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Sample records for abh-le secretor traits

  1. The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians XI. Gene frequencies for 10 blood groups and the ABH-Le secretor traits in the Yanomama and their neighbors; the uniqueness of the tribe.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R H; Gershowitz, H; Layrisse, M; Neel, J V

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of blood group typings for a total of 33 villages distributed among five South American Indian tribes--Yanomama (21 villages), Makiritare (eight villages), Macushi (two villages), Piaroa (one village), and Wapishana (one village). These new results for the Yanomama and Makiritare tribes have been combined with those previously reported to allow a better appreciation of the distribution of allelic frequencies in the tribes. The relationship of the Yanomama to other South American Indian tribes is investigated using data on six polymorphic loci (Rh, MNS, Fy, Jk, Di, Hp). By use of four genetic measures (two of genetic relationship and two of genetic diversity), we demonstrate that the Yanomama are genetically unique among a sample of 20 South American tribes. In addition, the Yanomama show somewhat less genetic diversity for the six loci analyzed than the average South American tribe. Taken together, these results indicate a rather long period of isolation for the population antecedent to the Yanomama--perhaps since the time of entry of man into the South American continent. The pattern of genetic relationships and genetic diversity for the 20 tribes is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution in South America proceeded by a process of fission-fusion leading to isolation of subpopulations with subsequent genetic differentiation as a consequence of population isolation. The uniqueness of the Yanomama appears to stem entirely from such a process, there being no evidence of any selective differential for the loci analyzed. PMID:50736

  2. Frequency of ABH secretors and non secretors: A cross sectional study in Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Saboor, Muhammad; Ullah, Aman; Qamar, Khansa; Mir, Awal; Moinuddin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: ABO blood group and secretor status is valuable in relation to some diseases in clinical and forensic medicine. Across the globe there are geographic and racial differences in the frequency of secretors and non-secretors. Aim of this study was to evaluate the status of ABH blood group secretors and non-secretors in Karachi (Pakistan). Methods: Blood and saliva samples were randomly collected from one hundred and one (n=101) healthy adult students (76 male, 25 female) ranging in age from 15 to 40 years. Their ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined by conventional methods, and their secretor status was studied by hemagglutination inhibition method of saliva. Results: Results showed that 64.4% of the study population were ABH blood group secretors while 35.6% were non-secretors. Frequencies of the secretor status among various ABO blood groups were 71.4% in group A, 79.5% in group B, 45.5% in group AB, and 61.5% in group O. Conclusion: Frequency of ABH secretor is high (64.4%). Blood group B has the highest secretor (79.5%) frequency while Blood group AB has the lowest (45.5%). PMID:24639859

  3. Hypertonic saline solutions do not influence the solubility of sputum from secretor and non-secretor cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Marcelo A.I.; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara C.; Ferreira, Ana Iara C.; Barja, Paulo R.; Santos de Faria Junior, Newton; de Oliveira, Luís Vicente F.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Functional alterations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) increase the viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and require the use of therapeutic aerosols. The biochemical properties of exocrine secretions are influenced by the expression of the FUT2 gene which determine the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes of the ABH glycoconjugates. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of secretor and non-secretor phenotypes by means of photoacoustic analysis, both the typical interaction time (t 0) and the solubilization interval (Δt) of the sputum of secretor and non-secretor CF patients nebulized by hypertonic saline solutions at different concentrations. Material and methods Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from 6 secretor and 4 non-secretor patients with CF. Each sample was nebulized with 3%, 6%, and 7% hypertonic saline solutions in a photoacoustic cell. The values of t 0 and Δt were determined using the Origin 7.5® computer program (Microcal Software Inc.). The t-test was employed using the GraphPad Instat 3.0® computer program to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each parameter. Results For all hypertonic saline solutions tested, the mean values of t 0 and Δt do not show statistically significant differences between secretor and non-secretor patients. Conclusions The secretor and non-secretor phenotypes do not influence the in vitro solubilization of the sputum nebulized by hypertonic saline solutions at different concentrations when analysed by photoacoustic technique. PMID:22291775

  4. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, P. R.; Coelho, C. C.; Paiva, R. F.; Barboza, M. A.; Matos, L. C.; Matos, C. C. B.; Oliveira, L. V. F.

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called "secretor" and "non secretor" phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t0 (typical interaction time) and Δt (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  5. Secretor Status Is Strongly Associated with Microbial Alterations Observed during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Himanshu; Wacklin, Pirjo; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Chowdhury, Somak; Shouche, Yogesh; Mättö, Jaana; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy there are significant changes in gut microbiota composition and activity. The impact of secretor status as determined by genotyping FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2) gene was taken as one of the confounding factors associated with faecal microbiota changes during pregnancy. In this prospective study, we followed women during pregnancy (total = 123 of which secretors = 108, non-secretors = 15) and characterised their gut microbiota by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation (FISH), Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. qPCR revealed that C. coccoides group counts decreased significantly in non-secretors in comparison to secretors (p = 0.02). Similar tendency was found by FISH analysis in Clostridium histolyticum and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus groups between the secretor and the non-secretor pregnant women. DGGE analysis showed significant decrease in richness of Clostridium sp. between secretor and non-secretor mothers during pregnancy. Pyrosequencing based analysis at phyla level showed that there is greater increase in Actinobacteria in secretors in comparison to non-secretors, whereas Proteobacteria showed more increase in non-secretors. Change in relative abundance of Clostridiaceae family from first to third trimester were significantly associated with secretor status of pregnant women (p = 0.05). Polyphasic approach for microbiota analysis points out that the host secretor status (FUT2 genotype) affects the gut microbiota during pregnancy. This may lead to altered infant gut microbiota colonization. PMID:26231005

  6. ABO (H) secretor status of sickle cell disease patients in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olorunshola, K V; Audu, L

    2013-01-01

    Certain individuals secrete ABO blood group antigens in body fluids and secretions while others do not. In this study, the presence of water soluble agglutinogens in body fluids such as blood, saliva and urine of 64 sickle cell disease patients and 75 AA genotype subjects who served as control were taken and tested by hem-agglutination inhibition method. Data obtained was expressed in percentages. Results revealed that 84.4% sickle cell patients were secretors while 15.6% were non secretors. Amongst the control, 97.3% were secretors while 3.1% were non secretors. 81.2% SS and 3.2% SS+F patients were secretors while 15.6% SS were non secretors, 68% AA were secretors and 29.3% AS were secretors while 2.7% AA were non secretors. The result showed that a non secretor is more likely to be an SS than a secretor and Secretor status is influenced by hemoglobin genotype. PMID:23955403

  7. Rotavirus P[8] Infections in Persons with Secretor and Nonsecretor Phenotypes, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayouni, Siwar; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; de Rougemont, Alexis; Estienney, Marie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Aho, Serge; Hamami, Sabeur; Aouni, Mahjoub; Neji-Guediche, Mohamed; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether rotavirus infections are linked to secretor status, we studied samples from children in Tunisia with gastroenteritis. We phenotyped saliva for human blood group antigens and tested feces for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 32/114 patients. Secretor genotyping showed that P[8] rotavirus infected secretors and nonsecretors, and infection correlated with presence of Lewis antigen. PMID:26488868

  8. Faecal Microbiota Composition in Adults Is Associated with the FUT2 Gene Determining the Secretor Status

    PubMed Central

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Tuimala, Jarno; Nikkilä, Janne; Sebastian Tims; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Alakulppi, Noora; Laine, Pia; Rajilic-Stojanovic, Mirjana; Paulin, Lars; de Vos, Willem M.; Mättö, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA) and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG) adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET) 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota. PMID:24733310

  9. Infection by Helicobacter pylori expressing the BabA adhesin is influenced by the secretor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M; Eriksson, S; Mendes, N; Serpa, J; Figueiredo, C; Resende, L P; Ruvoën-Clouet, N; Haas, R; Borén, T; Le Pendu, J; David, L

    2008-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infects half the world's population and causes diverse gastric lesions, from gastritis to gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of secretor and Lewis status in infection and in vitro adherence by Hp expressing BabA adhesin. We enrolled 304 Hp-infected individuals from Northern Portugal. Gastric biopsies, blood and saliva were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to detect BabA+ Hp in gastric biopsies. In vitro adherence by a BabA expressing Hp strain to gastric biopsies was performed. Secretor status was identified by Ulex, a lectin that recognizes secretor-dependent glycan structures in saliva and in gastric mucosa, and by Lewis(a/b) antibodies, and indirectly by identification of an inactivating mutation in the FUT2 gene (G428A). BabA status of infecting Hp was associated with CagA and VacAs1 (p < 0.05), intercellular localization of Hp (p < 0.01) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.05) and degenerative alterations (p < 0.005) in the biopsies. BabA was associated (p < 0.05) with Ulex staining of gastric biopsies and, although not significantly, to absence of homozygosity for FUT2 G428A inactivating polymorphism. In vitro Hp adherence was higher in cases wild-type or heterozygous for FUT2 G428A mutation (p < 0.0001), cases staining for Ulex (p < 0.0001) and a(-)b+ and a(-)b(-) secretor phenotypes (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BabA+ Hp infection/adhesion is secretor-dependent and associated with the severity of gastric lesions. PMID:18498114

  10. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  11. Ethnic differences in the expression of blood group antigens in the salivary gland secretory cells from German and Japanese non-secretor individuals.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, A; Nishi, K; Fukunaga, T; Rand, S; Brinkmann, B

    1996-08-01

    Type 1 ABO blood group antigens (peripheral core structure: Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc beta 1-R) are expressed mainly in endodermally-derived tissues, but are not synthesized in mesodermally-derived tissues. In the former tissues, H type 1 antigen is generated largely by alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase encoded by secretor (Se) gene and acting on the terminal galactose of the type 1 precursor chain. This theory has been generally accepted, and it seems that the expression of ABO blood group antigens is absent, or expressed at a low level, in these tissues from non-secretor individuals. In this immunohistochemical study on the secretory cells of salivary glands, we found ethnic difference between German and Japanese non-secretor individuals in the expression of blood group antigens: i.e. the expression of the type 1 blood group antigens is present in these cells from Japanese non-secretor individuals but absent from German. A possible explanation is that another alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase, independent of the secretor gene, is present in Japanese non-secretor individuals. PMID:8872110

  12. Hereditary aspects of duodenal ulceration: pepsin 1 secretion in relation to ABO blood groups and ABH secretor status.

    PubMed Central

    Waft, L; Roberts, N B; Taylor, W H

    1979-01-01

    Pepsin 1, the ulcer-associated pepsin, occurred significantly more frequently in the gastric juice of those patients with duodenal ulcer who did not secrete A, B, or H antigens into gastric juice than in those secreting these antigens. This observation may explain the increased proportion of such non-secretors among patients with duodenal ulceration. In patients with gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia, and in a miscellaneous group of patients, there was no association of pepsin 1 secretion with secretor status, suggesting that the association noted in duodenal ulceration is an indirect rather than a direct one. No increase of pepsin 1 occurred in group O patients with peptic ulcer, so that the increased proportion of such patients in peptic ulcer does not arise from differences in pepsin 1 secretion. PMID:119857

  13. Significance of Lewis phenotyping using saliva and gastric tissue: comparison with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and secretor genotypes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotyping were as follows [Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b+), and Le(a+b+), respectively, in order]: erythrocyte (12.4%, 25.8%, 61.2%, and 0.5%); saliva (2.4%, 27.3%, 70.3%, and 0.0%); gastric mucosa (8.1%, 6.7%, 45.5%, and 39.7%). The frequency of Le, le (59/508) , le (59/1067) , and le (59) alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype. PMID:24783214

  14. Epidemiologic Association Between FUT2 Secretor Status and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Daniel C.; Currier, Rebecca L.; Staat, Mary A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Halasa, Natasha B.; Englund, Janet A.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Boom, Julie A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Klein, Eileen J.; Chappell, James; Harrison, Christopher J.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Moffatt, Mary D.; McNeal, Monica; Wikswo, Mary; Bowen, Michael D.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test–positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. RESULTS One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test–positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P < .001). Healthy control participants of Hispanic ethnicity were significantly less likely to be nonsecretors (13%) compared with healthy children who were not of Hispanic ethnicity (25%) (P < .001). After controlling for vaccination and other factors, children with the nonsecretor FUT2 polymorphism appeared statistically protected (98% [95% CI, 84%–100%]) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic

  15. Variant ABO Blood Group Alleles, Secretor Status and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Results from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Kraft, Peter; Xu, Mousheng; Steplowski, Emily; Olsson, Martin L.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Austin, Melissa A.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Sanchéz, Maria-José; Sansbury, Leah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slimani, Nadia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Glycosyltransferase activity is greater for the A1 versus A2 variant, while O01 and O02 variants are nonfunctioning. We hypothesized: (1) A1 allele would confer greater risk than A2 allele, (2) protective effect of the O allele would be equivalent for O01 and O02 variants, (3) secretor phenotype would modify the association with risk. Methods We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1533 cases and 1582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer were calculated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk was observed in participants with A1, but not A2 alleles. Compared to subjects with genotype O/O, genotypes A2/O, A2/A1, A1/O, and A1/A1 had ORs of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–1.26), 1.46 (95%CI, 0.98–2.17), 1.48 (95%CI, 1.23–1.78), and 1.71 (95%CI, 1.18–2.47). Risk was similar for O01 and O02 variant O alleles. Compared to O01/O01, the ORs for each additional allele of O02, A1, and A2 were 1.00 (95%CI, 0.87–1.14), 1.38 (95%CI, 1.20–1.58), and 0.96 (95%CI, 0.77–1.20); P-value, O01 versus O02=0.94, A1 versus A2=0.004. Secretor phenotype was not an effect modifier (P-interaction=0.63). Conclusions Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. Impact These data support the hypothesis that ABO glycosyltransferase activity influences pancreatic cancer risk, rather than actions of other nearby genes on chromosome 9q34. PMID:20971884

  16. Two new FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) missense polymorphisms, 739G-->A and 839T-->C, are partly responsible for non-secretor status in a Caucasian population from Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jacinta; Mendes, Nuno; Reis, Celso A; Santos Silva, Luis F; Almeida, Raquel; Le Pendu, Jacques; David, Leonor

    2004-11-01

    Secretor status is defined by the expression of H type 1 antigen on gastric surface epithelium and external secretions. The H type 1 structure, and other fucosylated carbohydrates (Le(a), sialyl-Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), sialyl-Le(x) and Le(y)), can serve as ligands for several pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, and are cancer-associated antigens. Secretor individuals are more susceptible to some bacterial and viral infections of the genito-urinary and digestive tracts. The aim of the present study was to examine FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) polymorphisms in a Caucasian population of non-secretor individuals (n=36) from northern Portugal and to evaluate the activity of the mutant FUT2 enzymes. The secretor status was determined by UEAI [Ulex europaeus (gorse) lectin] histochemistry in gastric mucosa, and FUT2 polymorphisms were studied by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and direct sequencing. The majority of non-secretors (88.9%) were homozygous for 428G-->A polymorphism; 5.6% were homozygous for 571C-->T and 5.6% were homozygous for two new missense polymorphisms, 739G-->A (2.8%) and 839T-->C (2.8%). By kinetic studies it was demonstrated that the two new FUT2 mutants (739G-->A and 839T-->C) are almost inactive and are responsible for some non-secretor cases. PMID:15250822

  17. Lacto N Tetraose, Fucosylation, and Secretor Status are Highly Variable in Human Milk Oligosaccharides From Women Delivering Preterm

    PubMed Central

    De Leoz, Maria Lorna A.; Gaerlan, Stephanie C.; Strum, John S.; Dimapasoc, Lauren M.; Mirmiran, Majid; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Mills, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk is the ideal nutrition for term infants but must be supplemented to provide adequate growth for most premature infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are remarkably abundant and diverse in breast milk and yet provide no nutritive value to the infant. HMOs appear to have at least two major functions: prebiotic activity (stimulation of the growth of commensal bacteria in the gut) and protection against pathogens. Investigations of HMOs in milk from women delivering preterm have been limited. We present the first detailed mass spectrometric analysis of the fucosylation and sialylation in HMOs in serial specimens of milk from fifteen women delivering preterm and seven women delivering at term using nano-high performance liquid chromatography chip/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixed-effects model with Levene’s test was used for the statistical analyses. We find that lacto-N-tetraose, a core HMO, is both more abundant and more highly variable in the milk of women delivering preterm. Furthermore, fucosylation in preterm milk is not as well regulated as in term milk, resulting in higher within and between mother variation in women delivering preterm vs. term. Of particular clinical interest, the α1,2-linked fucosylated oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose, an indicator of secretor status, is not consistently present across lactation of several mothers that delivered preterm. The immaturity of HMO production does not appear to resolve over the time of lactation and may have relevance to the susceptibility of premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis, late onset sepsis, and related neurodevelopmental impairments. PMID:22900748

  18. Contrasting patterns of polymorphisms at the ABO-secretor gene (FUT2) and plasma alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT6) in human populations.

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Y; Tachida, H; Pang, H; Liu, Y; Soejima, M; Ghaderi, A A; Takenaka, O; Kimura, H

    2001-01-01

    The coding sequences ( approximately 1 kb) of FUT2 [ABO-Secretor type alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase] and of FUT6 [plasma alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase] were analyzed for allelic polymorphism by direct sequencing in five populations. The nucleotide diversities of FUT2 estimated from pairwise sequence differences were 0.0045, 0.0042, 0.0042, 0.0009, and 0.0008 in Africans, European-Africans, Iranians, Chinese, and Japanese, respectively. The nucleotide diversities of FUT6 were 0.0024, 0.0016, 0.0015, 0.0017, and 0.0020 in Africans, European-Africans, Iranians, Chinese, and Japanese, respectively. At FUT2, excesses in pairwise sequence differences compared to the number of polymorphic sites as indicated by a significantly positive Tajima's D were observed in European-Africans and in Iranians. The data do not fit expectations of the equilibrium neutral model with an infinite number of sites. On the other hand, Tajima's D's at FUT6 in each of the five populations and at FUT2 in Africans, Chinese, and Japanese were not significantly different from zero. F(ST) between the Asians and the others measured at FUT2 was higher than at FUT6. These results suggest that natural selection was responsible for the generation of the FUT2 polymorphism in European-Africans and in Iranians. PMID:11404338

  19. Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms of the Lewis secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene reveals that Taiwan aborigines are of Austronesian derivation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin; Lee, James Chun-I; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liu, Ta-Chih; Shih, Mu-Chin; Peng, Ching-Tien

    2002-01-01

    The origins of the Taiwan aborigines have not been fully resolved. Anthropological and linguistic studies have indicated that their ancestry is mainly Austronesian or Malayopolynesian. Some polymorphisms and mutations in the secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) gene are found in Taiwan aborigines. In this study, we analyzed the frequency of eight mutations and one polymorphism of the FUT2 gene in Taiwan aborigines and other ethnic groups in order to explore the origins of these groups. The results showed that the C302T, G428A, and fusion gene mutations were specific for Thai, Caucasians, and Japanese, respectively. The A385T mutation was specific for Asians including Taiwan aborigines. The genetic frequencies of C571T were much higher in Taiwan aborigines (1.96% to 20.4%), Filipinos (13.2%), and Indonesians (3.30%) as compared with Thai (0.57%), Chinese (0.65% to 1.12%), Japanese (0%), and Caucasians (0%). The frequencies of the G849A mutation were also higher in Taiwan aborigines (0.38% to 21.57%), Filipinos (6.80%), and Indonesians (1.48%) than in Thai (0.94%), Chinese (0-0.37%), Japanese (0%), or Caucasians (0%). Deletion of a 3-bp region (nt 688 to nt 690) was found only in Filipinos (0.85%), Indonesians (0.74%), and three tribes (0.42% to 2.70%) of Taiwan aborigines, but not in other populations. The C628T mutation was found only in Taiwanese Han, Thai, and two tribes of Taiwan aborigines. The genetic frequency of the C357T polymorphism was much higher in Asians than in Caucasians. The genetic analysis confirms that the origins of Taiwan aborigines are Austronesian and that they are closely related to the Filipino and Indonesian populations. We suggest that mutations or polymorphisms of the FUT2 gene are very good markers for investigating population genetics. PMID:11916003

  20. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and calcium mediate root ion fluxes in two non-secretor mangrove species subjected to NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjun; Li, Niya; Sun, Jian; Hou, Peichen; Jing, Xiaoshu; Zhu, Huipeng; Deng, Shurong; Han, Yansha; Huang, Xuxin; Ma, Xujun; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Yuhong; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-01-01

    Using 3-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny and Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, we compared species differences in ionic homeostasis control between the two non-secretor mangrove species. A high salinity (400 mM NaCl, 4 weeks) resulted in a decline of the K(+)/Na(+) ratio in root and leaf tissues, and the reduction was more pronounced in K. candel (41-66%) as compared with B. gymnorrhiza (5-36%). Salt-altered flux profiles of Na(+), K(+), H(+) and Ca(2+) in roots and effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) on root ion fluxes were examined in seedlings that were hydroponically treated short term with 100 mM NaCl (ST, 24 h) and long term with 200 mM NaCl (LT, 7 days). Short term and LT salinity resulted in Na(+) efflux and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx in roots of both species, although a more pronounced effect was observed in B. gymnorrhiza. The salt-enhanced exchange of Na(+) with H(+) was obviously inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase inhibitor), indicating that the Na(+) efflux resulted from active Na(+) exclusion across the plasma membrane. Short term and LT salinity accelerated K(+) efflux in the two species, but K. candel exhibited a higher flux rate. The salt-induced K(+) efflux was markedly restricted by the K(+) channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that the K(+) efflux is mediated by depolarization-activated channels, e.g., KORCs (outward rectifying K(+) channels) and NSCCs (non-selective cation channels). Exogenous H(2)O(2) application (10 mM) markedly increased the apparent Na(+) efflux and limited K(+) efflux in ST-treated roots, although H(2)O(2) caused a higher Na(+) efflux in B. gymnorrhiza roots. CaCl(2) (10 mM) reduced the efflux of K(+) in salinized roots of the two mangroves, but its enhancement of Na(+) efflux was found only in B. gymnorrhiza. Under ST treatment, sodium nitroprusside

  1. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  2. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  3. Whole Trait Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  4. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  5. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  6. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  7. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  8. Origins of Metastatic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagué, Joan

    2014-01-01

    How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

  9. Bayesian Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Multiple Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Samprit; Yandell, Brian S.; Yi, Nengjun

    2008-01-01

    Most quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping experiments typically collect phenotypic data on multiple correlated complex traits. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive genomewide mapping strategy for correlated traits in the literature. We develop Bayesian multiple-QTL mapping methods for correlated continuous traits using two multivariate models: one that assumes the same genetic model for all traits, the traditional multivariate model, and the other known as the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model that allows different genetic models for different traits. We develop computationally efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for performing joint analysis. We conduct extensive simulation studies to assess the performance of the proposed methods and to compare with the conventional single-trait model. Our methods have been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim (http://www.qtlbim.org), which greatly facilitates the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for unraveling the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:18689903

  10. Evolving Trait Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Redefines intelligence as a useful, comprehensive, and flexible construct that allows its modifiability as a function of age and culture. Reviews theories on two-factor, multiple-factor, facet, and hierarchical models of trait formation based on research in developmental, cross-cultural, learning, and cognitive psychology. (Author/AOS)

  11. Critical Thinking: Developing Intellectual Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that critical thinking is more than a set of skills; it also involves intellectual traits that should be cultivated. These traits include intellectual humility, courage, empathy, integrity, and perseverance; faith in reason; and fair-mindedness. Self-questioning is an important means of developing these traits. (SL)

  12. Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

    2011-02-01

    This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

  13. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  14. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  15. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  16. Bayesian Shrinkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Dynamic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runqing; Xu, Shizhong

    2007-01-01

    Many quantitative traits are measured repeatedly during the life of an organism. Such traits are called dynamic traits. The pattern of the changes of a dynamic trait is called the growth trajectory. Studying the growth trajectory may enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory. Recently, we developed an interval-mapping procedure to map QTL for dynamic traits under the maximum-likelihood framework. We fit the growth trajectory by Legendre polynomials. The method intended to map one QTL at a time and the entire QTL analysis involved scanning the entire genome by fitting multiple single-QTL models. In this study, we propose a Bayesian shrinkage analysis for estimating and mapping multiple QTL in a single model. The method is a combination between the shrinkage mapping for individual quantitative traits and the Legendre polynomial analysis for dynamic traits. The multiple-QTL model is implemented in two ways: (1) a fixed-interval approach where a QTL is placed in each marker interval and (2) a moving-interval approach where the position of a QTL can be searched in a range that covers many marker intervals. Simulation study shows that the Bayesian shrinkage method generates much better signals for QTL than the interval-mapping approach. We propose several alternative methods to present the results of the Bayesian shrinkage analysis. In particular, we found that the Wald test-statistic profile can serve as a mechanism to test the significance of a putative QTL. PMID:17435239

  17. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  18. Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Simić, Domagoj; Mladenović Drinić, Snezana; Zdunić, Zvonimir; Jambrović, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brkić, Josip; Brkić, Andrija; Brkić, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

  19. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  20. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  1. Software for quantitative trait analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

  2. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  3. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  5. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. PMID:22747703

  6. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  7. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  8. Predicting communities from functional traits.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, Marc W; Arnillas, Carlos A; Livingstone, Stuart W; Yasui, Simone-Louise E

    2015-09-01

    Species traits influence where species live and how they interact. While there have been many advances in describing the functional composition and diversity of communities, only recently do researchers have the ability to predict community composition and diversity. This predictive ability can offer fundamental insights into ecosystem resilience and restoration. PMID:26190136

  9. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

  11. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  12. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  13. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  14. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  15. Trait anxiety and trait anger measured by ecological momentary assessment and their correspondence with traditional trait questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Chaplin, William F.; Burg, Matthew M.; Stone, Arthur A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of anxiety and anger/hostility were obtained every 25–30 minutes over two 24-hour periods, separated by a median of 6 months, from 165 employees at a university in the Northeast. We used a multilevel trait-state-error structural equation model to estimate: (1) the proportion of variance in EMA anxiety and anger/hostility attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; (2) the correspondence between these trait-like components of EMA anxiety and anger/hostility and traditional questionnaire measures of each construct; and (3) the test-retest correlation between two 24-hour averages obtained several months apart. After adjustment for measurement error, more than half the total variance in EMA reports of anxiety and anger/hostility is attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; however, the trait-like component of each construct is only modestly correlated with questionnaire measures of that construct. The 6-month “test-retest” correlations of latent variables representing the true 24-hour EMA average anxiety and average anger are quite high (r ≥ 0.83). This study represents the longest follow-up period over which EMA-based estimates of traits have been examined. The results suggest that although the trait component (individual differences) of EMA momentary ratings of anxiety and anger is larger than the state component, traditional self-report questionnaires of trait anxiety and anger correspond only weakly with EMA-defined traits. PMID:24198441

  16. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble solids (degrees Brix; °Bx) in tomato fruit. The purpose of the present work was to pyramid into cultivated varieties the selected QTL for enhanced antioxidant and °Bx content. To better understand the genetic architecture of each QTL, the two ILs were crossed to the recurrent parent M82 (ILH7-3 and ILH12-4) and between them (ILH7-3+12-4). F1 hybrids (ILH7-3+12-4) were then selfed up to obtain F3 progenies in order to stabilize the favourable traits at the homozygous condition. Species-specific molecular markers were identified for each introgressed region and allowed us to select four F2 genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition. The F3 double homozygous plants displayed AsA, total phenols and °Bx content significantly higher than M82. Therefore, they may represent suitable genetic material for breeding schemes aiming to increase antioxidant content in tomato fruit. PMID:23316114

  17. The stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

    2014-07-01

    Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

  18. Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals. PMID:20959131

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTLs) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTLs for these traits including protein content (GPC), test weight (TW), single kernel characteriz...

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat. The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the winter hardiness component traits: winter field survival, crown freeze tolerance, heading date, plant height an...

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five winter hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...

  2. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  3. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  4. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Function-Valued Traits Using Functional Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Trait Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Il-Youp; Moore, Candace R.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Broman, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    We previously proposed a simple regression-based method to map quantitative trait loci underlying function-valued phenotypes. In order to better handle the case of noisy phenotype measurements and accommodate the correlation structure among time points, we propose an alternative approach that maintains much of the simplicity and speed of the regression-based method. We overcome noisy measurements by replacing the observed data with a smooth approximation. We then apply functional principal component analysis, replacing the smoothed phenotype data with a small number of principal components. Quantitative trait locus mapping is applied to these dimension-reduced data, either with a multi-trait method or by considering the traits individually and then taking the average or maximum LOD score across traits. We apply these approaches to root gravitropism data on Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines and further investigate their performance in computer simulations. Our methods have been implemented in the R package, funqtl. PMID:26530421

  5. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  6. Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic architecture refers to the numbers and genome locations of genes affecting a trait, the magnitude of their effects, and the relative contributions of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are commonly used to investigate genetic ar...

  7. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  8. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

  9. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  10. Hierarchical Latent Trait Approach in Test Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    An approach is described that reveals the hierarchical test structure (HTS) based on the cognitive demands of the test items, and conducts a linear trait modeling by using the HST elements as item difficulty components. This approach, referred to as the Hierarchical Latent Trait Approach (HLTA), employs an algorithm that allows all test items to…

  11. Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  12. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  13. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    traits_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  14. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  15. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  16. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in this area is still in its infancy, there is intriguing evidence to suggest that bacteriocins may function in a number of ways within the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. Here we review the role of bacteriocin production in complex microbial communities and their potential to enhance human health. PMID:22038602

  17. Cultural traits as units of analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Lyman, R. Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process. PMID:21041205

  18. Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

  19. Plant trait expression responds to establishment timing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; Leahy, S Conor; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Burns, Jean H

    2015-06-01

    Trait divergence between co-occurring individuals could decrease the strength of competition between these individuals, thus promoting their coexistence. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated establishment timing for four congeneric pairs of perennial plants and assessed trait plasticity. Because soil conditions can affect trait expression and competition, we grew the plants in field-collected soil from each congener. Competition was generally weak across species, but the order of establishment affected divergence in biomass between potmates for three congeneric pairs. The type of plastic response differed among genera, with trait means of early-establishing individuals of Rumex and Solanum spp. differing from late-establishing individuals, and trait divergence between potmates of Plantago and Trifolium spp. depending on which species established first. Consistent with adaptive trait plasticity, higher specific leaf area (SLA) and root-shoot ratio in Rumex spp. established later suggest that these individuals were maximizing their ability to capture light and soil resources. Greater divergence in SLA correlated with increased summed biomass of competitors, which is consistent with trait divergence moderating the strength of competition for some species. Species did not consistently perform better in conspecific or congener soil, but soil type influenced the effect of establishment order. For example, biomass divergence between Rumex potmates was greater in R. obtusifolius soil regardless of which species established first. These results suggest that plant responses to establishment timing act in a species-specific fashion, potentially enhancing coexistence in plant communities. PMID:25616649

  20. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  1. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

  2. Function-valued traits in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipantelis, Pantelis Z.; Jones, Nick S.; Moriarty, John; Springate, David A.; Knight, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological characteristics of evolutionary interest are not scalar variables but continuous functions. Given a dataset of function-valued traits generated by evolution, we develop a practical, statistical approach to infer ancestral function-valued traits, and estimate the generative evolutionary process. We do this by combining dimension reduction and phylogenetic Gaussian process regression, a non-parametric procedure that explicitly accounts for known phylogenetic relationships. We test the performance of methods on simulated, function-valued data generated from a stochastic evolutionary model. The methods are applied assuming that only the phylogeny, and the function-valued traits of taxa at its tips are known. Our method is robust and applicable to a wide range of function-valued data, and also offers a phylogenetically aware method for estimating the autocorrelation of function-valued traits. PMID:23427095

  3. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  4. Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the latent trait itself, existing models commonly distinguish between heteroscedastic residuals and a skewed trait distribution. These models have valuable applications in intelligence, personality and psychopathology research. However, existing approaches are only limited to continuous and polytomous data, while dichotomous data are common in intelligence and psychopathology research. Therefore, in present paper, a heteroscedastic latent trait model is presented for dichotomous data. The model is studied in a simulation study, and applied to data pertaining alcohol use and cognitive ability. PMID:25080866

  5. Trait emotional intelligence and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Petrides, K V; Tillmann, Taavi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the psychological aspects of inflammatory disorders. Within this line of research, the present study compares the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 827 individuals with various inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and RA plus one comorbidity) against 496 healthy controls. Global trait EI scores did not show significant differences between these groups, although some differences were observed when comparisons were carried out against alternative control groups. Significant differences were found on the trait EI factors of Well-being (where the healthy group scored higher than the RA group) and Sociability (where the healthy group scored higher than both the RA group and the RA plus one comorbidity group). The discussion centers on the multifarious links and interplay between emotions and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23725416

  6. Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  7. Traits as dimensions or categories? Developmental change in the understanding of trait terms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Celia M; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked them to indicate the preferences of a target character who shared appearance attributes with one character (appearance match) and shared a common trait with the other character (trait match). Traits were presented in a way that emphasized either their categorical or their dimensional nature. When the dimensional nature of trait terms was emphasized, the youngest children made fewer trait-based inferences, and the use of traits increased with age. In Study 2, we gave 4-year-old children and adults the same task except that the extent to which appearance cues could serve as a meaningful basis of judgment was varied. Results were consistent with the findings of Study 1, although children were more likely to rely on dimensional presentations of traits in the absence of strong appearance cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20822224

  8. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    PubMed

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. PMID:21094569

  9. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  10. Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

  11. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Children's Peer Relations at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian; Frederickson, Norah

    2006-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion"related self"perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of personality. The present study investigated the role of trait EI in children's peer relations at school. One hundred and sixty pupils (83 girls; mean age = 10.8…

  12. Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

  13. Culture and personality: toward an integrated cultural trait psychology.

    PubMed

    Church, A T

    2000-08-01

    Two theoretical perspectives currently dominate research on culture and personality, the cross-cultural trait psychology approach, in which the trait concept is central, and the cultural psychology approach, in which the trait concept is questioned. Here I review theory and research from both perspectives and propose that the tenets of cultural psychology, at least in their more moderate forms, can be synthesized with the trait psychology approach, resulting in an integrated cultural trait psychology perspective. PMID:10934686

  14. Prevalence of sickle cell trait and HbC-trait in Blacks from low socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, E J; Miller, G D; Horton, R

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we did not observe age or sex differentials in the prevalence of sickle cell or HbC-traits in Black males or females of low socioeconomic status. When our data were compared to those of others, we found no evidence for a socioeconomic differential in the prevalence of these traits. PMID:717622

  15. A Multidimensional Measure of Trait Anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Okada, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was administered to samples of normal youth, normal adult, neurotic, and psychotic subjects. The practical and theoretical uses of the inventory are discussed, and it is specifically indicated how the inventory could be used to extend the Speilberger state-trait anxiety theory. (Author)

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTL for heading date (HD), lodging resistance (LR), shattering resistance (SR), cold tolerance (CT), plant...

  18. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  19. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  20. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  1. Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness. PMID:25236454

  2. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  3. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  4. Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Rosalind

    2015-02-01

    Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference. PMID:25120213

  5. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  6. Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chen-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science

  7. Quantitative trait analysis in sequencing studies under trait-dependent sampling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Zeng, Donglin; Tang, Zheng-Zheng

    2013-07-23

    It is not economically feasible to sequence all study subjects in a large cohort. A cost-effective strategy is to sequence only the subjects with the extreme values of a quantitative trait. In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project, subjects with the highest or lowest values of body mass index, LDL, or blood pressure were selected for whole-exome sequencing. Failure to account for such trait-dependent sampling can cause severe inflation of type I error and substantial loss of power in quantitative trait analysis, especially when combining results from multiple studies with different selection criteria. We present valid and efficient statistical methods for association analysis of sequencing data under trait-dependent sampling. We pay special attention to gene-based analysis of rare variants. Our methods can be used to perform quantitative trait analysis not only for the trait that is used to select subjects for sequencing but for any other traits that are measured. For a particular trait of interest, our approach properly combines the association results from all studies with measurements of that trait. This meta-analysis is substantially more powerful than the analysis of any single study. By contrast, meta-analysis of standard linear regression results (ignoring trait-dependent sampling) can be less powerful than the analysis of a single study. The advantages of the proposed methods are demonstrated through simulation studies and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project data. The methods are applicable to other types of genetic association studies and nongenetic studies. PMID:23847208

  8. Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2014-01-01

    Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

  9. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  10. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  11. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational

  12. The Myth of Sickle Cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Lonnie R.

    1974-01-01

    Recently emphasis in the problem of sickle hemoglobinopathy has been on mass screening of the black population. Concern about the alleged danger in having sickle cell trait itself is offered as part of the justification. This danger is disputed and a position developed for the benign status of sickle cell trait and the potentially serious social harm to blacks so identified. Programs are suggested to foster improved medical care availability and early detection for those with sickle cell anemia. It is suggested that mandatory patient programs be avoided, and that research receive greater emphasis. PMID:4840172

  13. Personality and substance dependence symptoms: modeling substance-specific traits.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K

    2006-12-01

    Personality traits related to neuroticism and disinhibition have been consistently associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). It is unclear, however, whether different personality traits predict distinct forms of substance dependence. Additionally, it is unclear whether personality traits continue to predict alcohol, drug, and tobacco dependence after controlling for comorbid antisociality and other SUDs. The current study addresses these questions by characterizing relations between personality traits and substance dependence symptoms in a longitudinal sample of 3,720 college students. Results revealed that antisociality and certain core personality traits predicted multiple types of substance pathology. In addition, several personality traits were differentially associated with alcohol, drug, and tobacco symptomatology. PMID:17176176

  14. How do traits vary across ecological scales? A case for trait-based ecology.

    PubMed

    Messier, Julie; McGill, Brian J; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2010-07-01

    Despite the increasing importance of functional traits for the study of plant ecology, we do not know how variation in a given trait changes across ecological scales, which prevents us from assessing potential scale-dependent aspects of trait variation. To address this deficiency, we partitioned the variance in two key functional traits (leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content) across six nested ecological scales (site, plot, species, tree, strata and leaf) in lowland tropical rainforests. In both traits, the plot level shows virtually no variance despite high species turnover among plots and the size of within-species variation (leaf + strata + tree) is comparable with that of species level variation. The lack of variance at the plot level brings substantial support to the idea that trait-based environmental filtering plays a central role in plant community assembly. These results and the finding that the amount of within-species variation is comparable with interspecific variation support a shift of focus from species-based to trait-based ecology. PMID:20482582

  15. Bayesian Mapping of Genomewide Interacting Quantitative Trait Loci for Ordinal Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Banerjee, Samprit; Pomp, Daniel; Yandell, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Development of statistical methods and software for mapping interacting QTL has been the focus of much recent research. We previously developed a Bayesian model selection framework, based on the composite model space approach, for mapping multiple epistatic QTL affecting continuous traits. In this study we extend the composite model space approach to complex ordinal traits in experimental crosses. We jointly model main and epistatic effects of QTL and environmental factors on the basis of the ordinal probit model (also called threshold model) that assumes a latent continuous trait underlies the generation of the ordinal phenotypes through a set of unknown thresholds. A data augmentation approach is developed to jointly generate the latent data and the thresholds. The proposed ordinal probit model, combined with the composite model space framework for continuous traits, offers a convenient way for genomewide interacting QTL analysis of ordinal traits. We illustrate the proposed method by detecting new QTL and epistatic effects for an ordinal trait, dead fetuses, in a F2 intercross of mice. Utility and flexibility of the method are also demonstrated using a simulated data set. Our method has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim, which greatly facilitates the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for genomewide interacting QTL analysis for continuous, binary, and ordinal traits in experimental crosses. PMID:17507680

  16. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  18. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  19. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  20. Trait predictors of placebo responses in itch.

    PubMed

    Darragh, Margot; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated trait predictors of placebo responses in the context of inflammatory skin reactions. This was a randomized, cross-over, experimental study using a deceptive placebo protocol. A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) completed online personality measures, then attended two laboratory sessions in which short-term inflammatory skin reactions were induced. One was a control session and the other the 'treatment' session in which a placebo cream was administered with the suggestion of a reduced skin reaction. A placebo response was defined as smaller skin reactions in control vs. treatment sessions. The traits ego resiliency and neuroticism were selected as possible predictors of placebo responses. Traits were selected in consideration of the two-faceted transactional model of placebo responsiveness and in light of empirical and psychometric considerations ego resiliency emerged as a consistent predictor of placebo responses in itch (p < .05). This is the first study to identify trait predictors of placebo responses in inflammatory skin reactions. Ego resiliency may typify greater placebo responsiveness; however, this may only be in certain contexts. Matching treatment approaches to bio-behavioural response tendencies may be useful clinically if the placebo component of traditional treatments can be enhanced. PMID:26610165

  1. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

  2. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  3. Estimating Trait Heritability in Highly Fecund Species

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah W.; Scarpino, Samuel V.; Pongwarin, Thanapat; Scott, James; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in estimating the heritability of traits for nonmodel organisms. However, estimating the heritability of these traits presents both experimental and statistical challenges, which typically arise from logistical difficulties associated with rearing large numbers of families independently in the field, a lack of known pedigree, the need to account for group or batch effects, etc. Here we develop both an empirical and computational methodology for estimating the narrow-sense heritability of traits for highly fecund species. Our experimental approach controls for undesirable culturing effects while minimizing culture numbers, increasing feasibility in the field. Our statistical approach accounts for known issues with model-selection by using a permutation test to calculate significance values and includes both fitting and power calculation methods. We further demonstrate that even with moderately high sample-sizes, the p-values derived from asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio test are overly conservative, thus reducing statistical power. We illustrate our methodology by estimating the narrow-sense heritability for larval settlement, a key life-history trait, in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata. The experimental, statistical, and computational methods, along with all of the data from this study, are available in the R package multiDimBio. PMID:26438295

  4. Latent Trait Estimation: Theory vs. Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolakowski, Donald

    Empirical results are presented as regards the implementation of a latent-trait psychometric model by means of conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Items are scored polychotomously into varying numbers of nominal categories and the test and item characteristic curves and information functions are examined. It is concluded that scoring items…

  5. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  6. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  7. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity. PMID:22070886

  8. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  9. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  10. Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

  11. New trait data at MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB has several ways to archive trait data used for QTL and GWAS analyses. The simplest is simple posting of files provided by researchers along with links to the publication. More recently we have begun to integrate these data for diversity recombinant germplasm, and association panels. The go...

  12. Component Latent Trait Models for Test Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan Whitely

    Latent trait models are presented that can be used for test design in the context of a theory about the variables that underlie task performance. Examples of methods for decomposing and testing hypotheses about the theoretical variables in task performance are given. The methods can be used to determine the processing components that are involved…

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  14. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  15. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2 = 0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be

  16. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  17. Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

  18. Application of the false discovery rate to quantitative trait loci interval mapping with multiple traits.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hakkyo; Dekkers, Jack C M; Soller, M; Malek, Massoud; Fernando, Rohan L; Rothschild, Max F

    2002-01-01

    Controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) has been proposed as an alternative to controlling the genome-wise error rate (GWER) for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) in genome scans. The objective here was to implement FDR in the context of regression interval mapping for multiple traits. Data on five traits from an F2 swine breed cross were used. FDR was implemented using tests at every 1 cM (FDR1) and using tests with the highest test statistic for each marker interval (FDRm). For the latter, a method was developed to predict comparison-wise error rates. At low error rates, FDR1 behaved erratically; FDRm was more stable but gave similar significance thresholds and number of QTL detected. At the same error rate, methods to control FDR gave less stringent significance thresholds and more QTL detected than methods to control GWER. Although testing across traits had limited impact on FDR, single-trait testing was recommended because there is no theoretical reason to pool tests across traits for FDR. FDR based on FDRm was recommended for QTL detection in interval mapping because it provides significance tests that are meaningful, yet not overly stringent, such that a more complete picture of QTL is revealed. PMID:12072484

  19. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  20. Beliefs about the Origins of Human Psychological Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    Four studies with kindergarten through fifth graders and adults examined the development of reasoning about the origins of psychological traits. Results suggested an age-related increase in the tendency to distinguish among different psychological traits, and that over time, individuals come to believe that psychological traits are determined…

  1. Skills Diagnosis Using IRT-Based Continuous Latent Trait Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, William

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the continuous latent trait IRT approach to skills diagnosis as particularized by a representative variety of continuous latent trait models using item response functions (IRFs). First, several basic IRT-based continuous latent trait approaches are presented in some detail. Then a brief summary of estimation, model…

  2. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  3. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  4. Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

    2005-01-01

    To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

  5. Evaluation of Affective Traits of Medical Technology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogleman, Janice M.

    An observational rating instrument was developed to measure affective traits of medical technology students. Fourteen categories of behavioral traits evaluated by medical technology programs were identified, based on results of a national survey. These traits were then grouped according to the affective domains established by Krathwohl, Bloom, and…

  6. Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zina; Klaver, Jessica R.; Hart, Stephen D.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. We investigated the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using an augmented protocol for the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and the self-report…

  7. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  8. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  9. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial

  10. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  11. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients. PMID:26796410

  12. The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

    2014-01-01

    The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits. PMID:24072753

  13. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  14. Personality trait structure as a human universal.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1997-05-01

    Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal. PMID:9145021

  15. Hypomanic personality trait in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Lemere, F; Smith, J W

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of 292 private patients treated for cocaine addiction showed the following. Comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders were found in 19% and preaddiction Axis I disorders in 9% of these patients. Psychopathology at the time of treatment appeared to be more the result of than the cause of the addiction. Of these patients 63% had become addicted pursuing euphoria. A definitive nonpathologic unipolar hypomanic subtype of cocaine addict was observed in 13% of these 292 patients. This was manifested more as a trait than a disorder. This subgroup had been reasonably well adjusted, fun-loving and action oriented extroverts before their addiction. The rush and lifestyle of cocaine fit the imperatives of their personality. In a significant subtype of cocaine addict, an underlying hypomanic personality trait is ego-syntonic with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:2346798

  16. Temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P; Sumesh, P; Mathews, Lulu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder in children. Thirty children with conversion disorder attending a child guidance clinic were compared with an age and sex matched control group of normal children for life stresses and temperament dimensions. The temperament measurement schedule (TMS) and the life event scale for Indian children (LESIC) were used for evaluating the temperament dimensions and life stresses respectively. Children with conversion disorder experienced significantly more stressful life events compared to the children in the control group. The stress factors included scholastic difficulties, examination failures, punishment by teacher, conflict with peers, parental disharmony and family problems and sibling rivalry. The characteristic temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder were low emotionality and low threshold of responsiveness. PMID:17079833

  17. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  18. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri; Borkenau, Peter; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kuppens, Peter; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated with two different trait-centered and person-centered approaches in personality research. Personality traits of 4115 targets from Czech, Belgian, Estonian, and German samples were rated by themselves and knowledgeable informants. We demonstrate that trait agreement can be partialled into individual contributions so that it is possible to show how much each individual pair of judges contributes to agreement on a particular trait. Similarly, it is possible to decompose agreement between two personality profiles into the individual contributions of traits from which these profiles are assembled. If normativeness is separated from distinctiveness of personality scores and individual profiles are ipsatized, then mean profile agreement rP becomes identical to mean trait agreement rT. The views that trait-by-trait analysis does not provide information regarding accuracy level of a particular pair of judges and profile analysis does not permit assessment of the relative contributions of traits to overall accuracy are not supported. PMID:26106356

  19. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  20. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-10-15

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, the recent GWA studies performed on East Asian populations now allow us to globally assess the heterogeneity of association signals between populations of European ancestry and East Asians, and the possible obstacles for multi-ethnic GWA studies. We focused on four different traits that represent a broad range of complex phenotypes, which have been studied in both Europeans and East Asians: type 2 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and height. For each trait, we observed that most of the risk loci identified in East Asians were shared with Europeans. However, we also observed that a significant part of the association signals at these shared loci seems to be independent between populations. This suggests that disease aetiology is common between populations, but that risk variants are often population specific. These variants could be truly population specific and result from natural selection, genetic drift and recent mutations, or they could be spurious, caused by the limitations of the method of analysis employed in the GWA studies. We therefore propose a three-stage framework for multi-ethnic GWA analyses, starting with the commonly used single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, and followed by a gene-based approach and a pathway-based analysis, which will take into account the heterogeneity of association between populations at different levels. PMID:21890495

  1. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia

    2012-08-01

    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results. PMID:23045843

  2. Limits on fine mapping of complex traits

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We recently published a paper in the journal on high-resolution genetic mapping of complex traits. In that paper, we considered the confidence region for the position of a gene localized by genetic mapping. We showed that the size of this confidence region increases rapidly as the trait becomes more complex (that is, as the relative risk or the proportion of alleles shared by affected relatives decreases). We concluded that using affected-relative-pair analysis to localize a gene conferring a modest increased risk to a region suitable for positional cloning (e.g., 1 cM) requires a large number of relative pairs (or, more generally, meioses). Since the paper appeared, we have discovered an intuitive way to understand the difficulty of fine mapping of susceptibility genes for complex traits. The insight was motivated by a colleague who inquired why one could not simply confine the search for a susceptibility gene to the region of maximum allele sharing in a sib-pair (or other relative pair) data set. The key question is thus: what is the chance that susceptibility gene will not be in the region of maximum allele sharing? The answer is easily obtained by using the methods described in our previous paper. 3 refs.

  3. The effects of sertraline on psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Boadie W; DeFife, Jared A; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2011-11-01

    We examined whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/day) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all participants who completed a baseline and postrandomization PPI. Ninety patients (84 completers and six who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

  4. The Effects of Sertraline on Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; DeFife, Jared A.; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/d) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all subjects who completed a baseline and post-randomization PPI. Results Ninety patients (84 completers and 6 who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Conclusion Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

  5. Personality traits and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, G; Herpertz, S; Loeber, S

    2015-01-01

    Based on a bio-social-ecological systems model of the development and maintenance of obesity, there has been in the last few years a growing research interest in the association of obesity and personality traits. The aim of the present review was a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the existing literature taking into account the methodological quality of studies to enhance our understanding of personality traits associated with body weight, the development of overweight and obesity as well as the effectiveness of weight loss interventions including bariatric surgery. Personality traits play an important role both as risk as well as protective factors in the development of overweight and obesity. While thus in particular 'neuroticism', 'impulsivity' and 'sensitivity to reward' appear as risk factors, 'conscientiousness' and 'self-control' have been shown to have a protective function in relation to weight gain. Conscientiousness is a measure of regulation of internal urges and self-discipline, and may thus provide a potential source of control over impulsive reward-oriented behaviour. The results of the present review suggest that, within the context of therapeutic weight reduction measures, it is meaningful to identify subgroups of patients for whom specific treatment options need to be developed, such as measures for strengthening self-control skills. PMID:25470329

  6. Morphoscopic Trait Expression in "Hispanic" Populations.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Pilloud, Marin A; Black, Cullen J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates population variation of eight cranial morphoscopic traits using samples of known southwest Hispanics (n=72), Guatemalans (n=106), American Blacks (n=146), and American Whites (n=218). We applied the support vector machine (SVM) method to build a prediction model based on a subsample (20%) of the data; the remainder of the data was used as a test sample. The SVM approach effectively differentiated between the four groups with correct classification rates between 72% (Guatemalan group) and 94% (American Black group). However, when the Guatemalan and southwest Hispanic samples were pooled, the same model correctly classified all groups with a higher degree of accuracy (American Black=96%; American White=77%; and the pooled Hispanic sample=91%). This study also identified significant differences between the two Hispanic groups in six of the eight traits using univariate statistical tests. These results speak to the unique population histories of these samples and the current use of the term "Hispanic" within forensic anthropology. Finally, we argue that the SVM can be used as a classification model for ancestry estimation in a forensic context and as a diagnostic tool may broaden the application of morphoscopic trait data for the assessment of ancestry. PMID:26272587

  7. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  8. High Resolution QTL Map Of Net Merit Component Traits And Calving Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 725 SNPs affecting 13 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 13 traits were net merit (NM$), its 8 component traits and 4 calving traits. The top 100 ef...

  9. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  11. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  12. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait 'stability', which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  13. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait ‘stability’, which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  14. Quantitative analysis of production traits in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): I. reproduction traits.

    PubMed

    Isberg, S R; Thomson, P C; Nicholas, F W; Barker, S G; Moran, C

    2005-12-01

    Repeatability and phenotypic correlations were estimated for saltwater crocodile reproductive traits. No pedigree information was available to estimate heritability or genetic correlations, because the majority of breeder animals on farms were wild-caught. Moreover, as the age of the female breeders could not be accounted for, egg-size measurements were used as proxies. The reproductive traits investigated were clutch size (total number of eggs laid), number of viable eggs, number of eggs that produced a live, healthy hatchling, hatchability, average snout-vent length of the hatchlings and time of nesting. A second data set was also created comprising binary data of whether or not the female nested. Repeatability estimates ranged from 0.24 to 0.68 for the measurable traits, with phenotypic correlations ranging from -0.15 to 0.86. Repeatability for whether a female nested or not was 0.58 on the underlying scale. Correlations could not be estimated between the measurement and binary traits because of confounding. These estimates are the first published for crocodilian reproduction traits. PMID:16274419

  15. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  16. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  19. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes. PMID:26875873

  20. Physical Attractiveness And Sex As Determinants Of Trait Attributions.

    PubMed

    Gillen, B; Sherman, R C

    1980-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine (a) the implicational qualities of trait terms that describe stereotypic males and females, and (b) the influence of a target person's gender and physical attractiveness on the attributions of traits with specific qualities. On the basis of previous research and theory concerning sex-role and attractiveness stereotypes, it was predicted that the attribution of evaluative traits would be affected by the attractiveness of the target (the what-is-beautiful-is-good phenomenon) but not by sex. However, for traits with primarily sex-linked implicational properties, it was expected that the effect of attractiveness would be dependent upon the target's sex such that the attribution of "masculine" traits would vary only with the attractiveness of male targets and the attribution of "feminine" traits only with the attractiveness of female targets. In Study I a multidimensional scaling analysis revealed both evaluative and non-evaluative qualities underlying trait ratings of male and female stereotypes. In Study II the predicted results for evaluative traits were obtained. For "masculine" and "feminine" traits, however, the effects of attractiveness were not symmetrical for male and female targets as originally predicted. The results suggest that attractiveness of males, but not females, leads to a narrowing of the types of traits that are attributed to them. PMID:26810878

  1. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress. PMID:26954662

  2. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  4. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding

  5. Bayesian Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Complex Traits Using Markers of the Entire Genome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hanwen; Eversley, Chevonne D.; Threadgill, David W.; Zou, Fei

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian methodology has been developed for multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of complex binary traits that follow liability threshold models. Unlike most QTL mapping methods where only one or a few markers are used at a time, the proposed method utilizes all markers across the genome simultaneously. The outperformance of our Bayesian method over the traditional single-marker analysis and interval mapping has been illustrated via simulations and real data analysis to identify candidate loci associated with colorectal cancer. PMID:17483433

  6. Juvenile hormone mediates developmental integration between exaggerated traits and supportive traits in the horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasukazu; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Sexually selected exaggerated traits are often coupled with modifications in other nontarget traits. In insects with weapons, enlargements of nontarget characters that functionally support the weapon often occur (i.e. supportive traits). The support of sexual traits requires developmental coordination among functionally related multiple traits-an explicit example of morphological integration. The genetic theory predicts that developmental integration among different body modules, for which development is regulated via different sets of genes, is likely to be coordinated by pleiotropic factors. However, the developmental backgrounds of morphological integrations are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the juvenile hormone (JH), as a pleiotropic factor, mediates the integration between exaggerated and supportive traits in an armed beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. During combat, males of this beetle use exaggerated mandibles to lift up their opponents with the supportive traits, that is, the head and prothoracic body parts. Application of methoprene, a JH analog (JHA), during the larval to prepupal period, induced the formation of large mandibles relative to the body sizes in males. Morphometric examination of nontarget traits elucidated an increase in the relative sizes of supportive traits, including the head and prothoracic body parts. In addition, reductions in the hind wing area and elytra length, which correspond to flight and reproductive abilities, were detected. Our findings are consistent with the genetic theory and support the idea that JH is a key pleiotropic factor that coordinates the developmental integration of exaggerated traits and supportive characters, as well as resource allocation trade-offs. PMID:22765207

  7. Population Structure of Morphological Traits in Clarkia Dudleyana I. Comparison of F(st) between Allozymes and Morphological Traits

    PubMed Central

    Podolsky, R. H.; Holtsford, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of genetic variation at allozyme loci, assumed to be selectively neutral, have provided valuable insights into the genetic structure of numerous populations. The degree to which population structure of allozyme variation reflects that of quantitative traits, however, is not well resolved. Here, we compare estimates of population differentiation (F(ST)) of 11 populations for allozymes with those for nine discrete and nine continuous morphological traits. Overall, the allozymes have the lowest F(ST) estimates, indicating relatively little population differentiation. Excepting two traits, petal width and long internode length, the continuous morphological traits have estimates similar to those from allozymes. The discrete morphological traits tend to have the highest estimates. On a single trait basis, estimates of F(ST) for four discrete and two continuous traits are higher than those for allozymes. A more detailed (narrow-sense quantitative) genetic study of two populations suggests that these estimates of F(ST) may underestimate the true value because of dominance. Clustering analyses show that the pattern of differentiation for the discrete morphological traits strongly reflects the geographical distribution of the populations, whereas the patterns for the continuous traits and allozymes do not. These results suggest that selection has been occurring on the discrete morphological traits, selecting toward a common optimum within each geographic group, and optima differing among geographic groups. PMID:7498750

  8. Giraffe browsing in response to plant traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahenya, Obeid; Ndjamba, Johannes Kambinda; Mathisen, Karen Marie; Skarpe, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Intake rates by large herbivores are governed by among other things plant traits. We used Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Matschie) as study animals, testing whether they as very large browsers would follow the Jarman-Bell principle and maximize intake rate while tolerating low forage quality. We worked in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. We investigated how intake rate was determined by bite mass and bite rate, and show that bite mass and bite rate were determined by plant characteristics, governed by inherent plant traits, plant traits acquired from previous years' browsing, and season. We predicted that; (1) bite mass would be larger in trees without spines than with (2) bite mass would be larger in the wet season than in the dry, (3) bite rate would be higher in spinescent trees than in non-spinescent, (4) bite rate and/or bite mass would increase with previous years' browsing, (5) bite mass, bite rate or browsing time per tree would be highest for high trees with large, although still available canopies. Visual observations were used to collect data on tree attributes, number of bites taken and time of browsing. Sample size was 132 observed giraffe. We found that bite mass was larger in spineless than in spinescent trees and was larger in the wet season than in the dry. Bite rate, but not bite mass, increased with increasing browsing in previous years and was highest on two to three meter high trees and in spinescent trees. Intake rate followed bite mass more than bite rate and was higher in spineless than in spinescent trees, higher in the wet season than in the dry, and tended to increase with tree height. Giraffe did not prioritize the highest intake rate, but browsed much on Acacias giving a high quality diet but a low intake rate.

  9. Borderline personality traits in hysterical neurosis.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the traits of the psychopathology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) compared with hysterical neurosis. A total of 48 subjects with BPD and 40 subjects with hysterical neurosis both defined by DSM-III-R were assessed by Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB). Statistical analysis was done by quantification of the second type, a multivariate data analysis. The total scores of DIB were BPD group, 6.13 +/- 1.52; hysterical neurosis group, 4.9 +/- 2.12 (t = 3.05, P = 0.0016). The correlation ratio (index of to what extent the two groups are discriminated) was 0.2442. Among the four parameters of: (i) affect, (ii) cognition, (iii) impulse-action pattern, (iv), and interpersonal relationships, the partial coefficient correlations of (iii) and (iv) were significantly high (0.342, 0.287, P < 0.01). The question items with high independent coefficients were manipulation (0.4416), intolerance of aloneness (0.3797), demanding nature (0.3768), self-mutilation (0.3609), visual hallucination (0.3395). Those with low score of independent coefficients were counterdependency (0.0533), identity disturbance (0.1010), depression (0.1551), loneliness (0.1752), hypomanic episode (0.1936). Both of BPD and hysterical neurosis groups were not so fairly well discriminated. However, these results suggested that impulse-action pattern and disorder of interpersonal relationships were traits of borderline personality disorder. We could admit manipulation, intolerance of aloneness as its symptoms. In addition, counterdependency, identity disturbance were comparatively common to both. There were some borderline personality traits symptomatically in hysterical neurosis. PMID:11285092

  10. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910–2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method. PMID:27441835

  11. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910-2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method. PMID:27441835

  12. Expression quantitative trait loci: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Nica, Alexandra C.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen the development of large efforts for the analysis of genome function, especially in the context of genome variation. One of the most prominent directions has been the extensive set of studies on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), namely, the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Such studies have offered promise not just for the characterization of functional sequence variation but also for the understanding of basic processes of gene regulation and interpretation of genome-wide association studies. In this review, we discuss some of the key directions of eQTL research and its implications. PMID:23650636

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms underlying complex disease traits.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julian C

    2005-02-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic variation plays an important role in the determination of individual susceptibility to complex disease traits. In contrast to coding sequence polymorphisms, where the consequences of non-synonymous variation may be resolved at the level of the protein phenotype, defining specific functional regulatory polymorphisms has proved problematic. This has arisen for a number of reasons, including difficulties with fine mapping due to linkage disequilibrium, together with a paucity of experimental tools to resolve the effects of non-coding sequence variation on gene expression. Recent studies have shown that variation in gene expression is heritable and can be mapped as a quantitative trait. Allele-specific effects on gene expression appear relatively common, typically of modest magnitude and context specific. The role of regulatory polymorphisms in determining susceptibility to a number of complex disease traits is discussed, including variation at the VNTR of INS, encoding insulin, in type 1 diabetes and polymorphism of CTLA4, encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen, in autoimmune disease. Examples where regulatory polymorphisms have been found to play a role in mongenic traits such as factor VII deficiency are discussed, and contrasted with those polymorphisms associated with ischaemic heart disease at the same gene locus. Molecular mechanisms operating in an allele-specific manner at the level of transcription are illustrated, with examples including the role of Duffy binding protein in malaria. The difficulty of resolving specific functional regulatory variants arising from linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated using a number of examples including polymorphism of CCR5, encoding CC chemokine receptor 5, and HIV-1 infection. The importance of understanding haplotypic structure to the design and interpretation of functional assays of putative regulatory variation is highlighted, together with discussion of the strategic use of

  14. The Hidden Complexity of Mendelian Traits across Natural Yeast Populations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Sigwalt, Anastasie; Fournier, Téo; Pflieger, David; Peter, Jackson; de Montigny, Jacky; Dunham, Maitreya J; Schacherer, Joseph

    2016-07-26

    Mendelian traits are considered to be at the lower end of the complexity spectrum of heritable phenotypes. However, more than a century after the rediscovery of Mendel's law, the global landscape of monogenic variants, as well as their effects and inheritance patterns within natural populations, is still not well understood. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates. We generated offspring from 41 unique parental pairs and analyzed 1,105 cross/trait combinations. We found that 8.9% of the cases were Mendelian. Further tracing of causal variants revealed background-specific expressivity and modified inheritances, gradually transitioning from Mendelian to complex traits in 30% of the cases. In fact, when taking into account the natural population diversity, the hidden complexity of traits could be substantial, confounding phenotypic predictability even for simple Mendelian traits. PMID:27396326

  15. First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2012-09-01

    Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

  16. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25534926

  17. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures. PMID:26476814

  18. Identifying copepod functional groups from species functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Fabio; Gasparini, Stéphane; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    We gathered information on the functional traits of the most representative copepod species in the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species described by 7 traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Cluster analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be separated into groups with distinct ecological roles. PMID:26811565

  19. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

  20. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but is there a definitive test of whether a candidate locus actually corresponds to a specific QTL? PMID:14634638

  1. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci for five forage quality traits in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid.

    PubMed

    Li, J Q; Wang, L H; Zhan, Q W; Liu, Y L; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-01-01

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting forage quality traits enables an understanding of the genetic mechanism of these loci. The aim of the present study was to detect QTLs for the whole-plant protein content (WP), whole-plant fat content (WF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and whole-plant ash content (WA) using a population of 184 F2 individuals from a cross between sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Correlation analysis was performed between the five forage quality traits. WP was found to be positively correlated with WF, NDF, and ADF. Furthermore, NDF was positively correlated with ADF but negatively correlated with WA. A genetic map with 124 SSR markers was constructed for QTL mapping. A total of 12 QTLs associated with the five forage quality traits were detected. Of these QTLs, qNDF3, qNDF8, and qADF8 explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Additionally, although all of the QTLs exhibited additive and dominant effects, they mainly exhibited dominant effects. Our results provide important information for marker-assisted selection breeding of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. PMID:26535640

  3. In-silico mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation-associated traits in inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant variation exists for fecundity and maternal nurturing ability in inbred mice. Classical gene mapping approaches in mice have identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account for some this variation. Current studies in our laboratory are aimed at identifying QTL genes that un...

  4. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  5. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  6. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  7. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  8. Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review.

    PubMed

    Weemstra, Monique; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J W; van Ruijven, Jasper; Kuyper, Thomas W; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Sterck, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1159 I. 1159 II. 1161 III. 1164 IV. 1166 1167 References 1167 SUMMARY: The search for a root economics spectrum (RES) has been sparked by recent interest in trait-based plant ecology. By analogy with the one-dimensional leaf economics spectrum (LES), fine-root traits are hypothesised to match leaf traits which are coordinated along one axis from resource acquisitive to conservative traits. However, our literature review and meta-level analysis reveal no consistent evidence of an RES mirroring an LES. Instead the RES appears to be multidimensional. We discuss three fundamental differences contributing to the discrepancy between these spectra. First, root traits are simultaneously constrained by various environmental drivers not necessarily related to resource uptake. Second, above- and belowground traits cannot be considered analogues, because they function differently and might not be related to resource uptake in a similar manner. Third, mycorrhizal interactions may offset selection for an RES. Understanding and explaining the belowground mechanisms and trade-offs that drive variation in root traits, resource acquisition and plant performance across species, thus requires a fundamentally different approach than applied aboveground. We therefore call for studies that can functionally incorporate the root traits involved in resource uptake, the complex soil environment and the various soil resource uptake mechanisms - particularly the mycorrhizal pathway - in a multidimensional root trait framework. PMID:27174359

  9. Evolutionary Stability of Jointly Evolving Traits in Subdivided Populations.

    PubMed

    Mullon, Charles; Keller, Laurent; Lehmann, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The evolutionary stability of quantitative traits depends on whether a population can resist invasion by any mutant. While uninvadability is well understood in well-mixed populations, it is much less so in subdivided populations when multiple traits evolve jointly. Here, we investigate whether a spatially subdivided population at a monomorphic equilibrium for multiple traits can withstand invasion by any mutant or is subject to diversifying selection. Our model also explores the correlations among traits arising from diversifying selection and how they depend on relatedness due to limited dispersal. We find that selection tends to favor a positive (negative) correlation between two traits when the selective effects of one trait on relatedness is positively (negatively) correlated to the indirect fitness effects of the other trait. We study the evolution of traits for which this matters: dispersal that decreases relatedness and helping that has positive indirect fitness effects. We find that when dispersal cost is low and the benefits of helping accelerate faster than its costs, selection leads to the coexistence of mobile defectors and sessile helpers. Otherwise, the population evolves to a monomorphic state with intermediate helping and dispersal. Overall, our results highlight the effects of population subdivision for evolutionary stability and correlations among traits. PMID:27420783

  10. Plasticity and evolution in correlated suites of traits.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E K; Ghalambor, C K; Hoke, K L

    2016-05-01

    When organisms are faced with new or changing environments, a central challenge is the coordination of adaptive shifts in many different phenotypic traits. Relationships among traits may facilitate or constrain evolutionary responses to selection, depending on whether the direction of selection is aligned or opposed to the pattern of trait correlations. Attempts to predict evolutionary potential in correlated traits generally assume that correlations are stable across time and space; however, increasing evidence suggests that this may not be the case, and flexibility in trait correlations could bias evolutionary trajectories. We examined genetic and environmental influences on variation and covariation in a suite of behavioural traits to understand if and how flexibility in trait correlations influences adaptation to novel environments. We tested the role of genetic and environmental influences on behavioural trait correlations by comparing Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) historically adapted to high- and low-predation environments that were reared under native and non-native environmental conditions. Both high- and low-predation fish exhibited increased behavioural variance when reared under non-native vs. native environmental conditions, and rearing in the non-native environment shifted the major axis of variation among behaviours. Our findings emphasize that trait correlations observed in one population or environment may not predict correlations in another and that environmentally induced plasticity in correlations may bias evolutionary divergence in novel environments. PMID:26849747

  11. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  12. Efficient set tests for the genetic analysis of correlated traits.

    PubMed

    Casale, Francesco Paolo; Rakitsch, Barbara; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Set tests are a powerful approach for genome-wide association testing between groups of genetic variants and quantitative traits. We describe mtSet (http://github.com/PMBio/limix), a mixed-model approach that enables joint analysis across multiple correlated traits while accounting for population structure and relatedness. mtSet effectively combines the benefits of set tests with multi-trait modeling and is computationally efficient, enabling genetic analysis of large cohorts (up to 500,000 individuals) and multiple traits. PMID:26076425

  13. Repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum (Jacq.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Braz, T G S; Fonseca, D M; Jank, L; Cruz, C D; Martuscello, J A

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating plants, in particular perennial species, it is common to obtain repeated measures of a given trait from the same individual to evaluate the traits' repeatability in successive harvests. The degree of correlation among these measures defines the coefficient of repeatability, which has been widely utilized in the study of forage traits of interest for breeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum hybrids. Hybrids from three progenies totaling 320 hybrids were evaluated in an incomplete-block design, with consideration of production and morpho-agronomic traits. Of the production traits, total dry matter and leaf dry matter showed the highest repeatability and varied from 0.540 to 0.769, whereas stem dry matter had lower coefficients (0.265-0.632). Among the morpho-agronomic traits, plant height and incidence of Bipolaris maydis had higher coefficients (0.118-0.460). The repeatability values of the agronomic traits were low-to-moderate, and six evaluations were sufficient to provide accuracy in the selection of hybrids regarding total dry matter, leaf dry matter, plant height, and incidence of B. maydis, whereas the other traits require more repeated measures to increase reliability in the prediction of their response. PMID:26782581

  14. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  15. Why intraspecific trait variation matters in community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Amarasekare, Priyanga; Araújo, Márcio S.; Bürger, Reinhard; Levine, Jonathan M.; Novak, Mark; Rudolf, Volker H.W.; Schreiber, Sebastian J.; Urban, Mark C.; Vasseur, David

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations consist of phenotypically diverse individuals that exhibit variation in their demographic parameters and intra- and interspecific interactions. Recent experimental work suggests that such variation can have significant ecological effects. However, ecological models typically disregard this variation and focus instead on trait means and total population density. Under what situations is this simplification appropriate? Why might intraspecific variation alter ecological dynamics? In this review, we synthesize recent theory, identifying six general mechanisms by which trait variation changes the outcome of ecological interactions. These include several direct effects of trait variation per se, and indirect effects arising from genetic variation’s role in trait evolution. PMID:21367482

  16. Genetic Analysis of Craniofacial Traits in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Tamiya, Gen; Shinya, Minori

    2007-01-01

    Family and twin studies suggest that a substantial genetic component underlies individual differences in craniofacial morphology. In the current study, we quantified 444 craniofacial traits in 100 individuals from two inbred medaka (Oryzias latipes) strains, HNI and Hd-rR. Relative distances between defined landmarks were measured in digital images of the medaka head region. A total of 379 traits differed significantly between the two strains, indicating that many craniofacial traits are controlled by genetic factors. Of these, 89 traits were analyzed via interval mapping of 184 F2 progeny from an intercross between HNI and Hd-rR. We identified quantitative trait loci for 66 craniofacial traits. The highest logarithm of the odds score was 6.2 for linkage group (LG) 9 and 11. Trait L33, which corresponds to the ratio of head length to head height at eye level, mapped to LG9; trait V15, which corresponds to the ratio of snout length to head width measured behind the eyes, mapped to LG11. Our initial results confirm the potential of the medaka as a model system for the genetic analysis of complex traits such as craniofacial morphology. PMID:18073435

  17. Relationship of various incoming cattle traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D; Corah, L R

    2009-09-01

    Steers (n = 15,631) and heifers (n = 5,897) fed at 18 feedlots (total confinement, partial confinement, or open lots) in southwest Iowa between 2002 and 2006 as part of the Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity sponsored by Iowa State University were used to correlate various phenotypic traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits. Dependent variables [ADG, respiratory morbidity, HCW, fat thickness, calculated yield grade, marbling score, presence or absence of lung damage, loin muscle area (LMA), and LMA x 100/HCW] were evaluated on the basis of various phenotypic traits [initial BW, disposition score (1 = calm, 6 = extremely excitable), muscle score, frame score, BCS, number of treatments for respiratory disease, presence of lung lesions, breed makeup, and percentage Angus genetics]. Subjectively evaluated phenotypic traits were evaluated by Iowa State University or USDA personnel. Cattle with greater disposition score (more excitable) had decreased initial BW, final BW, ADG, HCW, yield grade, quality grade, marbling score, and mortality (P < 0.01). Respiratory morbidity was negatively correlated with initial BW, ADG, yield grade, HCW, and marbling score (P < 0.01). As initial BW increased, final BW and HCW increased and respiratory morbidity decreased (P < 0.01). Cattle with greater BCS on arrival had greater initial BW but were lighter at slaughter (P < 0.01). Increased number of treatments for respiratory disease was associated with decreased ADG, greater mortality rate, and greater incidence of lung lesions (P < 0.01). Body weight gain was similar between English- and Continental-breed cattle (P > 0.05), although final BW and HCW were greater and yield grade and yield grade-adjusted marbling score were less for Continental-breed cattle (P < 0.01). Cattle with a poorer muscling score had reduced HCW and LMA and greater yield grade, marbling score, and quality grade (P < 0.01). Animal disposition, health, breed type, and frame score have dramatic effects on

  18. Mapping Environment-Specific Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Zhao, Fuping; Xu, Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Environment-specific quantitative trait loci (QTL) refer to QTL that express differently in different environments, a phenomenon called QTL-by-environment (Q × E) interaction. Q × E interaction is a difficult problem extended from traditional QTL mapping. The mixture model maximum-likelihood method is commonly adopted for interval mapping of QTL, but the method is not optimal in handling QTL interacting with environments. We partitioned QTL effects into main and interaction effects. The main effects are represented by the means of QTL effects in all environments and the interaction effects are represented by the variances of the QTL effects across environments. We used the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implemented Bayesian method to estimate both the main and the interaction effects. The residual error covariance matrix was modeled using the factor analytic covariance structure. A simulation study showed that the factor analytic structure is robust and can handle other structures as special cases. The method was also applied to Q × E interaction mapping for the yield trait of barley. Eight markers showed significant main effects and 18 markers showed significant Q × E interaction. The 18 interacting markers were distributed across all seven chromosomes of the entire genome. Only 1 marker had both the main and the Q × E interaction effects. Each of the other markers had either a main effect or a Q × E interaction effect but not both. PMID:20805558

  19. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci for Murine Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheverud, J. M.; Routman, E. J.; Duarte, FAM.; van-Swinderen, B.; Cothran, K.; Perel, C.

    1996-01-01

    Body size is an archetypal quantitative trait with variation due to the segregation of many gene loci, each of relatively minor effect, and the environment. We examine the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on age-specific body weights and growth in the F(2) intercross of the LG/J and SM/J strains of inbred mice. Weekly weights (1-10 wk) and 75 microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 535 mice. Interval mapping was used to locate and measure the genotypic effects of QTLs on body weight and growth. QTL effects were detected on 16 of the 19 autosomes with several chromosomes carrying more than one QTL. The number of QTLs for age-specific weights varied from seven at 1 week to 17 at 10 wk. The QTLs were each of relatively minor, subequal effect. QTLs affecting early and late growth were generally distinct, mapping to different chromosomal locations indicating separate genetic and physiological systems for early and later murine growth. PMID:8846907

  1. Neural substrates of trait ruminations in depression

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Darcy; Siegle, Greg; Shutt, Luann; Feldmiller, Josh; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Rumination in depression is a risk factor for longer, more intense, and harder-to-treat depressions. But there appear to be multiple types of depressive rumination – whether they all share these vulnerability mechanisms, and thus would benefit from the same types of clinical attention is unclear. In the current study, we examined neural correlates of empirically-derived dimensions of trait rumination in 35 depressed participants. These individuals and 29 never-depressed controls completed 17 self-report measures of rumination and an alternating emotion-processing/executive-control task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. We examined associations of regions of interest—the amygdala and other cortical regions subserving a potential role in deficient cognitive control and elaborative emotion-processing—with trait rumination. Rumination of all types was generally associated with increased sustained amygdala reactivity. When controlling for amygdala reactivity, distinct activity patterns in hippocampus were also associated with specific dimensions of rumination. We discuss the possibly utility of targeting more basic biological substrates of emotional reactivity in depressed patients who frequently ruminate. PMID:24661157

  2. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

  3. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    PubMed

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:7643735

  4. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans.

    PubMed

    Madin, Joshua S; Anderson, Kristen D; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C L; Cairns, Stephen D; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S; Franklin, Erik C; Gates, Ruth D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Kosnik, Matthew A; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S; Putnam, Hollie M; Roberts, T Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism's function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  5. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C.L.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Connolly, Sean R.; Darling, Emily S.; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S.; Franklin, Erik C.; Gates, Ruth D.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M.; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Roberts, T. Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C.; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism’s function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  6. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  7. Regression-based multi-trait QTL mapping using a structural equation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus mapping often results in data on a number of traits that have well established causal relationships. Many multi-trait quantitative trait locus mapping methods that account for the correlation among the multiple traits have been developed to improve the statistical power and ...

  8. Children's Reasoning about Norms and Traits as Motives for Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.; Shiverick, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    Two important sources of information for social judgments are personality dispositions (traits) and social norms. Existing research suggests that young children do not find traits salient. To what extent might they rely on a different source of information? Two experiments explored how information about preferences (what someone likes) and rules…

  9. Ethnic variation of selected dental traits in Coorg

    PubMed Central

    Uthaman, Chancy; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In a country like India, in addition to the great innate diversity, there are distinct migrant populations with unique dental traits. Aim: To assess the distribution and degree of expression of cusp of Carabelli of maxillary first permanent molars and shoveling trait of maxillary central incisors, between three ethnic groups of Coorg, namely Kodavas, Tibetans, and Malayalees. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, indirect, anthropometric, study was carried out among 15- to 30-year-old subjects belonging to three different ethnic origins. A random sample consisting of 91 subjects were recruited for the study. The shovel trait of incisors and the Carabelli trait of molars were recorded according to the classification given by Hrdliƈka and Sousa et al., respectively. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the difference in three populations for shoveling and Carabelli traits. Mann-Whitney Test was used for pair-wise comparisons of three populations. Result: Of the total 91 subjects, 31 were Kodavas, 30 Malayalees and 30 Tibetans. There was a statistically significant difference in shoveling trait among the three ethnic groups. For Carabelli traits, there was no statistically significant difference among three ethnic groups. Conclusion: The present study findings showed that Tibetans have a higher degree of shoveling trait than the selected South Indian ethnic groups. PMID:26816457

  10. Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level. Results Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome. PMID:20604973

  11. Psychopathic traits from an RDoC perspective.

    PubMed

    Blair, R J R

    2015-02-01

    In this review an RDoC approach is applied to psychopathic traits. Two core neuro-cognitive systems relevant to the emergence of psychopathic traits are considered. These are the response to other individuals' emotional displays and reinforcement-based decision-making. PMID:25464372

  12. Seven Traits Define Leaders among Student Life Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Dana Lee

    2000-01-01

    Identifies seven character traits characteristic of leaders among student life professionals: influence, values, integrity, trust, self-discipline, empathy, and attitude. Student life professionals are urged to periodically examine themselves in light of these traits as they build their leadership skills. (DB)

  13. Genetic variation in biomass traits among 20 diverse rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Mckay, John K; Mauleon, Ramil; Stephens, Janice; McNally, Kenneth L; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels provide a promising route of producing energy while reducing reliance on petroleum. Developing sustainable liquid fuel production from cellulosic feedstock is a major challenge and will require significant breeding efforts to maximize plant biomass production. Our approach to elucidating genes and genetic pathways that can be targeted for improving biomass production is to exploit the combination of genomic tools and genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we analyzed a diverse set of 20 recently resequenced rice varieties for variation in biomass traits at several different developmental stages. The traits included plant size and architecture, aboveground biomass, and underlying physiological processes. We found significant genetic variation among the 20 lines in all morphological and physiological traits. Although heritability estimates were significant for all traits, heritabilities were higher in traits relating to plant size and architecture than for physiological traits. Trait variation was largely explained by variety and breeding history (advanced versus landrace) but not by varietal groupings (indica, japonica, and aus). In the context of cellulosic biofuels development, cell wall composition varied significantly among varieties. Surprisingly, photosynthetic rates among the varieties were inversely correlated with biomass accumulation. Examining these data in an evolutionary context reveals that rice varieties have achieved high biomass production via independent developmental and physiological pathways, suggesting that there are multiple targets for biomass improvement. Future efforts to identify loci and networks underlying this functional variation will facilitate the improvement of biomass traits in other grasses being developed as energy crops. PMID:21062890

  14. Environmental drivers of trait changes in Photorhabdus luminescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control agents have become increasingly important in integrated pest management programs. However, certain traits of these agents that are needed for efficient biocontrol often decrease or are lost during in vitro rearing. Trait deterioration can result from genetic or environmental cause...

  15. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  16. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  17. How Do Trait Dimensions Map onto ADHD Symptom Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.; von Eye, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) implicate dysfunctional regulation mechanisms that have been conceptually grouped into "top-down" control and "bottom-up" affective/reactive processes. This dual-process account can be invoked in relation to temperament or personality traits and may clarify how traits relate to ADHD. Two…

  18. Scaling of Morphological Characters across Trait Type, Sex, and Environment.

    PubMed

    Voje, Kjetil Lysne

    2016-01-01

    Biological diversity is, to a large extent, a matter of variation in size. Proportional (isometric) scaling, where large and small individuals are magnified versions of each other, is often assumed to be the most common way morphological traits scale relative to overall size within species. However, the many traits showing nonproportional (allometric) scaling have motivated some of the most discussed hypotheses on scaling relationships in biology, like the positive allometry hypothesis for secondary sexual traits and the negative allometry hypothesis for genitals. I evaluate more than 3,200 allometric parameters from the literature and find that negative allometry, not isometry, is the expected scaling relationship of morphological traits within species. Slopes of secondary sexual traits are more often steeper compared with other traits, but slopes larger than unity are also common for traits not under sexual selection. The steepness of the allometric slope is accordingly a weak predictor of past and present patterns of selection. Scaling of genitals varies across taxonomic groups, but negative allometry of genitals in insects and spiders is a consistent pattern. Finally, I find indications that terrestrial organisms may have a different scaling of morphological traits overall compared with aquatic species. PMID:27277405

  19. Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Sasagawa, Satoko; Frick, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure, distribution, and correlates of a new measure of self-reported callous-unemotional (CU) traits in 1,443 adolescents (774 boys, 669 girls) between the ages of 13 to 18 years. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory…

  20. Relationship between Personality Traits and Performance among School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Siadat Sayyed; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zaman, Azhdari; Zahra, Amiri; Mohtaram, Abooeimehrizi

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to explore the relationship between personality traits and performance among school principals. The main objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between principals' personality traits such as introversion, extroversion neuroticism and emotional stability between several performance dimensions. A descriptive…

  1. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  2. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

    2008-01-01

    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  3. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production. PMID:26662435

  4. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  5. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  6. Genomic evaluation of health traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest from dairy producers in traits related to health and fitness of cattle, which often have low heritabilities but high economic values. Traits with low heritability can be improved by genetic selection, but large numbers of daughter records are required to produce predicted t...

  7. Association analysis of candidate SNPs on reproductive traits in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Being able to identify young females with superior reproduction traits would have a large financial impact on commercial swine producers. Previous studies have discovered SNPs associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, fat deposition, and feed intake. The objecti...

  8. Factor Structure of Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rutter, Michael; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using…

  9. Use of Genomics in Economically Important Traits in Ovine Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to summarize relevant results from the use of genomics in sheep. Genomics has been used to identify genes associated with production, reproduction, carcass traits, and disease-related traits in sheep. A brief discussion on the concept of genomics is included. Genome-w...

  10. Ensemble learning of QTL models improves prediction of complex traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability, but are less useful for genetic prediction due to difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage ...