco, Pauline T; Viola, Kirsten L; Cline, Erika N; Shekhawat, Gajendra S; Wilcox, Kyle C; Dravid, Vinayak P; Klein, William L

    2014-12-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent type of dementia, has been associated with the accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in the central nervous system. AβOs vary widely in size, ranging from dimers to larger than 100 kDa. Evidence indicates that not all oligomers are toxic, and there is yet no consensus on the size of the actual toxic oligomer. Here we used NU4, a conformation-dependent anti-AβO monoclonal antibody, to investigate size and shape of a toxic AβO assembly. By using size-exclusion chromatography and immuno-based detection, we isolated an AβO-NU4 complex amenable for biochemical and morphological studies. The apparent molecular mass of the NU4-targeted oligomer was 80 kDa. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the AβO-NU4 complex showed a size distribution centered at 5.37 nm, an increment of 1.5 nm compared to the size of AβOs (3.85 nm). This increment was compatible with the size of NU4 (1.3 nm), suggesting a 1:1 oligomer to NU4 ratio. NU4-reactive oligomers extracted from AD human brain concentrated in a molecular mass range similar to that found for in vitro prepared oligomers, supporting the relevance of the species herein studied. These results represent an important step toward understanding the connection between AβO size and toxicity. PMID:25343357

  13. Elucidating Molecular Mass and Shape of a Neurotoxic Aβ Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent type of dementia, has been associated with the accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in the central nervous system. AβOs vary widely in size, ranging from dimers to larger than 100 kDa. Evidence indicates that not all oligomers are toxic, and there is yet no consensus on the size of the actual toxic oligomer. Here we used NU4, a conformation-dependent anti-AβO monoclonal antibody, to investigate size and shape of a toxic AβO assembly. By using size-exclusion chromatography and immuno-based detection, we isolated an AβO-NU4 complex amenable for biochemical and morphological studies. The apparent molecular mass of the NU4-targeted oligomer was 80 kDa. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the AβO-NU4 complex showed a size distribution centered at 5.37 nm, an increment of 1.5 nm compared to the size of AβOs (3.85 nm). This increment was compatible with the size of NU4 (1.3 nm), suggesting a 1:1 oligomer to NU4 ratio. NU4-reactive oligomers extracted from AD human brain concentrated in a molecular mass range similar to that found for in vitro prepared oligomers, supporting the relevance of the species herein studied. These results represent an important step toward understanding the connection between AβO size and toxicity. PMID:25343357

  14. Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Laura; Madiona, Karine; Melki, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) in neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of synucleinopathies. α-syn populates a variety of assemblies ranging from prefibrillar oligomeric species to fibrils whose specific contribution to neurodegeneration is still unclear. Here, we compare the specific structural and biological properties of distinct soluble prefibrillar α-syn oligomers formed either spontaneously or in the presence of dopamine and glutaraldehyde. We show that both on-fibrillar assembly pathway and distinct dopamine-mediated and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked α-syn oligomers are only slightly effective in perturbing cell membrane integrity and inducing cytotoxicity, while mature fibrils exhibit the highest toxicity. In contrast to low-molecular weight and unstable oligomers, large stable α-syn oligomers seed the aggregation of soluble α-syn within reporter cells although to a lesser extent than mature α-syn fibrils. These oligomers appear elongated in shape. Our findings suggest that α-syn oligomers represent a continuum of species ranging from unstable low molecular weight particles to mature fibrils via stable elongated oligomers composed of more than 15 α-syn monomers that possess seeding capacity. PMID:27075649

  15. Toxic species in amyloid disorders: Oligomers or mature fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Meenakshi; Vats, Abhishek; Taneja, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders. These protein aggregation (fibrillization) disorders are also known as amyloid disorders. The mechanism of protein aggregation involves conformation switch of the native protein, oligomer formation leading to protofibrils and finally mature fibrils. Mature fibrils have long been considered as the cause of disease pathogenesis; however, recent evidences suggest oligomeric intermediates formed during fibrillization to be toxic. In this review, we have tried to address the ongoing debate for these toxic amyloid species. We did an extensive literature search and collated information from Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Google search using various permutations and combinations of the following keywords: Neurodegeneration, amyloid disorders, protein aggregation, fibrils, oligomers, toxicity, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease. We describe different instances showing the toxicity of mature fibrils as well as oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. Distinct structural framework and morphology of amyloid oligomers suggests difference in toxic effect between oligomers and fibrils. We highlight the difference in structure and proposed toxicity pathways for fibrils and oligomers. We also highlight the evidences indicating that intermediary oligomeric species can act as potential diagnostic biomarker. Since the formation of these toxic species follow a common structural switch among various amyloid disorders, the protein aggregation events can be targeted for developing broad-range therapeutics. The therapeutic trials based on the understanding of different protein conformers (monomers, oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils) in amyloid cascade are also described. PMID:26019408

  16. Quaternary structure defines a large class of amyloid-β oligomers neutralized by sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Reed, Miranda N.; Kotilinek, Linda A.; Grant, Marianne K.O.; Forster, Colleen L.; Qiang, Wei; Shapiro, Samantha L.; Reichl, John H.; Chiang, Angie C.A.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; Cleary, James P.; Zahs, Kathleen R.; Ashe, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) as amyloid fibrils and toxic oligomers is an important step in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are numerous potentially toxic oligomers and little is known about their neurological effects when generated in the living brain. Here, we show that Aβ oligomers can be assigned to one of at least two classes (Type 1 and Type 2) based on their temporal, spatial and structural relationships to amyloid fibrils. The Type 2 oligomers are related to amyloid fibrils and represent the majority of oligomers generated in vivo, but remain confined to the vicinity of amyloid plaques and do not impair cognition at levels relevant to AD. Type 1 oligomers are unrelated to amyloid fibrils and may have greater potential to cause global neural dysfunction in AD because they are dispersed. These results refine our understanding of the pathogenicity of Aβ oligomers in vivo. PMID:26051935

  17. Lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta (Abeta) in non-demented Indian controls.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Sandhyarani, Boya; Shree, A N Divya; Murthy, K Krishna; Kalyani, K; Kumar, S Praveen; Pradeep; Noone, Mohin Jeslie; Taly, A B

    2006-10-23

    Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Indian population is lower than in developed countries. To determine whether limitation of amyloid beta (Abeta) concentration may be responsible for lower rate of incidence, we measured the levels of Abeta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 72 non-demented individuals ranging in the age from 20 years to 65 years. These samples were segregated into three groups ranging from 20-35 years, 36-50 years and 51-65 years of age. Levels of Abeta could be detected in all the age groups and they were much lower than the values reported in literature from the developed countries. No significant difference in the average level of Ass was observed with increase in age. PMID:16978775

  18. Structural differences between amyloid beta oligomers.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Leonid; Kurouski, Dmitry; Rasool, Suhail; Milton, Saskia; Wu, Jessica W; Uversky, Vladimir N; Lednev, Igor K; Glabe, Charles G

    2016-09-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, soluble Aβ oligomers are believed to play important roles in the disease pathogenesis, and their levels correlate with cognitive impairment. We have previously shown that Aβ oligomers can be categorized into multiple structural classes based on their reactivity with conformation-dependent antibodies. In this study, we analyzed the structures of Aβ40 oligomers belonging to two of these classes: fibrillar and prefibrillar oligomers. We found that fibrillar oligomers were similar in structure to fibrils but were less stable towards denaturation while prefibrillar oligomers were found to be partially disordered. These results are consistent with previously proposed structures for both oligomer classes while providing additional structural information. PMID:27363332

  19. Hydrogen sulfide prevents Abeta-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weigang; Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Chenxi; Sun, Yiyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Songtao

    2016-06-14

    Neuronal cell apoptosis is an important pathological change in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is known to be a novel gaseous signaling molecule and a cytoprotectant in many diseases including AD. However, the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptosis activity of H(2)S in AD is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of H(2)S on Abeta (Aβ)-induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying primary neuron cells. Our results showed that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H(2)S, significantly ameliorated Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. NaHS also reversed the Aβ-induced translocation of the phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, H(2)S increased the level of p-AKT/AKT significantly. Interestingly, the antiapoptosis effects of H(2)S were blocked down by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor wortmannin. In conclusion, these data indicate that H(2)S inhibits Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN and that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in H(2)S-mediated neuronal protection. Our findings provide a novel route into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in AD. PMID:27026591

  20. Chemical Fluorescent Probe for Detection of Aβ Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Chai Lean; Su, Dongdong; Sahu, Srikanta; Yun, Seong-Wook; Drummond, Eleanor; Prelli, Frances; Lim, Sulgi; Cho, Sunhee; Ham, Sihyun; Wisniewski, Thomas; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-10-28

    Aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with the soluble, Aβ oligomeric species thought to be the critical pathological species. Identification and characterization of intermediate species formed during the aggregation process is crucial to the understanding of the mechanisms by which oligomeric species mediate neuronal toxicity and following disease progression. Probing these species proved to be extremely challenging, as evident by the lack of reliable sensors, due to their heterogeneous and transient nature. We describe here an oligomer-specific fluorescent chemical probe, BoDipy-Oligomer (BD-Oligo), developed through the use of the diversity-oriented fluorescent library approach (DOFLA) and high-content, imaging-based screening. This probe enables dynamic oligomer monitoring during fibrillogenesis in vitro and shows in vivo Aβ oligomers staining possibility in the AD mice model. PMID:26218347

  1. Targeting Cancer with Antisense Oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatowich, DJ

    2008-10-28

    With financial assistance from the Department of Energy, we have shown definitively that radiolabeled antisense DNAs and other oligomers will accumulate in target cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by an antisense mechanism. We have also shown that the number of mRNA targets for our antisense oligomers in the cancer cell types that we have investigated so far is sufficient to provide and antisense image and/or radiotherapy of cancer in mice. These studies have been reported in about 10 publications. However our observation over the past several years has shown that radiolabeled antisense oligomers administered intravenously in their native and naked form will accumulate and be retained in target xenografts by an antisense mechanism but will also accumulate at high levels in normal organs such as liver, spleen and kidneys. We have investigated unsuccessfully several commercially available vectors. Thus the use of radiolabeled antisense oligomers for the imaging of cancer must await novel approaches to delivery. This laboratory has therefore pursued two new paths, optical imaging of tumor and Auger radiotherapy. We are developing a novel method of optical imaging tumor using antisense oligomers with a fluorophore is administered while hybridized with a shorter complementary oligomer with an inhibitor. In culture and in tumored mice that the duplex remains intact and thus nonfluorescent until it encounters its target mRNA at which time it dissociates and the antisense oligomer binds along with its fluorophore to the target. Simultaneous with the above, we have also observed, as have others, that antisense oligomers migrate rapidly and quantitatively to the nucleus upon crossing cell membranes. The Auger electron radiotherapy path results from this observation since the nuclear migration properties could be used effectively to bring and to retain in the nucleus an Auger emitting radionuclide such as 111In or 125I bound to the antisense oligomer. Since the object becomes

  2. Interaction of arginine oligomer with model membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Dandan . E-mail: yi_dandan@yahoo.com.cn; Guoming, Li; Gao, Li; Wei, Liang

    2007-08-10

    Short oligomers of arginine (R8) have been shown to cross readily a variety of biological barriers. A hypothesis was put forward that inverted micelles form in biological membranes in the presence of arginine oligomer peptides, facilitating their transfer through the membranes. In order to define the role of peptide-lipid interaction in this mechanism, we prepared liposomes as the model membrane to study the ability of R8 inducing calcein release from liposomes, the fusion of liposomes, R8 binding to liposomes and membrane disturbing activity of the bound R8. The results show that R8 binding to liposome membrane depends on lipid compositions, negative surface charge density and interior water phase pH values of liposomes. R8 has no activity to induce the leakage of calcein from liposomes or improve liposome fusion. R8 does not permeabilize through the membrane spontaneously. These peptides delivering drugs through membranes may depend on receptors and energy.

  3. Retardation of Abeta fibril formation by phospholipid vesicles depends on membrane phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Erik; Sparr, Emma; Linse, Sara

    2010-05-19

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that in several amyloid diseases, the fibril formation in vivo and the mechanism of toxicity both involve membrane interactions. We have studied Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). Recombinant Abeta(M1-40) and Abeta(M1-42) produced in Escherichia coli, allows us to carry out large scale kinetics assays with good statistics. The amyloid formation process is followed in means of thioflavin T fluorescence at relatively low (down to 380 nM) peptide concentration approaching the physiological range. The lipid membranes are introduced in the system as large and small unilamellar vesicles. The aggregation lagtime increases in the presence of lipid vesicles for all situations investigated and the phase behavior of the membrane in the vesicles has a large effect on the aggregation kinetics. By comparing vesicles with different membrane phase behavior we see that the solid gel phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers cause the largest retardation of Abeta fibril formation. The membrane-induced retardation reaches saturation and is present when the vesicles are added during the lag time up to the nucleation point. No significant difference is detected in lag time when increasing amount of negative charge is incorporated into the membrane. PMID:20483329

  4. The Alzheimer's beta amyloid (Abeta1-39) monomer in an implicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Anand, Priya; Nandel, F S; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2008-04-28

    Results from replica-exchange and regular room temperature molecular dynamics simulations of the Alzheimer's beta amyloid (Abeta(1-39)) monomer in an implicit solvent are reported. Our data indicate that at room temperature, the monomer assumes random-coil and soluble conformations. No beta content is observed which therefore seems to be a product of oligomerization and aggregation of monomers. PMID:18447506

  5. Structural Insight into Proteorhodopsin Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Katherine M.; Voska, Jeda; Kinnebrew, Maia; Pavlova, Anna; Junk, Matthias J.N.; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Oligomerization has important functional implications for many membrane proteins. However, obtaining structural insight into oligomeric assemblies is challenging, as they are large and resist crystallization. We focus on proteorhodopsin (PR), a protein with seven transmembrane α-helices that was found to assemble to hexamers in densely packed lipid membrane, or detergent-solubilized environments. Yet, the structural organization and the subunit interface of these PR oligomers were unknown. We used site-directed spin-labeling together with electron spin-resonance lineshape and Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization analysis to construct a model for the specific orientation of PR subunits within the hexameric complex. We found intersubunit distances to average 16 Å between neighboring 55 residues and that residues 177 are >20 Å apart from each other. These distance constraints show that PR has a defined and radial orientation within a hexamer, with the 55-site of the A-B loop facing the hexamer core and the 177-site of the E-F loop facing the hexamer exterior. Dynamic nuclear polarization measurements of the local solvent dynamics complement the electron spin-resonance-based distance analysis, by resolving whether protein surfaces at positions 55, 58, and 177 are exposed to solvent, or covered by protein-protein or protein-detergent contacts. PMID:23442869

  6. [Peoniflorin activates Nrf2/ARE pathway to alleviate the Abeta(1-42)-induced hippocampal neuron injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-Zhi; ma, Shi-Ping; Hong, Zong-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of peoniflorin on the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream signal molecules in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats for exploring the mechanism of peoniflorin protecting hippocampal neurons. AD model rats were established by bilateral intrahippocampal injection of beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) and divided randomly into 3 groups: AD model group, peoniflorin low-dose (15 mg x kg(-1)) group and peoniflorin high-dose (30 mg x kg(-1)) group. The vehicle control rats were given bilateral intrahippocampal injection of solvent with the same volume. After peoniflorin or saline was administered (ip) once daily for 14 days, the hippocampuses of all animals were taken out for measuring the expressions of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthethase (gamma-GCS) mRNA by reverse transcription PCR, determining the contents of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (CP) using colorimetric method, and for assaying the expressions of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and Caspase-3 by immunohistochemical staining method. The results showed that peoniflorin markedly increased the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and gamma-GCS mRNA, enhanced the level of GSH and decreased the contents of MDA and CP in the hippocampus, as compared with the model group. Peoniflorin also improved the NAIP expression and reduced the Caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus neurons. In conclusion, peoniflorin protects against the Abeta(1-42)-mediated oxidative stress and hippocampal neuron injury in AD rats by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24187848

  7. Soluble state high resolution atomic force microscopy study of Alzheimer’s β-amyloid oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; Lambert, Mary P.; Sharma, Saurabh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Viola, Kirsten L.; Klein, William L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here the direct observation of high resolution structures of assemblies of Alzheimer β-amyloid oligomers and monomers using liquid atomic force microscopy (AFM). Visualization of nanoscale features of Aβ oligomers (also known as ADDLs) was carried out in tapping mode AFM in F12 solution. Our results indicate that ADDL preparations exist in solution primarily as a mixture of monomeric peptides and higher molecular mass oligomers. Our study clearly reveals that the size and shape of these oligomer aggregates exhibit a pronounced dependence on concentration. These studies show that wet AFM enables direct assessment of oligomers in physiological fluids and suggests that this method may be developed to visualize Aβ oligomers from human fluids. PMID:19997583

  8. Soluble state high resolution atomic force microscopy study of Alzheimer's β-amyloid oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; Lambert, Mary P.; Sharma, Saurabh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Viola, Kirsten L.; Klein, William L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2009-11-01

    We report here the direct observation of high resolution structures of assemblies of Alzheimer β-amyloid oligomers and monomers using liquid atomic force microscopy (AFM). Visualization of nanoscale features of Aβ oligomers (also known as ADDLs) was carried out in tapping mode AFM in F12 solution. Our results indicate that ADDL preparations exist in solution primarily as a mixture of monomeric peptides and higher molecular mass oligomers. Our study clearly reveals that the size and shape of these oligomer aggregates exhibit a pronounced dependence on concentration. These studies show that wet AFM enables direct assessment of oligomers in physiological fluids and suggests that this method may be developed to visualize Aβ oligomers from human fluids.

  9. An infrared sensor analysing label-free the secondary structure of the Abeta peptide in presence of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Nabers, Andreas; Ollesch, Julian; Schartner, Jonas; Kötting, Carsten; Genius, Just; Haußmann, Ute; Klafki, Hans; Wiltfang, Jens; Gerwert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The secondary structure change of the Abeta peptide to beta-sheet was proposed as an early event in Alzheimer's disease. The transition may be used for diagnostics of this disease in an early state. We present an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) sensor modified with a specific antibody to extract minute amounts of Abeta peptide out of a complex fluid. Thereby, the Abeta peptide secondary structure was determined in its physiological aqueous environment by FTIR-difference-spectroscopy. The presented results open the door for label-free Alzheimer diagnostics in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. It can be extended to further neurodegenerative diseases. An immunologic ATR-FTIR sensor for Abeta peptide secondary structure analysis in complex fluids is presented. PMID:25808829

  10. Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Levites, Yona; Amit, Tamar; Mandel, Silvia; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2003-05-01

    Green tea extract and its main polyphenol constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possess potent neuroprotective activity in cell culture and mice model of Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis guiding this study is that EGCG may play an important role in amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and protection against toxicity induced by beta-amyloid (Abeta). The present study shows that EGCG enhances (approximately 6-fold) the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) into the conditioned media of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. sAPPalpha release was blocked by the hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitor Ro31-9790, which indicated mediation via alpha-secretase activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with the inhibitor GF109203X, or by down-regulation of PKC, blocked the EGCG-induced sAPPalpha secretion, suggesting the involvement of PKC. Indeed, EGCG induced the phosphorylation of PKC, thus identifying a novel PKC-dependent mechanism of EGCG action by activation of the non-amyloidogenic pathway. EGCG is not only able to protect, but it can rescue PC12 cells against the beta-amyloid (Abeta) toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, administration of EGCG (2 mg/kg) to mice for 7 or 14 days significantly decreased membrane-bound holoprotein APP levels, with a concomitant increase in sAPPalpha levels in the hippocampus. Consistently, EGCG markedly increased PKCalpha and PKC in the membrane and the cytosolic fractions of mice hippocampus. Thus, EGCG has protective effects against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and regulates secretory processing of non-amyloidogenic APP via PKC pathway. PMID:12670874

  11. Density functional theory study of neutral and oxidized thiophene oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yafei; Wei, Chengwei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2013-11-01

    The effect of oxidation on the energetics and structure of thiophene (Th) oligomers is studied with density functional theory at the B3PW91/6-311++G(d,p) level. Neutral n-Th oligomers (2 < n < 13) are gently curved planar chains. Ionization potential and electron affinity results show that n-Th oligomers are easier to be oxidized as their chain length increases. Oxidation states +2, +4, +6, and +8 are energetically stable in 12-Th. Upon oxidation the conjugated backbone of 12-Th switches from extended benzenoid phase to quinoid phase localized on groups of monomers regularly spaced along the chain. Oxidized states +2, +4, +6, and +8 of 12-Th display two +1e localized at the ends of their chains only because of the finite size of the chains. In 12-Th this end-effect extends over the two terminal monomers forming a positive-negative charge duet. This peculiar charge localization makes n-Th oligomers different from other conducting polymers with similar structure, such as polypyrrole. The spectrum of single-electron molecular states of oxidized 12-Th displays two localized single-electron states in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap per +2 oxidation state. Oligothiophene 12-Th doped with F atoms at 1:2 concentration presents a charge transfer of 3.4 e from oligomer to dopants that increases to 4.8 e in the presence of solvent. The charge distribution in these F-doped oligomers is similar to the +4 oxidation state of 12-Th. It is predicted that dopants produce an enhanced charge transfer localized in the proximity of their locations enhancing the formation of bipolarons in the central part of the oligomer chain.

  12. A Mechanism of Subunit Recruitment in Human Small Heat Shock Protein Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) make up a class of molecular chaperones broadly observed across organisms. Many sHSPs form large oligomers that undergo dynamic subunit exchange that is thought to play a role in chaperone function. Though remarkably heterogeneous, sHSP oligomers share three types of intermolecular interactions that involve all three defined regions of a sHSP: the N-terminal region (NTR), the conserved α-crystallin domain (ACD), and a C-terminal region (CTR). Here we define the structural interactions involved in incorporation of a subunit into a sHSP oligomer. We demonstrate that a minimal ACD dimer of the human sHSP, HSPB5, interacts with an HSPB5 oligomer through two types of interactions: (1) interactions with CTRs in the oligomer and (2) via exchange into and out of the dimer interface composed of two ACDs. Unexpectedly, although dimers are thought to be the fundamental building block for sHSP oligomers, our results clearly indicate that subunit exchange into and out of oligomers occurs via monomers. Using structure-based mutants, we show that incorporation of a subunit into an oligomer is predicated on recruitment of the subunit via its interaction with CTRs on an oligomer. Both the rate and extent of subunit incorporation depend on the accessibility of CTRs within an HSPB5 oligomer. We show that this mechanism also applies to formation of heterooligomeric sHSP species composed of HSPB5 and HSPB6 and is likely general among sHSPs. Finally, our observations highlight the importance of NTRs in the thermodynamic stability of sHSP oligomers. PMID:26098708

  13. Heat Resistant Characteristics of Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Takanori; Ito, Aimi; Omote, Sumire; Miura, Yuri; Tsumoto, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Soluble royal jelly protein is a candidate factor responsible for mammiferous cell proliferation. Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), which consists of oligomeric and monomeric forms, is an abundant proliferative protein in royal jelly. We previously reported that MRJP1 oligomer has biochemical heat resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of several heat treatments (56, 65 and 96°C) on the proliferative activity of MRJP1 oligomer. Heat resistance studies showed that the oligomer molecular forms were slightly maintained until 56℃, but the molecular forms were converted to macromolecular heat-aggregated MRJP1 oligomer at 65℃ and 96℃. But, the growth activity of MRJP1 oligomer treated with 96°C was slightly attenuated when compared to unheated MRJP1 oligomer. On the other hand, the cell proliferation activity was preserved until 96℃ by the cell culture analysis of Jurkat cells. In contrast, those of IEC-6 cells were not preserved even at 56°C. The present observations suggest that the bioactive heat-resistance properties were different by the origin of the cells. The cell proliferation analysis showed that MRJP1 oligomer, but not MRJP2 and MRJP3, significantly increased cell numbers, suggesting that MRJP1 oligomer is the predominant proliferation factor for mammiferous cells. PMID:26020775

  14. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  15. Amplified spontaneous emission from a new 4-triarylamine substituted 1,8-naphthalimide semiconductor oligomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wu; Tu, Guoli; Zhong, Bo; Ma, Dongge; Wang, Lixiang; Jing, Xiabin; Wang, Fosong

    2005-06-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission has been observed in a new semiconductor oligomer of 2-decyl-6-{[4'-(naphthalene-1-yl-phenyl-amino)-biphenyl-4-yl]-[4-(naphthalene-1-yl-phenyl-amino)-phenyl]-amino}-benzo[ de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (4-triarylamine substituted 1,8-naphthalimide TAANPI) doped polymer films pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The dependence of the threshold and gain on the oligomer concentration in polymer was studied in detail. It was found that the semiconductor oligomer shows low threshold, high gain and low loss even though the doped oligomer concentration is up to 60%, indicating a low concentration quenching effect. This demonstrates that the oligomer could be a promising candidate as gain medium for organic diode lasers.

  16. Peripheral inflammation facilitates Abeta fiber-mediated synaptic input to the substantia gelatinosa of the adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Woolf, C J

    1999-01-15

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in thick adult rat transverse spinal cord slices with attached dorsal roots to study changes in fast synaptic transmission induced by peripheral inflammation. In slices from naive rats, primary afferent stimulation at Abeta fiber intensity elicited polysynaptic EPSCs in only 14 of 57 (25%) SG neurons. In contrast, Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic EPSCs in 39 of 62 (63%) SG neurons recorded in slices from rats inflamed by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) 48 hr earlier (p < 0.001). Although the peripheral inflammation had no significant effect on the threshold and conduction velocities of Abeta, Adelta, and C fibers recorded in dorsal roots, the mean threshold intensity for eliciting EPSCs was significantly lower in cells recorded from rats with inflammation (naive: 33.2 +/- 15.1 microA, n = 57; inflamed: 22.8 +/- 11.3 microA, n = 62, p < 0.001), and the mean latency of EPSCs elicited by Abeta fiber stimulation in CFA-treated rats was significantly shorter than that recorded from naive rats (3.3 +/- 1.8 msec, n = 36 vs 6.0 +/- 3.5 msec, n = 12; p = 0.010). Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic IPSCs in 4 of 25 (16%) cells recorded from naive rat preparations and 14 of 26 (54%) SG neurons from CFA-treated rats (p < 0.001). The mean threshold intensity for IPSCs was also significantly lower in CFA-treated rats (naive: 32.5 +/- 15.7 microA, n = 25; inflamed: 21. 9 +/- 9.9 microA, n = 26, p = 0.013). The facilitation of Abeta fiber-mediated input into the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral inflammation may contribute to altered sensory processing. PMID:9880605

  17. Small Glycosylated Lignin Oligomers Are Stored in Arabidopsis Leaf Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Dima, Oana; Morreel, Kris; Vanholme, Bartel; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is an aromatic polymer derived from the combinatorial coupling of monolignol radicals in the cell wall. Recently, various glycosylated lignin oligomers have been revealed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Given that monolignol oxidation and monolignol radical coupling are known to occur in the apoplast, and glycosylation in the cytoplasm, it raises questions about the subcellular localization of glycosylated lignin oligomer biosynthesis and their storage. By metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis leaf vacuoles, we show that the leaf vacuole stores a large number of these small glycosylated lignin oligomers. Their structural variety and the incorporation of alternative monomers, as observed in Arabidopsis mutants with altered monolignol biosynthesis, indicate that they are all formed by combinatorial radical coupling. In contrast to the common believe that combinatorial coupling is restricted to the apoplast, we hypothesized that the aglycones of these compounds are made within the cell. To investigate this, leaf protoplast cultures were cofed with 13C6-labeled coniferyl alcohol and a 13C4-labeled dimer of coniferyl alcohol. Metabolite profiling of the cofed protoplasts provided strong support for the occurrence of intracellular monolignol coupling. We therefore propose a metabolic pathway involving intracellular combinatorial coupling of monolignol radicals, followed by oligomer glycosylation and vacuolar import, which shares characteristics with both lignin and lignan biosynthesis. PMID:25700483

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PTT polymers and oligomers.

    PubMed

    Eberl, A; Heumann, S; Kotek, R; Kaufmann, F; Mitsche, S; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2008-05-20

    Oligomers and polymers (film, fabrics) of the linear aromatic polyester poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were treated with polyesterases from Thermomyces lanuginosus, Penicillium citrinum, Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani pisi. The cutinase from T. fusca was found to release the highest amounts of hydrolysis products from PTT materials and was able to open and hydrolyse a cyclic PTT dimer according to RP-HPLC-UV detection. In contrast, the lipase from T. lanuginosus also showed activity on the PTT fibres and on bis(3-hydroxypropyl) terephthalate (BHPT) but was not able to hydrolyse the polymer film, mono(3-hydroxypropyl) terephthalate (MHPT) nor the cyclic dimer of PTT. As control enzymes inhibited with mercury chloride were used. Surface hydrophilicity changes were investigated with contact angle measurements and the degree of crystallinity changes were determined with DSC. PMID:18405994

  19. Rectification mechanism in diblock oligomer molecular diodes.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, I I; Kozhushner, M A; Posvyanskii, V S; Yu, L

    2006-03-10

    We investigated a mechanism of rectification in diblock oligomer diode molecules that have recently been synthesized and showed a pronounced asymmetry in the measured I-V spectrum. The observed rectification effect is due to the resonant nature of electron transfer in the system and the localization properties of bound state wave functions of resonant states of the tunneling electron interacting with an asymmetric molecule in an electric field. The asymmetry of the tunneling wave function is enhanced or weakened depending on the polarity of the applied bias. The conceptually new theoretical approach, the Green's function theory of sub-barrier scattering, is able to provide a physically transparent explanation of this rectification effect based on the concept of the bound state spectrum of a tunneling electron. The theory predicts the characteristic features of the I-V spectrum in qualitative agreement with experiment. PMID:16606295

  20. Tetracycline prevents Aβ oligomer toxicity through an atypical supramolecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Cristina; Colombo, Laura; Manzoni, Claudia; Sironi, Erika; Natalello, Antonino; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Forloni, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Del Favero, Elena; Cantù, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco; Salmona, Mario

    2011-01-21

    The antibiotic tetracycline was reported to possess an anti-amyloidogenic activity on a variety of amyloidogenic proteins both in in vitro and in vivo models. To unveil the mechanism of action of tetracycline on Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 at both molecular and supramolecular levels, we carried out a series of experiments using NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic laser light-scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Firstly we showed that the co-incubation of Aβ1-42 oligomers with tetracycline hinders the toxicity towards N2a cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the nature of the interaction between the drug and Aβ oligomers was investigated. To carry out NMR and FTIR studies we have prepared Aβ peptide solutions containing assemblies ranging from monomers to large oligomers. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments have shown that tetracycline did not interact with monomers at variance with oligomers. Noteworthy, in this latter case we observed that this interaction was very peculiar since the transfer of magnetization from Aβ oligomers to tetracycline involved all drug protons. In addition, intermolecular cross-peaks between tetracycline and Aβ were not observed in NOESY spectra, indicating the absence of a specific binding site and suggesting the occurrence of a supramolecular interaction. DLS and AFM studies supported this hypothesis since the co-dissolution of Aβ peptides and tetracycline triggered the immediate formation of new aggregates that improved the solubility of Aβ peptides, preventing in this way the progression of the amyloid cascade. Moreover, competitive NMR binding experiments showed for the first time that tetracycline competes with thioflavin T (ThT) in the binding to Aβ peptides. Our data shed light on a novel mechanism of anti-amyloidogenic activity displayed by tetracycline, governed by hydrophobic and charge multiparticle interactions. PMID:21063627

  1. Rescue from tau-induced neuronal dysfunction produces insoluble tau oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Quraishe, Shmma; Hands, Sarah; Sealey, Megan; Mahajan, Sumeet; Allan, Douglas W.; Mudher, Amritpal

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of highly phosphorylated tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. Nevertheless, animal models demonstrate that tau-mediated dysfunction/toxicity may not require large tau aggregates but instead may be caused by soluble hyper-phosphorylated tau or by small tau oligomers. Challenging this widely held view, we use multiple techniques to show that insoluble tau oligomers form in conditions where tau-mediated dysfunction is rescued in vivo. This shows that tau oligomers are not necessarily always toxic. Furthermore, their formation correlates with increased tau levels, caused intriguingly, by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of tau kinase glycogen-synthase-kinase-3beta (GSK-3β). Moreover, contrary to common belief, these tau oligomers were neither highly phosphorylated, and nor did they contain beta-pleated sheet structure. This may explain their lack of toxicity. Our study makes the novel observation that tau also forms non-toxic insoluble oligomers in vivo in addition to toxic oligomers, which have been reported by others. Whether these are inert or actively protective remains to be established. Nevertheless, this has wide implications for emerging therapeutic strategies such as those that target dissolution of tau oligomers as they may be ineffective or even counterproductive unless they act on the relevant toxic oligomeric tau species. PMID:26608845

  2. A thermodynamic study of Abeta(16-21) dissociation from a fibril using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano; Mahmoudinobar, Farbod; Su, Zhaoqian

    Here, I will discuss recent all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water in which we studied the thermodynamic properties of Abeta(16-21) dissociation from an amyloid fibril. Changes in thermodynamics quantities, e.g., entropy, enthalpy, and volume, are computed from the temperature dependence of the free-energy computed using the umbrella sampling method. We find similarities and differences between the thermodynamics of peptide dissociation and protein unfolding. Similarly to protein unfolding, Abeta(16-21) dissociation is characterized by an unfavorable change in enthalpy, a favorable change in the entropic energy, and an increase in the heat capacity. A main difference is that peptide dissociation is characterized by a weak enthalpy-entropy compensation. We characterize dock and lock states of the peptide based on the solvent accessible surface area. The Lennard-Jones energy of the system is observed to increase continuously in lock and dock states as the peptide dissociates. The electrostatic energy increases in the lock state and it decreases in the dock state as the peptide dissociates. These results will be discussed as well as their implication for fibril growth.

  3. Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Miyakawa, S.; Huang, W.; Joshi, P.

    2005-12-01

    It is proposed that catalysis had a central role in the origins of life. This will be illustrated using the montmorillonite clay-catalyzed synthesis of oligomers of RNA from activated monomers, (Ferris and Ertem, 1993) a possible step in the origin of the RNA world (Ferris, 2005). Structural analysis of oligomers formed in the reaction of the activated monomer of 5'-AMP with that of 5'-CMP demonstrated that the oligomers formed were not produced by random synthesis but rather the sequences observed were directed by the montmorillonite catalyst (Miyakawa and Ferris, 2003). RNA oligomers containing up to 40 mers have been synthesized in reactions performed in water at 25 oC in the presence of montmorillonite (Huang and Ferris, 2003). Analysis of the structure elements in these oligomers from the 7 to 39 mers showed that they did not vary. Reaction of D, L-mixtures of the activated monomers of A and U resulted in the formation of greater amounts of the homochiral amounts of dimers and trimers of A than would be expected if there was no selectivity in the reaction. A limited number of the dimers and trimers of U were also formed but here the selectivity was for the formation of an excess of heterochiral products (Joshi et al., 2000). A postulate that explains why homochiral trimers of U are not formed and the significance of catalysis in prebiotic synthesis will be discussed. Ferris, J.P. (2005) Origins of life, molecular basis of. In R.A. Meyers, Ed. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 10. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany. Ferris, J.P., and Ertem, G. (1993) Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 12270-12275. Huang, W., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Synthesis of 35-40 mers of RNA oligomers from unblocked monomers. A simple approach to the RNA world. Chem. Commun., 1458-1459. Joshi, P.C., Pitsch, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2000) Homochiral selection

  4. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  5. Unique Properties of the Rabbit Prion Protein Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ziyao; Huang, Pei; Yu, Yuanhui; Zheng, Zhen; Huang, Zicheng; Guo, Chenyun; Lin, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders infecting both humans and animals. Recent works have demonstrated that the soluble prion protein oligomer (PrPO), the intermediate of the conformational transformation from the host-derived cellular form (PrPC) to the disease-associated Scrapie form (PrPSc), exerts the major neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rabbits show strong resistance to TSEs, the underlying mechanism is unclear to date. It is expected that the relative TSEs-resistance of rabbits is closely associated with the unique properties of rabbit prion protein oligomer which remain to be addressed in detail. In the present work, we prepared rabbit prion protein oligomer (recRaPrPO) and human prion protein oligomer (recHuPrPO) under varied conditions, analyzed the effects of pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature on the oligomerization, and compared the properties of recRaPrPO and recHuPrPO. We found that several factors facilitated the formation of prion protein oligomers, including low pH, high NaCl concentration, high incubation temperature and low conformational stability of monomeric prion protein. RecRaPrPO was formed more slowly than recHuPrPO at physiological-like conditions (< 57°C, < 150 mM NaCl). Furthermore, recRaPrPO possessed higher susceptibility to proteinase K and lower cytotoxicity in vitro than recHuPrPO. These unique properties of recRaPrPO might substantially contribute to the TSEs-resistance of rabbits. Our work sheds light on the oligomerization of prion proteins and is of benefit to mechanistic understanding of TSEs-resistance of rabbits. PMID:27529173

  6. Unique Properties of the Rabbit Prion Protein Oligomer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ziyao; Huang, Pei; Yu, Yuanhui; Zheng, Zhen; Huang, Zicheng; Guo, Chenyun; Lin, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders infecting both humans and animals. Recent works have demonstrated that the soluble prion protein oligomer (PrPO), the intermediate of the conformational transformation from the host-derived cellular form (PrPC) to the disease-associated Scrapie form (PrPSc), exerts the major neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rabbits show strong resistance to TSEs, the underlying mechanism is unclear to date. It is expected that the relative TSEs-resistance of rabbits is closely associated with the unique properties of rabbit prion protein oligomer which remain to be addressed in detail. In the present work, we prepared rabbit prion protein oligomer (recRaPrPO) and human prion protein oligomer (recHuPrPO) under varied conditions, analyzed the effects of pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature on the oligomerization, and compared the properties of recRaPrPO and recHuPrPO. We found that several factors facilitated the formation of prion protein oligomers, including low pH, high NaCl concentration, high incubation temperature and low conformational stability of monomeric prion protein. RecRaPrPO was formed more slowly than recHuPrPO at physiological-like conditions (< 57°C, < 150 mM NaCl). Furthermore, recRaPrPO possessed higher susceptibility to proteinase K and lower cytotoxicity in vitro than recHuPrPO. These unique properties of recRaPrPO might substantially contribute to the TSEs-resistance of rabbits. Our work sheds light on the oligomerization of prion proteins and is of benefit to mechanistic understanding of TSEs-resistance of rabbits. PMID:27529173

  7. Self-assembly of 33-mer gliadin peptide oligomers.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M G; Benedini, L A; Lonez, C; Schilardi, P L; Hellweg, T; Ruysschaert, J-M; Dodero, V I

    2015-11-28

    The 33-mer gliadin peptide, LQLQPF(PQPQLPY)3PQPQPF, is a highly immunogenic peptide involved in celiac disease and probably in other immunopathologies associated with gliadin. Herein, dynamic light scattering measurements showed that 33-mer, in the micromolar concentration range, forms polydisperse nano- and micrometer range particles in aqueous media. This behaviour is reminiscent of classical association of colloids and we hypothesized that the 33-mer peptide self-assembles into micelles that could be the precursors of 33-mer oligomers in water. Deposition of 33-mer peptide aqueous solution on bare mica generated nano- and microstructures with different morphologies as revealed by atomic force microscopy. At 6 μM, the 33-mer is organised in isolated and clusters of spherical nanostructures. In the 60 to 250 μM concentration range, the spherical oligomers associated mainly in linear and annular arrangements and structures adopting a "sheet" type morphology appeared. At higher concentrations (610 μM), mainly filaments and plaques immersed in a background of nanospherical structures were detected. The occurrence of different morphologies of oligomers and finally the filaments suggests that the unique specific geometry of the 33-mer oligomers has a crucial role in the subsequent condensation and organization of their fractal structures into the final filaments. The self-assembly process on mica is described qualitatively and quantitatively by a fractal diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) behaviour with the fractal dimension in the range of 1.62 ± 0.02 to 1.73 ± 0.03. Secondary structure evaluation of the oligomers by Attenuated Total Reflection FTIR spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) revealed the existence of a conformational equilibrium of self-assembled structures, from an extended conformation to a more folded parallel beta elongated structures. Altogether, these findings provide structural and morphological information about supramolecular organization of the 33-mer

  8. Ballistic Energy Transport in Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Natalia I; Qasim, Layla N; Kurnosov, Arkady A; Burin, Alexander L; Rubtsov, Igor V

    2015-09-15

    The development of nanocomposite materials with desired heat management properties, including nanowires, layered semiconductor structures, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) junctions, attracts broad interest. Such materials often involve polymeric/oligomeric components and can feature high or low thermal conductivity, depending on their design. For example, in SAM junctions made of alkane chains sandwiched between metal layers, the thermal conductivity can be very low, whereas the fibers of ordered polyethylene chains feature high thermal conductivity, exceeding that of many pure metals. The thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials is determined by the energy transport between and within each component of the material, which all need to be understood for optimizing the properties. For example, in the SAM junctions, the energy transport across the metal-chain interface as well as the transport through the chains both determine the overall heat conductivity, however, to separate these contributions is difficult. Recently developed relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared (RA 2DIR) spectroscopy is capable of studying energy transport in individual molecules in the time domain. The transport in a molecule is initiated by exciting an IR-active group (a tag); the method records the influence of the excess energy on another mode in the molecule (a reporter). The energy transport time can be measured for different reporters, and the transport speed through the molecule is evaluated. Various molecules were interrogated by RA 2DIR: in molecules without repeating units (disordered), the transport mechanism was expected and found to be diffusive. The transport via an oligomer backbone can potentially be ballistic, as the chain offers delocalized vibrational states. Indeed, the transport regime via three tested types of oligomers, alkanes, polyethyleneglycols, and perfluoroalkanes was found to be ballistic, whereas the transport within the end groups was diffusive

  9. Alzheimer's amyloid-β oligomers rescue cellular prion protein induced tau reduction via the Fyn pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Jie; Chang, Wei-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2013-09-18

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau are the pathogenic hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ oligomers are considered the actual toxic entities, and the toxicity relies on the presence of tau. Recently, Aβ oligomers have been shown to specifically interact with cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) where the role of PrP(C) in AD is still not fully understood. To investigate the downstream mechanism of PrP(C) and Aβ oligomer interaction and their possible relationships to tau, we examined tau expression in human neuroblastoma BE(2)-C cells transfected with murine PrP(C) and studied the effect under Aβ oligomer treatment. By Western blotting, we found that PrP(C) overexpression down-regulated tau protein and Aβ oligomer binding alleviated the tau reduction induced by wild type but not M128V PrP(C), the high AD risk polymorphic allele in human prion gene. PrP(C) lacking the Aβ oligomer binding site was incapable of rescuing the level of tau reduction. Quantitative RT-PCR showed the PrP(C) effect was attributed to tau reduction at the transcription level. Treatment with Fyn pathway inhibitors, Fyn kinase inhibitor PP2 and MEK inhibitor U0126, reversed the PrP(C)-induced tau reduction and Aβ oligomer treatment modulated Fyn kinase activity. The results suggested Fyn pathway regulated Aβ-PrP(C)-tau signaling. Overall, our results demonstrated that PrP(C) down-regulated tau via the Fyn pathway and the effect can be regulated by Aβ oligomers. Our study facilitated the understanding of molecular mechanisms among PrP(C), tau, and Aβ oligomers. PMID:23805846

  10. Aggregation of amyloid Abeta((1-40)) peptide in perdeuterated 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol caused by ultrasound sonication.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Andrei V; Gröbner, Gerhard; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2010-06-01

    Ultrasound sonication of protein and peptide solutions is routinely used in biochemical, biophysical, pharmaceutical and medical sciences to facilitate and accelerate dissolution of macromolecules in both aqueous and organic solvents. However, the impact of ultrasound waves on folding/unfolding of treated proteins, in particular, on aggregation kinetics of amyloidogenic peptides and proteins is not understood. In this work, effects of ultrasound sonication on the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the Alzheimer's Abeta((1-40))-peptide is studied by pulsed-field gradient (PFG) spin-echo diffusion NMR and UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Upon simple dissolution of Abeta((1-40)) in perdeuterated trifluoroethanol, CF(3)-CD(2)-OD (TFE-d(3)), the peptide is present in the solution as a stable monomer adopting alpha-helical secondary structural motifs. The self-diffusion coefficient of Abeta((1-40)) monomers in TFE-d(3) was measured as 1.35 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1), reflecting its monomeric character. However, upon ultrasonic sonication for less than 5 min, considerable populations of Abeta molecules (ca 40%) form large aggregates as reflected in diffusion coefficients smaller than 4.0 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1). Sonication for longer times (up to 40 min in total) effectively reduces the fraction of these aggregates in (1)H PFG NMR spectra to ca 25%. Additionally, absorption below 230 nm increased significantly upon sonication treatment, an observation, which also clearly confirms the ongoing aggregation process of Abeta((1-40)) in TFE-d(3). Surprisingly, upon ultrasound sonication only small changes in the peptide secondary structure were detected by CD: the peptide molecules mainly adopt alpha-helical motifs in both monomers and aggregates formed upon sonication. PMID:20474020

  11. An electric nose based on arylenevinylene polymers and oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Michael

    An electronic nose is an instrument, which comprises an array of electronic chemical sensors with partial specificity and an appropriate pattern-recognition system, capable of recognising simple or complex odours. Our efforts are centred around the sensors part of the nose. In fact, we applied a number of polymeric and oligomeric members of the arylenevinylene group of molecules as the active layer for conductimetric sensors (chemiresistors). The electric resistance of the active layer changes when it is exposed to vapors. The response of the sensor on a vapour is defined as the fractional, percentual change of the resistance compared to that in clean air. We made the sensors by depositing the organic layers on a substrate containing pre-printed gold contacts. At first we tested poly(2,5-thienylene vinylene) (PTV). A synthetic method was employed in which a soluble methoxy-precursor polymer of PTV was isolated, which was then spin-coated onto the substrate, and after being converted thermally to PTV, subsequently doped by iodine. The values of the responses of the PTV sensors are comparable to those sensors based on other conducting polymers, but the (partial) selectivity for the vapors is different. The responses of the PTV sensor are linearly related to the concentration. Incomplete conversion of the precursor polymer to the final PTV leads to copolymers of methoxy-PTV and PTV itself varying inter alia in the degree of conjugation. Chemiresistors based on these new materials show an affinity to vapors differing from that of PTV. We discovered that the arylenevinylenes need not to be of polymeric nature for this application. In fact, the arylenevinylene oligomers perform better. The oligomers are easier to modify and to process than polymers. We tested 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(3,4,5-trimethoxystyrylbenzene) (OMT) in its pure form and in blends with polycarbonate. The responses of these oligomeric sensors are on the average five times higher than those of the

  12. Alzheimer therapy with an antibody against N-terminal Abeta 4-X and pyroglutamate Abeta 3-X

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Gregory; Borgers, Henning; Richard, Bernhard C.; Brauß, Andreas; Meißner, Julius; Weggen, Sascha; Pena, Vladimir; Pillot, Thierry; Davies, Sarah L.; Bakrania, Preeti; Matthews, David; Brownlees, Janet; Bouter, Yvonne; Bayer, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Full-length Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40, N-truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 and Aβ4-42 are major variants in the Alzheimer brain. Aβ4-42 has not been considered as a therapeutic target yet. We demonstrate that the antibody NT4X and its Fab fragment reacting with both the free N-terminus of Aβ4-x and pyroglutamate Aβ3-X mitigated neuron loss in Tg4-42 mice expressing Aβ4-42 and completely rescued spatial reference memory deficits after passive immunization. NT4X and its Fab fragment also rescued working memory deficits in wild type mice induced by intraventricular injection of Aβ4-42. NT4X reduced pyroglutamate Aβ3-x, Aβx-40 and Thioflavin-S positive plaque load after passive immunization of 5XFAD mice. Aβ1-x and Aβx-42 plaque deposits were unchanged. Importantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that passive immunization using the antibody NT4X is therapeutically beneficial in Alzheimer mouse models showing that N-truncated Aβ starting with position four in addition to pyroglutamate Aβ3-x is a relevant target to fight Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26626428

  13. Circular dichroism from Fano resonances in planar chiral oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Ben; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-05-01

    Here we present a general approach for describing the physics of Fano resonances in nanoparticle oligomers. It is shown that the interference of nonorthogonal collective eigenmodes is a sufficient condition to produce Fano resonances. We then show that such nonorthogonality between eigenmodes also permits the existence of a new form circular dichroism in the absorption and scattering cross-sections, even when circular dichroism is forbidden in the extinction cross-section.

  14. Redox effects on the excited-state lifetime in chlorosomes and bacteriochlorophyll c oligomers.

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, P I; Zhu, Y; LoBrutto, R; Blankenship, R E

    1997-01-01

    Oligomers of [E,E] BChl CF (8, 12-diethyl bacteriochlorophyll c esterified with farnesol (F)) and [Pr,E] BChl CF (analogously, M methyl, Pr propyl) in hexane and aqueous detergent or lipid micelles were studied by means of steady-state absorption, time-resolved fluorescence, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The maximum absorption wavelength, excited-state dynamics, and electron spin resonance (EPR) linewidths are similar to those of native and reconstituted chlorosomes of Chlorobium tepidum. The maximum absorption wavelength of oligomers of [E,E] BChl CF was consistently blue-shifted as compared to that of [Pr,E] BChl CF oligomers, which is ascribed to the formation of smaller oligomers with [E,E] BChl CF than [Pr,E] BChl CF. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show an excited-state lifetime of 10 ps or less in nonreduced samples of native and reconstituted chlorosomes of Chlorobium tepidum. Under reduced conditions the excited-state lifetime increased to tens of picoseconds, and energy transfer to BChl a or long-wavelength absorbing BChl c was observed. Oligomers of [E,E] BChl CF and [Pr,E] BChl CF in aqueous detergent or lipid micelles show a similar short excited-state lifetime under nonreduced conditions and an increase up to several tens of picoseconds upon reduction. These results indicate rapid quenching of excitation energy in nonreduced samples of chlorosomes and aqueous BChl c oligomers. EPR spectroscopy shows that traces of oxidized BChl c radicals are present in nonreduced and absent in reduced samples of chlorosomes and BChl c oligomers. This suggests that the observed short excited-state lifetimes in nonreduced samples of chlorosomes and BChl c oligomers may be ascribed to excited-state quenching by BChl c radicals. The narrow EPR linewidth suggests that the BChl c are arranged in clusters of 16 and 6 molecules in chlorosomes of Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus, respectively. PMID:8994616

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Neurotoxicity of Prion Protein Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Steve; Rezaei, Human; Salès, Nicole; Kaiser-Schulz, Gunnar; Lefebvre-Roque, Maxime; Vidal, Catherine; Fournier, Jean-Guy; Comte, Julien; Wopfner, Franziska; Grosclaude, Jeanne; Schätzl, Hermann; Lasmézas, Corinne Ida

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying prion-linked neurodegeneration remain to be elucidated, despite several recent advances in this field. Herein, we show that soluble, low molecular weight oligomers of the full-length prion protein (PrP), which possess characteristics of PrP to PrPsc conversion intermediates such as partial protease resistance, are neurotoxic in vitro on primary cultures of neurons and in vivo after subcortical stereotaxic injection. Monomeric PrP was not toxic. Insoluble, fibrillar forms of PrP exhibited no toxicity in vitro and were less toxic than their oligomeric counterparts in vivo. The toxicity was independent of PrP expression in the neurons both in vitro and in vivo for the PrP oligomers and in vivo for the PrP fibrils. Rescue experiments with antibodies showed that the exposure of the hydrophobic stretch of PrP at the oligomeric surface was necessary for toxicity. This study identifies toxic PrP species in vivo. It shows that PrP-induced neurodegeneration shares common mechanisms with other brain amyloidoses like Alzheimer disease and opens new avenues for neuroprotective intervention strategies of prion diseases targeting PrP oligomers. PMID:17784787

  16. A HRMS study of oligomer formation through aqueous phase photooxidation of methylvinyl-ketone and methacrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salque-moreton, G.; Liu, Y.; Voisin, D.; Siekmann, F.; Renard, P.; Monod, A.; Thissen, R.

    2012-04-01

    Global estimates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation flux show that the current descriptions miss a large fraction of the sources. Aqueous phase photochemistry in cloud droplets and deliquescent aerosol may provide some of this missing flux. Organic reactions in those media, particularly leading to higher molecular weight products thus need better understanding. Here, we investigated the aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein (MACR) and methylvinyl-ketone (MVK), which are the two main oxidation products of isoprene, the volatile organic compound (VOC) that is mostly emitted on the global scale. In our experiments, photolysis of H2O2 provided OH radicals whose reaction with MACR or MVK produced oligomers. Firstly, oligomers were analyzed using electrospray ionization coupled with high-resolution linear ion trap Orbitrap™ (Thermo Corp.) mass spectrometer (HRMS). This technique enabled to propose the unambiguous elemental composition of the produced compounds as data were collected for a mass range of m/z 50-2000 amu. The mass of oligomers increased strongly in positive and negative ionization modes when initial concentrations of MACR and MVK were increased from 2 to 20 mM. Typical regular patterns of oligomer formation were observed for both precursors, and extended up to 1400 amu. These patterns were very different from each other for the two precursors although both showed regular mass differences of 70 amu. In addition, we used a Kendrick analysis and identified more than 20 distinct chemical oligomer series produced by photooxidation of both MACR and MVK, some of which reaching more than 1400 amu. The HRMS investigations allowed us to propose a mechanism of production of oligomers. Upon nebulization, both oligomer systems produce SOA with a mass yield of 2-12%. This mass yield increases with reaction time and precursor concentration. Moreover, time evolution of the oligomer systems observed with the Orbitrap will be compared to HR

  17. Sub-cellular temporal and spatial distribution of electrotransferred LNA/DNA oligomer.

    PubMed

    Orio, Julie; Bellard, Elisabeth; Baaziz, Houda; Pichon, Chantal; Mouritzen, Peter; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Teissié, Justin; Golzio, Muriel; Chabot, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Low biological activity and inefficient targeted delivery in vivo have hindered RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapy from realising its full clinical potential. To overcome these hurdles, progresses have been made to develop new technologies optimizing oligonucleotides chemistry on one hand and achieving its effective delivery on the other hand. In this report, we achieved, by using the electropulsation technique (EP), efficient cellular delivery of chemically-modified oligonucleotide: The locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA oligomer. We used single cell level confocal fluorescence microscopy to follow the spatial and temporal distribution of electrotransferred cyanine 5 (Cy5)-labeled LNA/DNA oligomer. We observed that EP allowed LNA/DNA oligomer cellular uptake providing the oligomer a rapid access to the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Within a few minutes after electrotransfer, Cy5-LNA/DNA oligomers shuttle from cytoplasm to nucleus whereas in absence of pulses application, Cy5-LNA/DNA oligomers were not detected. We then observed a redistribution of the Cy5 fluorescence that accumulated over time into cytoplasmic organelles. To go further and to identify these compartments, we used the HeLa GFP-Rab7 cell line to visualise late endosomes, and lysosomal or mitochondrial specific markers. Our results showed that the EP technique allowed direct entry into the cytoplasm of the Cy5-LNA/DNA oligomer bypassing the endocytosic pathway. However, in absence of pulses application, Cy5-LNA/DNA oligomer were able to enter cells through the endocytosic pathway. We demonstrated that EP is an efficient technique for LNA-based oligonucleotides delivery offering strong advantages by avoiding the endolysosomal compartmentalization, giving a rapid and free access to the cytoplasm and the nucleus where they can find their targets. PMID:23946765

  18. Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 variants elevate Abeta1-42/1-40 ratio in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Borchelt, D R; Thinakaran, G; Eckman, C B; Lee, M K; Davenport, F; Ratovitsky, T; Prada, C M; Kim, G; Seekins, S; Yager, D; Slunt, H H; Wang, R; Seeger, M; Levey, A I; Gandy, S E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Price, D L; Younkin, S G; Sisodia, S S

    1996-11-01

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar levels of wild-type PS1. Similarly, the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio is elevated in the brains of young transgenic animals coexpressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein (APP) and an FAD-linked PS1 variant compared with brains of transgenic mice expressing APP alone or transgenic mice coexpressing wild-type human PS1 and APP. These studies provide compelling support for the view that one mechanism by which these mutant PS1 cause AD is by increasing the extracellular concentration of Abeta peptides terminating at 42(43), species that foster Abeta deposition. PMID:8938131

  19. Low Molecular Weight Oligomers with Aromatic Backbone as Efficient Nonviral Gene Vectors.

    PubMed

    Luan, Chao-Ran; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Qing-Ying; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-05-01

    A series of oligomers were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization. Although the molecular weights of these oligomers are only ∼2.5 kDa, they could efficiently bind and condense DNA into nanoparticles. These oligomers gave comparable transfection efficiency (TE) to PEI 25 kDa, while their TE could even increase with the presence of serum, and up to 65 times higher TE than PEI was obtained. The excellent serum tolerance was also confirmed by TEM, flow cytometry, and BSA adsorption assay. Moreover, structure-activity relationship studies revealed some interesting factors. First, oligomers containing aromatic rings in the backbone showed better DNA binding ability. These materials could bring more DNA cargo into the cells, leading to much better TE. Second, the isomerism of the disubstituted phenyl group on the oligomer backbone has large effect on the transfection. The ortho-disubstituted ones gave at least 1 order of magnitude higher TE than meta- or para-disubstituted oligomers. Gel electrophoresis involving DNase and heparin indicated that the difficulty to release DNA might contribute to the lower TE of the latter. Such clues may help us to design novel nonviral gene vectors with high efficiency and biocompatibility. PMID:27077449

  20. Application of an Amyloid Beta Oligomer Standard in the sFIDA Assay.

    PubMed

    Kühbach, Katja; Hülsemann, Maren; Herrmann, Yvonne; Kravchenko, Kateryna; Kulawik, Andreas; Linnartz, Christina; Peters, Luriano; Wang, Kun; Willbold, Johannes; Willbold, Dieter; Bannach, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Still, there is need for significant improvements in reliable and accurate diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease (AD) at early stages. It is widely accepted that changes in the concentration and conformation of amyloid-β (Aβ) appear several years before the onset of first symptoms of cognitive impairment in AD patients. Because Aβ oligomers are possibly the major toxic species in AD, they are a promising biomarker candidate for the early diagnosis of the disease. To date, a variety of oligomer-specific assays have been developed, many of them ELISAs. Here, we demonstrate the sFIDA assay, a technology highly specific for Aβ oligomers developed toward single particle sensitivity. By spiking stabilized Aβ oligomers to buffer and to body fluids from control donors, we show that the sFIDA readout correlates with the applied concentration of stabilized oligomers diluted in buffer, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood plasma over several orders of magnitude. The lower limit of detection was calculated to be 22 fM of stabilized oligomers diluted in PBS, 18 fM in CSF, and 14 fM in blood plasma. PMID:26858588

  1. Surface-enhanced spectroscopy on plasmonic oligomers assembled by AFM nanoxerography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutet, Pierre; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Ressier, Laurence; Vilar-Vidal, Noelia; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Ravaine, Serge; Vallée, Renaud A. L.; Gabudean, Ana Maria; Astilean, Simion; Farcau, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from individual plasmonic oligomers are investigated by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy coupled to steady state micro-spectroscopy. The nanoparticle (NP) oligomers are made of either ligand protected Au or Au@SiO2 core-shell colloidal NPs, which were assembled into ordered arrays by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoxerography. A strong dependence of the SERS emission on the polarization of incident light relative to the specific geometry of the plasmonic oligomer was observed. The SEF studies, performed on a large collection of NP oligomers of various known configurations showed interesting fluorophore decay rate modification and red-shift of the emission spectra. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by employing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations on equivalent realistic structures, within the local density of optical states (LDOS) framework. The presented results, together with the proven potential of the LDOS approach as a useful common tool for analyzing both SERS and SEF effects further the general understanding of plasmon-related phenomena in nanoparticle oligomers.Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from individual plasmonic oligomers are investigated by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy coupled to steady state micro-spectroscopy. The nanoparticle (NP) oligomers are made of either ligand protected Au or Au@SiO2 core-shell colloidal NPs, which were assembled into ordered arrays by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoxerography. A strong dependence of the SERS emission on the polarization of incident light relative to the specific geometry of the plasmonic oligomer was observed. The SEF studies, performed on a large collection of NP oligomers of various known configurations showed interesting fluorophore decay rate

  2. Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaolian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Rui; Wu, Ximin; Wu, Yingchun; Huang, Caiguo; Li, Yiming

    2011-02-15

    Procyanidin oligomers in Cinnamon are thought to be responsible for the biological activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify types of procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species and investigate their different effects, the present study investigated procyanidin oligomers in polyphenolic oligomer-rich extracts of three Cinnamon samples by LC-MS methods, and their hypoglycemic activities were detected in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that two of the three samples from Cinnamomum cassia were rich in B-type procyanidin oligomers, and the other sample was rich in A-type procyanidin oligomers. The Cinnamon extracts were administered at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 14 days. The results showed that blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased in all Cinnamon extract groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). Administration of the Cinnamon extracts significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and normal HepG2 cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that both A- and B-type procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species have hypoglycemic activities and may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM. PMID:20851586

  3. Incomplete pneumolysin oligomers form membrane pores.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Gilbert, Robert J C

    2014-01-01

    Pneumolysin is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of pore-forming proteins that are produced as water-soluble monomers or dimers, bind to target membranes and oligomerize into large ring-shaped assemblies comprising approximately 40 subunits and approximately 30 nm across. This pre-pore assembly then refolds to punch a large hole in the lipid bilayer. However, in addition to forming large pores, pneumolysin and other CDCs form smaller lesions characterized by low electrical conductance. Owing to the observation of arc-like (rather than full-ring) oligomers by electron microscopy, it has been hypothesized that smaller oligomers explain smaller functional pores. To investigate whether this is the case, we performed cryo-electron tomography of pneumolysin oligomers on model lipid membranes. We then used sub-tomogram classification and averaging to determine representative membrane-bound low-resolution structures and identified pre-pores versus pores by the presence of membrane within the oligomeric curve. We found pre-pore and pore forms of both complete (ring) and incomplete (arc) oligomers and conclude that arc-shaped oligomeric assemblies of pneumolysin can form pores. As the CDCs are evolutionarily related to the membrane attack complex/perforin family of proteins, which also form variably sized pores, our findings are of relevance to that class of proteins as well. PMID:24759615

  4. Amyloid β oligomers elicit mitochondrial transport defects and fragmentation in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yanfang; Zheng, James Q

    2016-01-01

    Small oligomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) are believed to be the culprit for declined brain functions in AD in part through their impairment of neuronal trafficking and synaptic functions. However, the precise cellular actions of Aβ oligomers and underlying mechanisms in neurons remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have identified mitochondria as a major target of Aβ toxicity contributing to early cognitive decline and memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we report that Aβ oligomers acutely elicit distinct effects on the transport and integrity of mitochondria. We found that acute exposure of hippocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers from either synthetic peptides or AD brain homogenates selectively impaired fast transport of mitochondria without affecting the movement of late endosomes and lysosomes. Extended exposure of hipoocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers was found to result in mitochondrial fragmentation. While both mitochondrial effects induced by Aβ oligomers can be abolished by the inhibition of GSK3β, they appear to be independent from each other. Aβ oligomers impaired mitochondrial transport through HDAC6 activation whereas the fragmentation involved the GTPase Drp-1. These results show that Aβ oligomers can acutely disrupt mitochondrial transport and integrity in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner. These findings thus provide new insights into Aβ-induced mitochondrial defects that may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and AD pathogenesis. PMID:27535553

  5. Rad54 oligomers translocate and cross-bridge double-stranded DNA to stimulate synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Piero R.; Bradfield, Justin J.; Castanza, Lauren R.; Donnelly, Andrea N.

    2007-01-01

    Rad54 is a key component of the eukaryotic recombination machinery. Its presence in DNA strand exchange reactions in vitro results in a significant stimulation in the overall reaction rate. Using untagged Rad54, we show that this stimulation can be attributed to enhancement of the formation of a key reaction intermediate known as DNA networks. Using a novel, single DNA molecule, dual-optical tweezers approach we show how Rad54 stimulates DNA network formation. We discovered that Rad54 oligomers possess a unique ability to cross-bridge or bind dsDNA molecules positioned in close proximity. Further, Rad54 oligomers rapidly translocate dsDNA while simultaneously inducing topological loops in the DNA at the locus of the oligomer. The combination of the cross-bridging and dsDNA translocation activities of Rad54 stimulates the formation of DNA networks, leading to rapid and efficient DNA strand exchange by Rad51. PMID:17949748

  6. Temperature sensitivity trends and multi-stimuli sensitive behavior in amphiphilic oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Klaikherd, Akamol; Thayumanavan, S

    2011-08-31

    A series of oligomers, containing oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moieties, with the same composition of amphiphilic functionalities has been designed, synthesized, and characterized on the basis of their temperature-sensitive behavior. The non-covalent amphiphilic aggregates, formed from these molecules, influence their temperature sensitivity. Covalent tethering of the amphiphilic units also has a significant influence on their temperature sensitivity. The lower critical solution temperatures of these oligomers show increasingly sharp transitions with increasing numbers of OEG functional groups, indicating enhanced cooperativity in dehydration of the OEG moieties when they are covalently tethered. These molecules were also engineered to be concurrently sensitive to enzymatic reaction and pH. This possibility was investigated using porcine liver esterase as the enzyme; we show that enzymatic action on the pentamer lowers its temperature sensitivity. The product moiety from the enzymatic reaction also gives the amphiphilic oligomer a pH-dependent temperature sensitivity. PMID:21739959

  7. Synthesis and g-quadruplex-binding properties of defined acridine oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rubén; Aviñó, Anna; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gargallo, Raimundo; Eritja, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K). Log K were found to be in the order of 4-6. PMID:20725626

  8. Surface-enhanced spectroscopy on plasmonic oligomers assembled by AFM nanoxerography.

    PubMed

    Moutet, Pierre; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M; Ressier, Laurence; Vilar-Vidal, Noelia; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Ravaine, Serge; Vallée, Renaud A L; Gabudean, Ana Maria; Astilean, Simion; Farcau, Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from individual plasmonic oligomers are investigated by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy coupled to steady state micro-spectroscopy. The nanoparticle (NP) oligomers are made of either ligand protected Au or Au@SiO2 core-shell colloidal NPs, which were assembled into ordered arrays by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoxerography. A strong dependence of the SERS emission on the polarization of incident light relative to the specific geometry of the plasmonic oligomer was observed. The SEF studies, performed on a large collection of NP oligomers of various known configurations showed interesting fluorophore decay rate modification and red-shift of the emission spectra. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by employing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations on equivalent realistic structures, within the local density of optical states (LDOS) framework. The presented results, together with the proven potential of the LDOS approach as a useful common tool for analyzing both SERS and SEF effects further the general understanding of plasmon-related phenomena in nanoparticle oligomers. PMID:25553777

  9. Early vitamin E supplementation in young but not aged mice reduces Abeta levels and amyloid deposition in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, Syuan; Yao, Yuemang; Uryu, Kunihiro; Yang, Hengxuan; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Praticò, Domenico

    2004-02-01

    Increased brain oxidative stress is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and manifests predominantly as lipid peroxidation. However, clinical evidence that antioxidants can affect the clinical course of the disease is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the antioxidant Vitamin E on the AD-like phenotype when given to a transgenic mouse model (Tg2576) of the disease before or after the amyloid plaques are deposited. One group of Tg2576 received Vitamin E starting at 5 months of age until they were 13 months old, the second group started at 14 months of age until they were 20 months old. Brain levels of 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-VI, a specific marker of lipid peroxidation, were significantly reduced in both groups of mice receiving Vitamin E compared with placebo. Tg2576 administered with Vitamin E at a younger age showed a significant reduction in Abeta levels and amyloid deposition. By contrast, mice receiving the diet supplemented with Vitamin E at a later age did not show any significant difference in either marker when compared with placebo. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is an important early event in AD pathogenesis, and antioxidant therapy may be beneficial only if given at this stage of the disease process. PMID:14656990

  10. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.

  11. Oligomer functionalized nanotubes and composites formed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K; Sainsbury, Toby; Frechet, Jean M.J.

    2014-03-18

    Disclosed herein is a sequential functionalization methodology for the covalent modification of nanotubes with between one and four repeat units of a polymer. Covalent attachment of oligomer units to the surface of nanotubes results in oligomer units forming an organic sheath around the nanotubes, polymer-functionalized-nanotubes (P-NTs). P-NTs possess chemical functionality identical to that of the functionalizing polymer, and thus provide nanoscale scaffolds which may be readily dispersed within a monomer solution and participate in the polymerization reaction to form a polymer-nanotube/polymer composite. Formation of polymer in the presence of P-NTs leads to a uniform dispersion of nanotubes within the polymer matrix, in contrast to aggregated masses of nanotubes in the case of pristine-NTs. The covalent attachment of oligomeric units to the surface of nanotubes represents the formation of a functional nanoscale building block which can be readily dispersed and integrated within the polymer to form a novel composite material.

  12. Hydrolysis of GTP associated with the formation of tubulin oligomers is involved in microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, M F; Didry, D; Pantaloni, D

    1997-01-01

    Hydrolysis of GTP is known to accompany microtubule assembly. Here we show that hydrolysis of GTP is also associated with the formation of linear oligomers of tubulin, which are precursors (prenuclei) in microtubule assembly. The hydrolysis of GTP on these linear oligomers inhibits the lateral association of GTP-tubulin that leads to the formation of a bidimensional lattice. Therefore GTP hydrolysis interferes with the nucleation of microtubules. Linear oligomers are also formed in mixtures of GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin. The hydrolysis of GTP associated with heterologous interactions between GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin in the cooligomer takes place at a threefold faster rate than upon homologous interactions between GTP-tubulins. The implication of these results in a model of vectorial GTP hydrolysis in microtubule assembly is discussed. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:9199805

  13. Ethynyl terminated ester oligomers and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); hesives and composite matrices. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A new class of ethynyl-terminated oligomers and the process for preparing same are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, with or without a catalyst, the ethynyl groups react to provide crosslinking and chain extension to increase the polymer use temperature and improve the polymer solvent resistance. These improved polyesters are potentially useful in packaging, magnetic tapes, capacitors, industrial belting, protective coatings, structural adhesives and composite matrices.

  14. A Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Abeta42 and Pro-oxidative Substances Exhibits Cognitive Deficit and Alterations in Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Skurlova, Martina; Maleninska, Kristyna; Vojtechova, Iveta; Kristofikova, Zdena; Matuskova, Hana; Sirova, Jana; Vales, Karel; Ripova, Daniela; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function. Neurochemical methods included testing of the NR1/NR2A/NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex and CHT1 transporters in the hippocampus, in both cases in the right and left hemisphere separately. Our results show that Samaritan rats™ exhibit marked impairment in both the MWM and active place avoidance tasks, suggesting a deficit of spatial learning and memory. Moreover, Samaritan rats exhibited significant changes in NR2A expression and CHT1 activity compared to controls rats, mimicking the situation in patients with early stage AD. Taken together, our results corroborate the hypothesis that Samaritan rats are a promising model of AD in its early stages. PMID:27148049

  15. Formation of domain-swapped oligomer of cytochrome C from its molten globule state oligomer.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Megha Subhash; Parui, Partha Pratim; Kamikubo, Hironari; Yamanaka, Masaru; Nagao, Satoshi; Komori, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Mikio; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2014-07-22

    Many proteins, including cytochrome c (cyt c), have been shown to form domain-swapped oligomers, but the factors governing the oligomerization process remain unrevealed. We obtained oligomers of cyt c by refolding cyt c from its acid molten globule state to neutral pH state under high protein and ion concentrations. The amount of oligomeric cyt c obtained depended on the nature of the anion (chaotropic or kosmotropic) in the solution: ClO4(-) (oligomers, 11% ± 2% (heme unit)), SCN(-) (10% ± 2%), I(-) (6% ± 2%), NO3(-) (3% ± 1%), Br(-) (2% ± 1%), Cl(-) (2% ± 1%), and SO4(2-) (3% ± 1%) for refolding of 2 mM cyt c (anion concentration 125 mM). Dimeric cyt c obtained by refolding from the molten globule state exhibited a domain-swapped structure, in which the C-terminal α-helices were exchanged between protomers. According to small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, approximately 25% of the cyt c molecules were dimerized in the molten globule state containing 125 mM ClO4(-). These results indicate that a certain amount of molten globule state oligomers of cyt c convert to domain-swapped oligomers during refolding and that the intermolecular interactions necessary for domain swapping are present in the molten globule state. PMID:24981551

  16. Kinetics of ligation of fibrin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nelb, G W; Kamykowski, G W; Ferry, J D

    1980-07-10

    Human fibrinogen was treated with thrombin in the presence of fibrinoligase and calcium ion at pH 8.5, ionic strength 0.45, and the ensuring polymerization was interrupted at various time intervals (t) both before and after the clotting time (tc) by solubilization with a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Aliquots of the solubilized protein were subjected to gel electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels after disulfide reduction by dithiothreitol and on agarose gels without reduction. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was determined from the former and the size distribution of ligated oligomers, for degree of polymerization x from 1 to 10, from the latter. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was calculated independently from the size distribution with the assumption that every junction between two fibrin monomers remaining intact after solubilization is ligated, and this agreed well with the direct determination. The size distribution at t/tc = 1.3 to 1.6 differed somewhat from that calculated by the classical theory of linear polycondensation on the assumption that all reactive sites react with equal probability and rate. Analysis of the difference suggests that ligation of a fibrin digomer is not a random process; the probability of ligation of a given junction between two monomers increases with the oligomer length. The number-average degree of polymerization, xn, of ligated oligomers increases approximately linearly with time up to a value of 1.6. PMID:7391026

  17. Charge transfer interactions in oligomer coated gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Kumar, Pandian Senthil

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoclusters were synthesized by a bottom-up synergistic approach of in-situ oligomerization of the monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and simultaneous weak reduction of Au-NVP complexes in the absence of any other external energy sources, thereby making these tiny gold clusters as the most elemental building blocks to construct further novel nano/microstructures with application potentials. It is well-known that metal clusters with less than 2 nm size do not show the usual surface plasmon band, because of the presence of a band-gap at the fermi level. Nevertheless, our present oligomer coated gold clusters show a discrete intense band at around 630 nm, which could very well be attributed to the charge transfer between the oligomer chain and the surface Au atoms. Such kind of sacrificial plasmon induced charge transfer interaction, observed for the very first time to the best of our knowledge, were also strongly corroborated through the enhancement / shifting of specific vibrational / rotational peaks as observed from the FTIR and Raman measurements as a function of the metal oxidation states, thus representing a new prototype for an efficient solar energy conversion probe.

  18. Structure of amyloid oligomers and their mechanisms of toxicities: Targeting amyloid oligomers using novel therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Fatima, Munazza Tamkeen; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Nusrat, Saima; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-05-23

    Protein misfolding is one of the leading causes of amyloidoses. Protein misfolding occurs from changes in environmental conditions and host of other factors, including errors in post-translational modifications, increase in the rate of degradation, error in trafficking, loss of binding partners and oxidative damage. Misfolding gives rise to the formation of partially unfolded or misfolded intermediates, which have exposed hydrophobic residues and interact with complementary intermediates to form oligomers and consequently protofibrils and fibrils. The amyloid fibrils accumulate as amyloid deposits in the brain and central nervous system in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Prion disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Initial studies have shown that amyloid fibrils were the main culprit behind toxicity that cause neurodegenerative diseases. However, attention shifted to the cytotoxicity of amyloid fibril precursors, notably amyloid oligomers, which are the major cause of toxicity. The mechanism of toxicity triggered by amyloid oligomers remains elusive. In this review, we have focused on the current knowledge of the structures of different aggregated states, including amyloid fibril, protofibrils, annular aggregates and oligomers. Based on the studies on the mechanism of toxicities, we hypothesize two major possible mechanisms of toxicities instigated by oligomers of Aβ (amyloid beta), PrP (prion protein) (106-126), and α-Syn (alpha-synuclein) including direct formation of ion channels and neuron membrane disruption by the increase in membrane conductance or leakage in the presence of small globulomers to large prefibrillar assemblies. Finally, we have discussed various novel innovative approaches that target amyloid oligomers in Alzheimer's diseases, Prion disease and Parkinson's disease. PMID:26974374

  19. Laccase-gum Arabic conjugate for preparation of water-soluble oligomer of catechin with enhanced antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2014-05-01

    Catechin was oligomerized using free laccase and laccase-gum Arabic conjugate. The process of oligomerization was optimized with respect to solvent, ratio of solvent to buffer (0.2:10 to 1:10), pH of buffer (3-10), enzyme (575-18,400 U/mg) and substrate concentration (1-7mM). Maximum production of oligomer was observed in methanol at ratio 0.6:10 of methanol:buffer of pH 5 using 2300 U/mg of laccase and 5mM of catechin. The laccase-gum Arabic conjugate showed lower activity but higher stability than free laccase in methanol. Free laccase produced cross linked water-insoluble oligomer, whereas conjugated laccase produced linear water-soluble oligomer. The linear water-soluble oligomer showed higher antioxidant activity, as determined by the DPPH assay, and reducing power as compared to monomer making it suitable for biological applications. The molecular weight of the linear oligomer was found to be 13.14kDa, which suggested it to be composed of 45 monomer units. Further characterizations of linear and cross linked oligomer were done using FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:24360412

  20. Structural studies on HCN oligomers. [catalysts for prebiotic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Edelson, E. H.; Auyeung, J. M.; Joshi, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    NMR spectral studies on the HCN oligomers suggest the presence of carboxamide and urea groupings. The release of CO2, H2O, HCN, CH3CN, HCONH2 and pyridine on pyrolysis is consistent with the presence of these groupings as well as carboxylic acid groups. No basic primary amine groupings could be detected with fluorescamine. Hydrazinolysis of the HCN oligomers releases 10% of the amino acids normally released by acid hydrolysis. The oligomers give a positive biuret test but this is not due to the presence of peptide bonds. There is no conclusive evidence for the presence of peptide bonds in the HCN oligomers. No diglycine was detected on partial hydrolysis of the HCN oligomers at pH 8.5 suggesting that HCN oligomers were not a source of prebiotic peptides.

  1. A covalent homodimer probing early oligomers along amyloid aggregation.

    PubMed

    Halabelian, Levon; Relini, Annalisa; Barbiroli, Alberto; Penco, Amanda; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Early oligomers are crucial in amyloid aggregation; however, due to their transient nature they are among the least structurally characterized species. We focused on the amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin (β2m) whose early oligomers are still a matter of debate. An intermolecular interaction between D strands of facing β2m molecules was repeatedly observed, suggesting that such interface may be relevant for β2m dimerization. In this study, by mutating Ser33 to Cys, and assembling the disulphide-stabilized β2m homodimer (DimC33), such DD strand interface was locked. Although the isolated DimC33 display a stability similar to wt β2m under native conditions, it shows enhanced amyloid aggregation propensity. Three distinct crystal structures of DimC33 suggest that dimerization through the DD interface is instrumental for enhancing DimC33 aggregation propensity. Furthermore, the crystal structure of DimC33 in complex with the amyloid-specific dye Thioflavin-T pinpoints a second interface, which likely participates in the first steps of β2m aggregation. The present data provide new insight into β2m early steps of amyloid aggregation. PMID:26420657

  2. A covalent homodimer probing early oligomers along amyloid aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Halabelian, Levon; Relini, Annalisa; Barbiroli, Alberto; Penco, Amanda; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Early oligomers are crucial in amyloid aggregation; however, due to their transient nature they are among the least structurally characterized species. We focused on the amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin (β2m) whose early oligomers are still a matter of debate. An intermolecular interaction between D strands of facing β2m molecules was repeatedly observed, suggesting that such interface may be relevant for β2m dimerization. In this study, by mutating Ser33 to Cys, and assembling the disulphide-stabilized β2m homodimer (DimC33), such DD strand interface was locked. Although the isolated DimC33 display a stability similar to wt β2m under native conditions, it shows enhanced amyloid aggregation propensity. Three distinct crystal structures of DimC33 suggest that dimerization through the DD interface is instrumental for enhancing DimC33 aggregation propensity. Furthermore, the crystal structure of DimC33 in complex with the amyloid-specific dye Thioflavin-T pinpoints a second interface, which likely participates in the first steps of β2m aggregation. The present data provide new insight into β2m early steps of amyloid aggregation. PMID:26420657

  3. DNA sequence similarity recognition by hybridization to short oligomers

    DOEpatents

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for the comparison of nucleic acid sequences. Data is generated by hybridizing sets of oligomers with target nucleic acids. The data thus generated is manipulated simultaneously with respect to both (i) matching between oligomers and (ii) matching between oligomers and putative reference sequences available in databases. Using data compression methods to manipulate this mutual information, sequences for the target can be constructed.

  4. Diverse mechanisms of antidiabetic effects of the different procyanidin oligomer types of two different cinnamon species on db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Peng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Heyao; Li, Yiming

    2012-09-12

    The procyanidin oligomers are thought to be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of cinnamon. To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of different procyanidin oligomer types, the procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts were prepared from two different cinnamon species. Using high-performance liquid chromatography with purified procyanidin oligomers as reference compounds, we found that the Cinnamomum cassia extract (CC-E) and Cinnamomum tamala extract (CT-E) were rich in B- and A-type procyanidin oligomers, respectively. In the experiment, 8-week-old diabetic (db/db) mice were gavaged with CC-E and CT-E (both 200 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Both CC-E and CT-E exhibited antidiabetic effects. Moreover, histopathological studies of the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue showed that CC-E promoted lipid accumulation in the adipose tissue and liver, whereas CT-E mainly improved the insulin concentration in the blood and pancreas. PMID:22920511

  5. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  6. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID:26510576

  7. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal.

  8. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J; Chang, Philip K-Y; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W; McKinney, R Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically "trapping" low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID:26510576

  9. Anharmonic Vibrational Dynamics of DNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, O.; Došlić, N.; Krishnan, G. M.; Fidder, H.; Heyne, K.

    Combining two-color infared pump-probe spectroscopy and anharmonic force field calculations we characterize the anharmonic coupling patterns between fingerprint modes and the hydrogen-bonded symmetric vNH2 stretching vibration in adenine-thymine dA20-dT20 DNA oligomers. Specifically, it is shown that the anharmonic coupling between the δNH2 bending and the vC4=O4 stretching vibration, both absorbing around 1665 cm-1, can be used to assign the vNH2 fundamental transition at 3215 cm-1 despite the broad background absorption of water.

  10. Mx oligomer: a novel capsid pattern sensor?

    PubMed

    Kong, Jia; Ma, Min; He, Shuangyi; Qin, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Myxovirus resistance proteins represent a family of interferon-induced restriction factors of the innate and adaptive immune system. Human MxB acts as a novel restriction factor with antiviral activity against a range of HIV-1 and other retroviruses mainly by inhibiting the uncoating process after reverse transcription but prior to integration. Based on published data and conservation analysis, we propose a novel hypothesis, in which MxB dimers form higher order oligomers that restrict retroviral replication by binding to the viral capsid. Insights into the mechanistic basis of structural and functional characteristics of MxB will greatly advance our understanding of MxB. PMID:27492442

  11. Methyl-esterified 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers protect bacteria from hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne J; Kajula, Marena; Hokkanen, Juho; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Kim, Jong H; Hautajärvi, Heidi; Hankala, Elina; Suokas, Marko; Pohjanen, Johanna; Podolich, Olga; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Turpeinen, Ari; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Mattila, Sampo; Campbell, Bruce C; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria rely mainly on enzymes, glutathione and other low-molecular weight thiols to overcome oxidative stress. However, hydroxyl radicals are the most cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, and no known enzymatic system exists for their detoxification. We now show that methyl-esterified dimers and trimers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (ME-3HB), produced by bacteria capable of polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis, have 3-fold greater hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity than glutathione and 11-fold higher activity than vitamin C or the monomer 3-hydroxybutyric acid. We found that ME-3HB oligomers protect hypersensitive yeast deletion mutants lacking oxidative stress-response genes from hydroxyl radical stress. Our results show that phaC and phaZ, encoding polymerase and depolymerase, respectively, are activated and polyhydroxybutyrate reserves are degraded for production of ME-3HB oligomers in bacteria infecting plant cells and exposed to hydroxyl radical stress. We found that ME-3HB oligomer production is widespread, especially in bacteria adapted to stressful environments. We discuss how ME-3HB oligomers could provide opportunities for numerous applications in human health. PMID:26974813

  12. Aqueous-phase oligomerization of methyl vinyl ketone through photooxidation - Part 1: Aging processes of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Siekmann, F.; Salque, G.; Demelas, C.; Coulomb, B.; Vassalo, L.; Ravier, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Voisin, D.; Monod, A.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been established that unsaturated water-soluble organic compounds (UWSOCs) might efficiently form oligomers in polluted fogs and wet aerosol particles, even for weakly soluble ones like methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The atmospheric relevance of these processes is explored by means of multiphase process model studies in a companion paper. In the present study, we investigate the aging of these aqueous-phase MVK oligomers formed via •OH oxidation, as well as their ability to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) upon water evaporation. The comparison between aqueous-phase composition and aerosol composition after nebulization of the corresponding solutions shows similar trends for oligomer formation and aging. The measurements reveal that oligomer aging leads to the formation of organic diacids. Quantification of the SOA mass formed after nebulization is performed, and the obtained SOA mass yields seem to depend on the spectral irradiance of the light used to initiate the photochemistry. Investigating a large range of initial MVK concentrations (0.2-20 mM), the results show that their •OH oxidation undergoes competition between functionalization and oligomerization that is dependent on the precursor concentration. At high initial MVK concentrations (≥ 2 mM), oligomerization prevails over functionalization, while at lower initial concentrations, oligomerization is not the major process, and functionalization dominates, resulting in small carbonyls, dicarbonyls and monoacids. The atmospheric implications of these processes are discussed.

  13. Liquid Crystal Ordering of Random DNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Tommaso; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Fraccia, Tommaso; Cerbino, Roberto; Tsai, Ethan; Moran, Mark; Smith, Gregory; Walba, David; Clark, Noel

    2012-02-01

    Concentrated solutions of DNA oligomers (6 to 20 base pairs) organize into chiral nematic (NEM) and columnar (COL) liquid crystal (LC) phases. When the oligomer duplexes are mixed with single strands, LC phase formation proceeds through macroscopic phase separation, as a consequence of the combination of various self-assembly processes including strand pairing, reversible linear aggregation, demixing and LC ordering. We extended our investigation to the case of LC ordering in oligonucleotides whose sequences are partially or entirely randomly chosen, and we observed LC phases even in entirely random 20mers, corresponding to a family of 4^20 10^12 different sequences. We have tracked the origin of this behaviour: random sequences pair into generally defected duplexes, a large fraction of them terminating with stretches of unpaired bases (overhangs); overhangs promote linear aggregation of duplexes, with a mean strength depending on the overhang length; LC formation is accompanied by a phase separation where the duplexes with longer overhangs aggregate to form COL LC domains that coexist with an isotropic fluid rich in duplexes whose structure cannot aggregate.

  14. Cooperative Switching in Nanofibers of Azobenzene Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christopher; Liebig, Tobias; Gensler, Manuel; Zykov, Anton; Pithan, Linus; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David; Kowarik, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation molecular devices and machines demand the integration of molecular switches into hierarchical assemblies to amplify the response of the system from the molecular level to the meso- or macro-scale. Here, we demonstrate that multi-azobenzene oligomers can assemble to form robust supramolecular nanofibers in which they can be switched repeatedly between the E- and Z-configuration. While in isolated oligomers the azobenzene units undergo reversible photoisomerization independently, in the nanofibers they are coupled via intermolecular interactions and switch cooperatively as evidenced by unusual thermal and kinetic behavior. We find that the photoisomerization rate from the Z-isomer to the E-isomer depends on the fraction of Z-azobenzene in the nanofibers, and is increased by more than a factor of 4 in Z-rich fibers when compared to E-rich fibers. This demonstrates the great potential of coupling individual photochromic units for increasing their quantum efficiency in the solid state with potential relevance for actuation and sensing.

  15. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  16. Cooperative Switching in Nanofibers of Azobenzene Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher; Liebig, Tobias; Gensler, Manuel; Zykov, Anton; Pithan, Linus; Rabe, Jürgen P; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David; Kowarik, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation molecular devices and machines demand the integration of molecular switches into hierarchical assemblies to amplify the response of the system from the molecular level to the meso- or macro-scale. Here, we demonstrate that multi-azobenzene oligomers can assemble to form robust supramolecular nanofibers in which they can be switched repeatedly between the E- and Z-configuration. While in isolated oligomers the azobenzene units undergo reversible photoisomerization independently, in the nanofibers they are coupled via intermolecular interactions and switch cooperatively as evidenced by unusual thermal and kinetic behavior. We find that the photoisomerization rate from the Z-isomer to the E-isomer depends on the fraction of Z-azobenzene in the nanofibers, and is increased by more than a factor of 4 in Z-rich fibers when compared to E-rich fibers. This demonstrates the great potential of coupling individual photochromic units for increasing their quantum efficiency in the solid state with potential relevance for actuation and sensing. PMID:27161608

  17. Cooperative Switching in Nanofibers of Azobenzene Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christopher; Liebig, Tobias; Gensler, Manuel; Zykov, Anton; Pithan, Linus; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David; Kowarik, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation molecular devices and machines demand the integration of molecular switches into hierarchical assemblies to amplify the response of the system from the molecular level to the meso- or macro-scale. Here, we demonstrate that multi-azobenzene oligomers can assemble to form robust supramolecular nanofibers in which they can be switched repeatedly between the E- and Z-configuration. While in isolated oligomers the azobenzene units undergo reversible photoisomerization independently, in the nanofibers they are coupled via intermolecular interactions and switch cooperatively as evidenced by unusual thermal and kinetic behavior. We find that the photoisomerization rate from the Z-isomer to the E-isomer depends on the fraction of Z-azobenzene in the nanofibers, and is increased by more than a factor of 4 in Z-rich fibers when compared to E-rich fibers. This demonstrates the great potential of coupling individual photochromic units for increasing their quantum efficiency in the solid state with potential relevance for actuation and sensing. PMID:27161608

  18. Hybrid conjugated organic oligomers consisting of oligodiacetylene and thiophene units: synthesis and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Pilzak, Gregor S; van Gruijthuijsen, Kitty; van Doorn, Reindert H; van Lagen, Barend; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Zuilhof, Han

    2009-09-14

    Novel and highly soluble hybrid conjugated organic oligomers consisting of oligodiacetylene and thiophene units have been synthesized in high purity through iterative and divergent approaches based on a sequence of Sonogashira reactions. The series of thiophene-containing oligodiacetylenes (ThODAs) and homocoupled ThODAs (HThODAs) show--both in solution and in the solid state--a strong optical absorption, which is progressively red shifted with increasing chain length. The linear correlation of the absorption maximum (lambda(A)(max)) with the inverse of conjugation length (CL = number of double and triple bonds) shows that the effective conjugation length of this system is extended up to at least CL = 20. Furthermore, absorption measurements of dropcast thin films display not only a bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima but also a higher wavelength absorption, which is attributed to increased pi-pi interactions. The wavelength of the maximum fluorescence emission (lambda(E)(max)) also increases with CL, and emission is maximal for oligomers with CL=7-12 (fluorescence quantum yield Phi(F) = approximately 0.2). Both longer and shorter oligomers display marginal emission. The calculated Stokes shifts of these planar materials are relatively large (0.4 eV) for all oligomers, and likely due to excitation to the S(2) state, thus suggesting that the presence of enyne moieties dominates the ordering of the lowest excited states. The fluorescence lifetimes (tau(F)) are short (tau(F,max) = <1 ns) and closely follow the tendency obtained for the fluorescence quantum yield. The anisotropy lifetimes show a near-linear increase with CL, in line with highly rigid oligomers. PMID:19637259

  19. Amyloid β peptide oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Texidó, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Alberdi, Elena; Solsona, Carles; Matute, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers accumulate in the brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients and are related to disease pathogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which Aβ oligomers cause neurotoxicity remain unknown. We recently reported that Aβ oligomers cause intracellular Ca(2+) overload and neuronal death that can be prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. This study investigated whether Aβ oligomers directly activated NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B receptors that were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Indeed, Aβ oligomers induced inward non-desensitizing currents that were blocked in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonists memantine, APV, and MK-801. Intriguingly, the amplitude of the responses to Aβ oligomers was greater for NR1/NR2A heteromers than for NR1/NR2B heteromers expressed in oocytes. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) induced by Aβ oligomers in cortical neurons is prevented by AP5, a broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist, but slightly attenuated by ifenprodil which blocks receptors with the NR2B subunit. Together, these results indicate that Aβ oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors, particularly those with the NR2A subunit, and further suggest that drugs that attenuate the activity of such receptors may prevent Aβ damage to neurons in Alzheimeŕs disease. PMID:21349580

  20. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  1. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Samuel A.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Marsh, E. Neil. G.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling 1H-1H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using 1H-1H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time 1H-1H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5-15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils.

  2. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Samuel A; Brender, Jeffrey R; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Marsh, E Neil G; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling (1)H-(1)H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time (1)H-(1)H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5-15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils. PMID:26138908

  3. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification

    PubMed Central

    Kotler, Samuel A.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Marsh, E. Neil. G.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling 1H-1H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using 1H-1H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time 1H-1H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5–15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils. PMID:26138908

  4. Cytotoxic Helix-Rich Oligomer Formation by Melittin and Pancreatic Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep K.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Tewari, Debanjan; Mohite, Ganesh M.; Carvalho, Edmund; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sahay, Shruti; Banerjee, Rinti; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP) and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson’s associated α-synuclein (AS) oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin) instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail. PMID:25803428

  5. The Volumetric Diversity of Misfolded Prion Protein Oligomers Revealed by Pressure Dissociation*

    PubMed Central

    Torrent, Joan; Lange, Reinhard; Rezaei, Human

    2015-01-01

    Protein oligomerization has been associated with a wide range of diseases. High pressure approaches offer a powerful tool for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms by revealing volume changes associated with the misfolding and assembly reactions. We applied high pressure to induce conformational changes in three distinct β-sheet-rich oligomers of the prion protein PrP, a protein characterized by a variety of infectious quaternary structures that can propagate stably and faithfully and cause diseases with specific phenotypic traits. We show that pressure induces dissociation of the oligomers and leads to a lower volume monomeric PrP state that refolds into the native conformation after pressure release. By measuring the different pressure and temperature sensitivity of the tested PrP oligomers, we demonstrate significantly different void volumes in their quaternary structure. In addition, by focusing on the kinetic and energetic behavior of the pressure-induced dissociation of one specific PrP oligomer, we reveal a large negative activation volume and an increase in both apparent activation enthalpy and entropy. This suggests a transition state ensemble that is less structured and significantly more hydrated than the oligomeric state. Finally, we found that site-specific fluorescent labeling allows monitoring of the transient population of a kinetic intermediate in the dissociation reaction. Our results indicate that defects in atomic packing may deserve consideration as a new factor that influences differences between PrP assemblies and that could be relevant also for explaining the origin of prion strains. PMID:26126829

  6. Optimization of the All-D Peptide D3 for Aβ Oligomer Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Antonia Nicole; Ziehm, Tamar; Tusche, Markus; Buitenhuis, Johan; Bartnik, Dirk; Boeddrich, Annett; Wiglenda, Thomas; Wanker, Erich; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Brener, Oleksandr; Gremer, Lothar; Kutzsche, Janine; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is postulated to be the crucial event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, small neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are considered to be responsible for the development and progression of AD. Therefore, elimination of thesis oligomers represents a potential causal therapy of AD. Starting from the well-characterized d-enantiomeric peptide D3, we identified D3 derivatives that bind monomeric Aβ. The underlying hypothesis is that ligands bind monomeric Aβ and stabilize these species within the various equilibria with Aβ assemblies, leading ultimately to the elimination of Aβ oligomers. One of the hereby identified d-peptides, DB3, and a head-to-tail tandem of DB3, DB3DB3, were studied in detail. Both peptides were found to: (i) inhibit the formation of Thioflavin T-positive fibrils; (ii) bind to Aβ monomers with micromolar affinities; (iii) eliminate Aβ oligomers; (iv) reduce Aβ-induced cytotoxicity; and (v) disassemble preformed Aβ aggregates. The beneficial effects of DB3 were improved by DB3DB3, which showed highly enhanced efficacy. Our approach yielded Aβ monomer-stabilizing ligands that can be investigated as a suitable therapeutic strategy against AD. PMID:27105346

  7. Atomic View of a Toxic Amyloid Small Oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Park, Jiyong; Zhao, Minglei; Pensalfini, Anna; Soriaga, Angela B.; Landau, Meytal; Teng, Poh K.; Cascio, Duilio; Glabe, Charles; Eisenberg, David

    2012-04-30

    Amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and the prion conditions, are each associated with a particular protein in fibrillar form. These amyloid fibrils were long suspected to be the disease agents, but evidence suggests that smaller, often transient and polymorphic oligomers are the toxic entities. Here, we identify a segment of the amyloid-forming protein {alpha}{beta} crystallin, which forms an oligomeric complex exhibiting properties of other amyloid oligomers: {beta}-sheet-rich structure, cytotoxicity, and recognition by an oligomer-specific antibody. The x-ray-derived atomic structure of the oligomer reveals a cylindrical barrel, formed from six antiparallel protein strands, that we term a cylindrin. The cylindrin structure is compatible with a sequence segment from the {beta}-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease. Cylindrins offer models for the hitherto elusive structures of amyloid oligomers.

  8. Vibronic line shapes of PTCDA oligomers in helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Roden, Jan; Eisfeld, Alexander; Dvořák, Matthieu; Bünermann, Oliver; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Oligomers of the organic semiconductor 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride, C(24)H(8)O(6) (PTCDA) are studied by means of helium nanodroplet isolation spectroscopy. In contrast to the monomer absorption spectrum, which exhibits clearly separated, very sharp absorption lines, it is found that the oligomer spectrum consists of three main peaks having an apparent width orders of magnitude larger than the width of the monomer lines. Using a simple theoretical model for the oligomer, in which a Frenkel exciton couples to internal vibrational modes of the monomers, these experimental findings are nicely reproduced. The three peaks present in the oligomer spectrum can already be obtained taking only one effective vibrational mode of the PTCDA molecule into account. The inclusion of more vibrational modes leads to quasicontinuous spectra, resembling the broad oligomer spectra. PMID:21303160

  9. Mitigation of copper toxicity by DNA oligomers in green paramecia.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Hiroshi; Comparini, Diego; Iwase, Junichiro; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Impact of transition metals which catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. Similarly in green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), an aquatic protozoan species harboring symbiotic green algae in the cytoplasm, toxicities of various metallic ions have been documented. We have recently examined the effects of double-stranded GC-rich DNA fragments with copper-binding nature and ROS removal catalytic activity as novel plant cell-protecting agents, using the suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Here, we show that above DNA oligomers protect the cells of green paramecia from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in tobacco cells is not limited only within higher plants but it could be universally observable in wider range of organisms. PMID:26418558

  10. Mitigation of copper toxicity by DNA oligomers in green paramecia

    PubMed Central

    Takaichi, Hiroshi; Comparini, Diego; Iwase, Junichiro; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Impact of transition metals which catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. Similarly in green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), an aquatic protozoan species harboring symbiotic green algae in the cytoplasm, toxicities of various metallic ions have been documented. We have recently examined the effects of double-stranded GC-rich DNA fragments with copper-binding nature and ROS removal catalytic activity as novel plant cell-protecting agents, using the suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Here, we show that above DNA oligomers protect the cells of green paramecia from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in tobacco cells is not limited only within higher plants but it could be universally observable in wider range of organisms. PMID:26418558

  11. First-principles simulations of thiophene oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherlis, Damian; Marzari, Nicola

    2003-03-01

    Conducting polymers, extensively investigated for their use in electronic and nanotechnology applications, have recently gained prominence for their possible use as molecular actuators in mechanical and bioengineering devices. We have focused our efforts on thiophene-based compounds, a class of materials that can be designed for high stress generation and large linear displacement (actuation strain), ideally outperforming mammalian muscle. Key features for the development of these materials are the microscopic binding properties of thiophene and thiophene oligomers stacks, where applied electric fields lead to oxidation and enhanced pi-pi bonding. We have completed the structural studies of neutral and charged oligothiophene dimers, in the search for efficient dimerization mechanisms. A comparison between different density-functional and quantum-chemistry approaches is critically presented, as are solvation effects, described in this work with a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics and a QM/MM approach for the solvating medium.

  12. Transthyretin as both Sensor and Scavenger of Aβ Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis T.; Joshi, Gururaj; Cho, Patricia Y.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric transport protein, assembled from monomers that each contains two four-stranded β-sheets and a short α-helix and loop. In the tetramer, the ‘inner’ β-sheet forms a hydrophobic pocket while the helix and loop are solvent-exposed. Beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates bind to TTR, and the binding is significantly reduced in mutants L82A (on the loop) and L110A (on the inner β-sheet). Protection against Aβ toxicity was demonstrated for wild-type TTR but not L82A or L110A, providing a direct link between TTR-Aβ binding, and TTR-mediated cytoprotection. Protection is afforded at substoichiometric (1:100) TTR:Aβ molar ratios, and binding of Aβ to TTR is highest for partially aggregated materials and decreased for freshly-prepared or heavily aggregated Aβ, suggesting that TTR binds selectively to soluble toxic Aβ aggregates. A novel technique, nanoparticle tracking, is used to show that TTR arrests Aβ aggregation by both preventing formation of new aggregates and inhibiting growth of existing aggregates. TTR tetramers are normally quite stable; tetrameric structure is necessary for the protein’s transport functions, and mutations that decrease tetramer stability have been linked to TTR amyloid diseases. However, TTR monomers bind more Aβ than do tetramers, presumably because the hydrophobic ‘inner’ sheet is solvent-exposed upon tetramer disassembly. Wild-type and L110A tetramers, but not L82A, were destabilized when co-incubated with Aβ, suggesting that Aβ binding to L82 triggers tetramer dissociation. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of action for TTR: the EF helix/loop ‘senses’ the presence of soluble toxic Aβ oligomers, triggering destabilization of TTR tetramers and exposure of the hydrophobic inner sheet, which then ‘scavenges’ these toxic oligomers and prevents them from causing cell death PMID:23570378

  13. Effect of Oligomer Length on Photophysical Properties of Platinum Acetylide Donor-Acceptor-Donor Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Cekli, Seda; Winkel, Russell W; Schanze, Kirk S

    2016-07-21

    We report a systematic study that explores how the triplet excited state is influenced by conjugation length in a series of benzothiadiazole units containing donor-acceptor-donor (DAD)-type platinum acetylide oligomers and polymer. The singlet and triplet excited states for the series were characterized by an array of photophysical methods including steady-state luminescence spectroscopy and femtosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In addition to the experimental work, a computational study using density functional theory was conducted to gain more information about the structure, composition, and energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. It is observed that both the singlet and triplet excited states are mainly localized on a single donor-acceptor-donor unit in the oligomers. Interestingly, it is discovered that the intersystem crossing efficiency increases dramatically in the longer oligomers. The effect is attributed to an enhanced contribution of the heavy metal platinum in the frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO), an effect that leads to enhanced spin-orbit coupling. PMID:27291712

  14. The nonconserved hydrophilic loop domain of presenilin (PS) is not required for PS endoproteolysis or enhanced abeta 42 production mediated by familial early onset Alzheimer's disease-linked PS variants.

    PubMed

    Saura, C A; Tomita, T; Soriano, S; Takahashi, M; Leem, J Y; Honda, T; Koo, E H; Iwatsubo, T; Thinakaran, G

    2000-06-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are polytopic membrane proteins that are mutated in the majority of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) cases. Two lines of evidence establish a critical role for PS in the production of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta). FAD-linked PS mutations elevate the levels of highly amyloidogenic Abeta ending at residue 42 (Abeta42), and cells with ablated PS1 alleles secrete low levels of Abeta. Several recent reports have shown that the hydrophilic loop (HL) domain, located between transmembrane domains 6 and 7, contains sites for phosphorylation, caspase cleavage, and sequences that bind several PS-interacting proteins. In the present report, we examined the metabolism of PS polypeptides lacking the HL domain and the influence of these molecules on Abeta production. We report that the deletion of the HL domain does not have a deleterious effect on the regulated endoproteolysis of PS, saturable accumulation of PS fragments, or the self-association of PS fragments. Abeta production was not significantly altered in cells expressing HL-deleted PS polypeptides compared with cells expressing full-length PS. Importantly, deletion of the HL domain did not affect FAD mutation-mediated elevation in the production of Abeta42. Furthermore, the deletion of the HL domain did not impair the role of PS1 or PS2 in facilitating Notch processing. Thus, our results argue against a biologically or pathologically relevant role for the HL domain phosphorylation and caspase cleavage and the association of PS HL domain-interacting proteins, in amyloid precursor protein metabolism and Abeta production or Notch cleavage. PMID:10748144

  15. A Versatile and Scalable Strategy to Discrete Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Lee, Sang-Ho; Abdilla, Allison; Nothling, Mitchell D; Ren, Jing M; Knight, Abigail S; Fleischmann, Carolin; Li, Youli; Abrams, Austin S; Schmidt, Bernhard V K J; Hawker, Michael C; Connal, Luke A; McGrath, Alaina J; Clark, Paul G; Gutekunst, Will R; Hawker, Craig J

    2016-05-18

    A versatile strategy is reported for the multigram synthesis of discrete oligomers from commercially available monomer families, e.g., acrylates, styrenics, and siloxanes. Central to this strategy is the identification of reproducible procedures for the separation of oligomer mixtures using automated flash chromatography systems with the effectiveness of this approach demonstrated through the multigram preparation of discrete oligomer libraries (Đ = 1.0). Synthetic availability, coupled with accurate structural control, allows these functional building blocks to be harnessed for both fundamental studies as well as targeted technological applications. PMID:27152711

  16. Esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibit adhesion and migration of U87 glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Kovacic, Hervé; Ghedira, Kamel; Chebil, Latifa; Ghoul, Mohamed; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Luis, José

    2016-03-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic substances to prevent cancer formation or cancer progress. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor activity of esculin and its oligomer fractions in U87 glioblastoma cells. We showed that esculin and its oligomers reduced U87 cell growth in a dose dependent manner. They also inhibited cell adhesion to collagen IV and vitronectin by interfering with the function of their respective receptors α2β1 and αvβ5 integrins. Furthermore, the tested samples were able to reduce migration of U87 cells towards another extracellular matrix fibronectin. Moreover, esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibited in vitro angiogenesis of endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In summary, our data provide the first evidence that esculin and its oligomer fractions are able to reduce adhesion, migration of glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis. Esculin and its oligomers may thus exert multi-target functions against cancer cells. PMID:26459313

  17. Selective amyloid β oligomer assay based on abasic site-containing molecular beacon and enzyme-free amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Ya; Lu, Linlin; Feng, Chongchong; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are highly toxic species in the process of Aβ aggregation and are regarded as potent therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, a label-free molecular beacon (MB) system integrated with enzyme-free amplification strategy was developed for simple and highly selective assay of Aβ oligomers. The MB system was constructed with abasic site (AP site)-containing stem-loop DNA and a fluorescent ligand 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphyridine (ATMND), of which the fluorescence was quenched upon binding to the AP site in DNA stem. Enzyme-free amplification was realized by target-triggered continuous opening of two delicately designed MBs (MB1 and MB2). Target DNA hybridization with MB1 and then MB2 resulted in the release of two ATMND molecules in one binding event. Subsequent target recycling could greatly amplify the detection sensitivity due to the greatly enhanced turn-on emission of ATMND fluorescence. Combining with Aβ oligomers aptamers, the strategy was applied to analyze Aβ oligomers and the results showed that it could quantify Aβ oligomers with high selectivity and monitor the Aβ aggregation process. This novel method may be conducive to improve the diagnosis and pathogenic study of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26613510

  18. Investigation of intermolecular interactions between single walled nanotubes and conjugated oligomers using the dispersion-corrected DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, Jolanta B.; Aljohani, Suad; Khan, M. Zahidul H.; Zhao, Yuming

    The area of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polymer composites has been progressing rapidly in recent years. Pure CNT and CNT-polymer composites have many useful (industry related) properties: ranging from electronic electrical conductivity to superior strength. However the full potential of using CNTs as reinforcements (in say a polymer matrix) has been severely limited because of complications associated with the dispersion of CNTs. CNTs tend to entangle with each other forming materials that have properties that fall short of the expectations. The goal of this work is to identify the type of conjugated oligomers that are best suited for the dispersion of single walled CNT (SWCNT). For this purpose, various methods of dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D, /WB97XD, /CAM-B3LYP) have been used to investigate the interaction between the SWCNT and the organic conjugated oligomers with different end groups (aldehyde (ALD) and dithiafulvenyl (DTF)). We investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions on the structure, polarity and energetics of the oligomers and SWCNT combinations. The comparison of results obtained using different DFT approximations is made. Our results show that DFT-endcapped oligomer interact more strongly with CNT than ALD-endcapped oligomer. The financial support from NSERC, SACBC and Memorial University and the computational resources from Compute Canada were received.

  19. In vivo modification of Abeta plaque toxicity as a novel neuroprotective lithium-mediated therapy for Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau, progressive synaptic alterations, axonal dystrophies, neuronal loss and the deterioration of cognitive capabilities of patients. However, no effective disease-modifying treatment has been yet developed. In this work we have evaluated whether chronic lithium treatment could ameliorate the neuropathology evolution of our well characterized PS1M146LxAPPSwe-London mice model. Results Though beneficial effects of lithium have been previously described in different AD models, here we report a novel in vivo action of this compound that efficiently ameliorated AD-like pathology progression and rescued memory impairments by reducing the toxicity of Abeta plaques. Transgenic PS1M146LxAPPSwe-London mice, treated before the pathology onset, developed smaller plaques characterized by higher Abeta compaction, reduced oligomeric-positive halo and therefore with attenuated capacity to induce neuronal damage. Importantly, neuronal loss in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex was fully prevented. Our data also demonstrated that the axonal dystrophic area associated with lithium-modified plaques was highly reduced. Moreover, a significant lower accumulation of phospho-tau, LC3-II and ubiquitinated proteins was detected in treated mice. Our study highlights that this switch of plaque quality by lithium could be mediated by astrocyte activation and the release of heat shock proteins, which concentrate in the core of the plaques. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the pharmacological in vivo modulation of the extracellular Abeta plaque compaction/toxicity is indeed possible and, in addition, might constitute a novel promising and innovative approach to develop a disease-modifying therapeutic intervention against AD. PMID:24252759

  20. Effects of increased iron intake during the neonatal period on the brain of adult AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Liana Lisboa; Carmona, Marga; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Naudi, Alba; Pamplona, Reinald; Schröder, Nadja; Ferrer, Isidro

    2010-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate neuropathological changes in AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice (Tg), as a model of Alzheimer's disease, subjected to supplementary iron administration in a critical postnatal period, in order to reveal the interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Twelve Tg and 10 wild-type (Wt) littermates were administered iron between the 12th and 14th post-natal days (TgFe, WtFe); 11 Tg and 15 Wt received vehicle (sorbitol 5%) alone in the same period (TgSb, WtSb). Mice were killed at the age of six months and processed for morphological and biochemical studies. No modifications in amyloid-beta burden were seen in iron-treated and non-iron-treated AbetaPP/PS1 mice. No differences in microglial reactions were observed when comparing the four groups of mice. Yet increased astrocytosis, as revealed by densitometry of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes, and increased expression levels of GFAP, as revealed by gel electrophoresis and western blotting, were found in iron-treated mice (both Tg and Wt) when compared with TgSb and WtSb. This was accompanied by significant changes in brain fatty acid composition in AbetaPP/PS1 mice that led to a lower membrane peroxidizability index and to reduced protein oxidative damage, as revealed by reduced percentages of the oxidative stress markers: glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, Nepsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine, Nepsilon-carboxyethyl-lysine, and Nepsilon-malondialdehyde-lysine. These findings demonstrate that transient dietary iron supplementation during the neonatal period is associated with cellular and metabolic imprinting in the brain in adult life, but it does not interfere with the appearance of amyloid plaques in AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice. PMID:20157260

  1. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups

    PubMed Central

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F. X.; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. PMID:26671725

  2. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. PMID:26671725

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of novel bifunctional oligomer-based composites for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Chung, Il-Doo; Wang, Guigui; Mays, Jimmy

    2006-01-01

    Five novel bifunctional oligomers containing both carboxylic acid and methacrylate groups are synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate compomers by mixing with strontium fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder at a filler level of 75% (by weight). Compressive strength (CS) of the cements and viscosity of the resin liquids are used as screening tools to find the optimal formulation. Diametral tensile (DTS) and flexural strengths (FS) are also determined. Results show that the oligomers derivatized with glycerol dimethacrylate exhibit higher CS than those with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The CS increases with increasing diluent content, filler level, and light-exposure time. During aging, the cement shows an increase of strength over 24 h and then remains unaltered for up to 3 months. The experimental compomer is 45 and 69% higher in CS, 35 and 174% higher in DTS, and 39 and 170% higher in FS, respectively, as compared to Dyract and Fuji II LC. PMID:16364963

  4. Biomimetic peptoid oligomers as dual-action antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mia L; Ehre, David; Jiang, Qi; Hu, Chunhua; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Ward, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    The ability of natural peptides and proteins to influence the formation of inorganic crystalline materials has prompted the design of synthetic compounds for the regulation of crystal growth, including the freezing of water and growth of ice crystals. Despite their versatility and ease of structural modification, peptidomimetic oligomers have not yet been explored extensively as crystallization modulators. This report describes a library of synthetic N-substituted glycine peptoid oligomers that possess "dual-action" antifreeze activity as exemplified by ice crystal growth inhibition concomitant with melting temperature reduction. We investigated the structural features responsible for these phenomena and observed that peptoid antifreeze activities depend both on oligomer backbone structure and side chain chemical composition. These studies reveal the capability of peptoids to act as ice crystallization regulators, enabling the discovery of a unique and diverse family of synthetic oligomers with potential as antifreeze agents in food production and biomedicine. PMID:23169638

  5. Exosomal cell-to-cell transmission of alpha synuclein oligomers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αsyn) and resulting cytotoxicity is a hallmark of sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) as well as dementia with Lewy bodies, with recent evidence implicating oligomeric and pre-fibrillar forms of αsyn as the pathogenic species. Recent in vitro studies support the idea of transcellular spread of extracellular, secreted αsyn across membranes. The aim of this study is to characterize the transcellular spread of αsyn oligomers and determine their extracellular location. Results Using a novel protein fragment complementation assay where αsyn is fused to non-bioluminescent amino-or carboxy-terminus fragments of humanized Gaussia Luciferase we demonstrate here that αsyn oligomers can be found in at least two extracellular fractions: either associated with exosomes or free. Exosome-associated αsyn oligomers are more likely to be taken up by recipient cells and can induce more toxicity compared to free αsyn oligomers. Specifically, we determine that αsyn oligomers are present on both the outside as well as inside of exosomes. Notably, the pathway of secretion of αsyn oligomers is strongly influenced by autophagic activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that αsyn may be secreted via different secretory pathways. We hypothesize that exosome-mediated release of αsyn oligomers is a mechanism whereby cells clear toxic αsyn oligomers when autophagic mechanisms fail to be sufficient. Preventing the early events in αsyn exosomal release and uptake by inducing autophagy may be a novel approach to halt disease spreading in PD and other synucleinopathies. PMID:22920859

  6. DNA-Grafted Supramolecular Polymers: Helical Ribbon Structures Formed by Self-Assembly of Pyrene-DNA Chimeric Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vyborna, Yuliia; Vybornyi, Mykhailo; Rudnev, Alexander V; Häner, Robert

    2015-06-26

    The controlled arraying of DNA strands on adaptive polymeric platforms remains a challenge. Here, the noncovalent synthesis of DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers from short chimeric oligomers is presented. The oligomers are composed of an oligopyrenotide strand attached to the 5'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. The supramolecular polymerization of these oligomers in an aqueous medium leads to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) helical ribbon structures. Atomic force and transmission electron microscopy show rod-like polymers of several hundred nanometers in length. DNA-grafted polymers of the type described herein will serve as models for the development of structurally and functionally diverse supramolecular platforms with applications in materials science and diagnostics. PMID:25960306

  7. Detection of oligomers and fibrils of α-synuclein by AIEgen with strong fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Guo, Feng; Hong, Yuning; Zhao, Engui; Kwok, Ryan Tsz Kin; Leung, Nelson Lik Ching; Chen, Sijie; Vaikath, Nishant N; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar; Tang, Youhong; Gai, Wei-Ping; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-02-01

    We report a fluorophore, TPE-TPP, with AIE characteristics which is utilized as a fluorescence probe to monitor the α-synuclein (α-Syn) fibrillation process. Compared with ThT, TPE-TPP shows a higher sensitivity in the detection of α-Syn oligomers as well as fibrils with a stronger fluorescence. The performance of TPE-TPP was evaluated using fluorescence, AFM, dot blot, and SEC. PMID:25526628

  8. Purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer administration improves nocturnal vision and clinical symptoms in myopia subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyung K; Kim, Chan Y; Hong, Young J; Choe, Chul M; You, Tae W; Seong, Gong J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer administration on nocturnal visual function and clinical symptoms in low-to-moderate myopia subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and involved sixty subjects with asthenopia and refractive errors between -1.00 and -8.00 diopters in both eyes. Thirty subjects were administered a purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer (100 mg tablet comprising 85 % anthocyanoside oligomer), and thirty were given a placebo in tablet form twice daily for 4 weeks. Prior to the treatment, the placebo and anthocyanoside groups were similar in terms of age and contrast sensitivity. Before and after treatment, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their clinical symptoms and were also assessed for nocturnal visual function using contrast sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data analysis showed that, following treatment, twenty-two (73.3 %) anthocyanoside subjects showed improved symptoms, whereas only one placebo subject showed an improvement (Fisher's exact test, P<0.0001). Contrast sensitivity levels according to each cycle per degree significantly improved in the anthocyanoside group and remained stable in the placebo group. The mean contrast sensitivity change in the anthocyanoside group was 2.41 (SD) 1.91, compared with -0.66 (SD) 2.66 dB for the placebo group (unpaired Student's t test, P<0.0001). At all cycle per degree levels, contrast sensitivity changes in the anthocyanoside group were better than in the placebo group (unpaired Student's t test, P<0.05). The present data show that the administration of anthocyanoside oligomer appears to improve subjective symptoms and objective contrast sensitivity in myopia subjects with asthenopia. PMID:16022759

  9. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R.; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H.; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H.; Winner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  10. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H; Winner, Beate; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  11. Rifampicin is a candidate preventive medicine against amyloid-β and tau oligomers.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Tomohiro; Ono, Kenjiro; Sakai, Ayumi; Yamashita, Minato; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Klein, William L; Yamada, Masahito; Mori, Hiroshi; Tomiyama, Takami

    2016-05-01

    Amyloid-β, tau, and α-synuclein, or more specifically their soluble oligomers, are the aetiologic molecules in Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, and α-synucleinopathies, respectively. These proteins have been shown to interact to accelerate each other's pathology. Clinical studies of amyloid-β-targeting therapies in Alzheimer's disease have revealed that the treatments after disease onset have little benefit on patient cognition. These findings prompted us to explore a preventive medicine which is orally available, has few adverse effects, and is effective at reducing neurotoxic oligomers with a broad spectrum. We initially tested five candidate compounds: rifampicin, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, myricetin, and scyllo-inositol, in cells expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Osaka (E693Δ) mutation, which promotes amyloid-β oligomerization. Among these compounds, rifampicin, a well-known antibiotic, showed the strongest activities against the accumulation and toxicity (i.e. cytochrome c release from mitochondria) of intracellular amyloid-β oligomers. Under cell-free conditions, rifampicin inhibited oligomer formation of amyloid-β, tau, and α-synuclein, indicating its broad spectrum. The inhibitory effects of rifampicin against amyloid-β and tau oligomers were evaluated in APPOSK mice (amyloid-β oligomer model), Tg2576 mice (Alzheimer's disease model), and tau609 mice (tauopathy model). When orally administered to 17-month-old APPOSK mice at 0.5 and 1 mg/day for 1 month, rifampicin reduced the accumulation of amyloid-β oligomers as well as tau hyperphosphorylation, synapse loss, and microglial activation in a dose-dependent manner. In the Morris water maze, rifampicin at 1 mg/day improved memory of the mice to a level similar to that in non-transgenic littermates. Rifampicin also inhibited cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase 3 activation in the hippocampus. In 13-month-old Tg2576 mice, oral rifampicin at 0.5 mg

  12. Optimizing antisense oligonucleotides using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, Linda J; Malerba, Alberto; Dickson, George

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations that disrupt the reading frame of the human DMD gene. Selective removal of exons flanking an out-of-frame DMD mutation can result in an in-frame mRNA transcript that may be translated into an internally deleted Becker muscular dystrophy-like functionally active dystrophin protein with therapeutic activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) can be designed to bind to complementary sequences in the targeted mRNA and modify pre-mRNA splicing to correct the reading frame of a mutated transcript. AO-induced exon skipping resulting in functional truncated dystrophin has been demonstrated in animal models of DMD both in vitro and in vivo, in DMD patient cells in vitro in culture, and in DMD muscle explants. The recent advances made in this field suggest that it is likely that AO-induced exon skipping will be the first gene therapy for DMD to reach the clinic. However, it should be noted that personalized molecular medicine may be necessary, since the various reading frame-disrupting mutations are spread across the DMD gene. The different deletions that cause DMD would require skipping of different exons, which would require the optimization and clinical trial workup of many specific AOs. This chapter describes the methodologies available for the optimization of AOs, in particular phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers, for the targeted skipping of specific exons on the DMD gene. PMID:22454060

  13. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Cremades, Nunilo; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Serene; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Banushi, Blerida; Little, Daniel; Devine, Michael J.; Gissen, Paul; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant free radical production and neuronal toxicity. Results: We first demonstrate excessive free radical production in a human induced pluripotent stem-derived α-S triplication model at basal levels and on application of picomolar doses of β-sheet-rich α-S oligomers. We probed the effects of different structural species of α-S in wild-type rat neuronal cultures and show that both oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-S are capable of generating free radical production, but that only the oligomeric form results in reduction of endogenous glutathione and subsequent neuronal toxicity. We dissected the mechanism of oligomer-induced free radical production and found that it was interestingly independent of several known cellular enzymatic sources. Innovation: The oligomer-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was entirely dependent on the presence of free metal ions as addition of metal chelators was able to block oligomer-induced ROS production and prevent oligomer-induced neuronal death. Conclusion: Our findings further support the causative role of soluble amyloid oligomers in triggering neurodegeneration and shed light into the mechanisms by which these species cause neuronal damage, which, we show here, can be amenable to modulation through the use of metal chelation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. PMID:26564470

  14. Abeta targets of the biosimilar antibodies of Bapineuzumab, Crenezumab, Solanezumab in comparison to an antibody against N‑truncated Abeta in sporadic Alzheimer disease cases and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bouter, Yvonne; Lopez Noguerola, Jose Socrates; Tucholla, Petra; Crespi, Gabriela A N; Parker, Michael W; Wiltfang, Jens; Miles, Luke A; Bayer, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Solanezumab and Crenezumab are two humanized antibodies targeting Amyloid-β (Aβ) which are currently tested in multiple clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is a scientific discussion ongoing about the target engagement of these antibodies. Here, we report the immunohistochemical staining profiles of biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab in human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and human fresh frozen tissue. Furthermore, we performed a direct comparative immunohistochemistry analysis of the biosimilar versions of the humanized antibodies in different mouse models including 5XFAD, Tg4-42, TBA42, APP/PS1KI, 3xTg. The staining pattern with these humanized antibodies revealed a surprisingly similar profile. All three antibodies detected plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intraneuronal Aβ in a similar fashion. Remarkably, Solanezumab showed a strong binding affinity to plaques. We also reaffirmed that Bapineuzumab does not recognize N-truncated or modified Aβ, while Solanezumab and Crenezumab do detect N-terminally modified Aβ peptides Aβ4-42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3-42. In addition, we compared the results with the staining pattern of the mouse NT4X antibody that recognizes specifically Aβ4-42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3-42, but not full-length Aβ1-42. In contrast to the biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab, the murine NT4X antibody shows a unique target engagement. NT4X does barely cross-react with amyloid plaques in human tissue. It does, however, detect cerebral amyloid angiopathy in human tissue. In Alzheimer mouse models, NT4X detects intraneuronal Aβ and plaques comparable to the humanized antibodies. In conclusion, the biosimilar antibodies Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab strongly react with amyloid plaques, which are in contrast to the NT4X antibody that hardly recognizes plaques in human tissue. Therefore, NT4X is the first of a new class of

  15. Differential effects of co-chaperonin homologs on cpn60 oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Bonshtien, Anat L.; Parnas, Avital; Sharkia, Rajach; Niv, Adina; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Weiss, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the relationship between chaperonin/co-chaperonin binding, ATP hydrolysis, and protein refolding in heterologous chaperonin systems from bacteria, chloroplast, and mitochondria. We characterized two types of chloroplast cpn60 oligomers, ch-cpn60 composed of α and β subunits (α7β7 ch-cpn60) and one composed of all β subunits (β14 ch-cpn60). In terms of ATPase activity, the rate of ATP hydrolysis increased with protein concentration up to 60 μM, reflecting a concentration at which the oligomers are stable. At high concentrations of cpn60, all cpn10 homologs inhibited ATPase activity of α7β7 ch-cpn60. In contrast, ATPase of β14 ch-cpn60 was inhibited only by mitochondrial cpn10, supporting previous reports showing that β14 is functional only with mitochondrial cpn10 and not with other cpn10 homologs. Surprisingly, direct binding assays showed that both ch-cpn60 oligomer types bind to bacterial, mitochondrial, and chloroplast cpn10 homologs with an equal apparent affinity. Moreover, mitochondrial cpn60 binds chloroplast cpn20 with which it is not able to refold denatured proteins. Protein refolding experiments showed that in such instances, the bound protein is released in a conformation that is not able to refold. The presence of glycerol, or subsequent addition of mitochondrial cpn10, allows us to recover enzymatic activity of the substrate protein. Thus, in our systems, the formation of co-chaperonin/chaperonin complexes does not necessarily lead to protein folding. By using heterologous oligomer systems, we are able to separate the functions of binding and refolding in order to better understand the chaperonin mechanism. PMID:19224397

  16. Differential effects of co-chaperonin homologs on cpn60 oligomers.

    PubMed

    Bonshtien, Anat L; Parnas, Avital; Sharkia, Rajach; Niv, Adina; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Azem, Abdussalam; Weiss, Celeste

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the relationship between chaperonin/co-chaperonin binding, ATP hydrolysis, and protein refolding in heterologous chaperonin systems from bacteria, chloroplast, and mitochondria. We characterized two types of chloroplast cpn60 oligomers, ch-cpn60 composed of alpha and beta subunits (alpha(7)beta(7) ch-cpn60) and one composed of all beta subunits (beta(14) ch-cpn60). In terms of ATPase activity, the rate of ATP hydrolysis increased with protein concentration up to 60 microM, reflecting a concentration at which the oligomers are stable. At high concentrations of cpn60, all cpn10 homologs inhibited ATPase activity of alpha(7)beta(7) ch-cpn60. In contrast, ATPase of beta(14) ch-cpn60 was inhibited only by mitochondrial cpn10, supporting previous reports showing that beta(14) is functional only with mitochondrial cpn10 and not with other cpn10 homologs. Surprisingly, direct binding assays showed that both ch-cpn60 oligomer types bind to bacterial, mitochondrial, and chloroplast cpn10 homologs with an equal apparent affinity. Moreover, mitochondrial cpn60 binds chloroplast cpn20 with which it is not able to refold denatured proteins. Protein refolding experiments showed that in such instances, the bound protein is released in a conformation that is not able to refold. The presence of glycerol, or subsequent addition of mitochondrial cpn10, allows us to recover enzymatic activity of the substrate protein. Thus, in our systems, the formation of co-chaperonin/chaperonin complexes does not necessarily lead to protein folding. By using heterologous oligomer systems, we are able to separate the functions of binding and refolding in order to better understand the chaperonin mechanism. PMID:19224397

  17. Relaxation behavior of polymers through the study of oligomer model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquerra, T. A.

    2000-06-01

    The relaxation behavior of a series of ether-ketone oligomers was studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. In order to isolate chain stiffness from other intermolecular factors, we studied chemically homogeneous, strictly monodisperse, low molecular weight ether-ketone model compounds. The dynamics of the α relaxation of ether-ketone model compounds as compared with that of the homologous polymer PEKK (50/50), shows up differences which can be attributed to the variation of inter and intra molecular correlations with the chain length. Model compounds exhibit a nearly similar degree of cooperativity regardless the differences in Tg values. The PEKK(50/50) polymer exhibits stronger cooperativity than the oligomers suggesting that in poly(ether-ketone-ketone)s molecular motions above Tg extend to more than one monomeric unit. .

  18. Rapamycin-induced oligomer formation system of FRB-FKBP fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Inobe, Tomonao; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin. By adjusting the configuration of fusion proteins, we succeeded in generating an inducible tetramer formation system. Proteins of interest also formed tetramers by fusing to the inducible tetramer formation system, which exhibits its utility in a broad range of biological applications. PMID:26777239

  19. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in α-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C. PMID:26390371

  20. An N-terminal Fragment of the Prion Protein Binds to Amyloid-β Oligomers and Inhibits Their Neurotoxicity in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Fluharty, Brian R.; Biasini, Emiliano; Stravalaci, Matteo; Sclip, Alessandra; Diomede, Luisa; Balducci, Claudia; La Vitola, Pietro; Messa, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Forloni, Gianluigi; Borsello, Tiziana; Gobbi, Marco; Harris, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain. Considerable evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers are responsible for the synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficit observed in AD. However, the mechanism by which these oligomers exert their neurotoxic effect remains unknown. Recently, it was reported that Aβ oligomers bind to the cellular prion protein with high affinity. Here, we show that N1, the main physiological cleavage fragment of the cellular prion protein, is necessary and sufficient for binding early oligomeric intermediates during Aβ polymerization into amyloid fibrils. The ability of N1 to bind Aβ oligomers is influenced by positively charged residues in two sites (positions 23–31 and 95–105) and is dependent on the length of the sequence between them. Importantly, we also show that N1 strongly suppresses Aβ oligomer toxicity in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, in a Caenorhabditis elegans-based assay, and in vivo in a mouse model of Aβ-induced memory dysfunction. These data suggest that N1, or small peptides derived from it, could be potent inhibitors of Aβ oligomer toxicity and represent an entirely new class of therapeutic agents for AD. PMID:23362282

  1. Self-assembly of phosphorous containing oligomers: morphological features and pH-sensitiveness in suspension.

    PubMed

    Travelet, Christophe; Bouilhac, Cécile; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Borsali, Redouane

    2014-10-14

    Methacrylamide-based oligomers bearing phosphonate pending groups at the end of a long alkyl chain and originating from undecylenic acid synthons were subjected to direct oligomer dissolution. Size improvement towards much smaller objects was reached using the nanoprecipitation method: the oligomers were first dissolved in an organic solvent, and then precipitated in water using a syringe pump. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed phosphorous containing monomodal and quite narrow-sized self-assemblies in water with hydrodynamic diameters (DH) ranging from 80 to 280 nm (depending on the oligomer system). Direct visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed filled and almost individual particles with spherical shape. They were considerably shrunk, suggesting the highly swollen character of the self-assemblies in suspension. Morphological information on the multi-scale self-assembled structures was complementarily obtained using static light scattering (SLS). Thus, at a low length-scale, highly segregated sub-units having sharp boundaries surrounded by water (Porod behaviour) were observed, whereas at a high length-scale random non-compact organization of these sub-units via weak interactions was found, forming a chaplet-like structure (Gaussian behaviour). Furthermore, the pH-sensitiveness of the suspensions obtained after the nanoprecipitation method was studied. Particularly, at pH = 12, the characteristic size drastically increased within few hours from typically ∼280 nm to 2 μm due to electrostatic repulsion between deprotonated hydroxyl groups. At longer times, the observed peculiar behaviour corresponded to the model of diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) where the particles stuck easily together upon contact [continuation of the article by C. Bouilhac, C. Travelet, A. Graillot, S. Monge, R. Borsali and J.-J. Robin, Polym. Chem., 2014, 5, 2756-2767]. PMID:25109365

  2. Induction of Covalently Crosslinked p62 Oligomers with Reduced Binding to Polyubiquitinated Proteins by the Autophagy Inhibitor Verteporfin

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Balgi, Aruna D.; Komatsu, Masaaki; Roberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, including organelles and long-lived proteins, that helps maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against various cellular stresses. Verteporfin is a benzoporphyrin derivative used clinically in photodynamic therapy to treat macular degeneration. Verteporfin was recently found to inhibit autophagosome formation by an unknown mechanism that does not require exposure to light. We report that verteporfin directly targets and modifies p62, a scaffold and adaptor protein that binds both polyubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation and LC3 on autophagosomal membranes. Western blotting experiments revealed that exposure of cells or purified p62 to verteporfin causes the formation of covalently crosslinked p62 oligomers by a mechanism involving low-level singlet oxygen production. Rose bengal, a singlet oxygen producer structurally unrelated to verteporfin, also produced crosslinked p62 oligomers and inhibited autophagosome formation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that crosslinked p62 oligomers retain their ability to bind to LC3 but show defective binding to polyubiquitinated proteins. Mutations in the p62 PB1 domain that abolish self-oligomerization also abolished crosslinked oligomer formation. Interestingly, small amounts of crosslinked p62 oligomers were detected in untreated cells, and other groups noted the accumulation of p62 forms with reduced SDS-PAGE mobility in cellular and animal models of oxidative stress and aging. These data indicate that p62 is particularly susceptible to oxidative crosslinking and lead us to propose a model whereby oxidized crosslinked p62 oligomers generated rapidly by drugs like verteporfin or over time during the aging process interfere with autophagy. PMID:25494214

  3. Luminescent Quadrupolar Borazine Oligomers: Synthesis, Photophysics, and Two-Photon Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pangkuan; Marshall, Ariel S; Chi, San-Hui; Yin, Xiaodong; Perry, Joseph W; Jäkle, Frieder

    2015-12-01

    A set of monodisperse bent donor-acceptor-donor-type conjugated borazine oligomers, BnNn+1 (n=1-4), incorporating electron-rich triarylamine donor and electron-deficient triarylborane acceptor units has been prepared through an iterative synthetic approach that takes advantage of highly selective silicon-boron and tin-boron exchange reactions. The effect of chain elongation on the electrochemical, one- and two-photon properties and excited-state photodynamics has been investigated. Strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) from the arylamine donors to boryl-centered acceptor sites results in emissions with high quantum yields (Φfl >0.5) in the range of 400-500 nm. Solvatochromic effects lead to solvent shifts as large as ∼70 nm for the shortest member (n=1) and gradually decrease with chain elongation. The oligomers exhibit strong two-photon absorption (2PA) in the visible spectral region with 2PA cross sections as large as 1410 GM (n=4), and broadband excited-state absorption (ESA) attributed to long-lived singlet-singlet and radical cation/anion absorption. The excited-state dynamics also show sensitivity to the solvent environment. Electrochemical observations and DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*) reveal spatially separated HOMO and LUMO levels resulting in highly fluorescent oligomers with strong ICT character. The BnNn+1 oligomers have been used to demonstrate the detection of cyanide anions with association constants of log K>7. PMID:26514664

  4. Structural fingerprints and their evolution during oligomeric vs. oligomer-free amyloid fibril growth

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph; Hill, Shannon E.; Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Ciesla, Marissa; Robeel, Rhonda; Persichilli, Christopher; Raynes, Rachel; Westerheide, Sandy; Muschol, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Deposits of fibrils formed by disease-specific proteins are the molecular hallmark of such diverse human disorders as Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. Amyloid fibril formation by structurally and functionally unrelated proteins exhibits many generic characteristics, most prominently the cross β-sheet structure of their mature fibrils. At the same time, amyloid formation tends to proceed along one of two separate assembly pathways yielding either stiff monomeric filaments or globular oligomers and curvilinear protofibrils. Given the focus on oligomers as major toxic species, the very existence of an oligomer-free assembly pathway is significant. Little is known, though, about the structure of the various intermediates emerging along different pathways and whether the pathways converge towards a common or distinct fibril structures. Using infrared spectroscopy we probed the structural evolution of intermediates and late-stage fibrils formed during in vitro lysozyme amyloid assembly along an oligomeric and oligomer-free pathway. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that both pathways produced amyloid-specific β-sheet peaks, but at pathway-specific wavenumbers. We further found that the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T responded to all intermediates along either pathway. The relative amplitudes of thioflavin T fluorescence responses displayed pathway-specific differences and could be utilized for monitoring the structural evolution of intermediates. Pathway-specific structural features obtained from infrared spectroscopy and Thioflavin T responses were identical for fibrils grown at highly acidic or at physiological pH values and showed no discernible effects of protein hydrolysis. Our results suggest that late-stage fibrils formed along either pathway are amyloidogenic in nature, but have distinguishable structural fingerprints. These pathway-specific fingerprints emerge during the earliest aggregation events and persist throughout the

  5. Structural fingerprints and their evolution during oligomeric vs. oligomer-free amyloid fibril growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Joseph; Hill, Shannon E.; Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Ciesla, Marissa; Robeel, Rhonda; Persichilli, Christopher; Raynes, Rachel; Westerheide, Sandy; Muschol, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of fibrils formed by disease-specific proteins are the molecular hallmark of such diverse human disorders as Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. Amyloid fibril formation by structurally and functionally unrelated proteins exhibits many generic characteristics, most prominently the cross β-sheet structure of their mature fibrils. At the same time, amyloid formation tends to proceed along one of two separate assembly pathways yielding either stiff monomeric filaments or globular oligomers and curvilinear protofibrils. Given the focus on oligomers as major toxic species, the very existence of an oligomer-free assembly pathway is significant. Little is known, though, about the structure of the various intermediates emerging along different pathways and whether the pathways converge towards a common or distinct fibril structures. Using infrared spectroscopy we probed the structural evolution of intermediates and late-stage fibrils formed during in vitro lysozyme amyloid assembly along an oligomeric and oligomer-free pathway. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that both pathways produced amyloid-specific β-sheet peaks, but at pathway-specific wavenumbers. We further found that the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T responded to all intermediates along either pathway. The relative amplitudes of thioflavin T fluorescence responses displayed pathway-specific differences and could be utilized for monitoring the structural evolution of intermediates. Pathway-specific structural features obtained from infrared spectroscopy and Thioflavin T responses were identical for fibrils grown at highly acidic or at physiological pH values and showed no discernible effects of protein hydrolysis. Our results suggest that late-stage fibrils formed along either pathway are amyloidogenic in nature, but have distinguishable structural fingerprints. These pathway-specific fingerprints emerge during the earliest aggregation events and persist throughout the

  6. Enhanced in Vitro Mineralization and in Vivo Osteogenesis of Composite Scaffolds through Controlled Surface Grafting of L-Lactic Acid Oligomer on Nanohydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongliang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Peibiao; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-03-14

    Nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite (HA) surface grafted with L-lactic acid oligomer (LAc oligomer) (op-HA) showed improved interface compatibility, mechanical property, and biocompatibility in our previous study. In this paper, composite scaffolds of op-HA with controlled grafting different amounts of LAc oligomer (1.1, 5.2, and 9.1 wt %) were fabricated and implanted to repair rabbit radius defects. The dispersion of op-HA nanoparticles was more uniform than n-HA in chloroform and nanocomposites scaffold. Calcium and phosphorus exposure, in vitro biomineralization ability, and cell proliferation were much higher in the op-HA1.1 wt %/PLGA scaffolds than the other groups. The osteodifferentiation and bone fusion in animal tests were significantly enhanced for op-HA5.2 wt %/PLGA scaffolds. The results indicated that the grafted LAc oligomer of 5.2 or 9.1 wt %, which formed a barrier layer on the HA surface, prevented the exposure of nucleation sites. The shielded nucleation sites of op-HA particles (5.2 wt %) might be easily exposed as the grafted LAc oligomer was decomposed easily by enzyme systems in vivo. Findings from this study have revealed that grafting 1.1 wt % amount of LAc oligomer on hydroxyapatite could improve in vitro mineralization, and 5.2 wt % could promote in vivo osteogenesis capacity of composite scaffolds. PMID:26821731

  7. Structure of beta-glucan oligomer from laminarin and its effect on human monocytes to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhongcun; Otaka, Kodo; Maoka, Takashi; Hidaka, Kumi; Ishijima, Sumio; Oda, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Masatake

    2005-03-01

    We analyzed the human monocyte-stimulating ability of laminarin from Eisenia bicyclis, lichenan from Cetraria islandica, and their oligomers depolymerized with endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from Arthrobacter sp. The respective beta-glucan oligomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP) were fractionated from hydrolytic products of laminarin and lichenan using gel-filtration chromatography. The monocyte-conditioned medium pre-cultured in the presence of a fraction of beta-glucan oligomer (DP>/=8) from laminarin exhibited inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human myeloid leukemia U937 cells, while those pre-cultured with other beta-glucan oligomers and the original laminarin and lichenan showed little or no activity. NMR analysis indicated that the beta-glucan oligomer (DP>/=8) has an average DP value of 13, and its ratio of beta-1,3- to beta-1,6-linkages in glucopyranose units was estimated to be 1.3:1. These results indicate that the beta-1,3-glucan oligomer with a higher content of beta-1,6-linkage stimulates monocytes to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells. PMID:15784984

  8. LptA Assembles into Rod-Like Oligomers Involving Disorder-to-Order Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santambrogio, Carlo; Sperandeo, Paola; Villa, Riccardo; Sobott, Frank; Polissi, Alessandra; Grandori, Rita

    2013-10-01

    LptA is a periplasmic protein involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the inner membrane (IM) to the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Growing evidence supports a model in which LptA assembles into oligomers, forming a physical bridge connecting IM and OM. This work investigates assembly and architecture of LptA oligomers. Circular dichroism and "native" electrospray-ionization ion-mobility mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS) are employed to test concentration dependence of LptA structural features and to analyze the morphology of higher-order aggregates. The results show that LptA progressively assembles into rod-like oligomers without fixed stoichiometry, and grows by an n + 1 mechanism up to at least the pentamer. The oligomerization process induces disorder-to-order transitions in the polypeptide chain. Comparison with crystallographic and computational data suggests that these conformational changes likely involve short disordered regions at the N- and C-termini of monomeric LptA. The protein response to thermal denaturation displays strong concentration dependence, indicating that oligomerization increases protein stability. LptA conformational stability can also be enhanced by in vitro LPS binding. The genesis of these fibrillar structures could be relevant for the correct transport of LPS across the bacterial periplasm.

  9. Panchromatic Light Capture and Efficient Excitation Transfer Leading to Near-IR Emission of BODIPY Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritambhara; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-08-18

    All-BODIPY-based (BODIPY=boron-dipyrromethene) donor-acceptor systems capable of wide-band absorbance leading to efficient energy transfer in the near-IR region are reported. A covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl BODIPY-BODIPY dimer building block bearing an ethynyl group at the meso-aryl position is synthesized and coupled with three different monomeric BODIPY/pyrrolyl BODIPY building blocks with a bromo/iodo group under Pd(0) coupling conditions to obtain three covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl-BODIPY-based donor-acceptor oligomers in 19-29 % yield. The oligomers are characterized in detail by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and optical spectroscopy. Due to the presence of different functionalized BODIPY derivatives in the oligomers, panchromatic light capture (300-725 nm) is witnessed. Fluorescence studies reveal singlet-singlet energy transfer from BODIPY monomer to BODIPY dimer leading to emission in the 700-800 nm range. Theoretical modeling according to the Förster mechanism predicts ultrafast energy transfer due to good spectral overlap of the donor and acceptor entities. Femtosecond transient absorption studies confirm this to be the case and thus show the relevance of the currently developed all-BODIPY-based energy-funneling supramolecular sytems with near-IR emission to solar-energy harvesting applications. PMID:27168532

  10. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  11. Observation of Fano resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticle oligomers.

    PubMed

    Chong, Katie E; Hopkins, Ben; Staude, Isabelle; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Dominguez, Jason; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-05-28

    It is well-known that oligomers made of metallic nanoparticles are able to support sharp Fano resonances originating from the interference of two plasmonic resonant modes with different spectral width. While such plasmonic oligomers suffer from high dissipative losses, a new route for achieving Fano resonances in nanoparticle oligomers has opened up after the recent experimental observations of electric and magnetic resonances in low-loss dielectric nanoparticles. Here, light scattering by all-dielectric oligomers composed of silicon nanoparticles is studied experimentally for the first time. Pronounced Fano resonances are observed for a variety of lithographically-fabricated heptamer nanostructures consisting of a central particle of varying size, encircled by six nanoparticles of constant size. Based on a full collective mode analysis, the origin of the observed Fano resonances is revealed as a result of interference of the optically-induced magnetic dipole mode of the central particle with the collective mode of the nanoparticle structure. This allows for effective tuning of the Fano resonance to a desired spectral position by a controlled size variation of the central particle. Such optically-induced magnetic Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers offer new opportunities for sensing and nonlinear applications. PMID:24616191

  12. Imide oligomers endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  13. Degradation of a Sodium Acrylate Oligomer by an Arthrobacter sp

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mukouyama, Masaharu; Sakano, Kouichi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1993-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain NO-18 was first isolated from soil as a bacterium which could degrade the sodium acrylate oligomer and utilize it as the sole source of carbon. When 0.2% (wt/wt) oligomer was added to the culture medium, the acrylate oligomer was found to be degraded by 70 to 80% in 2 weeks, using gel permeation chromatography. To determine the maximum molecular weight for biodegradation, the degradation test was done with the hexamer, heptamer, and octamer, which were separated from the oligomer mixture by fractional gel permeation chromatography. The hexamer and heptamer were consumed to the extents of 58 and 36%, respectively, in 2 weeks, but the octamer was not degraded. Oligomers with three different terminal groups were synthesized to examine the effect of the different terminal groups on biodegradation, but few differences were found. Arthrobacter sp. NO-18 assimilated acrylic acid, propionic acid, glutaric acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, and 1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid. Degradation of the acrylic unit structure by this strain is discussed. PMID:8517751

  14. Imide Oligomers Endcapped with Phenylethynl Phthalic Anhydrides and Polymers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N.N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or cheznicauy to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydxide(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Several poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) oligomers were prepared by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of a bisphenol benzimidazole and various alkyl-substituted aromatic bisphenols with an activated aromatic dihalide in N, N-dimethylacetarnide. Moderate to high molecular weight terpolymers were obtained in all cases, as shown by their inherent viscosities, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.87 dL g(sup -1). Glass transition temperatures (T(sub g)s) of polymer powders ranged from 267-280 C. Air-dried unoriented thin film T(sub g)s were markedly lower than those of the powders, whereas T(sub g)s of films dried in a nitrogen atmosphere were identical to those of the corresponding powders. In addition, air-dried films were dark amber and brittle, whereas nitrogen-dried films were yellow and creasable. Nitrogen-dried films showed slightly higher thin-film tensile properties than the air-dried films, as well.

  16. Mapping eGFP Oligomer Mobility in Living Cell Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, Monika; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living cell nuclei using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with a two-color confocal scanning detection system. We first present experiments exposing FCS-specific artifacts encountered in live cell studies as well as strategies to prevent them, in particular those arising from the choice of the fluorophore used for calibration of the focal volume, as well as temperature and acquisition conditions used for fluorescence fluctuation measurements. After defining the best acquisition conditions, we show for various human cell lines that the mobility of GFP varies significantly within the cell nucleus, but does not correlate with chromatin density. The intranuclear diffusional mobility strongly depends on protein size: in a series of GFP-oligomers, used as free inert fluorescent tracers, the diffusion coefficient decreased from the monomer to the tetramer much more than expected for molecules free in aqueous solution. Still, the entire intranuclear chromatin network is freely accessible for small proteins up to the size of eGFP-tetramers, regardless of the chromatin density or cell line. Even the densest chromatin regions do not exclude free eGFP-monomers or multimers. PMID:19347038

  17. Deciphering aggregates, prefibrillar oligomers and protofibrils of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Amani, Samreen; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2014-08-01

    Aggregation of protein into insoluble intracellular complexes and inclusion bodies underlies the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases. Importance of cytochrome c (cyt c) arises from its involvement in apoptosis, sequence homology and for studying molecular evolution. A systemic investigation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the conformational stability of cyt c as a model hemeprotein was made using multi-methodological approach. Cyt c exists as molten globule (MG) at 60% PEG-400 and 40% TFE as confirmed by far-UV CD, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Trp environment, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding and blue shift in the soret band. Q-band splitting in MG states specifies conformational changes in the hydrophobic heme-binding pocket. Aggregates were detected at 90% PEG-400 and 50% TFE as confirmed by increase thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence and shift in Congo red absorbance. Detection of prefibrils and protofibrils at 90% PEG-400 and 50% TFE was possible after 72-h incubation. Single cell gel electrophoresis of prefibrils and protofibrils showed DNA damage confirming their toxicity and potential health hazards. Scanning electron microscopy and XRD analysis confirmed prefibrillar oligomers and protofibrils of cyt c. PMID:24729012

  18. α-Synuclein Oligomers Impair Neuronal Microtubule-Kinesin Interplay*

    PubMed Central

    Prots, Iryna; Veber, Vanesa; Brey, Stefanie; Campioni, Silvia; Buder, Katrin; Riek, Roland; Böhm, Konrad J.; Winner, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Early α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced alterations are neurite pathologies resulting in Lewy neurites. α-Syn oligomers are a toxic species in synucleinopathies and are suspected to cause neuritic pathology. To investigate how α-Syn oligomers may be linked to aberrant neurite pathology, we modeled different stages of α-Syn aggregation in vitro and investigated the interplay of α-Syn aggregates with proteins involved in axonal transport. The interaction of wild type α-Syn (WTS) and α-Syn variants (E57K, A30P, and aSyn(30–110)) with kinesin, tubulin, and the microtubule (MT)-associated proteins, MAP2 and Tau, is stronger for multimers than for monomers. WTS seeds but not α-Syn oligomers significantly and dose-dependently reduced Tau-promoted MT assembly in vitro. In contrast, MT gliding velocity across kinesin-coated surfaces was significantly decreased in the presence of α-Syn oligomers but not WTS seeds or fibrils (aSyn(30–110) multimers). In a human dopaminergic neuronal cell line, mild overexpression of the oligomerizing E57K α-Syn variant significantly impaired neurite network morphology without causing profound cell death. In accordance with these findings, MT stability, neuritic kinesin, and neuritic kinesin-dependent cargoes were significantly reduced by the presence of α-Syn oligomers. In summary, different α-Syn species act divergently on the axonal transport machinery. These findings provide new insights into α-Syn oligomer-driven neuritic pathology as one of the earliest events in synucleinopathies. PMID:23744071

  19. Oligomer-assisted synthesis of chiral polyaniline nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenguang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2004-03-01

    We report here a novel approach to synthesize chiral PANI nanofibers in an aqueous solution. This new approach requires the following conditions: (1) Polymerization was carried out in concentrated camphor sulfonic acid solutions. (2) Aniline oligomers were used to accelerate the polymerization reaction. (3) Ammonium persulfate (oxidant) was added incrementally to the aniline solution. The high anisotropy factor of these PANI nanofibers is likely due to the "autocatalytic effect" resulting from lower oxidation potentials of aniline oligomers. Our chemical synthesis of the chiral PANI nanofibers is enantioselective and, under the optimized conditions, has an anisotropy factor (g = Deltaepsilon/epsilon) of 2.3 x 10-2. PMID:14982411

  20. Tau oligomers as potential targets for early diagnosis of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Naruhiko; Ren, Yan; Ward, Sarah; Binder, Lester I; Suhara, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of tau mutations in frontotemporal dementia has been a key event in neurodegenerative disease research. The rTg4510 mouse line expressing human tau with P301L FTDP-17-tau mutation has been established to understand the role of tau in neurodegeneration. Our histological analyses with tau antibodies and fluorescent tau ligands on rTg4510 mice revealed that tau oligomer formation was distinct from tangle formation. While in vivo imaging of mature tangles is now available, imaging biomarkers for tau oligomers would be useful for clarifying their roles in neurotoxicity and for diagnosing early-stage tau pathology. PMID:24595194

  1. Femtosecond spectroscopy of a thiophene oligomer with a photoswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, N.; Saika, T.

    1996-04-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was applied to analyze the mechanism of optical switch of an endo-capped thiophene oligomer with a diarylethene structure as a new class of multimode chemical transducers. The rate of the optical switch of the proconductivity was estimated to be 1.1 ps, corresponding to the formation time of the closed-ring form of thiophene oligomer. From the direct observation of the precursor of closed-ring form, the mechanism of photochromic ring-closure reaction was discussed.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of fragment orbital interactions to build highly π-conjugated thienylene-substituted phenylene oligomers.

    PubMed

    Florès, Jean-Charles; Lacour, Marie-Agnès; Sallenave, Xavier; Serein-Spirau, Françoise; Lère-Porte, Jean-Pierre; Moreau, Joël J E; Miqueu, Karinne; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Flot, David

    2013-06-01

    π-Conjugated thienylene-phenylene oligomers with fluorinated and dialkoxylated phenylene fragments have been designed and prepared to understand the interactions in fragment orbitals, the influence of the substituents (F, OMe) on the HOMO-LUMO gap, and the role of intramolecular non-covalent cumulative interactions in the construction of π-conjugated nanostructures. Their strong conjugation was also evidenced in the gas phase by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. These results can be explained by the crucial role of the relative energetic positions of the π orbitals of the dimethoxyphenylene, which was used to model the dialkoxyphenylene entity, in determining the π/π(*) orbital levels of the fluorinated phenylene entity. Dialkoxyphenylenes raise the HOMO orbitals, whereas fluorinated phenylenes lower the LUMO orbitals in the oligomers. In addition, the presence of S⋅⋅⋅F and H⋅⋅⋅F interactions in the fluorinated phenylene-thienylene compounds add to the S⋅⋅⋅O interactions in the mixed targets and contribute to the full conjugation in the oligomer, inducing weak inter-ring angles between the involved aromatic cycles. These results, which showed extended conjugation of the π system, were corroborated by a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap (according to DFT calculations) and by a relatively strong maximum wavelength (as obtained by TD-DFT calculations and experimental UV/Vis measurements). The crystallographic data of two mixed thienylene-(fluorinated and dialkoxylated phenylene) five-ring oligomers agree with the above results and show the formation of quasi-planar conformations with non-covalent S⋅⋅⋅O, H⋅⋅⋅F, and S⋅⋅⋅F interactions. These studies in the solid and gas phases show the relevance of associating dialkoxyphenylene and fluorinated phenylene fragments with thiophene to lead to oligomers with improved electronic delocalization for electronic or optoelectronic devices. PMID:23576222

  3. Binding affinity of amyloid oligomers to cellular membranes is a generic indicator of cellular dysfunction in protein misfolding diseases.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Elisa; Cascella, Roberta; Becatti, Matteo; Marrazza, Giovanna; Dobson, Christopher M; Chiti, Fabrizio; Stefani, Massimo; Cecchi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of peptides or proteins from their soluble native states into intractable amyloid deposits is associated with a wide range of human disorders. Misfolded protein oligomers formed during the process of aggregation have been identified as the primary pathogenic agents in many such conditions. Here, we show the existence of a quantitative relationship between the degree of binding to neuronal cells of different types of oligomers formed from a model protein, HypF-N, and the GM1 content of the plasma membranes. In addition, remarkably similar behavior is observed for oligomers of the Aβ42 peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease. Further analysis has revealed the existence of a linear correlation between the level of the influx of Ca(2+) across neuronal membranes that triggers cellular damage, and the fraction of oligomeric species bound to the membrane. Our findings indicate that the susceptibility of neuronal cells to different types of misfolded oligomeric assemblies is directly related to the extent of binding of such oligomers to the cellular membrane. PMID:27619987

  4. Tailored covalent grafting of hexafluoropropylene oxide oligomers onto silica nanoparticles: toward thermally stable, hydrophobic, and oleophobic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Durand, Nelly; Mariot, David; Améduri, Bruno; Boutevin, Bernard; Ganachaud, François

    2011-04-01

    The modification of silica nanoparticles with hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) oligomers has been investigated. HFPO oligomers with two different average degrees of polymerization (DPn = 8 and 15) were first prepared by anionic ring-opening polymerization, deactivated by methanol, and in some cases postfunctionalized by aminopropyl(tri)ethoxysilane or allylamine. The "grafting onto" reactions of these oligomers were then carried out either on bare silica (reaction between a silanol surface and ethoxy-silanized HFPO) or on silica functionalized by amino groups (in an amidation reaction with methyl ester-ended HFPO) or mercapto groups (via the radical addition of allyl-functionalized HFPO). Hybrid nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized by solid-state (29)Si NMR and FTIR spectroscopies as well as elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The results assessed a significant yield of covalent grafting of HFPO oligomers when performing the hydrolysis-condensation of ethoxylated HFPO on the bare silica surface, compared to the other two methods that merely led to physically adsorbed HFPO chains. Chemically grafted nanohybrids showed a high thermal stability (up to 400 °C) as well as a very low surface tension (typically 5 mN/m) compared to physisorbed complexes. PMID:21391662

  5. Biophysical characterization data on Aβ soluble oligomers produced through a method enabling prolonged oligomer stability and biological buffer conditions

    PubMed Central

    Crisostomo, Amanda C.; Dang, Loan; Digambaranath, Jyothi L.; Klaver, Andrea C.; Loeffler, David A.; Payne, Jeremiah J.; Smith, Lynnae M.; Yokom, Adam L.; Finke, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The data here consists of time-dependent experimental parameters from chemical and biophysical methods used to characterize Aβ monomeric reactants as well as soluble oligomer and amyloid fibril products from a slow (3–4 week) assembly reaction under biologically-relevant solvent conditions. The data of this reaction are both of a qualitative and quantitative nature, including gel images from chemical cross-linking and Western blots, fractional solubility, thioflavin T binding, size exclusion chromatograms, transmission electron microscopy images, circular dichroism spectra, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiencies of donor–acceptor pair labels in the Aβ chain. This data enables future efforts to produce the initial monomer and eventual soluble oligomer and amyloid fibril states by providing reference benchmarks of these states pertaining to physical properties (solubility), ligand-binding (thioflavin T binding), mesoscopic structure (electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography, cross-linking products, SDS and native gels) and molecular structure (circular dichroism, FRET donor-acceptor distance). Aβ1-40 soluble oligomers are produced that are suitable for biophysical studies requiring sufficient transient stability to exist in their “native” conformation in biological phosphate-saline buffers for extended periods of time. The production involves an initial preparation of highly monomeric Aβ in a phosphate saline buffer that transitions to fibrils and oligomers through time incubation alone, without added detergents or non-aqueous chemicals. This criteria ensures that the only difference between initial monomeric Aβ reactant and subsequent Aβ oligomer products is their degree of peptide assembly. A number of chemical and biophysical methods were used to characterize the monomeric reactants and soluble oligomer and amyloid fibril products, including chemical cross-linking, Western blots, fraction solubility, thioflvain T binding

  6. The effect of polar end of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting the superamphiphobic property over multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifaldeen, Zubayda S.; Khedir, Khedir R.; Camci, Merve T.; Ucar, Ahmet; Suzer, Sefik; Karabacak, Tansel

    2016-08-01

    Rough structures with re-entrant property and their subsequent surface energy reduction with long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers are both critical in developing superamphiphobic (SAP, i.e. both super hydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces. However, morphology of the low-surface energy layer on a rough re-entrant substrate can strongly depend on the fluorocarbon oligomers used. In this study, the effect of polar end of different kinds of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting a self-assembled monolayer with close packed molecules and robust adhesion on multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces was investigated. Hierarchical Al alloy surfaces with microgrooves and nanograss structures were developed by a simple combination of one-directional mechanical sanding and post treatment in boiling de-ionized water (DIW). Three types of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDCS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were chemically vaporized onto these rough Al alloy surfaces. The PFDCS exhibited the lowest surface free energy of less than 10 mN/m. The contact angle and sliding angle measurements for water, ethylene glycol, and peanut oil verified the SAP property of hierarchical rough Al alloy surfaces treated with alkylsilane oligomers (PFDTS, PFDCS). However, the hierarchical surfaces treated with fluorocarbon oligomer with polar acidic tail (PFOA) showed highly amphiphobic properties but could not reach the threshold for SAP. Chemical stability of the hierarchical Al alloy surfaces treated with the fluorocarbon oligomers was tested under the harsh conditions of ultra-sonication in acetone and annealing at high temperature after different treatment times. Contact angle measurements revealed the robustness of the alkylsilane oligomers and deterioration of the PFOA coating particularly for low surface tension liquids. The robust adhesion and close-packing of the alkylsilane

  7. Oligomer Molecules for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-02-16

    Solar cells, a renewable, clean energy technology that efficiently converts sunlight into electricity, are a promising long-term solution for energy and environmental problems caused by a mass of production and the use of fossil fuels. Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted much attention in the past few years because of several advantages, including easy fabrication, low cost, lightweight, and flexibility. Now, OSCs exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 10%. In the early stage of OSCs, vapor-deposited organic dye materials were first used in bilayer heterojunction devices in the 1980s, and then, solution-processed polymers were introduced in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices. Relative to polymers, vapor-deposited small molecules offer potential advantages, such as a defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, and good batch-to-batch reproducibility. However, the limited solubility and high crystallinity of vapor-deposited small molecules are unfavorable for use in solution-processed BHJ OSCs. Conversely, polymers have good solution-processing and film-forming properties and are easily processed into flexible devices, whereas their polydispersity of molecular weights and difficulty in purification results in batch to batch variation, which may hamper performance reproducibility and commercialization. Oligomer molecules (OMs) are monodisperse big molecules with intermediate molecular weights (generally in the thousands), and their sizes are between those of small molecules (generally with molecular weights <1000) and polymers (generally with molecular weights >10000). OMs not only overcome shortcomings of both vapor-deposited small molecules and solution-processed polymers, but also combine their advantages, such as defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, good batch-to-batch reproducibility, good solution processability

  8. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially. PMID:22277519

  9. Structure and topochemistry of azodioxide oligomers in solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibulić, Petar; Rončević, Igor; Varga, Katarina; Mihalić, Zlatko; Vančik, Hrvoj

    2016-01-01

    The structure of oligomers constructed from 1,4-dinitrosobenzene was studied computationally by DFT methods for shorter oligomers, and by the FMO approach for longer ones. It was demonstrated that the oligomers have helical structure. Formation of 1,4-dinitrosobenzene azodioxides from the corresponding nitroso monomers in solid state was examined by studying the kinetics of their oligomerization under cryogenic conditions. Dissociation of azodioxide bonds to nitroso groups was induced either by UV irradiation at cryogenic temperatures or by sublimation followed by cryogenic deposition. While warming the monomers prepared by UV photodissociation to 150 K gave E-polymers, oligomerization or polymerization of monomers prepared by cryogenic vapor deposition was less pronounced, giving Z-forms. Above 150 K, Z-dimers or short oligomers isomerized, probably by the dissociation-dimerization mechanism, to more stable E-forms. Fast formation of azodioxide bonds and the high stability of corresponding polymers can be ascribed to the strong topochemical effect in the solid state.

  10. Ferroelectric and dielectric properties of electroactive oligomers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kristin L.

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers have been well established as ferroelectric polymers. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties for vinylidene fluoride (VDF) oligomer thin films were investigated. By synthesizing oligomers instead of long polymer chains, films with higher crystalinity can be formed and the locations of oligomers can be controlled for applications such as molecular electronics. Evidence of ferroelectricity was observed in oligomer thin films evaporated onto room temperature substrates and by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition. Voltage and frequency dependence of the capacitance was measured. Oligomers functionalized with phosphonic acid formed self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on aluminum and mica substrates. Film thickness was measured by ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The time dependence on film growth was measured for SAMs on mica substrates by AFM. The islands had already formed by 1 minute, and by 1 hour film was continuous. Additionally, studies were performed on composite dielectric systems with the goal of fabricating high energy density dielectrics containing nanoparticles with an organic shell. The first two types of samples had barium titante nanoparticles coated with functionalized alkanes or VDF oligomers. The first sample type consisted of coated nanoparticles embedded in a PVDF copolymer or terpolymer spin-coated film. At low particle concentrations, the matrix properties dominated the electrical measurements while at high concentrations, the samples were electrically fragile. The second sample type consisted of alternating layers of LB terpolymer and LB nanoparticles. These samples allowed for high particle concentrations while maintaining the high breakdown strength of the polymer layers. The final type of sample was titanium dioxide nanoparticles formed by cluster deposition and coated with an evaporated paraffin or VDF oligomer. These samples tended to have low breakdown strengths and poor

  11. Transient EPR Reveals Triplet State Delocalization in a Series of Cyclic and Linear π-Conjugated Porphyrin Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The photoexcited triplet states of a series of linear and cyclic butadiyne-linked porphyrin oligomers were investigated by transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR). The spatial delocalization of the triplet state wave function in systems with different numbers of porphyrin units and different geometries was analyzed in terms of zero-field splitting parameters and proton hyperfine couplings. Even though no significant change in the zero-field splitting parameters (D and E) is observed for linear oligomers with two to six porphyrin units, the spin polarization of the transient EPR spectra is particularly sensitive to the number of porphyrin units, implying a change of the mechanism of intersystem crossing. Analysis of the proton hyperfine couplings in linear oligomers with more than two porphyrin units, in combination with density functional theory calculations, indicates that the spin density is localized mainly on two to three porphyrin units rather than being distributed evenly over the whole π-system. The sensitivity of the zero-field splitting parameters to changes in geometry was investigated by comparing free linear oligomers with oligomers bound to a hexapyridyl template. Significant changes in the zero-field splitting parameter D were observed, while the proton hyperfine couplings show no change in the extent of triplet state delocalization. The triplet state of the cyclic porphyrin hexamer has a much decreased zero-field splitting parameter D and much smaller proton hyperfine couplings with respect to the monomeric unit, indicating complete delocalization over six porphyrin units in this symmetric system. This surprising result provides the first evidence for extensive triplet state delocalization in an artificial supramolecular assembly of porphyrins. PMID:26035477

  12. Transient EPR Reveals Triplet State Delocalization in a Series of Cyclic and Linear π-Conjugated Porphyrin Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tait, Claudia E; Neuhaus, Patrik; Peeks, Martin D; Anderson, Harry L; Timmel, Christiane R

    2015-07-01

    The photoexcited triplet states of a series of linear and cyclic butadiyne-linked porphyrin oligomers were investigated by transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR). The spatial delocalization of the triplet state wave function in systems with different numbers of porphyrin units and different geometries was analyzed in terms of zero-field splitting parameters and proton hyperfine couplings. Even though no significant change in the zero-field splitting parameters (D and E) is observed for linear oligomers with two to six porphyrin units, the spin polarization of the transient EPR spectra is particularly sensitive to the number of porphyrin units, implying a change of the mechanism of intersystem crossing. Analysis of the proton hyperfine couplings in linear oligomers with more than two porphyrin units, in combination with density functional theory calculations, indicates that the spin density is localized mainly on two to three porphyrin units rather than being distributed evenly over the whole π-system. The sensitivity of the zero-field splitting parameters to changes in geometry was investigated by comparing free linear oligomers with oligomers bound to a hexapyridyl template. Significant changes in the zero-field splitting parameter D were observed, while the proton hyperfine couplings show no change in the extent of triplet state delocalization. The triplet state of the cyclic porphyrin hexamer has a much decreased zero-field splitting parameter D and much smaller proton hyperfine couplings with respect to the monomeric unit, indicating complete delocalization over six porphyrin units in this symmetric system. This surprising result provides the first evidence for extensive triplet state delocalization in an artificial supramolecular assembly of porphyrins. PMID:26035477

  13. Prestin forms oligomer with four mechanically independent subunits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Yang, Shiming; Jia, Shuping; He, David Z.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Prestin is the motor protein of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) with the unique capability of performing direct, rapid and reciprocal electromechanical conversion. Prestin consists of 744 amino acids with a molecular mass of ~81.4 kDa. The predicted membrane topology and molecular mass of a single prestin molecule appear inadequate to account for the size of intramembrane particles (IMPs) expressed in the OHC membrane. Although recent biochemical evidence suggests that prestin forms homo-oligomers, most likely as a tetramer, the oligomeric structure of prestin in OHCs remains unclear. We obtained the charge density of prestin in the gerbil OHCs by measuring their nonlinear capacitance (NLC). The average charge density (22,608 μm−2) measured was four times the average IMP density (5,686 μm−2) reported in the freeze-fracture study. This suggests that each IMP contains four prestin molecules, based on the general notion that each prestin transfers a single elementary charge. We subsequently compared the voltage dependency and the values of slope factor of NLC and somatic motility simultaneously measured from the same OHCs to determine whether NLC and motility are fully coupled and how prestin subunits function within the tetramer. We showed that the voltage dependency and slope factors of NLC and motility were not statistically different, suggesting that NLC and motility are fully coupled. The fact that the slope factor is the same between NLC and motility suggests that each prestin monomer in the tetramer is in parallel, each interacting independently with cytoplasmic or other partners to facilitate the mechanical response. PMID:20347723

  14. Dietary deficiency increases presenilin expression, gamma-secretase activity, and Abeta levels: potentiation by ApoE genotype and alleviation by S-adenosyl methionine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Tchantchou, Flaubert; Rogers, Eugene J; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this risk arises from a deficient function of E4 or the lack of protection provided by E2 or E3 is unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that deprivation of folate and vitamin E, coupled with dietary iron as a pro-oxidant, for 1 month displayed increased presenilin 1 (PS-1) expression, gamma-secretase, and Abeta generation in mice lacking ApoE (ApoE-/- mice). While ApoE-/- mice are a model for ApoE deficiency, they may not reflect the entire range of consequences of E4 expression. We therefore compared herein the impact of the above deficient diet on mice expressing human E2, E3, or E4. As folate deficiency is accompanied by a decrease in the major methyl donor, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), additional mice received the deficient diet plus SAM. E2 was more protective than murine ApoE or E3 and E4. Surprisingly, PS-1 and gamma-secretase were over-expressed in E3 to the same extent as in E4 even under a complete diet, and were not alleviated by SAM supplementation. Abeta increased only in E4 mice maintained under the complete diet, and was alleviated by SAM supplementation. These findings suggest dietary compromise can potentiate latent risk factors for AD. PMID:19457069

  15. Amphiphilic oligomer-based micelles as cisplatin nanocarriers for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiuxiu; Li, Najun; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Yujie; Xu, Ying; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; Lu, Jianmei

    2013-09-01

    Polymeric micelles (~10 nm) have been prepared from the amphiphilic oligomer comprising oligomeric polystyrene as the hydrophobic inner core and half of EDTA (-N(CH2COOH)2) as the hydrophilic outermost shell. After chelating cisplatin with -N(CH2COOH)2 in water, polymeric micelles containing Pt on the spherical surface have been easily obtained. Since the chelate group is introduced into the amphiphilic oligomer as the terminal group by a RAFT agent, the chelation of cisplatin with PS(COOH)2 is almost stoichiometric. The drug carrier based on PS(COOH)2 showed a high loading efficiency (>70%) towards cisplatin. The release of the therapeutic Pt from the cisplatin-loaded composites (PS(COOH)2-Pt) triggered under weak acidic conditions resulted in good Pt-release and accumulation in tumor cells. Both in vitro and in vivo, the chelated cisplatin inhibited Sk-Br3 cancer more effectively than the intact cisplatin does. Furthermore, neither PS(COOH)2 nor PS(COOH)2-Pt showed obvious systematic toxicity.Polymeric micelles (~10 nm) have been prepared from the amphiphilic oligomer comprising oligomeric polystyrene as the hydrophobic inner core and half of EDTA (-N(CH2COOH)2) as the hydrophilic outermost shell. After chelating cisplatin with -N(CH2COOH)2 in water, polymeric micelles containing Pt on the spherical surface have been easily obtained. Since the chelate group is introduced into the amphiphilic oligomer as the terminal group by a RAFT agent, the chelation of cisplatin with PS(COOH)2 is almost stoichiometric. The drug carrier based on PS(COOH)2 showed a high loading efficiency (>70%) towards cisplatin. The release of the therapeutic Pt from the cisplatin-loaded composites (PS(COOH)2-Pt) triggered under weak acidic conditions resulted in good Pt-release and accumulation in tumor cells. Both in vitro and in vivo, the chelated cisplatin inhibited Sk-Br3 cancer more effectively than the intact cisplatin does. Furthermore, neither PS(COOH)2 nor PS(COOH)2-Pt showed obvious

  16. Dynamic imaging by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy identifies diverse populations of polyglutamine oligomers formed in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beam, Monica; Silva, M Catarina; Morimoto, Richard I

    2012-07-27

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are exacerbated by aging and diseases of protein conformation including neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, and cancer. In the cellular environment, aggregates can exist as discrete entities, or heterogeneous complexes of diverse solubility and conformational state. In this study, we have examined the in vivo dynamics of aggregation using imaging methods including fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), to monitor the diverse biophysical states of expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that monomers, oligomers and aggregates co-exist at different concentrations in young and aged animals expressing different polyQ-lengths. During aging, when aggregation and toxicity are exacerbated, FCS-based burst analysis and purified single molecule FCS detected a populational shift toward an increase in the frequency of brighter and larger oligomeric species. Regardless of age or polyQ-length, oligomers were maintained in a heterogeneous distribution that spans multiple orders of magnitude in brightness. We employed genetic suppressors that prevent polyQ aggregation and observed a reduction in visible immobile species with the persistence of heterogeneous oligomers, yet our analysis did not detect the appearance of any discrete oligomeric states associated with toxicity. These studies reveal that the reversible transition from monomers to immobile aggregates is not represented by discrete oligomeric states, but rather suggests that the process of aggregation involves a more complex pattern of molecular interactions of diverse intermediate species that can appear in vivo and contribute to aggregate formation and toxicity. PMID:22669943

  17. Ligation of RNA Oligomers by the Schistosoma mansoni Hammerhead Ribozyme in Frozen Solution.

    PubMed

    Lie, Lively; Biliya, Shweta; Vannberg, Fredrik; Wartell, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The interstitial liquid phase within frozen aqueous solutions is an environment that minimizes RNA degradation and facilitates reactions that may have relevance to the RNA World hypothesis. Previous work has shown that frozen solutions support condensation of activated nucleotides into RNA oligomers, RNA ligation by the hairpin ribozyme, and RNA synthesis by a RNA polymerase ribozyme. In the current study, we examined the activity of a hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) in frozen solution. The Schistosoma mansoni hammerhead ribozyme, which predominantly cleaves RNA, can ligate its cleaved products (P1 and P2) with yields up to ~23 % in single turnover experiments at 25 °C in the presence of Mg(2+). Our studies show that this HHR ligates RNA oligomers in frozen solution in the absence of divalent cations. Citrate and other anions that exhibit strong ion-water affinity enhanced ligation. Yields up to 43 % were observed in one freeze-thaw cycle and a maximum of 60 % was obtained after several freeze-thaw cycles using wild-type P1 and P2. Truncated and mutated P1 substrates were ligated to P2 with yields of 14-24 % in one freeze-thaw cycle. A pool of P2 substrates with mixtures of all four bases at five positions were ligated with P1 in frozen solution. High-throughput sequencing indicated that 70 of the 1024 possible P2 sequences were represented in ligated products at 1000 or more read counts per million reads. The results indicate that the HHR can ligate a range of short RNA oligomers into an ensemble of diverse sequences in ice. PMID:26897022

  18. Efficient near-infrared organic light-emitting devices based on low-gap fluorescent oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yixing; Farley, Richard T.; Steckler, Timothy T.; Eom, Sang-Hyun; Reynolds, John R.; Schanze, Kirk S.; Xue, Jiangeng

    2009-08-01

    We report efficient near-infrared (NIR) organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on fluorescent donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers. The energies of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these oligomers are controlled by the donor and acceptor components, respectively; hence the energy gap and therefore the emission wavelength can be tuned by changing the strengths of the donor and acceptor components. External quantum efficiencies (EQEs) up to 1.6% and power efficiencies up to 7.0 mW/W are achieved in NIR OLEDs based on 4,9-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-6,7-dimethyl-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]-quinoxaline (BEDOT-TQMe2), in which the electroluminescence peaks at a wavelength of 692 nm but extends to well above 800 nm. With a stronger acceptor in the oligomer, 4,8-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno-[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis [1,2,5]thiadiazole (BEDOT-BBT) based devices show longer wavelength emission peaked at 815 nm, although the maximum EQE is reduced to 0.51% due to the lower fluorescent quantum yield of the NIR emitter. The efficiencies of these NIR OLEDs are further increased by two to three times by using the sensitized fluorescent device structure, leading to a maximum EQE of 3.1% for BEDOT-TQMe2 and 1.6% for BEDOT-BBT based devices.

  19. Heteroatom-containing organic electronic oligomers and polymers: Electron paramagnetic resonance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Keith Richard

    Conjugated conducting polymers are organic materials which can be chemically modified or "doped" to exhibit the property of electrical conduction normally seen only in inorganic materials such as metals. Polyaniline (PAN) is of interest due to the fact that it can be switched between conducting and non-conducting forms without changing its oxidation state. Polythiophene (PT) and polypyrrole (PPy) have a conjugated structure, only the heteroatom (sulfur (S) or nitrogen (N)) is not part of the conducting backbone. However, the morphology and optimal chain length of these polymers are still matters of controversy. In order to explore these issues, X-band (9.5 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) susceptibility (X) and linewidth measurements of the undoped and aqueously camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)-doped tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer (oligomers) of aniline, the hexafluorophosphate (PF 6)- and trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3)-doped polymers of 3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (EDOT) and 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT), and the PF6-doped polymer of 3,4-propylenedioxypyrrole (ProDOP) were undertaken. The undoped oligomer systems exhibit a spin density of ˜1 spin per 500 2-ring repeat units. The doped systems have both Pauli- and Curie-like susceptibility with chiPauli ˜ 40 x 10-6 emu/mole 2-ring repeat units and a localized spin density (nCurie) of ˜1 spin per 50 2-ring repeat units. It also is observed that both the undoped and doped oligomer samples exhibit a decreasing EPR DeltaHPP linewidth with increasing temperature and length, implying increasing delocalization with increasing temperature (intrachain motion) and oligomer length (interchain motion). The aniline oligomer data are compared to results for the undoped and the doped state of PAN. The PT and PPy systems also exhibit both Pauli- and Curie-like susceptibilities. In contrast to the aniline oligomers, it also is observed that both the PT and PPy samples exhibit an increasing EPR Delta

  20. Wnt-related SynGAP1 is a neuroprotective factor of glutamatergic synapses against Aβ oligomers.

    PubMed

    Codocedo, Juan F; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Wnt-5a is a synaptogenic factor that modulates glutamatergic synapses and generates neuroprotection against Aβ oligomers. It is known that Wnt-5a plays a key role in the adult nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Recently, we showed that Wnt-5a is able to control the expression of several miRNAs including miR-101b, which has been extensively studied in carcinogenesis. However, its role in brain is just beginning to be explored. That is why we aim to study the relationship between Wnt-5a and miRNAs in glutamatergic synapses. We performed in silico analysis which predicted that miR-101b may inhibit the expression of synaptic GTPase-Activating Protein (SynGAP1), a Ras GTPase-activating protein critical for the development of cognition and proper synaptic function. Through overexpression of miR-101b, we showed that miR-101b is able to regulate the expression of SynGAP1 in an hippocampal cell line. Moreover and consistent with a decrease of miR-101b, Wnt-5a enhances SynGAP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. Additionally, Wnt-5a increases the activity of SynGAP in a time-dependent manner, with a similar kinetic to CaMKII phosphorylation. This also, correlates with a modulation in the SynGAP clusters density. On the other hand, Aβ oligomers permanently decrease the number of SynGAP clusters. Interestingly, when neurons are co-incubated with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers, we do not observe the detrimental effect of Aβ oligomers, indicating that, Wnt-5a protects neurons from the synaptic failure triggered by Aβ oligomers. Overall, our findings suggest that SynGAP1 is part of the signaling pathways induced by Wnt-5a. Therefore, possibility exists that SynGAP is involved in the synaptic protection against Aβ oligomers. PMID:26124704

  1. Wnt-related SynGAP1 is a neuroprotective factor of glutamatergic synapses against Aβ oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Codocedo, Juan F.; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt-5a is a synaptogenic factor that modulates glutamatergic synapses and generates neuroprotection against Aβ oligomers. It is known that Wnt-5a plays a key role in the adult nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Recently, we showed that Wnt-5a is able to control the expression of several miRNAs including miR-101b, which has been extensively studied in carcinogenesis. However, its role in brain is just beginning to be explored. That is why we aim to study the relationship between Wnt-5a and miRNAs in glutamatergic synapses. We performed in silico analysis which predicted that miR-101b may inhibit the expression of synaptic GTPase-Activating Protein (SynGAP1), a Ras GTPase-activating protein critical for the development of cognition and proper synaptic function. Through overexpression of miR-101b, we showed that miR-101b is able to regulate the expression of SynGAP1 in an hippocampal cell line. Moreover and consistent with a decrease of miR-101b, Wnt-5a enhances SynGAP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. Additionally, Wnt-5a increases the activity of SynGAP in a time-dependent manner, with a similar kinetic to CaMKII phosphorylation. This also, correlates with a modulation in the SynGAP clusters density. On the other hand, Aβ oligomers permanently decrease the number of SynGAP clusters. Interestingly, when neurons are co-incubated with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers, we do not observe the detrimental effect of Aβ oligomers, indicating that, Wnt-5a protects neurons from the synaptic failure triggered by Aβ oligomers. Overall, our findings suggest that SynGAP1 is part of the signaling pathways induced by Wnt-5a. Therefore, possibility exists that SynGAP is involved in the synaptic protection against Aβ oligomers. PMID:26124704

  2. Phase transition in conjugated oligomers suspended in chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Shikha; Kumar, Anupam; Yadav, S. N. S.; Mishra, Pankaj

    2015-08-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase transition in a system of high aspect ratio conjugated oligomers suspended in chloroform. The interaction between the oligomers is modeled using Gay-Berne potential in which effect of solvent is implicit. Percus-Yevick integral equation theory has been used to evaluate the pair correlation functions of the fluid phase at several temperatures and densities. These pair correlation function has been used in the DFT to evaluate the I-N freezing parameters. Highly oriented nematic is found to stabilize at low density. The results obtained are in qualitative agreement with the simulation and are verifiable.

  3. Synthesis of long Prebiotic Oligomers on Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Liu, Rihe; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Most theories of the origin of biological organization assume that polymers with lengths in the range of 30-60 monomers are needed to make a genetic system viable. But it has not proved possible to synthesize plausibly prebiotic polymers this long by condensation in aqueous solution, because hydrolysis competes with polymerization. The potential of mineral surfaces to facilitate prebiotic polymerization was pointed out long ago. Here we describe a system that models prebiotic polymerization by the oligomerization of activated monomers -both nucleotides and amino acids. We find that whereas the reactions in solution produce only short oligomers (the longest typically being a 10-mer), the presence of mineral surfaces (montmorillonite for nucleotides, illite and hydroxylapatite for amino adds) induces the formation of oligomers up to 55 monomers long. These are formed by successive "feedings" with the monomers; polymerization takes place on the mineral surfaces in a manner akin to solid-phase synthesis of biopolymers.

  4. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  5. Ethynyl-terminated ester oligomers and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A class of ethynyl terminated oligomers and the process for preparing the same are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, with or without a catalyst, the ethynyl groups react to provide crosslinking and chain extension to increase the polymer use temperature and improve the polymer solvent resistance. These polyesters are potentially useful in packaging, magnetic tapes, capacitors, industrial belting, protective coatings, structural adhesives and composite matrices.

  6. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of β-amyloid oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-01-01

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Aβ1-42 resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by the dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Aβ1-42 with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to the phospholipid vesicles and they were the most toxic species that induced rapid neuronal necrosis at submicromolar concentrations whereas the bigger aggregates (z-height above 4-5 nm) did not bind vesicles and did not cause detectable neuronal death. Similar neurotoxic pattern was also observed in primary cultures of cortex neurons whereas Aβ1–42 oligomers, monomers and fibrils were non-toxic to glial cells in CGC cultures or macrophage J774 cells. However, both oligomeric forms of Aβ1-42 induced reduction of neuronal cell densities in the CGC cultures. PMID:20153288

  7. Synthesis of novel polyfluorinated acrylic monomers and oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonucci, J.M.; Stansbury, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    An unhindered tertiary amine catalyzed reaction of monofunctional and difunctional hydrocarbon acrylates with paraformaldehyde under neat conditions yields unique difunctional acrylic monomers and oligomers, respectively. These multifunctional vinyl products have a predominantly 1,6-diene structure which favors cyclopolymerization. This reaction has been extended to the synthesis of similar polyfluorinated aliphatic monomers arrangements are determined by the nature of their fluoroester groups, e.g.-CF{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}C- favors a 1,4-diene rather than a 1,6-diene structure. In the present study the scope of this novel formaldehyde/acrylate insertion condensation reaction was further extended to include the synthesis of polyfluorinated aryl difunctional monomers and oligomers, e.g. from 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl acrylate and hexafluorobisphenol A diacrylate. The former did not require DMSO and yielded 1,6-, 1,8- and 1,10-dienes whereas the latter required DMSO and yielded oligomers mainly with 1,4-diene linkages.

  8. Aβ42 oligomers selectively disrupt neuronal calcium release.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Cristian; Kipanyula, Maulilio J; Agostini, Mario; Pozzan, Tullio; Fasolato, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides correlates with aging and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptides, which cause early synaptic dysfunctions, spine loss, and memory deficits, also disturb intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. By cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) measurements, we here define the short-term effects of synthetic Aβ42 on neuronal Ca(2+) dynamics. When applied acutely at submicromolar concentration, as either oligomers or monomers, Aβ42 did not cause Ca(2+) release or Ca(2+) influx. Similarly, 1-hour treatment with Aβ42 modified neither the resting cytosolic Ca(2+) level nor the long-lasting Ca(2+) influx caused by KCl-induced depolarization. In contrast, Aβ42 oligomers, but not monomers, significantly altered Ca(2+) release from stores with opposite effects on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)- and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization without alteration of the total store Ca(2+) content. Ca(2+) dysregulation by Aβ42 oligomers involves metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and requires network activity and the intact exo-endocytotic machinery, being prevented by tetrodotoxin and tetanus toxin. These findings support the idea that Ca(2+) store dysfunction is directly involved in Aβ42 neurotoxicity and represents a potential therapeutic target in AD-like dementia. PMID:25453559

  9. The Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymer/Oligomer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; McKenna, Gregory; Simon, Sindee

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics in athermal blends of poly(α-methyl styrene) (PaMS) and its short chain oligomer are investigated using rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Master curves for the dynamic shear responses, G' and G", are successfully constructed for both the pure materials and the blends, indicating the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. The temperature dependence of the shift factor follows the WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) behavior over the temperature range studied, and for the blends, the dependence is dominated by the high mobility oligomer. The discrete relaxation spectra of the materials are calculated and are found to be broader for the blends than for the pure materials. A similar domination of the dynamics by the oligomer is observed in DSC enthalpy recovery studies and in the broadened glass transition from DSC. The ability to predict the dynamic responses of the blends from the responses of the neat materials is examined, and whether this prediction needs to incorporate the self-concentration idea as described in Colmenero's model will be discussed.

  10. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates identified in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, K. E.; Turpin, B. J.; Seitzinger, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50 percent of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). We document the presence of 552 unique compounds in the rainwater over a mass range of 50-500 Da, in four compound classes (i.e., CHO, CHOS, CHON, and CHONS). The presence of oligomers, organosulfates, nitroxy organosulfates, organic acids, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is reported. Some compounds detected have distinct primary sources; however, the composition of the bulk of this material suggests it is formed in the atmosphere and composed of known contributors to secondary organic aerosol. For example, eight oligomer series known to form through aqueous photooxidation of methylglyoxal and organosulfate compounds known to form from 4 precursors in smog chamber experiments were identified in the rainwater samples. The oligomers, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates detected in the rainwater could all contribute to the HULIS fraction of atmospheric organic matter.

  11. Automated fluorous-assisted solution-phase synthesis of β-1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,6-mannan oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2016-07-22

    Automated solution-phase syntheses of β-1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,6-mannan oligomers have been accomplished by applying a β-directing C-5 carboxylate strategy. Fluorous-tag-assisted purification after each reaction cycle allowed the synthesis of short β-mannan oligomers with limited loading of glycosyl donor-as low as 3.0 equivalents for each glycosylation cycle. This study showed the capability of the automated solution-phase synthesis protocol for synthesizing various challenging glycosides, including use of a C-5 ester as a protecting group that could be converted under reductive conditions to a hydroxymethyl group for chain extension. PMID:27155895

  12. Oligomer formation in the troposphere: from experimental knowledge to 3-D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, V.; Coll, I.; Couvidat, F.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.; Seigneur, C.; Siour, G.

    2015-10-01

    The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols has proven to be a critical element of air quality and climate issues. However, its composition and the aging processes it undergoes remain insufficiently understood. This work builds on laboratory knowledge to simulate the formation of oligomers from biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) in the troposphere at the continental scale. We compare the results of two different modeling approaches, a 1st-order kinetic process and a pH-dependent parameterization, both implemented in the CHIMERE air quality model (AQM), to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of oligomerized SOA over western Europe. Our results show that there is a strong dependence of the results on the selected modeling approach: while the irreversible kinetic process leads to the oligomerization of about 50 % of the total BSOA mass, the pH-dependent approach shows a broader range of impacts, with a strong dependency on environmental parameters (pH and nature of aerosol) and the possibility for the process to be reversible. In parallel, we investigated the sensitivity of each modeling approach to the representation of SOA precursor solubility (Henry's law constant values). Finally, the pros and cons of each approach for the representation of SOA aging are discussed and recommendations are provided to improve current representations of oligomer formation in AQMs.

  13. Direct visualization of alpha-synuclein oligomers reveals previously undetected pathology in Parkinson’s disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosalind F.

    2015-01-01

    Oligomeric forms of alpha-synuclein are emerging as key mediators of pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease. Our understanding of the exact contribution of alpha-synuclein oligomers to disease is limited by the lack of a technique for their specific detection. We describe a novel method, the alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay, which specifically recognizes alpha-synuclein oligomers. In a blinded study with post-mortem brain tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease (n = 8, age range 73–92 years, four males and four females) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 8), we show that the alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay reveals previously unrecognized pathology in the form of extensive diffuse deposition of alpha-synuclein oligomers. These oligomers are often localized, in the absence of Lewy bodies, to neuroanatomical regions mildly affected in Parkinson’s disease. Diffuse alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay signal is significantly more abundant in patients compared to controls in regions including the cingulate cortex (1.6-fold increase) and the reticular formation of the medulla (6.5-fold increase). In addition, the alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay labels very early perikaryal aggregates in morphologically intact neurons that may precede the development of classical Parkinson’s disease lesions, such as pale bodies or Lewy bodies. Furthermore, the alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay preferentially detects early-stage, loosely compacted lesions such as pale bodies in patient tissue, whereas Lewy bodies, considered heavily compacted late lesions are only very exceptionally stained. The alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay preferentially labels alpha-synuclein oligomers produced in vitro compared to monomers and fibrils, while stained oligomers in human brain display a distinct intermediate proteinase K resistance, suggesting the detection of a conformer that is different from both physiological, presynaptic alpha

  14. Folic acid-polydopamine nanofibers show enhanced ordered-stacking via π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Huihui; Nie, Zongxiu; Wu, Decheng; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2015-06-21

    Recent research has indicated that polydopamine and synthetic eumelanins are optoelectronic biomaterials in which one-dimensional aggregates composed of ordered-stacking oligomers have been proposed as unique organic semiconductors. However, improving the ordered-stacking of oligomers in polydopamine nanostructures is a big challenge. Herein, we first demonstrate how folic acid molecules influence the morphology and nanostructure of polydopamine via tuning the π-π interactions of oligomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals that porphyrin-like tetramers are characteristic of folic acid-polydopamine (FA-PDA) nanofibers. X-ray diffraction combined with simulation studies indicate that these oligomers favour aggregation into graphite-like ordered nanostructures via strong π-π interactions. High-resolution TEM characterization of carbonized FA-PDA hybrids show that in FA-PDA nanofibers the size of the graphite-like domains is over 100 nm. The addition of folic acid in polydopamine enhances the ordered stacking of oligomers in its nanostructure. Our study steps forward to discover the mystery of the structure-property relationship of FA-PDA hybrids. It paves a way to optimize the properties of PDA through the design and selection of oligomer structures. PMID:25959650

  15. A Versatile Method for the Preparation of Ferroelectric Supramolecular Materials via Radical End-Functionalization of Vinylidene Fluoride Oligomers.

    PubMed

    García-Iglesias, Miguel; de Waal, Bas F M; Gorbunov, Andrey V; Palmans, Anja R A; Kemerink, Martijn; Meijer, E W

    2016-05-18

    A synthetic method for the end-functionalization of vinylidene fluoride oligomers (OVDF) via a radical reaction between terminal olefins and I-OVDF is described. The method shows a wide substrate scope and excellent conversions, and permits the preparation of different disc-shaped cores such as benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs), perylenes bisimide (PBI), and phthalocyanines (Pc) bearing three to eight ferroelectric oligomers at their periphery. The formation, purity, OVDF conformation, and morphology of the final adducts has been assessed by a combination of techniques, such as NMR, size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Finally, PBI-OVDF and Pc-OVDF materials show ferroelectric hysteresis behavior together with high remnant polarizations, with values as high as Pr ≈ 37 mC/m(2) for Pc-OVDF. This work demonstrates the potential of preparing a new set of ferroelectric materials simply by attaching OVDF oligomers to different small molecules. The use of carefully chosen small molecules paves the way to new functional materials in which ferroelectricity and electrical conductivity or light-harvesting properties coexist in a single compound. PMID:27119732

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Fab fragment of WO2, an antibody specific for the A[beta] peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wun, Kwok S.; Miles, Luke A.; Crespi, Gabriela A.N.; Wycherley, Kaye; Ascher, David B.; Barnham, Kevin J.; Cappai, Roberto; Beyreuther, Konrad; Masters, Colin L.; Parker, Michael W.; McKinstry, William J.

    2008-05-28

    The murine monoclonal antibody WO2 specifically binds the N-terminal region of the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) associated with Alzheimer's disease. This region of A{beta} has been shown to be the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the peptide and hence is considered to be a basis for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies against this prevalent cause of dementia. Structural studies have been undertaken in order to characterize the molecular basis for antibody recognition of this important epitope. Here, details of the crystallization and X-ray analysis of the Fab fragment of the unliganded WO2 antibody in two crystal forms and of the complexes that it forms with the truncated Az{beta} peptides A{beta}{sub 1-16} and A{beta}{sub 1-28} are presented. These crystals were all obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. Crystals of WO2 Fab were grown in polyethylene glycol solutions containing ZnSO{sub 4}; they belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The complexes of WO2 Fab with either A{beta}{sub 1-16} or A{beta}{sub 1-28} were cocrystallized from polyethylene glycol solutions. These two complex crystals grew in the same space group, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracted to 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. A second crystal form of WO2 Fab was grown in the presence of the sparingly soluble A{beta}{sub 1-42} in PEG 550 MME. This second form belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution.

  17. Intrinsic versus imposed curvature in cyclical oligomers: the portal protein of bacteriophage SPP1.

    PubMed Central

    van Heel, M; Orlova, E V; Dube, P; Tavares, P

    1996-01-01

    Large cyclical oligomers may be formed by (curvi-) linear polymerization of monomers until the n(th) monomer locks in with the first member of the chain. The subunits in incomplete structures exhibit a natural curvature with respect to each other which can be perturbed when the oligomer closes cyclically. Using cryo-electron microscopy and multivariate statistical image processing we report herein a direct structural observation of this effect. A sub-population (approximately 15%) of incomplete oligomers was found within a sample of SPP1 bacteriophage portal proteins embedded in vitreous ice. Whereas the curvature between adjacent subunits of the closed circular 13-fold symmetric oligomer is 27.7 degrees, in these incomplete oligomers the angle is only 25.8 degrees, a value which almost allows for a 14-subunit cyclical arrangement. A simple model for the association of large cyclical oligomers is suggested by our data. Images PMID:8890151

  18. Apoptosis induced by islet amyloid polypeptide soluble oligomers is neutralized by diabetes-associated specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Yaron; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Yanai, Inbal; Gilead, Sharon; Shaltiel-Karyo, Ronit; Amdursky, Nadav; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Soluble oligomeric assemblies of amyloidal proteins appear to act as major pathological agents in several degenerative disorders. Isolation and characterization of these oligomers is a pivotal step towards determination of their pathological relevance. Here we describe the isolation of Type 2 diabetes-associated islet amyloid polypeptide soluble cytotoxic oligomers; these oligomers induced apoptosis in cultured pancreatic cells, permeated model lipid vesicles and interacted with cell membranes following complete internalization. Moreover, antibodies which specifically recognized these assemblies, but not monomers or amyloid fibrils, were exclusively identified in diabetic patients and were shown to neutralize the apoptotic effect induced by these oligomers. Our findings support the notion that human IAPP peptide can form highly toxic oligomers. The presence of antibodies identified in the serum of diabetic patients confirms the pathological relevance of the oligomers. In addition, the newly identified structural epitopes may also provide new mechanistic insights and a molecular target for future therapy. PMID:24589570

  19. Radiative decay of excitons in model aggregates of {pi}-conjugated oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, E.S.; Spano, F.C.

    1998-07-01

    Spontaneous emission from exciton states in an aggregate of {pi}-conjugated oligomers is studied theoretically. Each oligomer is taken as a ring of N carbon atoms and is treated using a PPP Hamiltonian. Coulombic interactions between rings are treated to first order. The radiative decay rate {gamma} from an exciton state in an aggregate of M aligned oligomers is superradiant, being M times faster than the decay rate of an isolated oligomer exciton. Inter-oligomer interactions have little effect on the exciton size and energy when the oligomer size N is large compared to the interoligomer spacing. However, when N is small, both the exciton size and energy are strongly affected by these interactions, leading to a markedly different N dependence for {gamma}.

  20. Soluble prion protein and its N-terminal fragment prevent impairment of synaptic plasticity by Aβ oligomers: Implications for novel therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scott-McKean, Jonah J; Surewicz, Krystyna; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Ruffin, Vernon A; Salameh, Ahlam I; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Costa, Alberto C S; Surewicz, Witold K

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenic process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to be closely linked to the neurotoxic action of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers bind with high affinity to the membrane-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It has also been proposed that this binding might mediate some of the toxic effects of the oligomers. Here, we show that the soluble (membrane anchor-free) recombinant human prion protein (rPrP) and its N-terminal fragment N1 block Aβ oligomers-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices, an important surrogate marker of cognitive deficit associated with AD. rPrP and N1 are also strikingly potent inhibitors of Aβ cytotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, experiments using hippocampal slices and neurons from wild-type and PrP(C) null mice (as well as rat neurons in which PrP(C) expression was greatly reduced by gene silencing) indicate that, in contrast to the impairment of synaptic plasticity by Aβ oligomers, the cytotoxic effects of these oligomers, and the inhibition of these effects by rPrP and N1, are independent of the presence of endogenous PrP(C). This suggests fundamentally different mechanisms by which soluble rPrP and its fragments inhibit these two toxic responses to Aβ. Overall, these findings provide strong support to recent suggestions that PrP-based compounds may offer new avenues for pharmacological intervention in AD. PMID:26949218

  1. Extracellular Tau Oligomers Produce An Immediate Impairment of LTP and Memory.

    PubMed

    Fá, M; Puzzo, D; Piacentini, R; Staniszewski, A; Zhang, H; Baltrons, M A; Li Puma, D D; Chatterjee, I; Li, J; Saeed, F; Berman, H L; Ripoli, C; Gulisano, W; Gonzalez, J; Tian, H; Costa, J A; Lopez, P; Davidowitz, E; Yu, W H; Haroutunian, V; Brown, L M; Palmeri, A; Sigurdsson, E M; Duff, K E; Teich, A F; Honig, L S; Sierks, M; Moe, J G; D'Adamio, L; Grassi, C; Kanaan, N M; Fraser, P E; Arancio, O

    2016-01-01

    Non-fibrillar soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-β peptide (oAβ) and tau proteins are likely to play a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevailing hypothesis on the disease etiopathogenesis is that oAβ initiates tau pathology that slowly spreads throughout the medial temporal cortex and neocortices independently of Aβ, eventually leading to memory loss. Here we show that a brief exposure to extracellular recombinant human tau oligomers (oTau), but not monomers, produces an impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory, independent of the presence of high oAβ levels. The impairment is immediate as it raises as soon as 20 min after exposure to the oligomers. These effects are reproduced either by oTau extracted from AD human specimens, or naturally produced in mice overexpressing human tau. Finally, we found that oTau could also act in combination with oAβ to produce these effects, as sub-toxic doses of the two peptides combined lead to LTP and memory impairment. These findings provide a novel view of the effects of tau and Aβ on memory loss, offering new therapeutic opportunities in the therapy of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with Aβ and tau pathology. PMID:26786552

  2. Preparation of crystalline and solvent resistant polycarbonates via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelle, D.J.; Krabbenhoft, H.O.; Bonauto, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    Development of efficient methods for the preparation and polymerization of cyclic oligomeric aromatic carbonates has allowed the facile preparation of a variety of polycarbonates. Because the cyclic oligomers can be converted directly into high molecular weight polycarbonates in the absence of solvent, and without formation of by-products, this route is especially attractive for the fabrication of composite structures. This paper reports that crystalline and/or solvent-resistant polycarbonates can be prepared via the intermediacy of cyclic oligomers. Copolycarbonates of bisphenol A with hydroquinone, resorcinol, or methylhydroquinone were insoluble in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and showed crystalline melting points in some cases. For example, a 60/40 HQ/BPA polycarbonate had a glass transition temperature of 154{degrees}C, and a melting point of 313{degrees}C, with a heat of melting of 11.0 J/g, while a 100% methylhydroquinone polycarbonate had a Tg of 155{degrees}C and a melting point of 289{degrees}C, with a heat of melting of 31.0 J/g.

  3. Perforin oligomers form arcs in cellular membranes: a locus for intracellular delivery of granzymes.

    PubMed

    Metkar, S S; Marchioretto, M; Antonini, V; Lunelli, L; Wang, B; Gilbert, R J C; Anderluh, G; Roth, R; Pooga, M; Pardo, J; Heuser, J E; Serra, M D; Froelich, C J

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-mediated cytotoxicity is an essential host defense, in which defects contribute to tumor development and pathogenic disorders including autoimmunity and autoinflammation. How perforin (PFN) facilitates intracellular delivery of pro-apoptotic and inflammatory granzymes across the bilayer of targets remains unresolved. Here we show that cellular susceptibility to granzyme B (GzmB) correlates with rapid PFN-induced phosphatidylserine externalization, suggesting that pores are formed at a protein-lipid interface by incomplete membrane oligomers (or arcs). Supporting a role for these oligomers in protease delivery, an anti-PFN antibody (pf-80) suppresses necrosis but increases phosphatidylserine flip-flop and GzmB-induced apoptosis. As shown by atomic force microscopy on planar bilayers and deep-etch electron microscopy on mammalian cells, pf-80 increases the proportion of arcs which correlates with the presence of smaller electrical conductances, while large cylindrical pores decline. PFN appears to form arc structures on target membranes that serve as minimally disrupting conduits for GzmB translocation. The role of these arcs in PFN-mediated pathology warrants evaluation where they may serve as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25146929

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it. PMID:22243140

  5. Annotation of Different Dehydrocatechin Oligomers by MS/MS and Their Occurrence in Black Tea.

    PubMed

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Dehydrocatechins (DhC's), oligomeric oxidation products of (epi)catechins, were formed in model incubations of epicatechin with mushroom tyrosinase. DhC oligomers up to tetramers were detected by reversed-phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-MS) analysis. Measurements with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) showed formation of oligomers up to at least 15 catechin subunits. Isomeric DhC's were obtained, and a method based on MS(2) fragment ratios was set up to distinguish between the different interflavanic configurations of the isomers. In the model incubation, 8 dehydrodicatechins (DhC2's) and 22 dehydrotricatechins (DhC3's) were tentatively annotated by their MS(2) signature fragments. Three different interflavanic configuration types were determined for the DhC2's. DhC2's and DhC3's were shown to occur in a black tea extract for the first time. For the DhC2's, at least two isomeric types, i.e., DhC β and DhC ε, could be annotated in black tea. PMID:27380714

  6. Perforin oligomers form arcs in cellular membranes: a locus for intracellular delivery of granzymes

    PubMed Central

    Metkar, S S; Marchioretto, M; Antonini, V; Lunelli, L; Wang, B; Gilbert, R JC; Anderluh, G; Roth, R; Pooga, M; Pardo, J; Heuser, J E; Serra, M D; Froelich, C J

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-mediated cytotoxicity is an essential host defense, in which defects contribute to tumor development and pathogenic disorders including autoimmunity and autoinflammation. How perforin (PFN) facilitates intracellular delivery of pro-apoptotic and inflammatory granzymes across the bilayer of targets remains unresolved. Here we show that cellular susceptibility to granzyme B (GzmB) correlates with rapid PFN-induced phosphatidylserine externalization, suggesting that pores are formed at a protein-lipid interface by incomplete membrane oligomers (or arcs). Supporting a role for these oligomers in protease delivery, an anti-PFN antibody (pf-80) suppresses necrosis but increases phosphatidylserine flip-flop and GzmB-induced apoptosis. As shown by atomic force microscopy on planar bilayers and deep-etch electron microscopy on mammalian cells, pf-80 increases the proportion of arcs which correlates with the presence of smaller electrical conductances, while large cylindrical pores decline. PFN appears to form arc structures on target membranes that serve as minimally disrupting conduits for GzmB translocation. The role of these arcs in PFN-mediated pathology warrants evaluation where they may serve as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25146929

  7. Extracellular Tau Oligomers Produce An Immediate Impairment of LTP and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fá, M.; Puzzo, D.; Piacentini, R.; Staniszewski, A.; Zhang, H.; Baltrons, M. A.; Li Puma, D. D.; Chatterjee, I.; Li, J.; Saeed, F.; Berman, H. L.; Ripoli, C.; Gulisano, W.; Gonzalez, J.; Tian, H.; Costa, J. A.; Lopez, P.; Davidowitz, E.; Yu, W. H.; Haroutunian, V.; Brown, L. M.; Palmeri, A.; Sigurdsson, E. M.; Duff, K. E.; Teich, A. F.; Honig, L. S.; Sierks, M.; Moe, J. G.; D’Adamio, L.; Grassi, C.; Kanaan, N. M.; Fraser, P. E.; Arancio, O.

    2016-01-01

    Non-fibrillar soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-β peptide (oAβ) and tau proteins are likely to play a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prevailing hypothesis on the disease etiopathogenesis is that oAβ initiates tau pathology that slowly spreads throughout the medial temporal cortex and neocortices independently of Aβ, eventually leading to memory loss. Here we show that a brief exposure to extracellular recombinant human tau oligomers (oTau), but not monomers, produces an impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory, independent of the presence of high oAβ levels. The impairment is immediate as it raises as soon as 20 min after exposure to the oligomers. These effects are reproduced either by oTau extracted from AD human specimens, or naturally produced in mice overexpressing human tau. Finally, we found that oTau could also act in combination with oAβ to produce these effects, as sub-toxic doses of the two peptides combined lead to LTP and memory impairment. These findings provide a novel view of the effects of tau and Aβ on memory loss, offering new therapeutic opportunities in the therapy of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with Aβ and tau pathology. PMID:26786552

  8. The effects of soluble Aβ oligomers on neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The neurodegenerative process that defines Alzheimer''s disease (AD) is initially characterized by synaptic alterations followed by synapse loss and ultimately cell death. Decreased synaptic density that precedes neuronal death is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive deficits observed in AD. Substantial synapse and neuron loss occur early in disease progression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, when memory deficits become clinically detectable. Mounting evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers trigger synapse dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. However, the neurodegenerative effect of Aβ species observed on neuronal culture or organotypic brain slice culture has been more challenging to mimic in animal models. While most of the transgenic mice that overexpress Aβ show abundant amyloid plaque pathology and early synaptic alterations, these models have been less successful in recapitulating the spatiotemporal pattern of cell loss observed in AD. Recently we developed a novel animal model that revealed the neurodegenerative effect of soluble low-molecular-weight Aβ oligomers in vivo. This new approach may now serve to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms linking soluble Aβ species to neurodegeneration in animals. In light of the low efficiency of AD therapies based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, a novel framework, the aging factor cascade hypothesis, is proposed in an attempt to integrate the new data and concepts that emerged from recent research to develop disease modifying therapies. PMID:23859546

  9. Ring-like oligomers of Synaptotagmins and related C2 domain proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Maria N; Bello, Oscar D; Wang, Jing; Coleman, Jeff; Cai, Yiying; Sindelar, Charles V; Rothman, James E; Krishnakumar, Shyam S

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the C2AB portion of Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) could self-assemble into Ca2+-sensitive ring-like oligomers on membranes, which could potentially regulate neurotransmitter release. Here we report that analogous ring-like oligomers assemble from the C2AB domains of other Syt isoforms (Syt2, Syt7, Syt9) as well as related C2 domain containing protein, Doc2B and extended Synaptotagmins (E-Syts). Evidently, circular oligomerization is a general and conserved structural aspect of many C2 domain proteins, including Synaptotagmins. Further, using electron microscopy combined with targeted mutations, we show that under physiologically relevant conditions, both the Syt1 ring assembly and its rapid disruption by Ca2+ involve the well-established functional surfaces on the C2B domain that are important for synaptic transmission. Our data suggests that ring formation may be triggered at an early step in synaptic vesicle docking and positions Syt1 to synchronize neurotransmitter release to Ca2+ influx. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17262.001 PMID:27434670

  10. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Glazer, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligomers designed to bind to the selective region of Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) transcript, induce potent and sequence-specific antisense effects as compared with regular PNA oligomers. In addition, PLGA nanoparticle delivery of MPγPNAs is not toxic to the cells. The findings reported in this study provide a combination of γPNA technology and PLGA-based nanoparticle delivery method for regulating gene expression in live cells via the antisense mechanism. PMID:23954968