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Sample records for abidjan cote divoire

  1. Petroleum geology of Cote d`Ivoir (Abidjan margin)

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cote d`Ivoire sedimentary basin is part of a typical transform passive margin developed along the West African coast from Liberia to Ghana. It straddles the coastline and the sedimentary section expands dramatically South of the East-West trending Lagune Fault, with up to 10,000 metres of sediments from Aptian to Present in age. Albo-Aptian rift series, mainly continental clastics without evaporites, have accumulated progressively in a tilted semi-graben. The drift stage marks a widespread marine sedimentation organized in progradational sequences which blanket the Albian block-fault topography of the continental break-up. Reservoirs are mainly clastics and present in the section from Middle Albian to Maastrichtian. Sand bodies are associated with identified submarine fans, infill structures or channelized units deposited in a shelf or outer-shelf environment. Trapping opportunities are due to block-faulting in the rift section, or gravity tectonics in the drift section, often combined with sand pinch-outs to constitute mixed structural-stratigraphic traps. Thick top-seal units formed by marine shales are widespread. Source-rocks have been shown to belong mainly to the rift series and they have been characterized in terms of geochemistry and maturation timing. An efficient simulation model has been used to recontruct the expulsion, migration and trapping of hydrocarbons along a selected North-South cross-section and to better define the Petroleum Systems.

  2. Appropriating "malaria": local responses to malaria treatment and prevention in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Granado, Stefanie; Manderson, Lenore; Obrist, Brigit; Tanner, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    A continuing dilemma for medical and public health professionals is the apparent lack of fit between global and local knowledge systems and technologies. This is illustrated in relationship to malaria, with implications in the management of the disease. Ethnographic research was conducted from 2003-2005 in urban Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, on community understandings of malaria and the relationship of this to its prevention and control. Malaria is referred to locally as palu, reflecting the incorporation of malaria into a local illness taxonomy. Although the labeling of malaria-related symptoms as palu has wide currency, preventive measures such as bed nets, as advocated by public health authorities, have not been accepted readily or evenly. Drawing on theoretical understandings of the introduction, transfer, and appropriation of concepts and material objects, we examine the processes of localization in relation to malaria in Abidjan, and in doing so, highlight the challenges for health professionals seeking to scale-up public health interventions. PMID:21218358

  3. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  4. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  5. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  6. Attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding options--a study from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Emmanuela A; Béquet, Laurence; Ekouévi, Didier K; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS-pandemic causes many problems for the most affected societies and their health care systems. One of these is the 'parent to child transmission' (PTCT) through breastmilk and its prevention (PPTCT). As economic and hygienic conditions do not always assure safe replacement feeding in developing countries, a WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-expert panel proposed methods to reduce the risk of PTCT but to use breastmilk for infant feeding. The study presented here aimed at identifying the expected acceptance of such a concept by addressing the attitudes of women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Interviews were performed with 150 mothers and 60 pregnant women. The vast majority regarded breastfeeding as the appropriate method of infant feeding, although the idea of exclusive breastfeeding was not well accepted. Water, especially, was felt to be a necessary supplement. In case of a suggested HIV-infection of the mother, 74 per cent of the women voted for weaning after 3 months. Eighty-three per cent accepted the exclusive use of breastmilk substitutes from birth. Seventy-six per cent were ready to boil their milk for pasteurization. Only 37 per cent considered a wet-nurse to breastfeed their child. As mixed breastfeeding implies a highest risk of PTCT of HIV, the most favoured option-exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning-requires some effort to convince women that breastmilk is a sufficient source of nutrients, fluid and energy for their child and that this feeding should preferably be practised up to 6 months of age. For affluent women, breastmilk substitutes can also be considered as a means of PPTCT in overall resource-poor countries. For the majority of women, there is no real alternative to breastfeeding and to the use of breastmilk for which appropriate technologies of PPTCT are to be developed with respect to national, local and household specifications. PMID:15890725

  7. Spotlight: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-11-01

    The Republic of Cote d'Ivoire's 1986 population was estimated at 10.8 million, with a 3.0% rate of natural increase. In 1986, there were 46 births/1000 population and 15 deaths/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.7. Infant mortality stood at 105/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth was 52 years. Since independence in 1960, Cote d'Ivoire has been one of the most prosperous countries in Africa, with nearly 7% annual growth in the 1960-80 period. The agricultural sector, which employs about 3/4 of the labor force, produces coffee, cocoa, and timber for export. The country is also one of the world's largest producers of palm oil, and the government is seeking to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production by the end of 1987. The gross national product per capita was US$620 in 1986. The government aims to increase fertility through the provision of social welfare services such as child allowances and maternity benefits. The population growth rate has increased from 3.64/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. If current trends persist, the population of Cote d'Ivoire will have doubled in 20 years. Immigration has also contributed to increase the overall rate of population growth, rising from 75,000/year in 1965-75 to a current figure of 94,000/year. The proportion of aliens in the population is expected to increase from 25% in 1980 to over 30% by 1990. PMID:12268738

  8. Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d'ivoire, west Africa).

    PubMed

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Infants and Young Girls: Report of Sixty Cases Observed at the General Hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  10. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  11. How to Certify Learning in a Country Split into Two by a Civil War: Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives in Cote d'Ivoire, 2002-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Magali Chelpi-den

    2007-01-01

    Following political turmoil and rising socio-economic difficulties, Cote d'Ivoire has been split into two since September 2002. The rebellion controls the northern part of the country and the main towns of Bouake, Korhogo and Man, while the government controls the southern part with Abidjan, Yamoussoukro, Daloa and all the ports in the coastal…

  12. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite. PMID:12319960

  13. Numerous seismic prospects dot concessions off Cote d'Ivoire

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, N. ); Barton, E.W. )

    1994-04-04

    A recently announced significant oil discovery off Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa has piqued industry interest in the area. The well, drilled in the CI-11 block in 70 m of water about 12 km offshore, comes several weeks after UMIC announced a sizable gas/condensate discovery in the same block, UMIC and partners plan further drilling. Petroci, the Cote d'Ivoire state oil company and working interest partner in the two new discoveries, is offering three large evaluation concessions to the international oil industry. This current concession round represents the first time in recent years that the region has been opened for petroleum exploration activity. In a major change, Cote d'Ivoire just reduced its income tax rate for the oil industry to 35% from 50%. The paper describes the structure of the margin, stratigraphy, the Espair oil field, the Belier oil field, and the Fox trot gas field.

  14. Education and Conflict in Cote d'Ivoire. Special Report 235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sany, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between conflict and education in Cote d'Ivoire, and suggests policy and program approaches for analysts and those engaged with education and peacebuilding in societies affected by conflict. Although the situation in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved since the main recommendations of this report were written in early…

  15. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs.... 2011-7 of March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act...

  16. The Equity Impact of Public Finance of Private Education Provision in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The equity effects of public subsidization of private schools in Cote d'Ivoire are analyzed. The subsidy per student in private (and public) schools increases as one goes to higher household per capita expenditure groups. Students from families in the highest expenditure quartile receive twice the subsidy received by students from families in the…

  17. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  18. Sociopolitical crisis and the reconstruction of sustainable periurban agriculture in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Babo, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the post-2002 sociopolitical crisis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, on urban and peri-urban agriculture. Based on the case study of Abidjan, it argues for a conceptualization of sustainability that includes social as well as environmental dimensions and focuses on coping strategies of producers and merchants. In Abidjan, these strategies included internal migration within the city and its periphery, the use of organic fertilizers, and changes in market structure. The study illustrates how such strategies allowed producers to continue to supply produce to the market, despite the difficulties of war. PMID:21322900

  19. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities. PMID:26646721

  20. Development of Foxtrot offshore gas field Cote d'Ivoire. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In December 1991, a definitional mission investigated a project to develop a natural gas field located offshore Cote d'Ivoire, and whether a grant to the Ivorian government should be made for the study. However, before the mission could be conducted, the character of the project changed from one which was primarily a gas-development venture to a power generation project in which the energy source was natural gas. It was concluded that the expanded project changed the focus of the definitional mission. In the project's original formulation in which the World Bank was to be the main lender, it was clear that U.S. firms would have an opportunity to bid on significant portions of the project due to the Bank's standard requirement for competitive bidding. But after French industrial and financial groups joined in the expanded project, it was not clear that a sufficient opportunity would still exist for the involvement of U.S. firms in the overall project. Therefore, the mission was modified to first assess the business and financial aspects of the project before making a decision on a mission to Cote d'Ivoire to conduct a technical review of the proposed development of the offshore gas field.

  1. Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sangare-Tigori, Béatrice; Moukha, Serge; Kouadio, James H; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Achour, Abdellatif; Creppy, Edmond E

    2006-06-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera contaminates a diversity of foods including cereals; cereals-derived foods; dry fruits; beans; cocoa; coffee; beer; wine; and foodstuffs of animal origin mainly poultry, eggs, pork and milk, including human breast milk. OTA is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far and most likely to humans, who show the longest half-life for elimination of this toxin among all species examined. Among other toxic effects, OTA is teratogenic, immunotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, all of which lead to life-threatening pathologies through several molecular pathways. In Côte d'Ivoire, preliminary surveys conducted by us have proven from 1998 to 2004 the reality of ochratoxin A-contamination of foodstuffs. To assess OTA in human blood, the immunoaffinity columns were used along with HPLC for separation and fluorimetric quantification of blood samples collected in Abidjan from two categories of people: apparently healthy donors (n=63) and nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis (n=39). Among healthy donors, 34.9% show OTA concentrations ranging from 0.01 - 5.81 microg/l with a mean value of 0.83 microg/l, whereas, among nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis 20.5% are OTA positive in a range of 0.167-2.42 microg/l and a mean value of 1.05. Although the sex ratio is 0.82 (46 females for 56 males) ochratoxin A contamination is equally distributed in both sexes. Nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis appear, however, less frequently contaminated than healthy donors (20.5 versus 34.9%) and show higher OTA concentrations (higher mean value, p=0.01). Ochratoxin A concentrations found in human blood reflect concentrations previously detected in cereals and peanuts according to the eating habits and diets of people in Côte d'Ivoire. But, the prevalence of ochratoxin A in blood of nephropathy people undergoing dialysis appears lower than expected from the frequency of OTA contamination in cereals and

  2. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d`Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C.; Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d`Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian(?)-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d`lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  3. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C. ); Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d'Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian( )-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d'lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  4. The Tradeoff between Number of Children and Child Schooling: Evidence from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Working Paper Number 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; And Others

    This research paper explores the relationship between fertility and the investments made by parents in the schooling of their children in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana (both in Africa). The tendency in developing nations research is that families with many children invest less in each, and families with fewer children make greater human capital…

  5. Pharmacovigilance for antiretroviral drugs in Africa, lessons from a study in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Djima, Mariam Mama; Coffie, Patrick; Kacou, Henri Die; Eholie, Serge P.; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Guehi, Calixte; Yavo, Jean Claude; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Dabis, Francois; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2011-01-01

    Background While antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse drug reactions (ADR) are documented in industrialized countries, there is no pre-existing surveillance system dedicated to ADR monitoring in most African countries. We assessed knowledge towards pharmacovigilance among ART prescribers and available capacity of HIV clinics to conduct ADR monitoring in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ART prescribers, to assess their knowledge towards the occurrence of ADRs. A retrospective ADR survey was also conducted, based on a data query of treatment modification/interruptions in three HIV clinics. Clinical monitors went back to medical charts to review and validate the reasons of the treatment modification/interruptions. Results Of the 81 ART prescribers interviewed, 25 (31%) declared not grading ADRs and 12 (14.8%) declared notifying ADRs to the national regulatory authorities. Among 5,252 adult ART-treated patients who attended the participating clinics in 2008, 599 treatment modifications were identified. Reasons for treatment modification/interruptions identified in the electronic database were documented in the medical charts in 554 (92.5%) cases, ADR accounting for 273 (45.5%) cases. Toxicity related to ART was graded in only 58 (21%) cases in the medical charts. Discussion This study describes challenges limiting the implementation of reliable pharmacovigilance activities in HIV clinics in Côte d’Ivoire. The lack of knowledge of ART prescribers concerning ADR grading does not support the spontaneous reporting of ADRs. Using treatment modification/interruptions for ADR monitoring appears feasible but improvements are needed to respond to key questions related to drug toxicities in the context of ART scale up in Africa. PMID:21735508

  6. HIV vulnerability and the erasure of sexual and gender diversity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the fight against concentrated HIV epidemics, men who have sex with men (MSM) are often framed as a homogeneous population, with little attention paid to sexual and gender diversity and its impact on HIV vulnerability. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire among les branchés - a local term encompassing several categories of same-sex desire and practice. In the context of increased HIV prevention programming targeting Ivoirian sexual and gender minorities, such diversity is effectively erased. This obfuscation of difference has particularly negative impacts for travestis, who may be at higher risk for HIV infection, though research and prevention efforts in which they are grouped with 'MSM' render them underrepresented and make their vulnerability difficult to quantify. Branchés whose class and/or ethnic backgrounds compound their stigmatised status as sexual and gender minorities also bear the burden of this exclusion. Furthermore, some branchés deploy 'MSM' as a form of self-identification, further complicating who such categories represent. By highlighting the ways in which constructions of gender and sexuality within HIV/AIDS programming obscure complex social realities, I aim to reorient thinking around the development of purposeful HIV programming that engages the complexity of sexual and gender minority experience. PMID:26894990

  7. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  8. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA. PMID:27040819

  9. [The quality of immunization services in community centers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Tiembré, Issaka; Benié Bi, Vroh Joseph; Attoh-Touré, Harvey; Douba, Alfred; N'zi, Ekie; Simplice Dagnan, N'cho; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2012-01-01

    In addition to health care centers, other institutions such as community centers are also involved in providing immunization services, the purpose being to address the inadequate provision of services in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of immunization services provided by non-medical staff. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the course of two months in the 15 public community centers providing immunization services in Abidjan. Data collection was performed by two physicians using three questionnaires (one for center managers, one for vaccinators and one for vaccine recipients) and two observation checklists (to assess vaccination equipment and to observe the behaviors and practices of vaccinators). The study found that none of the centers had a generator. One community center had no refrigerator. Refrigerators were not placed in a ventilated area in 14.3 % of the centers and were not exclusively used for the storage of vaccines in 26.7 % of the centers. None of the centers had an incinerator. 21.1 % of staff did not know the correct storage temperature. In 88.9 % of cases, the swab used to stop bleeding was also used to clean the injection site. The injection site was not sterilized in 10.8 % of cases. 73.9 % of the recipients did not know what vaccine they had been administered, while 95 % of the recipients did not know the date of their next vaccination appointment. The results indicate that immunization services in public community centers have many shortcomings. To address these issues, it is necessary to implement a training policy and to provide appropriate equipment and supervision. PMID:23472984

  10. Characteristics and outcome of living kidney donors after donation: A report from Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Delphine Amélie; Ackoundou-N'guessan, Kan Clément; Njapom, Tchakam Léopold; Sekongo, Yassongui Mamadou; Guei, Cyr Monley; Tia, Mélanie Weu; Gnionsahe, Daze Apollinaire

    2016-05-01

    Kidney transplantation from living kidney donors (LKDs) because of its good results represents a good option for the treatment of patients with the end-stage renal disease. Kidney donation is a relatively safe procedure according to several studies. We conducted this cross-sectional study in order to describe the demographic, clinical, and renal outcome of LKD in Côte d'Ivoire. From March to November 2014, LKD residing in Côte d'Ivoire at the time of investigation and having donated the kidney more than one year ago were considered for the study. They were evaluated through a questionnaire. Of the 29 LKD listed in Côte d'Ivoire, only 14 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at donation was 43.29 ± 9.12 years (27-59) and 10 of the LKD were women. Eight were related to the recipients, and the remaining were spouses. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in nine LKD. The left kidney was harvested in ten cases. The main motivation for donation in all donors was the desire to save a life. At the time of the survey, the average duration after the donation was 4.57 ± 2.56 years (1-8). Only five donors had a regular nephrological follow-up. Hypertension was observed in one donor, seven had significant proteinuria, and six had glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min but >30 mL/min. Significantly higher proteinuria was noted in donors under 45 years as compared to those over 45 years (0.43 ± 0.17 g/24 h vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 g/24 h, P = 0.01). Our study suggests that renal disease in LKD in Côte d'Ivoire is low after a mean follow-up period of four years. A donor registry is essential to ensure better follow-up of donors in order to detect potential adverse effects of kidney donation in the medium as well as in the long-term. PMID:27215251

  11. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S.; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  12. Perceptions and Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Sara J.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Cardoso, Lauren F.; Cole, Heather; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2016-01-01

    Background Men and women’s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) within crisis-affected populations are not well understood. This mixed-methods study examined the frequency of IPV against women in urban Cote d’Ivoire, and qualitatively explored how men and women perceive the impact of various forms of IPV on health, everyday activities, and feelings of shame. Methods A survey was administered to Ivorian women (N = 80) to measure the frequency of IPV, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with women (n = 46) and men (n = 45) to explore perceptions of different forms of IPV, including its impacts on disruptions to health, everyday activities, and experiences of shame. Results Half of all surveyed women (53.6%) reported past year exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional IPV. Of the multiple types of violence, emotional IPV was most common (46.4%), followed by sexual IPV (21.7%) and physical IPV (17.4%). Focus group participants identified additional forms of violence including economic IPV and community discrimination. Lack of financial resources and unemployment were common problems among crisis-affected women and were described as an underlying source of IPV. Both women and men reported that shame and stigma play a large role in how women experience the repercussions of IPV, regardless of the form of violence, with public episodes of IPV almost always seen as more detrimental than private episodes of IPV. Conclusions These results underscore the need for increased social support mechanisms for women to reduce the shame, stigma, and isolation associated with their experiences. The creation of safe and supportive spaces for women to talk about and challenge social norms may be an important first step in reducing community shaming and the secrecy that often surrounds IPV. Safe spaces along with broader societal outreach, including challenging men’s social positions and creating opportunities for increasing economic resources can, in turn

  13. [Growth in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Pessa; Adonis Koffy, Laurence; Diarrassouba, Gnenefoly; Timité Konan, Marguerite

    2015-06-01

    We realized one of the first observational studies in sub-Saharan Africa whose aim was to analyze the growth in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome. This was a retrospective study, involving 30 children followed for nephrotic syndrome in pediatric nephrology unit of the University Hospital of Yopougon (Abidjan) from 28.02.2005 to 19.12.2010. Each child was followed for two years and we are interested in demographic characteristics and the evolution of size. At the end of our study, it appears that: the mean age was 89.33 ± 43.41 months (7.44 years) with a sex ratio of 3,28. At the end of the two years of follow-up, patients had received a median dose of steroids 6151 ± 3832 mg/m(2), 9111 ± 1376 mg/m(2) and 8664 ± 5379 mg/m(2), respectively, for a relapse or no, two and at least three relapses. Fourteen patients had received vitamin D therapy and calcium. At the end of follow-up, four children had growth retardation. An average gain in Z-score was noted at the end of follow-up in girls and boys respectively +0.06 and +0.36. The growth retardation observed in our study was not associated with different growth periods (P=0.116), gender (P=0.548) and the mean Z-scores observed at the end of follow-up was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.26). Growth retardation observed was not related to the cumulative dose administered (P=0.15), number of relapse (P=1.000). PMID:25765237

  14. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N’guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Results: Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. Conclusion: This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery. PMID:25659551

  15. Spatial dispersion and characterisation of mosquito breeding habitats in urban vegetable-production areas of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J

    2010-12-01

    Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services). PMID:21144184

  16. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas. PMID:27000124

  17. Operational issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 1998-99.

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Hingst, G.; Kaba, F.; Viho, I.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility, from the public health standpoint, of preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Africa. METHODS: Voluntary counselling and HIV serotesting were routinely provided in four health centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, for six months in 1998-99. Peripartum treatment with zidovudine and alternatives to breastfeeding were provided free to HIV-infected women. FINDINGS: Of the 4309 pregnant women in the study who attended their first antenatal care visit, 3756 benefited from individual counselling and pretesting (87.2%), and 3452 (80.1%) agreed to undergo HIV serotesting. Overall HIV prevalence was (12.89%) and 5% for women aged under 18 years. Among the 2998 HIV-negative women, 71% returned for their test result, whereas only 60% of the 445 HIV-positive women did so. A total of 124 HIV-positive women were informed of their serostatus and the possibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 100 started treatment and 80 completed zidovudine prophylaxis. At 6 weeks of age, 36 of the 78 liveborn children were being breastfed (46%), two were being mixed-fed and 41 (52%) were being artificially fed. CONCLUSIONS: In Abidjan, voluntary counselling and HIV testing with a view to preventing mother-to-child transmission was feasible in antenatal care units and was well accepted by pregnant women. An insufficient proportion of women returned to obtain their test results. This was especially so among HIV-positive women, the target group for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Additional staff were required in order to offer voluntary counselling and HIV testing to the study women. Close supervision and strong commitment of health workers were essential. Alternatives to breastfeeding were effectively proposed to HIV-positive women, with active follow-up of children and clinical, nutritional and social support. PMID:11477967

  18. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

  19. Recurrent selection of cocoa populations in Cote d'Ivoire: comparative genetic diversity between the first and second cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Cote d'Ivore, the cocoa breeding programme has been based on the creation of hybrids between different genetic groups. From 1990 onward, a reciprocal recurrent selection programme has been set up with the purpose of improving simultaneously the characteristics of the two main genetic groups: Uppe...

  20. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kouakou S; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM) is strongly associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of action whereby PM cause adverse health effects are still unclear. In developing countries, like in the sub-Saharian region of Africa, people are often exposed to high PM levels. Hence, three PM(2.5) samples were collected in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), under rural, urban or industrial influences. Their most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined--thereby showing that most of them were equal or smaller than 2.5 microm--and the influence of both natural (Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, etc.) and anthropic (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, benzene and its derivatives, paraffins, etc.) emission sources. The toxicity induced by the three PM samples was studied through 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hence, effect concentrations at 10 and 50% (EC(10) and EC(50), respectively) were as follows: (i) rural PM--EC(10) = 5.91 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 29.55 microg cm(-2); (ii) urban PM--EC(10) = 5.45 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 27.23 microg cm(-2); and (iii) industrial PM--EC(10) = 6.86 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 34.29 microg cm(-2). Moreover, PM-induced oxidative damage in A549 cells was observed through the induction of lipid peroxidation, the alteration of superoxide dismutase activity, and the disruption of glutathione status. Both the transition metals and the organic chemicals within the three collected PM samples under study might be involved in the oxidative damage and, therefore, the toxicity they induced in A549 cells. PMID:19943358

  1. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  2. Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna; Tschannen, Andres B; Becket, Emmanuel Gbede; Gosoniu, Laura; Cissé, Gueladio; Tanner, Marcel; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people's health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. First, the heads of households were interviewed on agricultural land use, farming practices, water storage, sanitation facilities, and socioeconomic status. Second, a finger prick blood sample was taken from all household members and examined for the occurrence and density of Plasmodia. Geographic coordinates of houses, farming plots, and potential mosquito breeding sites were recorded and integrated into a geographic information system. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed using non-random and random effects Bayesian regression models. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 32.1%. In children < 15 years of age, risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included living in a specific agricultural zone, close proximity to permanent ponds and fish ponds, periodic stays overnight in temporary farm huts, and low socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa. PMID:17172397

  3. [Neonatal and child tetanus morbidity and mortality in the University hospitals of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2016-08-01

    The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO. PMID:27177642

  4. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    PubMed

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  6. A first database for landslide studies in densely urbanized areas of the intertropical zone: Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnagne, Frédéric; Demoulin, Alain; Biemi, Jean; Dewitte, Olivier; Kouadio, Hélène; Lasm, Théophile

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, a natural phenomenon often enhanced by human misuse of the land, may be a considerable threat to urban communities and severely affect urban landscapes, taking its death toll, impacting livelihood, and causing economic and social damages. Our first results show that, in Abidjan city, Ivory Coast, landslides caused more than fifty casualties in the towns of Attecoube and Abobo during the last twenty years. Although informal landslide reports exist, map information and geomorphological characterization are at best restricted, or often simply lacking. Here, we aim at constituting a comprehensive landslide database (localization, nature and morphometry of the slides, slope material, human interference, elements at risk) in the town of Attecoube as case study in order to support a first analysis of landslide susceptibility in the area. The field inventory conducted so far contains 56 landslides. These are mainly translational debris and soil slides, plus a few deeper rotational soil slides. Affecting 10-25°-steep, less than 10-m-high slopes in Quaternary sand and mud, they are most often associated with wild constructions either loading the top or cutting the toe of the slopes. They were located by GPS and tentatively dated through inquiries during the survey. While 12 landslides were accurately dated that way from the main rain seasons of 2013 to 2015, newspapers analysis and municipal archive consultation allowed us to assign a part of the rest to the last decade. Field inquiries were also used to collect information about fatalities and the local conditions of landsliding. This first landslide inventory in Attecoube provides clues about the main potential controls on landsliding, natural and anthropogenic, and will help define adequately anthropogenic variables to be used in the susceptibility modelling.

  7. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:21585092

  8. Implementing family-focused HIV care and treatment: the first 2 years' experience of the mother-to-child transmission-plus program in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Toure, Siaka; Koné, Mamadou; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane; Toro, Patricia; Dabis, François; El Sadr, Wafaa M.; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe a family-focused approach to HIV care and treatment and report on the first two years’ experience of implementing the MTCT-Plus program in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Program implementation New effective models of care are being sought to provide successful strategies to deliver safe, efficient and appropriate HIV care and treatment in resource limited settings. The MTCT-Plus Initiative aims to engage pregnant and postpartum women identified as HIV-infected to initiate comprehensive HIV care and treatment for the woman and her family. Main outcomes Between August 2003 and August 2005, 605 HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum women and 582 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. Amongst 568 male partners reported alive by enrolled women, 300 (52%) were aware of their wife’s HIV status and 169 (30%) have been tested for HIV. Amongst these partners, 88 (53%) were found to be HIV-infected and 69 (78%) were enrolled into the program. Overall only 10% of the women were enrolled together with their infected partner. On the other hand, a success of the program was also to involve a significant number of seronegative men (half of those who came for VCT) in the care of their families. Amongst 1,624 children <15 years reported alive by their mothers (excluding the last newborn infants of the most recent pregnancy systematically screened for HIV), only 146 (10.8%) were brought in for HIV testing, of whom 18 (12.3%) were found to be HIV-infected. Lessons learned and challenges The family-focused model of HIV care pays attention to the needs of families and household members. The program was successful in enrolling HIV women, their partners and infants in continuous follow-up. However engaging partners and family members of newly enrolled women into care involves numerous challenges outlined in the cascade of necessary events that must take place to achieve this goal. This involves the difficult issue of disclosure of HIV status by women to their

  9. Fire seasonality changes in Côte d'Ivoire revealed through Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, N. R.; Bassett, T. J.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fire plays a significant role in the savanna systems of West Africa, where a large proportion of the landscape burns annually. Previous research has suggested that shifts in land use and agricultural practices have modified the fire regime of Cote d'Ivoire over the past 30 years. Specifically, increasing pastoralism in north-central Cote d'Ivoire has been shown to coincide with a shift in fire seasonality toward fires earlier in the dry season. We investigated decadal trends in monthly fire occurrence across Cote d'Ivoire to determine whether similar processes of shifting fire seasonality are at play at the national scale. We assessed fire occurrence using remotely sensed Landsat imagery covering the entire extent of Cote d'Ivoire across a 30-year period from 1984 to 2014. The fine resolution of Landsat imagery makes possible the detection of small fires that commonly occur in heavily managed West African savannas. We investigated trends in the timing of both active fires and burned areas. Active fires were detected using shortwave infrared emissions of fire, and burned areas were identified based on spectral and temporal patterns distinctive to burn scars. The timing of fire occurrence influences fire intensity, and shifting fire seasonality has implications for land cover and terrestrial carbon budgets. Our findings point to temporal-spatial shifts in fire regimes over the past three decades and advance understanding of the contribution of West Africa's savannas to global greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. DITRAME Study Group (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). Diminution de la Transmission Mère Enfant du VIH. Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cartoux, Michel; Msellati, Philippe; Meda, Nicolas; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Leroy, Valériane; Van De Perre, Philippe; Dabis, François

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in two cities of West Africa: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods In the context of a clinical trial to prevent HIV vertical transmission, HIV counselling and testing was offered systematically to women attending antenatal clinics. Informed consent was obtained and test results were given anonymously. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with refusal for testing and failure to return for test results. Results A total of 9724 pregnant women were interviewed from January 1995 to September 1996. In Abidjan (n = 5766) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 3958), 78 and 92.4% of the women consented to HIV testing, respectively, and 58.4 and 81.8% of them returned for the test results disclosure, respectively. In the two sites, the counsellors themselves and high educational level of the women appeared to be related to refusal of the test, whereas last trimester gestation was associated with failure to return for test results. In Abidjan, foreigners and employees were more likely to refuse testing, and HIV-infected women were three times less likely to return for results than uninfected women. Conclusion Future implementation of interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV that require antenatal HIV testing and counselling will have to solve issue of acceptability of HIV testing by pregnant women. PMID:9863877

  11. Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast): World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the country's limited oil reserves which are almost exhausted meaning difficult times in the future. New terms for an offer of 11 offshore blocks allow for a negotiable split of cost oil and profit oil linked to either daily production or the ratio between accumulated net revenues and accumulated revenue.

  12. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    .4 and 2.9E-8 and 2.48E-5 m/s, respectively. These values of permeability are low. They were therefore multiplied by 10 in order to calibrate the model. This suggests that the environment of deposition of the sands is heterogeneous with coarse sand channels in places as it can be expected in such lagoon environment. The result of the model simulation in steady state indicates the groundwater flow direction (North-South) and the approach of pollutants plumes to some well fields after 20 years. References: Deh S. K. (2013). Contributions de l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates et d'un modèle de transport des organochlorés a la protection des eaux souterraines du district d'Abidjan (sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) 230p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  13. [Oral health care practices in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Samba, M; Guinan, J C; Sangare, A; Da-Danho, V; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    2004-09-01

    Abidjan, the economical capital of Ivory Coast has a CAO of 2.7 with index O practically nil. The professional density is one surgeon for 12.000 inhabitants. Abidjan population, despite the requirements in increasing care has not recourse to the dental surgeons for their assumption of responsibility. The general objective of our study is to describe the therapeutic itinerary in odonto-stomatology of the Abidjan population. We have realised a questionnaire survey beside of population sample. The results show that 25 per cent of our population gives up care despite the presence of pain or embarrassment. Our study has allowed highlighting all the other recourses to the care. Indeed, the people who give up the care have much other recourse which has be identified in order of importance: the modern and traditional self-medication. Let us note in our study, that the choice of dental surgeon knows a constant evolution from the first to the third recourse. The lack of financial means constitutes however the first obstacle at the accessibility to the oral care in Ivory Coast. PMID:15900823

  14. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  15. Investigation of a Large Collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages Collected from a Single Environmental Source in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essoh, Christiane; Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Nguetta, Simon-Pierre A.; Lathro, Serge; Cablanmian, Arsher; Kouassi, Athanase K.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two distinct bacteriophages were isolated from sewage water from five locations in the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire over a two-year period, using a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with diverse genotypes. The phages were characterized by their virulence spectrum on a panel of selected P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and by whole genome sequencing. Twelve virions representing the observed diversity were visualised by electron microscopy. The combined observations showed that 17 phages, distributed into seven genera, were virulent, and that five phages were related to temperate phages belonging to three genera. Some showed similarity with known phages only at the protein level. The vast majority of the genetic variations among virulent phages from the same genus resulted from seemingly non-random horizontal transfer events, inside a population of P. aeruginosa phages with limited diversity. This suggests the existence of a single environmental reservoir or ecotype in which continuous selection is taking place. In contrast, mostly point mutations were observed among phages potentially capable of lysogenisation. This is the first study of P. aeruginosa phage diversity in an African city and it shows that a large variety of phage species can be recovered in a limited geographical site at least when different bacterial strains are used. The relative temporal and spatial stability of the Abidjan phage population might reflect equilibrium in the microbial community from which they are released. PMID:26115051

  16. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  17. 76 FR 50284 - Request for Public Comments on Interim Review of Eligibility of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Opportunity Act Implementation Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (the ``Subcommittee'') is... submission at http://www.regulations .gov, please contact Laura Newport, Trade Policy Staff Committee, at....regulations .gov, docket number USTR-2011-0009. Donald W. Eiss, Acting Chair, Trade Policy Staff...

  18. [Impact of a targeted technical assistance to improve vaccine coverage in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mauritania in 2014].

    PubMed

    Ahanhanzo, Y Glèlè; Palenfo, D; Saussier, C; Gbèdonou, P; Tonda, A; Da Silva, A; Aplogan, A

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of its strategic goal of vaccine coverage (VC) improvement, GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance has entrusted the Agence de médecine préventive (agency for preventive medicine, AMP) with technical assistance services to Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), and Mauritania. This support was provided to selected priority districts (PDs) with the worst Penta3 coverage performances. In 2014, PDs benefited from technical and management capacities in vaccinology strengthening for district medical officers, supportive supervisions and technical assistance in health logistics, data management and quality. We analyzed the effects of the AMP technical assistance on the improvement of the cumulative Penta3 coverage, which is the key performance indicator of the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) performance. We compared Penta3 coverage between PDs and other non-priority districts (NPDs), Penta3 coverage evolution within each PD, and the distribution of PDs and NPDs according to Penta3 coverage category between January and December 2014. Technical assistance had a positive effect on the EPI performance. Indeed Penta3 coverage progression was higher in PDs than in NPDs throughout the period. Besides, between January and December 2014, the Penta3 VC increased in 70%, 100% and 86% of DPs in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire and Mauritania, respectively. Furthermore, the increase in the number of PDs with a Penta3 coverage over 80% was higher in DPs than in NPDs: 20% versus 8% for Cameroon, 58% versus 29% for Côte d'Ivoire and 17% versus 8% for Mauritania. Despite positive and encouraging results, this technical assistance service can be improved and efforts are needed to ensure that all health districts have a VC above 80% for all EPI vaccines. The current challenge is for African countries to mobilize resources for maintaining the knowledge and benefits and scaling such interventions in the public health area. PMID:27160219

  19. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  20. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  1. Closed Newton-Cotes Trigonometrically-Fitted Formulae for Long-Time Integration of Orbital Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.

    2006-10-01

    The connection between closed Newton-Cotes, trigonometrically-fitted differential methods and symplectic integrators is investigated in this paper. It is known from the literature that several one step symplectic integrators have been obtained based on symplectic geometry. However, the investigation of multistep symplectic integrators is very poor. Zhu et al.(1996) presented the well known open Newton-Cotes differential methods as multilayer symplectic integrators. Also, Chiou & Wu (1997) investigated the construction of multistep symplectic integrators based on the open Newton-Cotes integration methods. In this paper we investigate the closed Newton-Cotes formulae and we write them as symplectic multilayer structures. After this we construct trigonometrically-fitted symplectic methods which are based on the closed Newton-Cotes formulae. We apply the symplectic schemes in order to solve Hamilton's equations of motion which are linear in position and momentum. We observe that the Hamiltonian energy of the system remains almost constant as integration procceeds.

  2. The Kan River Gneiss terrane of central Côte D'Ivoire: mylonitic remnants of an ancient magmatic arc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, J.

    1992-11-01

    The Kan River Gneisses (KRG) which crop out to the east of the Birrimian Fetekro supracrustal belt in central Cote d'Ivoire are described. They comprise a TTG intrusive suite, part of which has been metamorphosed to amphibolite facies and extensively deformed by strike-slip deformation. These gneisses are considered to have been originally linked to the better known Dabakala Gneiss to the north. The eastern and western boundaries of the KRG are defined by major crustal shear zones which separate discrete lithostratigraphic terranes. To the east, the Comoe flysch basin lies beyond the Dimbokro strike-slip shear zone. The Boni Andokro shear zone marks the boundary between the KRG and the Toumodi Volcanic Group (TVG) to the west, where there is evidence of shortening and transcurrent movement. The KRG are geochemically similar to modern volcanic arc granites. They are clearly petrologically distinct from the calc-alkaline intrusive granitoids which intrude the TVG, and which geochemically resemble modern volcanic arc and syn-collisional granites. The KRG terrane resembles a deformed magmatic arc. In view of the nature of its eastern and western boundaries, its relations with neighbouring terranes are considered suspect.

  3. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public. PMID:12289034

  4. Therapeutic algorithms for the management of sexually transmitted diseases at the peripheral level in Côte d'Ivoire: assessment of efficacy and cost.

    PubMed Central

    La Ruche, G.; Lorougnon, F.; Digbeu, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) era, adequate management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is a primary concern in Africa. Assessed in this study is the clinical efficacy and feasibility of WHO-recommended therapeutic algorithms for genital discharges and ulcers, diagnosed without laboratory tests, for use at the primary health care level. Drugs were sold on a cost-recovery basis and included intramuscular ceftriaxone and oral ciprofloxacin for single-dose therapy of gonorrhoea and chancroid. During April 1993 in 10 peripheral health care centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a total of 207 patients were followed up, including 89 cases of male urethritis, 92 cases of vaginal discharges and 26 cases of genital ulcers; clinical success, assessed 7 days after the onset of therapy, was, respectively, 92%, 87%, and 100%. Less than 10% of the 207 patients were referred to the next care level, an acceptable rate from a public health point of view. Medical adherence to the algorithms was excellent for urethral discharges and genital ulcers but poor for vaginal discharges, partly because of intentional therapeutic modifications, without detriment to success. For drugs, the average cost per cure was 1546 francs CFA (US$ 5.60) (maximum, 2980 francs CFA (US$ 10.70). Effective and affordable treatments for STDs are necessary for their realistic case management in Africa. PMID:7614662

  5. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates). PMID:24944124

  6. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  7. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  8. Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analysing the Cross-Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany and the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of reactions of 14 German and 20 Ivory Coast managers to informant stories from 14 U.S. human resource professionals revealed differences in work myths that reflected national differences, e.g., individual versus collective orientation, business development patterns, and management approaches. Awareness of the ethnocentrism of work myths…

  9. [Survey of general dental practitioners in Abidjan on the use of the operatory field in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Avoaka-Boni, M C; Gnagne-Koffi, N D Y; Assoumou-Adou, N M; Kouakou, K F; Guinan, J C; Abouattier-Mansilla, E C

    2009-09-01

    Rubber dam is a standard operatory field in operative dentistry and endodontics. It is undoubtedly the most certain way to insure the success of therapeutics acts. Its use by Abidjan practitioners has been the subject of our study which aim is to underline the place of rubber dam in daily practice. Our investigations show that rubber dam is totally absent from practitioners acts. Generally cotton rolls constitute the most frequent mean used by practitioners to isolate the tooth in operative dentistry and endodontics. Only 23.9% of them associate saliva sucking up. Some cases of aspiration and swallowing file by accident by patients have been highlighted. Those results lead us to recommend the systematic use of rubber dam as the mean of efficiency and security which cannot be ignored in our practice. PMID:20441127

  10. Malaria transmission dynamics in central Côte d'Ivoire: the influence of changing patterns of irrigated rice agriculture.

    PubMed

    Koudou, B G; Tano, Y; Doumbia, M; Nsanzabana, C; Cissé, G; Girardin, O; Dao, D; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Bordmann, G; Keiser, J; Tanner, M; Utzinger, J

    2005-03-01

    The dynamics of malaria transmission was studied comparatively in the villages of Zatta and Tiemelekro, central Cote d'Ivoire, from February 2002 to August 2003. Prominent agroecosystems in these villages are irrigated rice growing and vegetable farming, respectively. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected on human bait at night and by pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections at four randomly selected sentinel sites in each village. In 2002, for a total of 96 man-nights per village, 7716 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and 3308 in Tiemelekro. In 2003, with half the sampling effort, 859 and 2056 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and Tiemelekro, respectively. Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. was the predominant mosquito and the key malaria vector throughout, followed by An. funestus Giles. Anthropophily among adult female Anopheles exceeded 95% in both villages. Comparison between years revealed that the biting rate of An. gambiae s.l. in Zatta decreased several-fold from 49.3 bites per person per night (b/p/n) in 2002 to 7.9 b/p/n in 2003 (likelihood ratio test (LRT) = 1072.66; P < 0.001). Although the biting rate remained fairly constant in Tiemelekro, the difference between years was significant (16.1 vs. 18.2 b/p/n; LRT = 148.06; P < 0.001). These observations were paralleled by a marked decrease in the infective rate of An. gambiae s.l. in Zatta (4.6-1.2%), and an increase in Tiemelekro (3.1-7.6%). Meanwhile, the entomological inoculation rate of An. gambiae s.l. decreased 21-fold in Zatta, from 789 to 38 infective bites per person per year (ib/p/y), whereas it remained high in Tiemelekro (233 vs. 342 ib/p/y). The interruption of irrigated rice growing in Zatta in 2003, consequential to a farmers' conflict over land, might be the underlying cause for the significant reduction in malaria transmission, whereas more stable conditions occurred in Tiemelekro. PMID:15752174

  11. Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Stahl, Daniel; Boesch, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Twenty five adult chimpanzee skeletons (Pan troglodytes verus) of known age and sex (15 females, 10 males) from a long-term study site in Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire present new data on variation. These skeletons provide a rare opportunity to measure the cranium and postcranium from the same individuals. We compare measurements and indices of the Taï sample with those of relatively complete Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii skeletons from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Measurements of Pan paniscus are included as an outside comparison. The Taï and Gombe samples are analyzed by sex; combined sex samples are compared between the two groups, and the two sexes to each other. Taï females and males do not differ in most long bone lengths or in pelvic dimensions, but do differ significantly in cranial capacity, facial measurements, clavicle length, scapular breadth, and femur length. Gombe females and males differ significantly in some facial measurements and in scapular breadth. In combined sex samples, Taï individuals have lower cranial capacity, longer palate and mandible, and greater dimensions in the trunk and limb lengths. Taï females account for most of the variation; males differ from each other only in greater length of humerus and femur. The Taï skeletons provide new data for assessing individual variation and sexual dimorphism within and between populations and species. The combination of cranial and postcranial data provides a clearer picture of chimpanzee intraspecific and interspecific variation than can be gained from either data set alone. PMID:17786999

  12. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements. PMID:15545950

  13. [Self medication during orodental diseases in urban Ivory Coast. Results of a study in the region of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Souaga, K; Adou, A; Amantchi, D; Kouame, P; Angoh, Y

    2000-06-01

    During six months, a study enclosing 418 patients from 15 to 60 years old, has been realised in nine dental offices of the Abidjan area. Self-medication has been found among 37.32 per cent of the patients. The most concerned medicines are no steroid inflammatories, analgesics and antibiotics. According to this study, the main reasons of the self-medication are the pain, the lack of money, the practice and the fear of the dental surgeon. The medicines are obtained at the chemist's or bought at the market or in the street. The results of the study are compared to others did in different specialities. PMID:11372161

  14. The Long Forgotten Compound: CoTe, and its Epitaxial Film Growth and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhihai; Hines, William A.; Budnick, Joseph I.; Wells, Barrett O.

    As part of our investigation of Co-doped, Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, we have synthesized films of CoTe; a long forgotten binary compound. Using pulsed laser deposition, we have grown epitaxial films on MgO, CaF2, and SrTiO3 and have found that careful control of growth conditions allows for the synthesis of either (001) or (101) oriented films. X-ray diffraction shows the structure of the films is hexagonal. However, we also find the surprising presence of the nominally disallowed (001) peak. We also report temperature dependent transport and magnetic properties. This material may be of interest as a magnetic semiconductor and for its relationship to chemically doping Fe-based superconductors. DOE/BES Contract DE-FG02-00ER45801.

  15. Physical interaction and assembly of Bacillus subtilis spore coat proteins CotE and CotZ studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqing; Qiao, Haiyan; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hongda; Barak, Imrich; Tang, Jilin

    2016-08-01

    The spore of Bacillus subtilis, a dormant type of cell, is surrounded by a complex multilayered protein structure known as the coat. It is composed of over 70 proteins and essential for the spore to withstand extreme environmental conditions and allow germination under favorable conditions. However, understanding how the properties of the coat arise from the interactions among all these proteins is an important challenge. Moreover, many specific protein-protein interactions among the coat proteins are crucial for coat assembly. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was applied to investigate the interaction as a dynamic process between two morphogenetic coat proteins, CotE and CotZ. The unbinding force and kinetic parameters characterizing the interaction between CotE and CotZ were obtained. It is found that there is a strong affinity between CotE and CotZ. Furthermore, the assembly behaviors of CotE and CotZ, individually or in combination, were studied by AFM at solid-liquid interfaces. Our results revealed that CotE-CotZ assembly is dependent on their molar ratios and the interaction between CotE and CotZ involves in the CotE-CotZ assembly. PMID:27320701

  16. Numerical performance of half-sweep SOR method for solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Akhir, Mohd Kamalrulzaman Md; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, application of the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method is extended by solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature (2-CCNC) system. The performance of HSSOR method in solving 2-CCNC system is comparatively studied by their application on linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The derivation and implementation of the method are discussed. In addition, numerical results by solving two test problems are included and compared with the standard Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods. Numerical results demonstrate that HSSOR method is an efficient method among the tested methods.

  17. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-15441 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Related to Libya and C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  18. 76 FR 14269 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, March 7, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-6257 Filed 3-15-11... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended,...

  19. Using a Software Package to Publish EAD Encoded Finding Aids: A Practical Approach and Gradual Implementation at the Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarrewaere, Anthony; Roelly, Aude

    2005-01-01

    The Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or chose as a priority for its automation plan the acquisition of a search engine, to publish online archival descriptions and the library catalogue. The Archives deliberately opted for a practical approach, using for the encoding of the finding aids an automatic data export from an archival management…

  20. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O.; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  1. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores.

    PubMed

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O; Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  2. Landscape Diversity Related to Buruli Ulcer Disease in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Elguero, Eric; Asse, Henri; Guegan, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer disease (BU), due to the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, represents an important and emerging public health problem, especially in many African countries. Few elements are known nowadays about the routes of transmission of this environmental bacterium to the human population. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have investigated the relationships between the incidence of BU in Côte d'Ivoire, western Africa, and a group of environmental variables. These environmental variables concern vegetation, crops (rice and banana), dams, and lakes. Using a geographical information system and multivariate analyses, we show a link between cases of BU and different environmental factors for the first time on a country-wide scale. As a result, irrigated rice field cultures areas, and, to a lesser extent, banana fields as well as areas in the vicinity of dams used for irrigation and aquaculture purposes, represent high-risk zones for the human population to contract BU in Côte d'Ivoire. This is much more relevant in the central part of the country. Conclusions/Significance As already suspected by several case-control studies in different African countries, we strengthen in this work the identification of high-risk areas of BU on a national spatial scale. This first study should now be followed by many others in other countries and at a multi-year temporal scale. This goal implies a strong improvement in data collection and sharing in order to achieve to a global picture of the environmental conditions that drive BU emergence and persistence in human populations. PMID:18665259

  3. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  4. Sensitivity and selectivity determination of BPA in real water samples using PAMAM dendrimer and CoTe quantum dots modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun; Chen, Quanpeng; Zhu, Xiangbin; Liu, Xianggang; Zhu, Lusheng

    2010-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental pollutant to disrupt endocrine system or cause cancer, thus the detection of BPA is very important. Herein, an amperometric sensor was fabricated based on immobilized CoTe quantum dots (CoTe QDs) and PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA on the sensor exhibited a well-defined anodic peak at 0.490V in 0.1M pH 8.0 PBS. The determination conditions were optimized and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The linear range was 1.3 x 10(-8) to 9.89 x 10(-6)M with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1 x 10(-9)M. The current reached the steady-state current within about 5s. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in real water samples. PMID:19782469

  5. The Effects of Topical Agent (Kelo-Cote or Contractubex) Massage on the Thickness of Post-Burn Scar Tissue Formed in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Won Jin; Suh, Bum Sin; Kim, Hyeon A; Heo, Woo Hoe; Choi, Gum Ha; Lee, Seo Ul

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted an experimental study to compare the effect of massage using topical agents (Kelo-cote or Contractubex) on scar formation by massaging the healed burn wound on the dorsal area of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods Four areas of second degree contact burn were made on the dorsal area of each of 15 SD rats, using a soldering iron 15 mm in diameter. After gross epithelialization in the defect, 15 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the Kelo-cote group, Contractubex group, Vaseline group, and control group. Rats in three of the groups (all but the Control group) were massaged twice per day for 5 minutes each day, while those in the Control group were left unattended. For histologic analysis, we performed a biopsy and evaluated the thickness of scar tissue. Results In the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the Vaseline and control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups. In the Vaseline group, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the control groups. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that massage using a topical agent is helpful in the prevention of scar formation and that massage only with lubricant (no use of a topical agent) also has a considerable effect, although not as much as the use of a topical agent. Thus, we recommend massage with a topical agent on the post-burn scar as an effective method for decreasing the scar thickness. PMID:24286041

  6. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L.; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I. Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. PMID:27110390

  7. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon.

    PubMed

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. PMID:27110390

  8. Ten years of limnological monitoring of a modified natural lake in the tropics: Cote Lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Umaña, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    It is located 650m above sea level along the boundary between the North Caribbean and Pacific slopes, near the Southern end of the volcanic Guanacaste mountain range. In the early 1980s the lake's main outlet was dammed and the outflow was diverted into Arenal Reservoir. Lake Cote was first studied in 1990-1991, and later in 2001, before it was again modified by raising its dam by one meter to use its outflow for hydroelectricity. From 2002 to 2010 it has been monitored twice a year for changes in its limnology. Here I present a summary of its basic characteristics and an analysis of their changes through time. The lake is discontinuous polymictic, and sometimes develops a thermocline at 6m depth that may last for several days as evidenced by the occasional development of an anoxic layer close to the bottom. Since its modification for hydropower production, the surface water temperature has attained higher values than before. Oxygen levels in the lake show periods of hypoxia to anoxia in the hypolimnion, that have become more frequent since modification. Despite its turbid water, the lake has low levels of nutrient concentrations and of chlorophyll a. The trend in these parameters in recent times is a reduction in chlorophyll a and an increase in water transparency, implying a reduction in primary productivity. These changes are discussed in relationship with anthropogenic factors such as the modification of the lake and its management, changes in landscape around the lake and global climate change. PMID:25102640

  9. First ecotoxicological assessment assay in a hydroelectric reservoir: the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Roche, Hélène; Tidou, Abiba

    2009-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination was assessed in marketable species, two fishes (tilapia and catfish) and a prawn from the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire). Lindane and endosulfan were the main contaminants, suggesting their current use. DDT, endrin, heptachlor plus traces of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil were also detected. In fishes and in prawns, enzymatic biomarkers exhibited significant correlations with OCPs levels, showing the feasibility of a biomonitoring. The transfer of OCPs along the aquatic food web and their immunosuppressive effects in human are discussed. This preliminary study highlights that the pesticide contamination was concomitant with the increase in infectious diseases in the bordering population of this African lake. PMID:18936865

  10. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  11. Malaria in Côte d'Ivoire wet savannah region: the entomological input.

    PubMed

    Dossou-yovo, J; Doannio, J M; Rivière, F; Chauvancy, G

    1995-12-01

    A two years study has been carried out in Alloukoukro, a traditional wet savannah village in the central region of Côte d'Ivoire. The productive breeding sites of malaria vectors are natural puddles and some man-made shelters around the village. 576 man-nights of capture have identified Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus as vectors of malaria in the study area. The low densities of An. phaorensis and An coustani implies that their possible role in transmission is very negligible. An. gambiae s.l. was the predominant species throughout the year with a mean of 19.2 b/m/n in 1991 and 13.6 b/m/n in 1992. The densities of An. funestus increased gradually during the rainy season and reached its peak values towards the end of the season. An. gambiae s.l. assures transmission throughout the year. An. funestus maintains a seasonal transmission which is spread over seven months. In 1991, each person would have received an average of 264.5 infected bites altogether with 204.5 infected bites from An. gambiae s.l. and 62 infected bites from An. funestus. In 1992, there would have been 196.5 infected bites per man with 160 and 36.5 infected bites respectively from An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus. This study has shown that in wet savannah areas, the rainy season spreading almost all over the year, allows the breeding sites to retain water much longer and thus, to keep alive a more important residual vector populations capable to ensure malaria transmission even during the dry season. The great majority of infected glands (96.7%) were observed between 11 p.m. and 04 a.m. So, the large scale use of treated bednets has been therefore strongly recommended as key measure against malaria transmission in this area. PMID:8826108

  12. [Assessment of a programme of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (1999-20002)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, M; Noba, V; Rey, J-L; Msellati, P; Ekpini, R; Chambon, J-F; Malkin, J-E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the results of a programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV conducted from 1999 to 2002 by the PNLS in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. This programme was supported by grants from the Fonds de solidarité international (FSTI) and the Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) Foundation. After pre- and posttest counselling, pregnant women from 4 PMI centres underwent screening for HIV. Seropositive women were offered short course AZT and the possibility of financial assistance for breast-feeding. All programme activities were carried out in close cooperation with association members. A total of 22466 tests were given and 18116 women returned for results. Among the 1829 seropositive women to whom PMCT intervention was proposed, 667 received short course AZT. The rate of transmission at 18 months was 162%. In addition 69 mothers and 28 children eligible for ARV therapy benefited from tritherapy. Limiting factors, at each phase, and efficacy of intervention were analyzed. PMID:16615616

  13. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  14. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  15. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  16. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  17. Emergence in Western African Countries of MDR-TB, Focus on Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ekaza, Euloge; N'Guessan, Raymond Kouassi; Kacou-N'Douba, Adèle; Aka, N'Guetta; Kouakou, Jacquemin; Le Vacon, Françoise; Altare, Fréderic; Potel, Gilles; de-La-Cochetiere, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for a high mortality rate (2.5%) worldwide, mainly in developing countries with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The emergence of multiresistant strains of TB poses an extreme risk for TB outbreaks and highlights the need for global TB control strategies. Among Western African countries, Côte d'Ivoire (CI) represents a specific example of a country with great potential to prevent TB. Specifically, CI has a promising healthcare system for monitoring diseases, including vaccination programs. However, military and political conflict in CI favors the spread of infectious diseases, TB being among the most devastating. Compilation of the studies identifying common causes of TB would be extremely beneficial for the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this comprehensive review is to evaluate the epidemiology of TB in CI, describe the factors involved in pathogenesis, and suggest simple and applicable prevention strategies. PMID:24093098

  18. Malaria knowledge and long-lasting insecticidal net use in rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To improve effectiveness of malaria control interventions, it is essential to deepen the knowledge of contextual factors that govern people's practice for preventive and curative measures. The aim of this study was to determine factors that influence the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in three rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire, two of which benefited from recent interventions. Methods The study was carried out in 957 households in three villages (Bozi, N'Dakonankro and Yoho) located in central Côte d'Ivoire. Indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), malaria knowledge and practice, placing special emphasis on LLINs, were investigated during a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Principal component analysis was used to calculate the SEP of households by means of a list of household assets ownership. The concentration index was used to assess the direction of the association between SEP and a given variable. To compare groups or means, Fisher's exact test, χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis test were used, as appropriate. Results Significant differences were found between SEP and reported malaria symptoms, such as fever or hot body, convulsion, anaemia and jaundice (yellow eyes). Individuals from the least poor group cited more often the use of bed nets and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) compared to poorer groups. The mean number of individuals reporting the use of bed nets and LLINs was different between groups with different educational level. Moreover, the mean number of LLINs in a household was influenced by the presence of children below five years of age. Conclusion The study not only confirmed that education and SEP play important roles in the prevention and control of malaria and promotion of health in general, but pointed at the basic essential knowledge and the key behavioural elements that should guide education and learning processes among the poorer segments of the population. In turn, such knowledge may change behaviour and lead to

  19. 77 FR 6463 - Definition of the Term “Financial, Material, or Technological Support” Under the Côte d'Ivoire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13067, 62 FR 59989, 3 CFR, 1997 Comp., p. 230; E.O...-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13413, 71 FR 64105, 3 CFR, 2006 Comp., p. 247. Subpart..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' (71 FR 7389,...

  20. Use of Landsat TM imagery as a tool for mangrove forest mapping ; a case study of Ehotile island in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwassi, A.; Blivi, A.

    The integrated management of coastal zone requires a good coastal landscape knowledge. Mangroves in Côte d'Ivoire are valuable economic resources because of their high biomass production and their being a prolific fish habitat. They also play major role in the food chains and the fight against coastal erosion. However, mangroves are considered a hostile environment and thus are often cut down by man. Many restoration and protection efforts are underway. The present study is a remote sensing approach to map the mangroves of the Ehotilé Islands (Iles Ehotilé) in Côte d'Ivoire from the Landsat 7 scene 195-56 acquired on February 2nd, 2000. A multispectral analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Colour composites, Vegetation indices) was performed on the digital image which was later classified into nine (9) information classes (mangroves, swampy forest, forest, degraded forest, farmlands and/or fallows, grasslands, urban areas, seashore, water). The overall accuracy of the supervised classification is estimated at 93 percent. On the final classified image, areas predominantly covered by mangroves (Rhizophora racemosa) amount to 848 ha out of the 5715 ha of the study area. Remote sensing offers a valuable tool to monitor and map the mangrove ecosystems and land cover in tropical regions. Keywords: Mangroves, Remote sensing, Mapping, Classification, Landsat 7, Côte d'Ivoire, Iles Ehotilé, Land cover, coastal zone.

  1. [Malaria transmission in lagoon areas in Côte d'Ivoire: the villages of N'gatty and Allaba].

    PubMed

    Fofana, D; Koné, Ab; Konan, Yl; Konan, Kl; Doannio, Jmc; N'goran, Ek

    2010-01-01

    The ecological and climatic variations in tropical areas of Africa make the transmission of malaria very heterogeneous. Several species of mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus transmit the disease. In Côte d'Ivoire, studies in the southern and northern forests have shown the involvement of Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili in this transmission. This study was conducted in N'gatty and Allaba, two villages in a lagoon area of southern Côte d'Ivoire, in the district of Dabou. The district is located between 05 degrees 18 N and 04 degrees 27 W, about 40 kilometres from the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire, and has a surface of 2257.8 km2. Two lagoon villages, N'gatty and Allaba, about a kilometre apart, were selected as sites for this research. The topography of N'gatty is rugged, with two important sides: a banana plantation on the west and the lagoon on the east, covered by aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes, Acrosticum aureum, nympheacae and Eichhornia crassipes). This aquatic vegetation separates the last plots of the village from the lagoon. Mosquito populations were sampled from December 2007 through September 2008 by nighttime captures on volunteers three consecutive nights each month, inside six living rooms (4 in N'gatty and 2 in Allaba, a smaller village). The mosquitoes were captured when they landed on the volunteer's legs. There were two teams of catchers for each home; the first worked from 18:00 h to 24:00 and the second from 24:00 to 06:00. The ovaries and glands of An. gambiae were dissected. The physiological age of the females was determined by the appearance of the trachea on ovarian dissection. The sporozoites were sought by optic microscopy in cooled glands in a drop of physiological salt solution. During the 10 months of this study, 21 137 mosquitoes were caught in N'gatty and 7163 in Allaba. An. gambiae species accounted for less than 2% of the mosquito fauna in the two villages. Overall, the average bite rate was 203.24 bites per man

  2. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  3. When Do HIV-Infected Women Disclose Their HIV Status to Their Male Partner and Why? A Study in a PMTCT Programme, Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Allou, Gérard; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Leroy, Valériane; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel

    2007-01-01

    Background In Africa, women tested for HIV during antenatal care are counselled to share with their partner their HIV test result and to encourage partners to undertake HIV testing. We investigate, among women tested for HIV within a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme, the key moments for disclosure of their own HIV status to their partner and the impact on partner HIV testing. Methods and Findings Within the Ditrame Plus PMTCT project in Abidjan, 546 HIV-positive and 393 HIV-negative women were tested during pregnancy and followed-up for two years after delivery. Circumstances, frequency, and determinants of disclosure to the male partner were estimated according to HIV status. The determinants of partner HIV testing were identified according to women's HIV status. During the two-year follow-up, disclosure to the partner was reported by 96.7% of the HIV-negative women, compared to 46.2% of HIV-positive women (χ2 = 265.2, degrees of freedom [df] = 1, p < 0.001). Among HIV-infected women, privileged circumstances for disclosure were just before delivery, during early weaning (at 4 mo to prevent HIV postnatal transmission), or upon resumption of sexual activity. Formula feeding by HIV-infected women increased the probability of disclosure (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.04–2.27, Wald test = 4.649, df = 1, p = 0.031), whereas household factors such as having a co-spouse or living with family reduced the probability of disclosure. The proportion of male partners tested for HIV was 23.1% among HIV-positive women and 14.8% among HIV-negative women (χ2 = 10.04, df = 1, p = 0.002). Partners of HIV-positive women who were informed of their wife's HIV status were more likely to undertake HIV testing than those not informed (37.7% versus 10.5%, χ2 = 56.36, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PMTCT programmes, specific psychosocial counselling and support should be provided to women during the key moments of disclosure

  4. [Dynamic transmission of Schistosoma by Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the region of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yapi Yapi, G; Touré, M; Boka, O M; Tia, E; Boby, O A-M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d'Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d'Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not

  5. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  6. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. PMID:24784569

  7. Tracing health system challenges in post-conflict Côte d'Ivoire from 1893 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Sabrina; Patel, Preeti

    2013-07-01

    While scholarship on health in conflict-affected countries is growing, there has been relatively little analysis of how armed conflict affects health systems in specific African countries, especially former French colonies. There is even less literature on the role of history in shaping health systems and how historical factors such as inequity may influence health impacts of armed conflict. Based on Côte d'Ivoire, this article argues that historical multidisciplinary analysis can provide valuable insight into the macro-level political, economic and social determinants of the health system over time. It explores how armed conflict has affected health services and exacerbates historically inherited challenges to the health system including unequal distribution of health services, bias towards curative care in urban areas, inadequate human resources and weak health governance. In the post-conflict period, this understanding may assist governments and other stakeholders to develop more appropriate health policies that address both urgent and long-term health needs. PMID:23701043

  8. The current status of onchocerciasis in the forest/savanna transition zone of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Adjami, A G; Toé, L; Bissan, Y; Bugri, S; Yaméogo, L; Kone, M; Katholi, C R; Unnasch, T R

    2004-04-01

    Onchocerca volvulus exists in at least two strains in West Africa, while its black-fly vectors consist of sibling species, dwelling in the savanna and forest/transition zones. In transition and degraded forest zones both parasite strains and different sibling species of the vector can be sympatric. The strain of parasite in infected humans and in vector black-flies was determined in two bioclimes along the Bandama river of Côte d'Ivoire. The upper Bandama is located in the savanna bioclime while the Middle Bandama is located in a degraded forest zone. At both sites, savanna-dwelling sibling species of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex predominated. The severe-strain of O. volvulus was the predominant strain at both sites. However, severe-strain parasites represented a significantly larger proportion of those found in the vector population than in the human population in the degraded forest of the Middle Bandama. These data suggest that in degraded forest areas recently invaded by savanna-dwelling species of S. damnosunz s.l. transmission of the severe-strain of the parasite might be more efficient than transmission of the mild-strain. PMID:15151146

  9. Assessment of Regional Climate Models over Côte d'Ivoire and Analysis of Future Projections over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouadio, K.; Konare, A.; Diawara, A.; Dje, B. K.; Ajayi, V. O.; Diedhiou, A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in AMMA-ENSEMBLES project is assessed over six meteorological stations in Côte d'Ivoire. The ensemble mean of the models is also used for the prediction of climate change over West Africa. The study focused on two periods: the period 1995-2005, the present-day simulations, is used to evaluate the skills of the models over the country and the years 2010-2013, for assessment of the future climate change scenario used. The results show that the skills of the models vary from one station to another and from one season to another. None of the models considered, presents an excellent performance over the entire country and in all the seasons. Generally, the ensemble mean of all the models presents better results when compared with the observation. These results suggest that the choice of any model for study over the country may depend on the focus of interest: intensity or variability of the rain and also on area of interest. The projection for 2020-2040, future climate change over West Africa shows that the Sahel exhibits a tendency to be drier while wetter Guinean coast is observed

  10. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  11. Re-Visiting Insecticide Resistance Status in Anopheles gambiae from Côte d'Ivoire: A Nation-Wide Informative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P.; Kabran, Jean-Paul K.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Pennetier, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Insecticide resistance constitutes a major threat that may undermine current gain in malaria control in most endemic countries. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) need as much information as possible on the resistance status of malaria vectors and underlying mechanisms in order to implement the most relevant and efficient control strategy. Bioassays, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on An. gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and agricultural practices. An. gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The kdr and ace-1R mutations were detected in almost all sentinel sites with mosquitoes on the coastal and cotton growing areas mostly affected by these mutations. At almost all sites, the levels of detoxifying enzymes (mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)) in An. gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to PBO, an inhibitor of MFOs and NSEs, significantly increased mortality rates to pyrethroids and carbamates in mosquitoes but resistance in most cases was not fully synergised by PBO, inferring a residual role of additional mechanisms, including kdr and ace-1 site insensitivity. The large distribution of resistance in Côte d'Ivoire raises an important question of whether to continue to deploy pyrethroid-based long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and insecticide residual spraying (IRS) towards which resistance continues to rise with no guarantee that the level of resistance would not compromise their efficacy. Innovative strategies that combine insecticide and synergists in LLINs or spatially LLIN and an effective non-pyrethroid insecticide for IRS could be in the short term the best practice for the NMCP to manage insecticide

  12. The use of motion detectors to estimate net usage by householders, in relation to mosquito density in central Cote d’Ivoire: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The difficulty of accurately assessing LLIN use has led us to test electronic data logging motion detectors to provide quantitative data on household LLIN usage. Methods The main movements associated with an LLIN when appropriately used for malaria control were characterised under laboratory conditions. Data output from motion detectors attached to the LLINs associated with these specific movements were collated. In preliminary field studies in central Cote d’Ivoire, a pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to identify the number of days householders claimed to have slept under LLINs. This information was compared to data downloaded from the motion detectors. Results Output data recording movement on the x, y, and z axes from the data loggers was consistently associated with the specific net movements. Recall of LLIN usage reported by questionnaires after a week was overestimated by 13.6%. This increased to 22.8% after 2 weeks and 38.7% after a month compared to information from the data loggers. Rates of LLIN use were positively correlated with An.gambiae s.s biting density (LRT = 273.70; P < 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that motion detectors can be used to provide a useful quantitative record of LLIN use. This new methodology provides a supplementary means of surveying bed net usage. PMID:24602353

  13. Déterminants de la calcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Diby Jean-Paul; Amon-Tanoh-Dick, Flore; Aka, Joseph; Daniel, Sess Essiagne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le transfert du calcium de la mère au nouveau-né est nécessaire pour la constitution de la charpente osseuse. L'hypocalcémie néonatale reste peu documentée en Afrique. En 1993, il a été observé au service de néonatologie du Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Yopougon à Abidjan une proportion d'hypocalcémie asymptomatique de 26.9%. L'objectif de ce travail était de préciser la prévalence de l'hypocalcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique de Yopougon et en déterminer les facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une étude transversale a été menée à la formation sanitaire de de Yopougon de février à mai 2012 auprès de 145 parturientes et leurs nouveau-nés. Les caractéristiques des mères et des nouveau-nés ont été recueillies. Les prélèvements de sang maternel et du cordon ont permis le dosage des paramètres du métabolisme phosphocalcique. Une régression linéaire multiple a été faite pour apprécier les éléments de prédilection de la calcémie néonatale. Résultats Les valeurs moyennes étaient de 2,271 mmol/l pour la calcémie, 1,169 mmol/l pour le phosphore, 0,735 mmol/l pour le magnésium et 69 g/l pour les protides totaux chez les mères. La durée moyenne du travail était de 499 minutes. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 39 semaines. Les constantes anthropométriques et cliniques des nouveau-nés étaient normales. Les paramètres phosphocalciques étaient en moyenne normaux (calcémie = 2,52 mmol/l, phosphorémie = 1,668 mmol/l, magnesémie = 0,777 mmol/l, protidémie = 63 g/l). Six gestantes (4,1%) étaient hypocalcémiques contre 12 nouveau-nés (8,1%). La durée du travail influençait la calcémie néonatale (p = 0,02). En analyse multivariée, 34% de la variabilité de la calcémie néonatale était expliqué par la calcémie maternelle et la durée du travail. Conclusion L'hypocalcémie néonatale est rare en zone tropicale. Dans cette étude, la proportion était de 8,1%. La durée du travail

  14. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere. PMID:26482357

  15. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Rapid and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as simple school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739

  16. Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. Methods A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. Results Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/μl of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water) were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. Conclusion It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels. PMID:19906295

  17. Breastfeeding: the hidden barrier in Côte d'Ivoire's quest to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Buesseler, Heather M; Kone, Ahoua; Robinson, Julia; Bakor, Albert; Senturia, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Côte d'Ivoire has one of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics in West Africa. This study sought to understand how HIV-positive women's life circumstances and interactions with the public health care system in Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, influence their self-reported ability to adhere to antiretroviral prophylaxis during pregnancy. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive women not eligible for antiretroviral therapy and five health care workers recruited from four public clinics in which prevention of mother-to-child transmission services had been integrated into routine antenatal care. Results Self-reported adherence to prophylaxis is high, but women struggle to observe (outdated) guidelines for rapid infant weaning. Women's positive interactions with health providers, their motivation to protect their infants and the availability of free antiretrovirals seem to override most potential barriers to prophylaxis adherence. Conclusions This study reveals the importance of considering the full continuum of prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions, including infant feeding, instead of focussing primarily on prophylaxis for the mother and newborn. PMID:24746179

  18. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  19. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS for Sustainable Forest Management in Côte d'Ivoire; Case of the classified Forest of TENE in the department of OUME (Côte d'Ivoire).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    protected against logging in order to do not disturb them because they are refuge environments for fauna as well as flora conservation. This study will enable the manager of the classified forest of TENE to target those sites considered sensitive to preserve for a sustainable management. Keywords: Spectral signature, Forest, Wetland, Remote Sensing, GIS, Côte d'Ivoire.

  20. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N.; Esso, Emmanuel L. J. C.; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I.; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa. PMID:25959772

  1. Abcès cérébral compliquant une cardiopathie congénitale: à propos de 7 cas à l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Tano, Micesse; Traore, Fatoumata; Angoran, Inès; Roland, N'guetta; Traboulsi, Aké Evelyne; Yao, Konan Serge; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Le diagnostic précoce des cardiopathies congénitales (C.C) a une incidence positive sur leur évolution. En effet diagnostiquées tard ou non traitées elles peuvent se compliquer. L'abcès cérébral est une complication des C.C cyanogènes qui est rare dans les pays développés. Notre objectif était d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités de 7 cas de C.C compliquées d'abcès cérébral découvertes et prises en charge dans un service de cardiologie pédiatrique de l'Institut de Cardiologie d'Abidjan. La tétralogie de Fallot était la cardiopathie congénitale la plus fréquente. Le traitement a été médical et/ou chirurgical. Seule la réalisation de la cure complète des cardiopathies congénitales peut permettre la prévention de l'abcès cérébral. PMID:26848356

  2. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Wegmueller, Rita; Tschannen, Andreas B; Hurrell, Richard F

    2007-05-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) estimate the riboflavin content of the local diet; and (3) determine if riboflavin deficiency predicts anaemia and/or iron deficiency. In 5- to 15-year-old children (n 281), height, weight, haemoglobin (Hb), whole blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalence of Plasmodium spp. (asymptomatic malaria) and Schistosoma haematobium (bilharziosis) infections were measured. Three-day weighed food records were kept in twenty-four households. Prevalence of anaemia in the sample was 52%; 59% were iron-deficient based on an elevated ZPP concentration, and 36% suffered from iron deficiency anaemia. Plasmodium parasitaemia was found in 49% of the children. Nineteen percent of the children were infected with S. haematobium. Median riboflavin intake in 5- to 15-year-old children from the food records was 0.42 mg/d, approximately 47% of the estimated average requirement for this age group. Prevalence of riboflavin deficiency was 65%, as defined by an EGRAC value > 1.2. Age, elevated CRP and iron deficiency were significant predictors of Hb. Riboflavin-deficient children free of malaria were more likely to be iron deficient (odds ratio; 3.07; 95% CI 1.12, 8.41). In conclusion, nearly two-thirds of school-age children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire are mildly riboflavin deficient. Riboflavin deficiency did not predict Hb and/or anaemia, but did predict iron deficiency among children free of malaria. PMID:17381972

  3. So near and yet so far: the specific case of Ralstonia Solanacearum populations from Côte d'Ivoire in Africa.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, C A; Abo, K; Fondio, L; Chiroleu, F; Lebeau, A; Poussier, S; Wicker, E; Koné, D

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and phenotypic diversity of Côte d'Ivoire Ralstonia solanacearum strains was assessed on a 168-strain collection sampled on Solanaceae both in the southern lowlands and western highlands. Phylotypes I, II, and III were prevalent, though at unexpected frequencies. Phylotype I strains (87.5%) were genetically diverse and overrepresented in all agroecological areas, including highlands (AEZ III). Phylotype II strains (10.7%) only belonged to one tropical lowland-adapted broad host range lineage (IIA-35), whereas no highland-adapted potato brown rot (IIB-1) or Moko strains were detected. African phylotype III strains were rare (1.8%). They originated from a single Burkina Faso lineage (III-23) and were only found in lowlands. Three phylotype I strains were found harboring pRSC35, a plasmid identified in phylotype III strains in Cameroon. From pathogenicity tests performed on commercial varieties and tomato/eggplant/pepper references, the virulence diversity observed was high, with five pathoprofiles described. Eggplant accessions MM152 and EG203 and tomato HW7996 displayed the largest resistance spectrum and highest level. Two highly virulent phylotype I strains were able to bypass resistance of HW7996 and the eggplant reference AG91-25. Collectively, these points lead to the conclusion that the situation in Côte d'Ivoire is specific towards other African countries, and specifically from the Cameroon reference, and that within phylotype I can exist a high virulence diversity. This calls for similar studies in neighboring West African countries, linking R. solanacearum pathogen genetic diversity to strain virulence at the regional level, for the rationalization of regional resistance deployment strategies and future resistance durability studies. PMID:22533876

  4. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia among Schoolchildren in Agboville Area (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guéssan, Nicaise A.; Yapi, Ahoua; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2010-01-01

    Background New efforts are being made to improve understanding of the epidemiology of the helminths and intensifying the control efforts against these parasites. In contrast, relatively few studies are being carried out in this direction for the intestinal protozoa. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of the intestinal protozoa, prevalence, and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia, and their association with drinking water supplies, were determined in the Agboville department in southeast Côte d'Ivoire. Methods/Findings Stool samples were taken from more than 1,300 schoolchildren in the third year of primary education (CE1) from 30 primary schools and preserved in SAF (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). The samples were analyzed by formalin-ether concentration. Then, a survey questionnaire addressed to schoolchildren and school directors was used to collect data on water supplies. Prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and G. lamblia were, respectively, 18.8% and 13.9%. No particular focus zone was observed in the spatial distribution of the two species. Significant negative association was observed between use of tap water and high prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar infection (OR = 0.83, p = 0.01). High prevalence of G. lamblia infection was positively associated with use of ponds as the source of drinking water (OR = 1.28, p = 0.009). Conclusion These two species of pathogenic protozoa are present with substantial prevalence in this area of Côte d'Ivoire. Although their spatial distribution is not focused in any one place, determination of the population segments with the highest levels of infection will help to target the chemotherapeutic fight. To reinforce treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, tap water should be made available in all the localities of this area. PMID:20087416

  5. Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. Results In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Conclusions Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23110236

  6. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Toty, Abale; Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2005-01-01

    Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. In a first step, we carried out a cross-sectional parasitological survey. Stool specimens and finger prick blood samples were collected and processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods, for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium. Then, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the appraisal of self-reported morbidity indicators, as well as housing characteristics and household assets ownership. Mean travel distance from each village to the nearest health care delivery structure was provided by the regional health authorities. Poorer schoolchildren showed a significantly higher infection prevalence of hookworm than better-off children. However, higher infection prevalences of intestinal protozoa (i.e. Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii) were found with increasing socioeconomic status. Significant negative associations were observed between socioeconomic status and light infection intensities with hookworm and S. mansoni, as well as with several self-reported morbidity indicators. The poorest school-attending children lived significantly further away from formal health services than their richer counterparts. Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation

  7. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  8. The Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Rare Disease with Often Delayed Diagnosis—A Report of Two Cases in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Berthe; Yapo-Ehounoud, Constance; Baby, Mohamed Ben Allaoui; Aka-Diarra, Evelyne; Amon-Tanoh, Muriel; Tanoh, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare pathology characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia associated with behavioral and cognitive disorders with, among others, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. The disease mainly affects young males. A few studies mention cases that occurred in Africa, especially in Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper, we report the very first two cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody. The diagnosis was clinical, based on the recurrence of hypersomnia, cognitive and behavioral disorders during the periods of hypersomnia, and the return of patients to normal state between episodes. This diagnosis was delayed due to failure to understand the pathology, thereby leading patients to wandering. In fact, the two patients were consulted, respectively, 3 years and 6 years after the hypersomnia began. The objective was to report the very first cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26989535

  9. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  10. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Kone, Drissa; Bakayoko-Topolska, Monika; Manan K A, David; Lehmann, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000–2007). Design Cross-sectional, household survey. Setting 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. Participants 2678 men and women aged 15–49 years. Primary outcome measures Violence exposures measured since age 15. Questions included intimate partner physical and sexual violence; physical and sexual violence by others (including combatants) and exposure to traumatic events before, during and after the Crisis period (2000–2007). Results Physical and/or sexual violence since age 15 was reported by 57.1% women and 40.2% men (p=0.01); 29.9% women and 12.3% men reported exposure to any violence in the past year. Nearly 1 in 10 women (9.9%) and 5.9% men (p=0.03) were forced to have sex by a non-partner since age 15, and 14.8% women and 3.3% men (p=0.00) reported their first sexual experience was forced. Combatants were rarely reported as sexual violence perpetrators (0.3% women). After the Crisis, intimate partner physical violence was the most frequently reported form of violence and highest among women (20.9% women, 9.9% men, p=0.00). Fearing for their life was reported by men and women before, during and after the Crisis. Conclusions Sexual violence in conflict remains a critical international policy concern. However, men and women experience different types of violence before, during and after conflict. In many conflict settings, other forms of violence, including intimate partner violence, may be more widespread than conflict-related sexual violence. Alongside service provision for rape survivors, our findings underscore the need for postconflict reconstruction efforts to invest in programmes to prevent and respond to

  11. Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. Methods This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention – based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing – was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Results Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Conclusions

  12. Etiology of Anemia Among Infants, School-Aged Children, and Young Non-Pregnant Women in Different Settings of South-Central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Aurélie A.; Koua, Ahou-Yah G.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Niamké, Sébastien; Wegmüller, Rita; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population, but its etiology remains poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of anemia and studied underlying risk factors in infants (6–23 months), young school-aged children (6–8 years), and young non-pregnant women (15–25 years) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Blood, stool, and urine samples were subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. We found high prevalence of anemia, malaria, inflammation, and deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A but low prevalence and intensities of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between anemia and Plasmodium falciparum for infants, inflammation for school-aged children, and cellular iron deficiency for both school-aged children and non-pregnant women. Women with riboflavin deficiency had significantly lower odds of anemia. Our findings call for interventions to protect infants from malaria, improved intake of dietary iron, better access to health care, and health education. PMID:22848097

  13. Sustaining the Control of Schistosoma mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: Baseline Findings Before the Implementation of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Yapi, Ahoua; Yao, Patrick K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    We report baseline findings before the implementation of a 4-year intervention trial designed to assess the impact of three different school-based treatment schedules with praziquantel to sustain the control of intestinal schistosomiasis. The baseline survey was conducted in 75 schools of western Côte d'Ivoire previously identified with moderate Schistosoma mansoni endemicity (prevalence: 10-24% in children aged 13-14 years). Three stool samples collected over consecutive days were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each. A questionnaire was administered to collect village-specific information that is relevant for schistosomiasis transmission. Overall, 4,953 first graders (aged 5-8 years) and 7,011 school children (aged 9-12 years) had complete parasitologic data. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 5.4% among first graders and 22.1% in 9- to 12-year-old children. Open defecation was practiced in all villages. The current baseline findings will be important to better understand the dynamics of S. mansoni prevalence and intensity over the course of this trial that might be governed by village characteristics and specific treatment interventions. PMID:26598571

  14. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Berrilli, Federica; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Brandonisio, Olga; Kaboré, Yolande; Glé, Christoph; Cianfanelli, Cristina; Lauro, Renato; Di Cave, David

    2012-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species were studied in humans and free-ranging animals living in closed enclaves in Côte d'Ivoire. Three hundred and seven stool samples were tested from humans, and 47 from freely roaming domestic animals (dogs, goats, ducks, chickens). Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by sequence analysis of a portion of the SSU-rDNA for Giardia and the COWP gene for Cryptosporidium, and a β-giardin SYBR-green real-time PCR was also used to confirm the assignment of Giardia isolates to Assemblages. In humans, genotyping of Giardia assigned many of the sequences (43/56 by the SSU-rDNA gene, and 36/61 by the β-giardin gene) to Assemblage B. The animal species harboured only zoonotic Assemblages A and B, except for dogs, in which host specific Assemblages C and D were also detected. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. parvum and C. hominis were detected in humans, while among the animals only chickens were found positive for oocysts, identified as C. meleagridis and C. parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans. PMID:22265078

  15. The tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis is composed of several genetically differentiated small populations in the sleeping sickness focus of Bonon, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ravel, S; de Meeus, T; Dujardin, J P; Zézé, D G; Gooding, R H; Dusfour, I; Sané, B; Cuny, G; Solano, P

    2007-01-01

    Glossina palpalis is the main vector of human African trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) that dramatically affects human health in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the implications of genetic structuring of vector populations for the design and efficacy of control campaigns, G. palpalis palpalis in the most active focus of sleeping sickness in Côte d'Ivoire was studied to determine whether this taxon is genetically structured. High and statistically significant levels of within population heterozygote deficiencies were found at each of the five microsatellite loci in two temporally separated samples. Neither null alleles, short allele dominance, nor trap locations could fully explain these deviations from random mating, but a clustering within each of the two samples into different genetic sub-populations (Wahlund effect) was strongly suggested. These different genetic groups, which could display differences in infection rates and trypanosome identity, were composed of small numbers of individuals that were captured together, leading to the observed Wahlund effect. Implications of this population structure on tsetse control are discussed. PMID:16890499

  16. Changes in human schistosomiasis levels after the construction of two large hydroelectric dams in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, E K; Diabate, S; Utzinger, J; Sellin, B

    1997-01-01

    The construction of large dams has been shown to increase the prevalence and intensity of human schistosomiasis. However, until now no study had been carried out to assess the impact of such a project in Côte d'Ivoire. For Kossou and Taabo, two large dams which became operational in the 1970s, baseline data are available on schistosomiasis prevalence in the surrounding area before dam construction, so that the changes in schistosomiasis levels can be assessed. We re-evaluated the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni in November 1992, by analysing 548 urine and 255 stool samples, respectively, from schoolchildren from five villages around each lake. A marked increase in the overall prevalence of S. haematobium was observed, from 14% to 53% around Lake Kossou and from 0 to 73% around Lake Taabo. Baseline data for S. mansoni are only available for Lake Taabo, where a prevalence of 3% was found in 1979 and where the prevalence in 1992 was still low at 2%. The construction of these two large dams therefore led to little change in S. mansoni prevalence but to a significant increase in that of S. haematobium. PMID:9509626

  17. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  18. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area. PMID:25279545

  19. Novel Arenavirus Sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for Evolution of Arenaviruses in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Stéphane K.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Toni; Ölschläger, Stephan; Dosso, Hernri; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys) setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus–host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events. PMID:21695269

  20. Rapid and simple screening and supplemental testing for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Brattegaard, K; Kouadio, J; Adom, M L; Doorly, R; George, J R; De Cock, K M

    1993-06-01

    Researchers from an AIDS research project took blood samples from 1000 consecutive women during childbirth at a maternal and child health center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, and from 185 hospitalized patients to compare the results of a combination of synthetic peptide-based rapid tests (product names, Testpack and Genie), which check for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with those of the Western Blot-based test. They also wanted to see whether the rapid test-based strategy could replace the Western Blot-based test as a supplemental test. The Western Blot indicated the HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 prevalence to be 13% among the new mothers and 78% among the hospitalized patients for an overall prevalence of 23%. 3.3% of all people were positive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. 17.4% tested positive for just HIV-1. 2.1% were positive for HIV-2. The rapid tests had a sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. The positive predictive value was 99.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. The rapid tests identified 4% of the HIV-2 positive samples and 1% of the HIV-1 samples to be dually reactive. These findings demonstrated that rapid synthetic peptide-based assays reliably detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and can be supplemental tests. High quality HIV serology can be performed in a setting without running water and electricity which was the case in this study. A further advantage of this strategy is that each test takes only 10 minutes. These tests would have significant effects on HIV testing and counseling, diagnosis, and screening of blood for transfusion in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:8395857

  1. Usefulness of Noninvasive Predictors of Oesophageal Varices in Black African Cirrhotic Patients in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Mahassadi, Alassan Kouamé; Bathaix, Fulgence Yao; Assi, Constant; Bangoura, Aboubacar Demba; Allah-Kouadio, Emile; Kissi, Henriette Ya; Touré, Abdoulaye; Doffou, Stanislas; Konaté, Issa; Attia, Alain Koffi; Camara, Mathieu Benoit; Ndri-Yoman, Thérèse Aya

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the usefulness of platelet count (PC), spleen diameter (SD) and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD ratio) for the prediction of oesophageal varices (OV) and large OV in black African patients with cirrhosis in Côte d'Ivoire. Materials and Methods. Study was conducted in a training sample (111 patients) and in a validation sample (91 patients). Results. Factors predicting OV were sex: (OR = 0.08, P = 0.0003), PC (OR = 12.4, P = 0.0003), SD (OR = 1.04, P = 0.002) in the training sample. The AUROCs (±SE) of the model (cutoff ≥ 0.6), PC (cutoff < 110500), SD (cutoff > 140) and PC/SD ratio (cutoff ≤ 868) were, respectively; 0.879 ± 0.04, 0.768 ± 0.06, 0.679 ± 0.06, 0.793 ± 0.06. For the prediction of large OV, the model's AUROC (0.850 ± 0.05) was superior to that of PC (0.688 ± 0.06), SD (0.732 ± 0.05) and PC/SD ratio (0.752 ± 0.06). In the validation sample, with PC, PC/SD ratio and the model, upper digestive endoscopy could be obviated respectively in 45.1, 45.1, and 44% of cirrhotic patients. Prophylactic treatment with beta blockers could be started undoubtedly respectively in 36.3, 41.8 and 28.6% of them as having large OV. Conclusion. Non-invasive means could be used to monitor cirrhotic patients and consider treatment in African regions lacking endoscopic facilities. PMID:22888334

  2. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  3. Combined stool-based multiplex PCR and microscopy for enhanced pathogen detection in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Becker, S L; Chatigre, J K; Gohou, J-P; Coulibaly, J T; Leuppi, R; Polman, K; Chappuis, F; Mertens, P; Herrmann, M; N'Goran, E K; Utzinger, J; von Müller, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diarrhoea ranks among the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Although most acute diarrhoeal episodes are self-limiting, the diagnosis and treatment of persistent diarrhoea (≥2 weeks) are cumbersome and require laboratory identification of the causative pathogen. Stool-based PCR assays have greatly improved the previously disappointing pathogen detection rates in high-income countries, but there is a paucity of quality data from tropical settings. We performed a case-control study to elucidate the spectrum of intestinal pathogens in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples from 68 patients and 68 controls were obtained and subjected to molecular multiplex testing with the Luminex(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), microscopy and rapid antigen detection tests for the diagnosis of diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Overall, 20 different bacteria, parasites and viruses were detected by the suite of diagnostic methods employed. At least one pathogen was observed in 84% of the participants, and co-infections were observed in >50% of the participants. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (32%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Shigella species (20%) were the predominant pathogens, and Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) was the most prevalent helminth. Pathogen frequencies and numbers of co-infections were similar in patients and controls. Although the Luminex(®) GPP detects a broad range of pathogens, microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa remains necessary to cover the full aetiological spectrum in tropical settings. We conclude that highly sensitive multiplex PCR assays constitute a useful screening tool, but that positive results might need to be confirmed by independent methods to discriminate active infection from asymptomatic faecal shedding of nucleic acids. PMID:25743578

  4. Identification of yeasts isolated from raffia wine (Raphia hookeri) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by PCR inter-delta.

    PubMed

    Tra Bi, Charles Y; N'guessan, Florent K; Kouakou, Clémentine A; Jacques, Noemie; Casaregola, Serge; Djè, Marcellin K

    2016-08-01

    Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire. Based on the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA sequence analysis, nine species belonging to six genera were distinguished. With a percentage of 69.5 % out of 171 yeast isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant species in the raffia wine, followed by Kodamaea ohmeri (20.4 %). The other species isolated were Candida haemulonii (4.1 %), Candida phangngensis (1.8 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (1.2 %), Hanseniaspora jakobsenii (1.2 %), Candida silvae (0.6 %), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (0.6 %) and Meyerozyma caribbica (0.6 %). The molecular characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates at the strain level using the PCR-interdelta method revealed the presence of 21 profiles (named I to XXI) within 115 isolates. Only four profiles (I, III, V and XI) were shared by the four areas under study. Phenotypic characterization of K. ohmeri strains showed two subgroups for sugar fermentation and no diversity for the nitrogen compound assimilations and the growth at different temperatures. PMID:27339306

  5. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis. PMID:26004285

  6. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d'Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  7. [Detection of the IS2404 insertion sequence and ketoreductase produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans in the aquatic Heteroptera in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Konan, K L; Doannio, J M C; Coulibaly, N G D; Ekaza, E; Marion, E; Assé, H; Kouassi, D; N'Goran, K E; Dosso, M; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. Until now, the mode of BU transmission was unknown, but recent studies implicate aquatic Heteroptera in the chain of transmission. This study was launched in Côte d'Ivoire to search for specific genetic markers for M. ulcerans in these bugs, including the insertion sequence IS2404 and ketoreductase (Kr), both involved in the synthesis of mycolactone, a toxin produced by these mycobacteria. Samples of aquatic Heteroptera were collected monthly with deep nets from ponds near villages in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé. After identification and enumeration of the bugs, batches of the same taxon underwent real-time PCR to search for the IS2404 target and Kr. Saliva of 69 specimens of Diplonychus sp randomly selected in the samples was also analyzed by PCR. In all, 283 single-taxon batches were created. Thus, PCR identified 26 batches belonging to the families of Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Corixidae, Ranatridae, and Nepidae as positive for both targets. The IS2404 insertion sequence and Kr were present in 6 of the 69 samples analyzed in the saliva of Diplonychus sp. These aquatic Heteroptera suspected of infection by M. ulcerans might release it into the environment because of their ability to fly. They might thus be the source of human contamination. PMID:25499000

  8. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  9. Towards understanding the presence/absence of Human African Trypanosomosis in a focus of Côte d'Ivoire: a spatial analysis of the pathogenic system

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Jamonneau, Vincent; Oké, Emmanuel; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Oswald, Yohan; Dupont, Sophie; Cuny, Gérard; Doumenge, Jean-Pierre; Solano, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at identifying factors influencing the development of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) in the focus of Bonon, located in the mesophile forest of Côte d'Ivoire. A previous study mapping the main daytime activity sites of 96 patients revealed an important disparity between the area south of the town- where all the patients lived- and the area north of the town, apparently free of disease. In order to explain this disparity, we carried out a spatial analysis of the key components of the pathogenic system, i.e. the human host, the tsetse vector and the trypanosomes in their environment using a geographic information system (GIS). Results This approach at the scale of a HAT focus enabled us to identify spatial patterns which linked to the transmission and the dissemination of this disease. The history of human settlement (with the rural northern area exploited much earlier than the southern one) appears to be a major factor which determines the land use pattern, which itself may account for differences found in vector densities (tsetse were found six times more abundant in the southern rural area than in the northern). Vector density, according to the human and environmental context in which it is found (here an intense mobility between the town of Bonon and the rural areas), may explain the observed spatial differences in HAT prevalence. Conclusion This work demonstrates the role of GIS analyses of key components of the pathogenic system in providing a better understanding of transmission and dissemination of HAT. Moreover, following the identification of the most active transmission areas, and of an area unfavourable to HAT transmission, this study more precisely delineates the boundaries of the Bonon focus. As a follow-up, targeted tsetse control activities starting north of Bonon (with few chances of reinvasion due to very low densities) going south, and additional medical surveys in the south will be proposed to

  10. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  11. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions

  13. Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gimbel, Sarah; Nduati, Ruth; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Wasserheit, Judith N.; Farquhar, Carey; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization. Methods: Thirty-six health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique were randomized to usual care or a systems engineering intervention, stratified by country and volume. The intervention guided facility staff to iteratively identify and then rectify barriers to PMTCT implementation. Registry data quantified coverage of HIV testing during first antenatal care visit, antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV-positive pregnant women, and screening HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for HIV by 6–8 weeks. We compared the change between baseline (January 2013–January 2014) and postintervention (January 2015–March 2015) periods using t-tests. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results: ARV coverage increased 3-fold [+13.3% points (95% CI: 0.5 to 26.0) in intervention vs. +4.1 (−12.6 to 20.7) in control facilities] and HEI screening increased 17-fold [+11.6 (−2.6 to 25.7) in intervention vs. +0.7 (−12.9 to 14.4) in control facilities]. In prespecified subgroup analyses, ARV coverage increased significantly in Kenya [+20.9 (−3.1 to 44.9) in intervention vs. −21.2 (−52.7 to 10.4) in controls; P = 0.02]. HEI screening increased significantly in Mozambique [+23.1 (10.3 to 35.8) in intervention vs. +3.7 (−13.1 to 20.6) in controls; P = 0.04]. HIV testing did not differ significantly between arms. Conclusions: In this first randomized trial of systems engineering to improve PMTCT, we saw substantially larger improvements in ARV coverage and HEI screening in intervention facilities compared with controls, which were significant in prespecified subgroups. Systems engineering could strengthen PMTCT service delivery and protect infants from HIV. PMID:27082507

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing Loss to Follow-up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Côte d'Ivoire Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Touré, Hapsatou; Uhler, Lauren M.; Anglaret, Xavier; Paltiel, A. David; Balestre, Eric; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Messou, Eugène; Weinstein, Milton C.; Dabis, François; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa. Methods and Findings We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3× gross domestic product per capita (3× GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire) as a plausible threshold for “cost-effectiveness.” The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y). Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%. Conclusions Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%–41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to start

  15. Cultural Issues in Secondary Education Development in West Africa: Away from Colonial Survivals, towards Neocolonial Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2001-01-01

    In urban Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), cultural factors arising from West Africa's "triple cultural heritage" (African, Euro-Christian, and Islamic) and globalization place considerable strains on secondary education and have implications for postcolonial nation-building and development. Surveys of 200 secondary students in the two…

  16. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  17. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  18. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  19. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  20. Memories of an Aid Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The author had come to Cote d'Ivoire in April 1999 to work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an independent humanitarian organization dedicated to persuading governments to respect the rules of international humanitarian law (IHL), which are found in the Geneva Conventions. These rules provide impartial protection for the…

  1. The Educational Community Running the School System: The Example of School Management Committees (COGES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Gbo; Aka, Rene Goubo

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the school system in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved with the advent of the second Republic and the rise to power of the Ivorian Popular Front (Front Populaire Ivoirien, FPI). The Government has introduced reforms in the education system making use of past experience and extending its benefits. Most of the innovations implemented as part of…

  2. 78 FR 16908 - Determinations Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..., 66 FR 7837 (2001). Ron Kirk, United States Trade Representative. BILLING CODE 3190-F3-P ... textile and apparel articles and the use of counterfeit documents in connection with the shipment of such... specified in this notice, imports of eligible products from Cote d'Ivoire qualify for the textile...

  3. Polymorphisms of the Pfatpase 6 and Pfcrt gene and their relationship with the in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abobo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bla, Brice K; Yavo, William; Trébissou, Jonhson; Kipré, Rolland G; Yapi, Félix H; N'guessan, Jean D; Djaman, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of widespread resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Côte d'Ivoire since 2005. A thorough understanding of the molecular bases of P. falciparum resistance to existing drugs is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to analyze the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum field isolates from Abobo to CQ, pyronaridine (PYR) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA), and to investigate the polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The standard in vitro drug sensitivity microtechnique recommended by the WHO was used to assess the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in December 2006. The Pfcrt haplotype 76 was analysed by PCR-RFLP while Pfatpase 6 amplification products were sequenced. Associations between drug sensitivity and parasite gene polymorphisms were evaluated with Cohen's kappa test. The correlation between the IC50 values for different drugs was assessed by the coefficient of determination (r²). Significance was assumed at p<0.05. Of 128 in vitro tests performed, 112 (87.5%) were successful. Of the isolates, 56.2% were resistant for CQ and 48% for PYR. One isolate (3.6%) demonstrated reduced DHA sensitivity (IC50 higher than 10 nM). The mutant K76T pfcrt codon, present in 90% of DNA fragments analyzed, was associated with CQ-R (ĸ=0.76). The N669Y (16.1%), D734Y (28.6%) and D734H (1.8%) isolates were found to have mutant Pfatpase6, however, these mutations were not associated with diminished DHA sensitivity (k=0.01). These high levels of antimalarial drug resistance in Abobo (Côte d'Ivoire) demand further studies of drug efficacy across the whole country. PMID:25706423

  4. Efficacy of PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. Methods The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. Results Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN

  5. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife. PMID:25474243

  6. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  7. Update on resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to conventional insecticides at a previous WHOPES field site, "Yaokoffikro", 6 years after the political crisis in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At Yaokoffikro field site near Bouaké, in central Côte d'Ivoire, a group of experimental huts built in 1996 served over many years for the evaluation of insecticides against highly resistant mosquitoes. Breeding sites of mosquitoes and selection pressure in the area were maintained by local farming practices until a war broke out in September 2002. Six years after the crisis, we conducted bioassays and biochemical analysis to update the resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations and detect other potential mechanisms of resistance that might have evolved. Methods An. gambiae s.s. larvae from Yaokoffikro were collected in breeding sites and reared to adults. Resistance status of this population to insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes with seven insecticides: two pyrethroids, a pseudo-pyrethroid, an organochloride, two carbamates and an organophosphate. Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify the L1014F kdr and ace-1R alleles in individual mosquitoes and to detect potential increase in mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity. Results High pyrethroids, DDT and carbamate resistance was confirmed in An. gambiae s.s. populations from Yaokoffikro. Mortality rates were less than 70% with pyrethroids and etofenprox, 12% with DDT, and less than 22% with the carbamates. Tolerance to fenitrothion was observed, with 95% mortality after 24 h. PCR analysis of samples from the site showed high allelic frequency of the L1014F kdr (0.94) and the ace-1R (0.50) as before the crisis. In addition, increased activity of NSE, GST and to a lesser extent MFO was found relative to the reference strain Kisumu. This was the first report detecting enhanced activity of these enzymes in An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro, which could have serious implications in detoxification of insecticides. Their specific roles in resistance should be

  8. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  9. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  10. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  11. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  12. Simulation of the transfer of hydrocarbons in unconfined aquifer in tropical zone: the case of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Kouamé, Kan Jean

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is the largest global reserves of continental freshwater (Bosca, 2002) and also an important source of drinking water in many parts of the world (Brassington. 2007). However, this resource is today threatened by pollution such as inadequate supply of drinking water services, inaccessibility and / or dilapidated sanitation facilities and excessive use fertilizers, and industrial wastewater and solid waste pesticides (Boubacar, 2010) and the rapid urbanization in great cities (Foster, 2001). Abidjan, the largest city in Côte d'Ivoire is also facing pollution problems such as illegal dumping of waste, waste oil spilled garages, land application of domestic and industrial wastewater, automotive workshops, overexploitation of sand in the Ebrié lagoon, open waste dump of Akouédo and the spill of about 400,000 liters of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" in August 2006. The Abidjan aquifer or the Continental terminal aquifer is the main source of supply drinking water. It is mainly composed of sandy and it is an unconfined aquifer as a whole (Jourda, 1987). According to Gilli and al., (2012), the recharge of unconfined aquifers comes mostly from the infiltration of surface water including rainwater. These waters on their transport in the basement could carry certain pollutants into groundwater. Kouamé (2007) reports a potential groundwater pollution of the "Continental terminal" aquifer in Abidjan. In addition to the cases cited pollution, there has been a proliferation of service stations in the district of Abidjan and this can cause possible pollution. We deemed it necessary to conduct a study on the groundwater pollution of Abidjan by oil in general. We chose benzene to simulate organic pollution in case of accident. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface, we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and benzene transport with FEFLOW software in steady and transient states. The models are composed

  13. Down to earth technology.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J

    1993-01-01

    There are constant problems with the water supply in northern Cote d'Ivoire. For example, wells have been abandoned because the pump stands are damaged and the wells contain no water during the dry season. Rural women usually can collect enough surface water during the rainy season, but during the dry season, they dig shallow wells for groundwater. Regardless of the water source, the water tends to be contaminated, resulting in diarrhea, schistosomiasis, and dysentery. Failed attempts in the past to drill productive wells (e.g, 50-60% of wells dug between 1973-1985 are inoperable) and the needs to find water sources have led researchers from Canada and the Cote d'Ivoire to develop a geographic information system (GIS) for the Marahoue River basin (12,000 square km). This basin receives little precipitation and the pre-Cambrian bedrock does not hold much water. This GIS system contains hydrological, geological, and geophysical data and remote sensing data collected from satellite. It can locate the best possible sites for drilling wells based on an analysis of fractures in the bedrock (the greater the density of clusters of fractures, the greater the probability of pinpointing productive water sources). Now GIS specialists can site 100 to 200 wells daily in the northern Cote d'Ivoire. This system is also capable of finding mineral deposits (e.g. diamonds are common in the Marahoue River basin). Despite the capabilities of this GIS system, water quality differs and pumping mechanisms still can become damaged. Nevertheless, this technology can be used to identify water sources in other developing countries, including countries in Africa, such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. PMID:12318005

  14. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  15. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  16. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    PubMed

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political

  17. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  18. Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.

    The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.

    The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were

  19. Ledantevirus: A Proposed New Genus in the Rhabdoviridae Has A Strong Ecological Association with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. PMID:25487727

  20. [4 years' evaluation of orthopedics and traumatology at an African Regional Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P

    1989-01-01

    The authors have made an evaluation of the results obtained in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology after a four year practice at the Korhogo hospital (Cote d'Ivoire). They analyse the peculiar conditions bond to the pathology, climate, environment, technical level. The incidence of post operative sepsis was 2.8 per cent, comparable to european statistics. Bed sores were exceptional, the general rate of nonunions was 2.9 per cent. The functional results were hardly analysable. However they seemed to be rather satisfactory despite the lack of post operative rehabilitation. It is concluded that an orthopaedic and traumatologic practice can be valuably conducted in Africa even far from the main centers, provided a rigorous organisation. PMID:2552513

  1. Opportunities in African power generation: A business briefing for industry and investment executives. Held in Baltimore, Maryland, June 21-22, 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The report, prepared by the Institute of International Education, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The information contained in the report was compiled in part for a power generation conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. The focus of the report is the market created by electric power projects financed by multilateral development banks. The study contains country information and project profiles related to the energy sector for eleven countries: Benin, Botswana, Cote D`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Morocoo, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The report also outlines the range of service opportunities in the region such as consulting, engineering, construction and project management, and equipment procurement. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Agenda/Program; (2) African Energy Sector Overview; (3) Project Profiles; (4) Country Information; and (5) Attendees.

  2. Drug companies, UNAIDS make drugs available.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) initiative is working with several drug companies and four countries on a pilot program to build a health infrastructure that provides affordable drugs to insure that combination therapies are used appropriately. The countries involved in the program are Uganda, Chile, Vietnam and Cote d'Ivoire, and the drug companies are Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Virco NV. Each country agreed to form national HIV/AIDS drug advisory boards, and non-profit companies will act as clearinghouses. Financing will come from the pharmaceutical companies, local health ministries, and a $1 million grant from UNAIDS. The program will be evaluated in terms of improvements to overall health care delivery, number of people treated, the impact on emergency care, and the rate of illness and death. PMID:11364863

  3. Approaching the Limit of Predictability in Human Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J.; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  4. Approaching the limit of predictability in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  5. Use of Lakes Waters in the Town of Yamousoukro for Industrial Boiler Rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Essi, Kra; Yobou, Bokra

    The industrialization of Cote D' Ivoire requires science an anticipation of the various projects of development. The town of Yamoussoukro, political capital of Cote D' Ivoire, is in the center of the country at 270 km in the North-East from Abidjan. It is situated at 6°7 ' of Northern latitude and 5°2 ' of Western longitude. Yamoussoukro is equipped with artificial lakes, which were created in 1970. This study dealt with ten of them numbered from 1 to 10. They are fed by two rivers and these rivers communicate between them. The analysis of 10 of the lakes of the city of Yamoussoukro reveals that the lakes have a relatively weak mineralization but that they stay polluted. It is the case of the hydrogen potential, turbidity and matters in suspension. The strong contents of these parameters make it difficult for these waters to be used in the industry. So, the analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the various lakes of the town of Yamoussoukro showed for a possible use in the boiler rooms The use of the waters of the 10 lakes of Yamoussoukro city in the industrial boiler room requires a double treatment: First is an environmental treatment and then a chemical treatment. The environmental treatment is a set of measures of regulation of the middle to reduce the organic pollution of waters. The chemical treatment consists, in a partial or total elimination of some raw water constituent by fixing, either by filtration, either by coagulation decanting. These methods, can contribute to the treatment of these lakes with success. Then, these waters could be used in the industry, notably in boiler room in order to obtain vapor which will use for infrastructures of the town.

  6. [Evaluation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Ivory Coast from 2008 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Ahui, B J-M; Horo, K; Bakayoko, A S; Kouassi, A B; Anon, J C; Brou-Gode, V C; Koffi, M O; Itchy, M V; N'Gom, A S; N'Goran, N B; Aka-Danguy, E

    2013-12-01

    This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2008 to December 2010 on sectional descriptive analysis of records of patients treated for MDR-TB and whose follow-up was in the thoracic department of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Cocody in Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire. We selected eight patients who met the inclusion criteria of 21 MDR-TB patients registered during the study period. The average age was 29.25years ranging from 21 to 39. Males accounted for 75% of the patients (6 males and 2 females). The students represented the professional social layer most affected with 37.5% of the patients. All patients had a history of tuberculosis and only one patient was HIV positive under anti-retroviral (zidovudin, lamivudin and efavirenz). All cultures found Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The resistance profile in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin, found two cases of resistance to ethambutol and streptomycin. The chest radiograph at the time of initiation of second-line treatment showed essentially excavations in 75% of cases and infiltrates in 25%. The lesions were bilateral in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%). The main side effects observed during treatment were limited to cochleovestibular disorders (2 patients) and neuropsychiatric disorders (2 patients) and digestive disorders in half of the patients with removal of the offending molecule kanamycin. After 24months of treatment, it was numbered five cures (62.5%), two failures and one death. PMID:24183291

  7. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  8. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  9. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  10. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  11. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  12. Modélisation à long terme et optimisation du stock d'énergie des installations solaires autonomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maafi, A.; Delorme, C.

    1996-04-01

    A sizing approach of storage capacity for autonomous solar system has been developed by analyzing the difference between solar radiation input and energy demand on long-term periods. This approach has been implemented using series of daily global irradiation data recorded or generated on a horizontal surface in the meteorological stations of Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Algiers and Tamanrasset (Algeria) and Carpentras (France). The obtained results show that for an energy demand equaling the pluriannual mean of solar irradiation a storage of several months is needed to obtain the autonomy of solar systems located in Algiers, Carpentras and Tamanrasset. It should be too expensive investment to set-up such solar systems in these locations. Therefore, the size of the storage is minimized by using a non-zero initial energy storage and reducing the energy demand. This procedure show that it is possible to provide every day a programmed energy using autonomous solar systems which are competitive economically. Une approche de dimensionnement de la capacité de stockage des installations solaires autonomes a été développé. Elle est basée sur l'analyse de la différence entre l'énergie incidente et la consommation requise. Cette méthode a été mise au point à partir de données journalières d'irradiation globale enregistrées ou reconstituées sur plan horizontal dans les stations météorologiques d'Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), d'Alger et de Tamanrasset (Algérie) et de Carpentras (France). Pour une demande énergétique correspondant à la production moyenne pluriannuelle d'énergie solaire, les résultats montrent qu'un stockage de plusieurs mois est requis pour garantir l'autonomie de fonctionnement des installations solaires implantées à Alger, Carpentras et Tamanrasset. L'autonomie ainsi obtenue n'est pas économiquement rentable. Aussi, la taille du stockage a été minimisée en utilisant un stock initial d'énergie au démarrage de l'installation et en r

  13. Processes of diversification and dispersion of rice yellow mottle virus inferred from large-scale and high-resolution phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Traore, O; Sorho, F; Pinel, A; Abubakar, Z; Banwo, O; Maley, J; Hebrard, E; Winter, S; Sere, Y; Konate, G; Fargette, D

    2005-06-01

    Phylogeography of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was reconstructed from the coat protein gene sequences of a selection of 173 isolates from the 14 countries of mainland Africa where the disease occurred and from the full sequences of 16 representative isolates. Genetic variation was linked to geographical distribution and not to host species as isolates from wild rice always clustered with isolates from cultivated rice of the same region. Genetic variation was not associated to agro-ecology, viral interference and insect vector species. Distinct RYMV lineages occurred in East, Central and West Africa, although the Central African lineage included isolates from Benin, Togo and Niger at the west, adjacent to countries of the West African lineage. Genetic subdivision at finer geographical scales was apparent within lineages of Central and West Africa, although less pronounced than in East Africa. Physical obstacles, but also habitat fragmentation, as exemplified by the small low-lying island of Pemba offshore Tanzania mainland, explained strain localization. Three new highly divergent strains were found in eastern Tanzania. By contrast, intensive surveys in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea at the west of Africa did not reveal any new variant. Altogether, this supported the view that the Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspot was the centre of origin of RYMV and that the virus spread subsequently from east to west across Africa. In West Africa, specific strains occurred in the Inner Niger Delta and suggested it was a secondary centre of diversification. Processes for diversification and dispersion of RYMV are proposed. PMID:15910330

  14. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. "Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1995-01-01

    Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

  16. Cost recovery shifts the brand image from Prudence to Protector.

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing programs are underway in Africa. One program markets condoms in Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire under the brand name Prudence. While a cost element does exist, this program was largely designed to demonstrate the viability of social marketing programs. Emphasis has now been placed upon recovering costs, and condoms are marketed under the name of Protector. Since the US wants to reduce its role as the dominant funder of condom distribution in Africa, and governments and other donors want to be able to buy condoms more cheaply on the open market, the recent cost recovery version of the program will most likely displace the initial version. The Protector program strives toward achieving scale economies and financial self-sufficiency. Specifically, the program aims to standardize campaign materials across all participating countries, make private sector partner organizations in each country responsible for local distribution and marketing, and have earnings pay for a predefined part of program expenditures. Conceptually, Prudence is marketed to prevent AIDS, while Protector is promoted more broadly against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Social marketing programs are spreading and condom use is on the rise. The World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS sees its role as advocating condom use and encouraging donors to fund social marketing programs. PMID:12344631

  17. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  18. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  19. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The role of the military: to protect society -- and themselves.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    Military personnel are at particularly high risk of becoming infected with HIV because they are in the age group at highest risk for infection, age 15-24 years; they are away from home for long periods of time; many feel invulnerable and ready to take risks; there are usually prostitutes and drugs in military areas; and troops have cash, but maybe not condoms, in their pockets. The level of attention given to HIV/AIDS in the military has grown over the course of the last few international AIDS conferences. One roundtable on HIV/AIDS in the armed forces was held at the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996. A large-scale survey reported at the conference found the level of sexual activity to be significantly higher among US military personnel than in the civilian population. Even the oldest soldiers reported higher levels of multiple partner sex habits than the most sexually active young men in the UK and France. The data further indicate that significant numbers of those men who were infected continued to knowingly have unprotected sex. Data from Angola, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, and Zimbabwe show significantly higher levels of HIV infection among military personnel compared to the civilian populations. The authors stress the important role the military can play in preventing the spread of HIV and the need to involve military personnel in AIDS prevention programs. PMID:12347381

  20. WHO still reeling from racism charges.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is not as prestigious as it used to be. It operates on a relatively small annual budget of $1.8 billion, the WHO 1995 audit suggested irregularities in the way contracts were awarded and criticized a lack of control over funds at the WHO's African headquarters in the Congo, and its director, Hiroshi Nakajima, has been accused of being a racist against Africans. Nakajima complained during a January 1995 WHO board meeting that some African members had poor English skills. Delegates from several African nations to the annual World Health Assembly, which began in Geneva on May 1, subsequently raised the issue and called for the Japanese director to resign. The release of the recent WHO health report, "Bridging the Gaps," was an attempt by the organization to regain some its international respect, but little new was reported. Basic messages were that poverty is the most important cause of ill health, 60% of all new HIV infections occur among people aged 15-24 in many countries, 50% of people with HIV globally are younger than 25 years old, 60% of infections in women occur by age 20, and life expectancy is increasing in all countries except Cote d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, and Zambia, all countries hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. For now, Nakajima has retained his position, although British and US donors stress that they will keep closer watch over the organization and that reforms must be made. PMID:12289039

  1. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  2. New Women of the World publication features Francophone Africa.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents the publication ¿Women of the World--Francophone Africa: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives,¿ by Codou Bop, a Senegalese women's rights activist. This book contains a comprehensive review of the reproductive health and rights of women in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, and Chad. It provides practical and legal guidelines for rights advocates and identifies problem issues in the region. Each country was examined in terms of its political framework, sources for governing laws, customary laws and health, population and family planning policies. Across the seven nations, similar problems in restrictive abortion laws, high maternal mortality rates, high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates, low contraceptive use and the continuation of harmful traditional practices were noted. Likewise, legal status of women in the context of their right to be free from discrimination and issues affecting adolescents were examined. During the launching of the book, representatives from the featured countries were able to discuss strategies for revising laws and adopting better policies to protect the rights and welfare of women. PMID:12322530

  3. Apport de la tomodensitométrie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose vertébrale à propos de 496 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouattara, Baly; Diomandé, Mohamed; Sessou, Viva; Kaboré, Fulgence; Djoko, Kouadio Flore; Traoré, Moriba; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus fréquente des tuberculoses ostéo articulaires, le diagnostic de certitude reste difficile. L'imagerie tient une place indéniable dans le diagnostic. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence de la tuberculose vertébrale et l'apport de la TDM dans le diagnostic. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective sur dossiers de tuberculose vertébrale dans le service de Rhumatologie du CHU de Cocody de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2013. N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude, tous les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Resultats La prévalence hospitalière de la tuberculose vertébrale était de 10,95%, elle représentait 90,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Elle concernait les 2 sexes, l’âge moyen était de 43,27 ans (4-88ans). L'atteinte dorsolombaire était la localisation la plus fréquente (95,13%). L'atteinte du rachis cervical était rare. La spondylodiscite était fréquente (92,14%). La spondylite (6%) et l'atteinte de l'arc postérieur (0,86%) étaient rares. La spondylodiscite était unique le plus souvent (70,05%), les formes multiétagées ont été notées dans 28,65% des cas, les atteintes mutifocales ont été notées dans14, 63% des cas. Les localisations inhabituelles étaient: atteinte sous occipitale (n=3), atteinte concomitante des 3 segments rachidiens (n=3), atteinte du sacrum (n=1), abcès isolés du psoas (n=4). La prévalence des abcès était de 85,91%, celle des épidurites était de 80,17%. La ponction scannoguidée des abcès a été réalisée dans 20 cas, la recherche de BAAR était positive dans 15 cas. Il existait une tuberculose viscérale évolutive dans 20% des cas. Conclusion La TDM est indéniable dans le diagnostic positif et lésionnel de la tuberculose vertébrale. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions. PMID:26113932

  4. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  5. Update of ichthyofauna diversity and ecological status of a coastal River Nero (Côte d'Ivoire - West Africa).

    PubMed

    N'Zi, Konan Gervais; Yao, Stanislas Silvain; Gooré Bi, Gouli; Ndouba, Valentin

    2015-05-01

    The general aim of this study is to update the inventory of the fish species and to specify distribution patterns in the Nero River ichthyofauna in order to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. From February 2009 to January 2010, thirty-three sites were sampled monthly with gill nets and a backpack electrofisher, and environmental variables were recorded. Overall, 46 species included in 33 genuses, 24 families and 9 orders were collected. Eleven families and 30 species were the first records for the Nero River. Including all species previously listed in the literature, the number of species presently known in the Nero River and its tributaries is revised to 59. Four families, Alestidae (21%), Schilbeidae (19%), Cyprinidae (17%) and Cichlidae (16%) that made up 73% of the total number of the catches, were the most dominant. The most dominant numerical species were Schilbe mandibularis and Brycinus longipinnis. Fish species and sampling sites along with eight environmental variables were ordinated with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) coupled to the Monte Carlo test. Ecological status based on fish assemblage according to environmental variables and anthropogenic pressures showed that miss dead wood leaves and roots, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, mud, nitrite, basin width, dissolved oxygen and pH, were the primary factors influencing fish distribution. The environmental tolerance index (ETI), ecological tolerance (tk ) and optima (uk ) values of 10 species to 8 different environmental variables were analyzed. Six species (Hemichromis fasciatus, Epiplatys chaperi, Barbus ablabes, B. longipinnis, Hemichromis bimaculatus and Chromidotilapia guntheri) have high ETI and a cosmopolitan distribution in the Nero River. In the tributaries of the middle course, high concentrations of nitrite in the water, added to the presence of a lot of tolerant species in the ichthyofauna are indications of disturbance of these areas. Subsequent recommendations were formulated for efficient restoration and conservation management of this River. PMID:25972747

  6. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and... Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and...

  7. Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 DOVE COTE AND DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  9. 76 FR 2193 - Designation Pursuant to Executive Order 13396 of February 7, 2006, “Blocking Property of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' AGENCY: Office of... Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The designation by...

  10. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa--the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  11. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa-the case of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  12. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  13. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  14. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    PubMed

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. PMID:12285641

  15. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  16. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  17. The ecology of primate retroviruses – An assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gogarten, Jan F.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2014-01-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d’Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus–host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research. PMID:25010280

  18. Importance of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Central Côte D'ivoire: Comparison of Termite Assemblages between Two Neighboring Areas Under Differing Levels of Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems). PMID:23448238

  19. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: A comparative study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, William G.; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d’Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007–2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  20. Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors among Black Africans in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Soro Kountele; Marcellin, Koffi Gnangoran; Adama, Coulibaly; Toussaint, Assohoun; Manuela, Ehua Adjoba; Sylvain, Seu Gagon; Anthony, Afum-Adjei Awuah; Francis, Ehua Somian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a challenge for surgeons in Africa. Aim. To determine risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality among black Ivoirian patients with PPU. Methods. All 161 patients (median age = 34 years, 90.7 male) operated on for PPU in the visceral and general surgery unit were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Variables were studied with Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Among 161 patients operated on for PPU, 36 (27.5%) experienced complications and 31 (19.3%) died. Follow-up results were the incidence of complications and mortality of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.9–8.0) per 100 person-days and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0) per 100 person-days for incidence of mortality. In multivariate analysis, risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality were comorbidities (HR = 2.1, P = 0.03), tachycardia (pulse rate > 100/minutes) (HR = 2.4, P = 0.02), purulent intra-abdominal fluid collection (HR = 2.1, P = 0.04), hyponatremia (median value ≤ 134 mEq/L) (HR = 2.3, P = 0.01), delayed time of hospital admission > 72 hours (HR = 2.6, P < 0.0001), and delayed time of surgical intervention between 24 and 48 hours (HR = 3.8, P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The delayed hospital admission or surgical intervention and hyponatremia may be considered as additional risk of postoperative complications or mortality in Black African patients with PPU. PMID:26925099

  1. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; N'takpe, Jean-Baptiste; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Badjé, Anani; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. Results Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV care, rather than ART initiation, resulted in decreased sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours. We did not observe any evidence of a risk compensation phenomenon associated with early ART initiation. These results illustrate the potential behavioural preventive effect of early entry into care, which goes hand in hand with early ART initiation. PMID:24985779

  2. Density estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire, and Guinea.

    PubMed

    Granier, Nicolas; Hambuckers, Alain; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography, and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km(2) . These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of two geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of two distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. PMID:25099739

  3. Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on Sexual Behaviors and HIV-1 Transmission Risk Among Adults With Diverse Heterosexual Partnership Statuses in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raïmi; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods. On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results. Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion. Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals. PMID:23990567

  4. Lithostratigraphy of the early Proterozoic Toumodi Volcanic Group in central côte d'ivoire: implications for Birrimian stratigraphic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of stratigraphic concepts for the early Proterozoic Birrimian supracrustals of the West African craton (Guinea Rise) is reviewed, tracing the origins of the upper and lower divisions which are in widespread usage. New data are presented from the central part of the Birrimian Fétékro belt where the Toumodi Volcanic Group (TVG) crops out. The TVG comprises a bimodal succession of predominantly proximal facies volcanogenic rocks which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Eburnian orogeny (c. 2.0 Ga), when greenschist facies assemblages and tight to isoclinal folding developed. TVG rocks are in thrust contact with amphibolite facies gneisses to the East, and both the volcanics and the gneisses have been intruded by Eburnian granites. The TVG stratigraphy has been divided into four formations on the basis of the prevalence of either basic or acid lithologies. Volcaniclastic lithologies are overwhelmingly more abundant than lavas. The basic rocks comprise a high-Mg basaltic suite of clinopyroxene-phyric lavas and clinopyroxene-bearing crystal tuffs and tuffbreccias. The acid rocks include proximal pyroclastics and lavas. The volcanic succession was clearly deposited in a proximal setting. Epiclastic rocks comprising conglomerates and sandstones of volcanic provenance occur in all four TVG formations. An increasingly distal depositional environment has been recognised to the South, where fine-grained laminated tuffs predominate, and it is clear that in this case the division of the Birrimian into upper and lower parts has not recognised the existence of simultaneous deposition of volcanic ejecta in proximal and distal environments, which throws doubt on the general applicability of this stratigraphic model. In addition, field evidence from the Fétékro belt, in which the recently proposed ≪Burkinian≫ orogeny was recognised, suggests that the "Burkinian" rests on shaky ground.

  5. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  6. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  7. Les sous-prefectures de Sikensi et Dabakala, Cote-d'Ivoire. (The Regions of Sikensi and Dabakala, Ivory Coast.) Method de preparation de la carte scolaire: etudes de cas 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, J.; And Others

    This volume contains the results of the first study of the problems associated with using educational television in curriculum planning in the Ivory Coast. The study was conducted in two districts of this African country, one relatively developed and situated in the southern part of the country, and the other more characteristic of the poorer…

  8. Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of Cobalt Telluride Branched Nanostructures on Carbon Fiber Paper as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Ye, Zhiguo; Liu, Chenqi; Xi, Dan; Zhou, Chongjian; Shi, Zhongqi; Xia, Hongyan; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun

    2016-02-10

    Cobalt telluride branched nanostructures on carbon fiber paper (CFP) with two different morphologies were synthesized via solution-based conversion reaction. Both the CoTe2 with nanodendrite and CoTe with nanosheet morphologies on the CoTe2 nanotube (CoTe2 NDs/CoTe2 NTs and CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs) supported by CFP exhibit high activities toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Particularly, the CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs only require an overpotential of 230.0 mV to deliver the current density of 100 mA cm(-2) in acid solution. After cycling for 5000 cycles or 20 h continual electrolysis, only a small performance loss is observed. PMID:26809181

  9. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  10. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  11. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  12. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I.; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J.; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential... or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  14. A comparative, randomized clinical trial of artemisinin/naphtoquine twice daily one day versus artemether/lumefantrine six doses regimen in children and adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Toure, Offianan A; Penali, Louis K; Yapi, Jean-Didier; Ako, Berenger A; Toure, Walamtchin; Djerea, Kali; Gomez, Genevieve O; Makaila, Oyewole

    2009-01-01

    Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum poses a major threat to malaria control. Combination anti-malarial therapy, including artemisinins, has been advocated to improve efficacy and limit the spread of resistance. The fixed combination of oral artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is highly effective and well-tolerated. Artemisinin/naphtoquine (AN) is a fixed-dose ACT that has recently become available in Africa. The objectives of the study were to compare the efficacy and safety of AN and AL for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a high transmission-intensity site in Ivory Coast. Methods We enrolled 122 participants aged 6 months or more with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Participants were randomized to receive either artemisinin/naphtoquine or artemether/lumefantrine with variable dose according to their weight. Primary endpoints were the risks of treatment failure within 28 days, either unadjusted or adjusted by genotyping to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. Results Among 125 participants enrolled, 123 (98.4%) completed follow-up. Clinical evaluation of the 123 participants showed that cumulative PCR-uncorrected cure rate on day 28 was 100% for artemisinin/naphtoquine and 98.4% for artemether/lumefantrine. Both artemisinin-based combinations effected rapid fever and parasite clearance. Interpretation These data suggest that Arco® could prove to be suitable for use as combination antimalarial therapy. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetic studies and further efficacy assessment should be conducted before its widespread use can be supported. PMID:19575797

  15. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691

  16. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that wild-living red colobus represent a substantial reservoir of SIVwrc. Moreover, because of their frequent association with other monkey species, the predation pressure exerted by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and by poachers around and inside the park, simian to simian and simian to human SIVwrc cross-species transmission cannot be excluded. PMID:17916449

  17. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. PMID:22449542

  18. No Association between Antenatal Common Mental Disorders in Low-Obstetric Risk Women and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Their Offspring: Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte D'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bonle, Marguerite Te; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Loag, Wibke; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Eberhardt, Kirsten A.; Tagbor, Harry; N’Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence linking common mental disorders (CMD) in pregnant women to adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent, and studies often failed to control for pregnancy complications. This study aimed to explore the association between antenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes in a low-obstetric risk sample of mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Methods In 2010-2011, a prospective cohort of 1030 women in their third trimester in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire was enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the third trimester using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. 719 mother/child dyads were included in the analysis. We constructed multivariate regression models to estimate the association between CMD and low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth (PTB) to control for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 28.9% and 14.2% respectively. The mean birth weight was 3172.1g (SD 440.6) and the prevalence of LBW was 1.7%. The mean gestational age was 39.6 weeks and the proportion of PTB was 4%. Multivariate linear regression revealed no significant association between maternal depression (B=52.2, 95% CI -18.2 122.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (B=17.1, 95% CI -74.6 108.7, p=0.72) and birth weight. Yet, low socio-economic status, female sex of the child, and younger maternal age were associated with lower birth weight. Multivariate logistic regression suggested no significant association between maternal depression (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 0.8 5.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 0.6 5.5, p=0.29) with PTB. Conclusions Our data suggests that depression and/or anxiety in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy are not independent predictors of adverse birth outcomes in low obstetric risk women. The role of pregnancy complications as confounders or effect modifiers in studies of maternal CMD and their impact on birth outcomes should be investigated. PMID:24260460

  19. [Resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) to deltamethrin and the use of impregnated mosquito nets in an urban area of Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Konan, Y L; Koffi, A A; Doannio, J M; Darriet, F

    2003-05-01

    The efficacy of pieces of nets treated with two formulations of deltamethrin (concentrated suspension at 1% and tablets at 25%) against two strains of Culex quinquefasciatus ("S-Lab", sensitive strain and "Bouaké", local strain) has been evaluated at the laboratory by experimental tunnels tests. The observed mortality of the sensitive strain has been 2-3 time more important than that of local strain. This observation seems to be linked to Culex quinquefasciatus of Bouaké pyrethrinoids-resistance. The excito-repellency effect of the two formulations has been lower for the local strain than for the sensitive strain. It has also been more important with the tablet at 25% than with concentrated suspension at 1%. The blood feeding rate has been more important for the local strain than for sensitive strain and it has been lower with the tablet at 25% than with the concentrated suspension at 1%. PMID:12836532

  20. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la réalisation du test pédiatrique disent s'y opposer ; bien entendu, même dans le cas où le conjoint l'accepterait. Discussion: Les mères sont les principales mises en cause et craignent les réprimandes et la stigmatisation. Le père, le conjoint peut être un obstacle, quand il s'oppose au test VIH du nourrisson, ou devenir le facilitateur de sa réalisation s'il est convaincu. Le positionnement du père demeure donc essentiel dans la question de l'acceptabilité du VIH pédiatrique. Les mères en ont conscience et présagent des difficultés à faire dépister ou non les enfants sans avis préalable du conjoint à la fois père, et chef de famille. Conclusion: La question du dépistage pédiatrique du VIH, au terme de notre analyse, met en face trois éléments qui exigent une gestion globale pour assurer une couverture effective. Ces trois éléments n'existeraient pas sans s'influencer, donc ils sont constamment en interaction et empêchent ou favorisent la réalisation ou non du test pédiatrique. Aussi, dans une intention d'aboutir à une couverture effective du dépistage VIH des nourrissons, faut-il tenir compte d'une gestion harmonieuse de ces trois éléments: La première, la mère seule (avec ses connaissances, ses perceptions), son environnement conjugal (de proposition du test intégrant 1- l’époux et / ou père de l'enfant avec ses perceptions et connaissances sur l'infection 2- la facilité de parler du test et sa réalisation chez les deux ou un des parents, la mère) et les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel de l’établissement sanitaire sur l'infection du VIH. Recommandations: Nos recommandations proposent une redéfinit

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Micrometer measurements of double stars (Ling+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. F.; Prieto, C.

    2000-10-01

    We report 312 micrometer measurements of 155 visual double stars made with the 50 cm refractor at the Cote D'Azur observatory (Nice, France) and with the 152 cm telescope at Calar Alto observatory (Almeria, Spain). (2 data files).

  2. Libraries in Quebec: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/quebec.html Libraries in Quebec To use the sharing features on ... qc.ca Montreal Jewish General Hospital Health Sciences Library (QMJG) 3755 Cote St. Catherine Road Pav. A- ...

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 FIREPLACE IN DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH WEST - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  7. Chalcogenide Cobalt telluride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Bishnu; Dulal, Rajendra; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    Cobalt telluride nanotubes are grown using wet chemical and hydrothermal syntheses. Wet chemical synthesized nanotubes display nearly 1: 1 Co to Te ratio. On the other hand, CoTe nanotubes synthesized using hydrothermal method show excess Co content leading to the compound Co58Te42. Both CoTe and Co58Te42 display magnetic properties, but with totally different characteristics. The Curie temperature of CoTe is higher than 400 K. However, the Tc of Co58Te42 is below 50 K. Transport properties of cobalt telluride (CoTe) nanotube devices show that they exhibit p-type semiconducting behavior. The magnetoresistance measured at 10 K show a magnetoresistance of 54%. . National Science Foundation under ECCS-0845501 and NSF-MRI, DMR-0922997.

  8. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 3, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  12. The Challenge of Urbanization. The World's Large Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication concentrates on city problems and special city planning issues in the world's large cities, pinpointing their demographic characteristics, economic structure, available social services, and infrastructures, as well as current issues facing city planners. Profiles of 100 large cities across the world, from Abidjan to Yangon, make…

  13. International Priorities for Teacher Education. World Assembly 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    Four papers are included in this pamphlet, the proceedings of the World Assembly at Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The keynote address, "A Turning Point in History" by Jaime Benitez, President of the University of Puerto Rico, discusses the Apollo 11 moon landing as an object lesson on values with international implications for shifting educational…

  14. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  15. The Direct Interaction between Two Morphogenetic Proteins Is Essential for Spore Coat Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Vecchione, Stefano; Crispino, Anna; Saggese, Anella; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Notomista, Eugenio; Driks, Adam; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis the protective layers that surround the mature spore are formed by over seventy different proteins. Some of those proteins have a regulatory role on the assembly of other coat proteins and are referred to as morphogenetic factors. CotE is a major morphogenetic factor, known to form a ring around the forming spore and organize the deposition of the outer surface layers. CotH is a CotE-dependent protein known to control the assembly of at least nine other coat proteins. We report that CotH also controls the assembly of CotE and that this mutual dependency is due to a direct interaction between the two proteins. The C-terminal end of CotE is essential for this direct interaction and CotH cannot bind to mutant CotE deleted of six or nine C-terminal amino acids. However, addition of a negatively charged amino acid to those deleted versions of CotE rescues the interaction. PMID:26484546

  16. Application de la méthode des simulations croisées à l'analyse de tendances dans la relation pluie-débit à partir du modèle GR2M : cas du bassin versant du N'zi-Bandama (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, Amani Michel; Bi, Tozan Michel N.'guessan; Kouamé, Koffi Fernand; Kouamé, Kassi Alexis; Okaingni, Jean-Claude; Biemi, Jean

    2012-05-01

    The study area is the N'zi watershed, sub-watershed of the Bandama River (Ivory Coast). The N'zi watershed is located between longitudes 3°49' and 5°22' West and latitudes 6°00' and 9°26' North and covers an area of 35,500 km2. This study aims to identify trends in the rainfall-runoff relationship by using a monthly conceptual model. The methodology has consisted on the one hand in highlighting the existence of interannual climate and hydrological variability by using the method of segmentation of Hubert, and on the other hand, in applying the crossed simulations method by using the GR2M model, over several 7-year sub-periods. The results of the application of the method of segmentation of Hubert have demonstrated the presence of a hydroclimatic variability in the N'zi watershed. The modifications of the climate and physical conditions of the flow resulted in a modification of the hydrological response of the watershed translated by a non-stationarity in the rainfall-runoff relation.

  17. Nouvelles données pétrographiques, géochimiques et géochronologiques du massif 'granitique' de Bondoukou (Côte d'Ivoire) mise en évidence d'un âge Burkinien, par isochrone Rb/Sr sur roches totales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toure, S.; Caen-Vachette, M.; Tempier, P.

    The locality of Bondoukou, NE of Ivory Coast, gave its name to a granite type, opposite to the Baoulé-type granite in Bodin's classification (1951, Bull. Dir. Mines AOF, Dakar, N° 12). This classification has been progressively enlarged to the whole of West Africa. The Bondoukou granite is subcircular in form, intrusive and discordant in the tufaceous schists and had not been dated previously. Recent age determinations on 15 samples from this massif have been done with the Rb/Sr isochron method on whole rocks. The age obtained is approx. 2170 Ma. Consequently, these new data yield a Burkinian age (ex early Eburnean) which was not expected since a lot of works on Birrimian granites of West Africa assigned a post tectonic character and consequently a later age to the Bondoukou granite, related to the Baoulé-type granites. Other age determinations with the same Rb/Sr method were done on granitic massifs which were assigned to the Bondoukou type; they yielded ages slightly younger than 2000 Ma in Senegal and Burkina Faso respectively (Bassot, J. P. and Caen-Vachette, M. 1984. In: 12th coll. Inter. Géol. africaine, Bruxelles, et géol. africaine (Edited by Klerkx, J. et Michot, J.),pp. 191-209. Tervuren, Belgique; and Gamsonre, P. E. and Rossy, M. 1974. Esquisse géologique de la région de Ouahi Gouya (N. W. de la Hte Volta). Chronologie des divers types de granitoîdes, p. 181. 2ème Rast, Nancy). So, these few results point out the complex position of the Bondoukou type granites. Their meaning in the main Eburnean orogeny must be considered.

  18. Origins of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of a zone of high productivity (Gulf of Guinea)

    SciTech Connect

    Delmas, R.; Servant, J.

    1982-12-20

    Recent observations have suggested substantial emission of sulfur compounds by oceanic water which could explain the presence of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air above these waters. The emission is thought to increase with the productivity of the oceanic zones. This point is discussed in relation to the Gulf of Guinea, a zone of high productivity. During the first two campaigns between Dakar, Abidjan, and the Gulf of Guinea SO/sup +//sub 4/ concentrations were measured in the air. Between Abidjan and the Gulf of Guinea the atmospheric SO= /sub 4/ concentrations decreased from 800 to 400 ng m/sup -3/. During the third campaign, between Abidjan and the South Equatorial Current (latitude 1/sup 0/S), the H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured. The mean H/sub 2/S concentration was 20 ng m/sup -3/, and that of SO/sub 2/ varied between 120 and under 50 ng m/sup -3/. The origins of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air of this area are discussed through the daily variations of the H/sub 2/S content of the air and a contribution from the forested zones of West Africa.

  19. The determination of the fluctuations in the rotation of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, G. A.

    1984-11-01

    Techniques and programs for the regular accurate measurement of short-term (1-yr or less) fluctuations in the rotation of the earth are reviewed, with an emphasis on the ongoing MERIT-COTES international campaigns. The history and status of MERIT-COTES are summarized; the six main techniques used (Doppler tracking and laser ranging of satellites, lunar laser-ranging observations, connected-elements radio interferometry, VLBI, and optical astrometry) are discussed; and the need for future international cooperation to provide regular data service to users from such fields as seismology, geodesy, meteorology, navigation, astronomy, and space science is indicated.

  20. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Florida Essential Competency Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Garfield

    The Florida Council on Teacher Education (COTE) planned and conducted statewide involvement studies to determine competencies that are essential and acceptable to the profession. This included systematic involvement procedures for gaining professional agreement on identification, assessment, implementation, and other development and research on…

  1. 33 CFR 401.43 - Mooring table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wall or lock as shown in the table to this section. South Shore St. Lambert Cote St. Catharine.... Tieup walls: Upbound ...do ...do ...do Port Starboard Starboard ...Do. Downbound Port Port Starboard.... Tieup walls: Upbound Starboard Starboard ...do Starboard ...do Starboard Port or starboard....

  2. 33 CFR 401.43 - Mooring table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wall or lock as shown in the table to this section. South Shore St. Lambert Cote St. Catharine.... Tieup walls: Upbound ...do ...do ...do Port Starboard Starboard ...Do. Downbound Port Port Starboard.... Tieup walls: Upbound Starboard Starboard ...do Starboard ...do Starboard Port or starboard....

  3. 33 CFR 401.43 - Mooring table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wall or lock as shown in the table to this section. South Shore St. Lambert Cote St. Catharine.... Tieup walls: Upbound ...do ...do ...do Port Starboard Starboard ...Do. Downbound Port Port Starboard.... Tieup walls: Upbound Starboard Starboard ...do Starboard ...do Starboard Port or starboard....

  4. 33 CFR 401.43 - Mooring table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wall or lock as shown in the table to this section. South Shore St. Lambert Cote St. Catharine.... Tieup walls: Upbound ...do ...do ...do Port Starboard Starboard ...Do. Downbound Port Port Starboard.... Tieup walls: Upbound Starboard Starboard ...do Starboard ...do Starboard Port or starboard....

  5. A Theory of Success for Disadvantaged Children: Reconceptualization of Social Capital in the Light of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao Ying; DeBlois, Lucie; Deniger, Marc-Andre; Kamanzi, Canisius

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is a term widely used in diverse contexts and in diverse meanings. For the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 1998), social capital is defined as networks with shared norms and values that facilitate cooperation (Cote & Healy, 2001); for Putnam (1995), as networks, norms, and trust that enable members of…

  6. Update on World Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a wealth of statistical information concerning the economic development and debt for a number of developing nations. Includes statistics on the gross national product growth of Cote d'lvoire, Guatemala, Malaysia, Korea, Colombia, and Nigeria, as well as, the gross domestic product growth and debt service for Latin America, Africa, and…

  7. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Steven T. H.; Woo, David M.; Chong, Calum W. K.; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E.; Shah, Saumil A.; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  8. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Steven T H; Woo, David M; Chong, Calum W K; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E; Shah, Saumil A; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Breadth and Intensity of Youth Activity Involvement and Successful Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Connections between youth activity involvement and indicators of successful development were examined in a longitudinal high school sample. Drawing on theories of expertise skill development (e.g., J. Cote, 1999); the selection, optimization, and compensation framework (P. B. Baltes, 1997); and theories of positive youth development (e.g., R. M.…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society Division section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "Retreads: Recycling American Prime Time Television for Fun and Profit" (Chad Dell); "Partisan and Structural Balance of Election Stories on the 1998 Governor's Race in Michigan" (Frederick Fico and William Cote); "Newspaper Letters and…

  11. Error Bounds for Quadrature Methods Involving Lower Order Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Fedotov, Igor; Fedotova, Tanya; Harding, Ansie

    2003-01-01

    Quadrature methods for approximating the definite integral of a function f(t) over an interval [a,b] are in common use. Examples of such methods are the Newton-Cotes formulas (midpoint, trapezoidal and Simpson methods etc.) and the Gauss-Legendre quadrature rules, to name two types of quadrature. Error bounds for these approximations involve…

  12. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity and High Level Performance: Realising an Achievable Aim for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave; Bailey, Richard; Toms, Martin; Ford, Paul; Pearce, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Even though all school-aged children in most countries experience some form of curricular physical education many do not maintain a lifelong involvement in sport or physical activity. From a theoretical perspective, the development models that dominate sport are limited by their staged and linear approaches to development (e.g. Cote's…

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unrest, and fatal attacks against international peacekeeping forces. Because the situation in or in... to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 26, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation...

  14. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial, material, or technological support. 543.313 Section 543.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CÃTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  15. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial, material, or technological support. 543.313 Section 543.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CÃTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  16. 31 CFR 543.704 - Administrative collection; referral to United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative collection; referral to United States Department of Justice. 543.704 Section 543.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 543.409 - Credit extended and cards issued by U.S. financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit extended and cards issued by U.S. financial institutions. 543.409 Section 543.409 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations...

  18. 31 CFR 543.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial, material, or technological support. 543.313 Section 543.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  19. 78 FR 8955 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to C[ocirc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ..., February 4, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-02857 Filed 2-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Situation in or in Relation to C te d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  20. Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Getis, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood concept and use available data and new heterogeneity statistics to derive homogeneous neighborhoods. The statistics are explained and maps of Accra neighborhoods are given. PMID:25435640

  1. Dynamique socio-économique et crise familiale et éducative en côte-d'ivoire de 1960 a 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assy, Edmond Paul

    2003-09-01

    This article reflects on the crisis affecting the sphere of the family and education in Côte d'Ivoire between 1960 and 1990. The country's family structure has been shaken by the market economy, by the conventional school system and by the modern legal code. This has in turn engendered a crisis of parental authority and a variety of problems connected with the instability of marriages in Côte d'Ivoire. How, then, is it possible to redress the situation and establish a partnership between the family, the educational system and society? The author advances a series of propositions for creating a better coordination between the family and the educational sphere and for reinforcing the educative capacity of the family and of society as a whole.

  2. Polarimetric glucose sensing using the Brewster-reflection off the eye lens: theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-05-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote et al., and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  3. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  4. Comparison of LASSO and GPS time transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Baumont, F.; Fridelance, P.; Gaignebet, J.; Grudler, P.; Veillet, C.; Wiant, J.; Klepczynski, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    The LASSO is a technique which should allow the comparison of remote atomic clocks with sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy. The first successful time transfer using LASSO has been carried out between the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur in France and the McDonald Observatory in Texas, United States. This paper presents a preliminary comparison of LASSO time transfer with GPS common-view time transfer.

  5. A Theoretical Analysis of a New Polarimetric Optical Scheme for Glucose Sensing in the Human Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovati, Luigi L.; Boeckle, Stefan; Ansari, Rafat R.; Salzman, Jack A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The challenging task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is the identification and selection of a scheme to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this short communication an earlier approach of Cote et al. is theoretically compared with our new optical scheme. Simulations of the new scheme using the eye model of Navarro, suggest that the new optical geometry can overcome the limitations of the previous approach for in vivo measurements of glucose in a human eye.

  6. Diversity of parvovirus 4-like viruses in humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys in hunter-prey relationships.

    PubMed

    Adlhoch, Cornelia; Kaiser, Marco; Loewa, Anna; Ulrich, Markus; Forbrig, Christian; Adjogoua, Edgard V; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Rietschel, Wolfram; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Schneider, Bradley S; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2012-05-01

    During 2010-2011, we investigated interspecies transmission of partetraviruses between predators (humans and chimpanzees) and their prey (colobus monkeys) in Côte d'Ivoire. Despite widespread infection in all species investigated, no interspecies transmission could be detected by PCR and genome analysis. All sequences identified formed species- or subspecies (chimpanzee)-specific clusters, which supports a co-evolution hypothesis. PMID:22515991

  7. Mass Spectrometry and Multiplex Antigen Assays to Assess Microbial Quality and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical and Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Attien, Paul; Sina, Haziz; Moussaoui, Wardi; Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Dadié, Thomas; Keller, Daniel; Riegel, Philippe; Edoh, Vincent; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Djè, Marcellin; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the microbial quality of meat products and on some clinical samples in Abidjan focused on Staphylococcus genus and the toxin production profile of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated. Bacteria were collected from 240 samples of three meat products sold in Abidjan and 180 samples issued from clinical infections. The strains were identified by both microbiological and MALDI-TOF-MS methods. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, LukE/D, and epidermolysins was screened using radial gel immunodiffusion. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 was screened by a Bio-Plex Assay. We observed that 96/240 of meat samples and 32/180 of clinical samples were contaminated by Staphylococcus. Eleven species were isolated from meats and 4 from clinical samples. Forty-two S. aureus strains were isolated from ours samples. Variability of resistance was observed for most of the tested antibiotics but none of the strains displays a resistance to imipenem and quinolones. We observed that 89% of clinical S. aureus were resistant to methicillin against 58% for those issued from meat products. All S. aureus isolates issued from meat products produce epidermolysins whereas none of the clinical strains produced these toxins. The enterotoxins were variably produced by both clinical and meat product samples. PMID:24987686

  8. French work on ocean thermal energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, P.

    The ocean is discussed as a world-wide potential source of renewable energy, with special attention given to the 'deposit' of ocean thermal energy, which is determined by the temperature difference existing between surface water and that at a depth of 1000 m. A brief history of work done in France is presented, and mention is made of the work of d'Arsonval (1881), Claude and Boucherot (1926), and of projects, such as those at Abidjan and Guadeloupe. Attention is given to the French ocean thermal energy sites, to the Empain-Schneider closed-cycle studies, and the open-cycle floating ocean thermal energy station, with a discussion of thermodynamic considerations and cold water pipes. Problems and prospects are reviewed.

  9. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  10. The 6(th) international conference on envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa: a crucial step for the management of envenomation.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Akaffou, Marc Hermann; Allali, Bernard Kouadio; Dosso, Mireille; Massougbodji, Achille; Barraviera, Benedito

    2016-01-01

    During the 6(th) International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new recommendations were adopted by the participants. The high incidence and severity of this affliction were confirmed by several studies conducted in African countries. The poor availability of antivenom, particularly because of the cost, was also highlighted. Some experiences have been reported, mainly those regarding the financial support of antivenom in Burkina Faso (more than 90 %) and Togo (up to 60 %) or the mandatory reporting of cases in Cameroon. Key recommendations concerned: improvement of epidemiological information based on case collection; training of health workers in the management of envenomation; policy to promote the use of effective and safe antivenom; and antivenom funding by sharing its costs with stakeholders in order to improve antivenom accessibility for low-income patients. PMID:26985189

  11. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation. PMID:12345380

  12. Risk of Vibrio Transmission Linked to the Consumption of Crustacean in Coastal Towns of Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    TRAORÉ, S. G.; BONFOH, B.; KRABI, R.; ODERMATT, P.; UTZINGER, J.; ROSE, K.-N.; TANNER, M.; FREY, J.; QUILICI, M.-L.; KOUSSÉMON, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected colonies of Vibrio spp. were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical and molecular tests, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to further characterize Vibrio strains. Additionally, a survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at concentrations as high as 6.3 Log colony forming unit per gram. Vibrio strains identified were divided into 40% Vibrio alginolyticus, 36% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and 24% non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae with the latter two species potentially causing mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) for V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related haemolysin (trh) for V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of a potential exposure to pathogenic strains. However, food preparation practices prevent human infections, as most households boil crustaceans before consumption (96.7%), usually for at least 45 min (85.9%). PMID:22691466

  13. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  14. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope L.; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality. PMID:25647663

  15. Functional Characterization of Clostridium difficile Spore Coat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Permpoonpattana, Patima; Phetcharaburanin, Jutarop; Mikelsone, Anna; Dembek, Marcin; Tan, Sisareuth; Brisson, Marie-Clémence; La Ragione, Roberto; Brisson, Alain R.; Fairweather, Neil; Hong, Huynh A.

    2013-01-01

    Spores of Clostridium difficile play a key role in the dissemination of this important human pathogen, and until recently little has been known of their functional characteristics. Genes encoding six spore coat proteins (cotA, cotB, cotCB, cotD, cotE, and sodA) were disrupted by ClosTron insertional mutagenesis. Mutation of one gene, cotA, presented a major structural defect in spore assembly, with a clear misassembly of the outermost layers of the spore coat. The CotA protein is most probably subject to posttranslational modification and could play a key role in stabilizing the spore coat. Surprisingly, mutation of the other spore coat genes did not affect the integrity of the spore, although for the cotD, cotE, and sodA mutants, enzyme activity was reduced or abolished. This could imply that these enzymatic proteins are located in the exosporium or alternatively that they are structurally redundant. Of the spore coat proteins predicted to carry enzymatic activity, three were confirmed to be enzymes using both in vivo and in vitro methods, the latter using recombinant expressed proteins. These were a manganese catalase, encoded by cotD, a superoxide dismutase (SOD), encoded by sodA, and a bifunctional enzyme with peroxiredoxin and chitinase activity, encoded by cotE. These enzymes being exposed on the spore surface would play a role in coat polymerization and detoxification of H2O2. Two additional proteins, CotF (a tyrosine-rich protein and potential substrate for SodA) and CotG (a putative manganese catalase) were shown to be located at the spore surface. PMID:23335421

  16. An extended doubly-adaptive quadrature method based on the combination of the Ninomiya and the FLR schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemitsu; Hibino, Susumu; Hosoda, Yohsuke; Ninomiya, Ichizo

    2007-08-01

    An improvement is made to an automatic quadrature due to Ninomiya (J. Inf. Process. 3:162?170, 1980) of adaptive type based on the Newton?Cotes rule by incorporating a doubly-adaptive algorithm due to Favati, Lotti and Romani (ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:207?217, 1991; ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:218?232, 1991). We compare the present method in performance with some others by using various test problems including Kahaner?s ones (Computation of numerical quadrature formulas. In: Rice, J.R. (ed.) Mathematical Software, 229?259. Academic, Orlando, FL, 1971).

  17. Highlights of astronomy. Volume 7 - Proceedings of the Nineteenth IAU General Assembly, Delhi, India, November 19-28, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swings, J.-P.

    This book first presents papers on pulsars and their genesis, dark matter in the universe, and Venus. Then, a collection of papers is presented which review the status of research on reference frames, long-period eclipsing binary stars and related objects, solar and stellar nonradial oscillations, radio astronomy and cosmology, the relationship of stellar activity to rotation and magnetic fields, evolution in young populations in galaxies, and supernovae. Then papers on more specialized subjects are given, including the Hipparcos project, coronal activity and interplanetary disturbances, the MERIT and COTES programs, synthetic photometry, and standard stars. Two additional contributions on new radio telescopes and galactic constants are also presented.

  18. KSC-03PD-1078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employee Mike Cote works on installing Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  19. Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using Brewster Reflection off of Eye Lens: Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote, et al. (G.L. Cot6, M.D. Fox, and R.B. Northrop: Noninvasive Optical Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using a True Phase Measurement Technique. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 752-756, 1992.) and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  20. [Primitive psoas abscess in children; diagnostic difficulties and non surgical treatment: apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Doumbouya, N; N'Goan-Domoua, A M; Aguehounde, C; De Silva-Anoma, S; Roux, C

    1998-01-01

    From an analysis of two files of children carriers of primitive psoas abscess, the authors report the difficulties of diagnosis due to the rarity of this affection and the similarities of its symptomatology with ostearthritis of the hip which is a common pathology at the pediatric surgery unit of C.H.U. Yopougon (Republic of Côte d'Ivoire). A non surgical treatment made of antibiotherapy and traction fixed in the axis of the limb is proposed, since it helped the two patients who had presented an echographical stage II of psoas abcess to recover without after-effects. PMID:9642471

  1. Fatal Baylisascaris larva migrans in a colony of Japanese macaques kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Une, Yumi; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Kamiya, Haruo; Akao, Nobuaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2005-06-01

    A colony of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan experienced 9 sporadic cases of fatal neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and posterior paralysis, during the 12 yr from 1989 to 2001. This macaque colony consisted of approximately 30 animals, on average, during this period, and the macaques shared their living space with II American black bears (Ursus americanus) harboring zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris transfuga). Close to this enclosure, a cote for 2-3 raccoons (Procyon lotor) was placed, and raw sewage from this cote ran into a shallow drain in the area for macaques and bears. However, fecal examinations in recent years did not detect the infection of raccoons with zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis). Postmortem histological examination of the latest 2 ill macaques detected multifocal malacia in the brain; 2 ascarid larvae of 60 microm maximum width were encapsulated in the cerebrum and lungs of 1 of the animals. To determine the causative ascarid species of the fatal larva migrans, we analyzed 2 additional encapsulated Baylisascaris larvae collected from formalin-fixed lungs by morphological and molecular approaches. This sporadic outbreak is the second record of Baylisascaris larva migrans in animals in Japan. PMID:16108577

  2. An oyster-associated hepatitis A outbreak in France in 2007.

    PubMed

    Guillois-Bécel, Y; Couturier, E; Le Saux, J C; Roque-Afonso, A M; Le Guyader, F S; Le Goas, A; Pernès, J; Le Bechec, S; Briand, A; Robert, C; Dussaix, E; Pommepuy, M; Vaillant, V

    2009-03-12

    Following the notification of nine hepatitis A cases clustered in the Cotes d Armor district in northwestern France, epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigations were set up in order to identify the source and vehicle of contamination and implement control measures. In total, 111 cases were identified in the outbreak, all of whom lived or had stayed as tourists in the Cotes d Armor district. Of the cases, 87% had eaten raw shellfish, and 81% specifically oysters. Traceback investigations carried out on raw shellfish consumed by the cases showed that the raw shellfish originated from a single shellfish farm. The shellfish were probably contaminated either in the submersible tanks or in a depuration land-based tank where they were stored. The source of contamination was not identified but shellfish could have been tainted by sewage overflows or by wastewater releases from a polluted storm sewer close to the shellfish farm or from on-site sanitation facilities. To prevent future hepatitis A outbreaks due to shellfish consumption from this area, hazards specific to each farm should be analysed. Timely information on sewage overflows should also be part of communities efforts regarding sewage collection and treatment. PMID:19317985

  3. Mobile phone call data as a regional socio-economic proxy indicator.

    PubMed

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  4. Glycaemic index and load values tested in normoglycemic adults for five staple foodstuffs: pounded yam, pounded cassava-plantain, placali, attieke and maize meal stiff porridge.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Adam C; Kouassi, Kouakou N; N'dri, Yao D; Amani, N'guessan G

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an increased global interest in the published glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of foods. However, data on the GI and GL values of different varieties of foods within Côte d'Ivoire are very limited. The study therefore aimed at finding the GI and GL of the main food staples in Côte d'Ivoire. Following the International Standard Organisation's protocol (ISO/FDI 26642:2010), a selection of five staple foodstuffs were tested for their GI and GL. Fasted healthy subjects were given 50 g of available carbohydrate servings of a glucose reference, which was tested twice, and test foods which were tested once, on separate occasions. Excepted attieke (GI 63), the majority of foods tested have a high GI (GI>70). Attieke (agbodjama) had a high GL (GL 29) while placali (GL 17) and maize meal stiff porridge (GL 16) had medium GLs. The GLs of pounded cassava-plantain and pounded yam are 26 and 22. Consumption of attieke could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes, in spite of high GL and potentially have benefit in the management and prevention of some chronic diseases. PMID:25690417

  5. Mobile Phone Call Data as a Regional Socio-Economic Proxy Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  6. Predicting the distribution of tsetse flies in West Africa using temporal Fourier processed meteorological satellite data.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D J; Hay, S I; Packer, M J

    1996-06-01

    An example is given of the application of remotely-sensed, satellite data to the problems of predicting the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies in West Africa. The distributions of eight species of tsetse, Glossina morsitans, G. longipalpis, G. palpalis, G. tachinoides, G. pallicera, G. fusca, G. nigrofusca and G. medicorum in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, were analysed using discriminant analysis applied to temporal Fourier-processed surrogates for vegetation, temperature and rainfall derived from meteorological satellites. The vegetation and temperature surrogates were the normalized difference vegetation index and channel-4-brightness temperature, respectively, from the advanced, very-high-resolution radiometers on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's polar-orbiting, meteorological satellites. For rainfall the surrogate was the Cold-Cloud-Duration (CCD) index derived from the geostationary, Meteosat satellite series. The presence or absence of tsetse was predicted with accuracies ranging from 67%-100% (mean = 82.3%). A further data-set, for the abundance of five tsetse species across the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire (an area of about 140,000 km2), was analysed in the same way, and fly-abundance categories predicted with accuracies of 30%-100% (mean = 73.0%). The thermal data appeared to be the most useful of the predictor variables, followed by vegetation and rainfall indices. Refinements of the analytical technique and the problems of extending the predictions through space and time are discussed. PMID:8758138

  7. Genetic characterization of goutanap virus, a novel virus related to negeviruses, cileviruses and higreviruses.

    PubMed

    Kallies, René; Kopp, Anne; Zirkel, Florian; Estrada, Alejandro; Gillespie, Thomas R; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%-60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. PMID:25398046

  8. Pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from west Africa.

    PubMed

    Chandre, F; Darriet, F; Darder, M; Cuany, A; Doannio, J M; Pasteur, N; Guillet, P

    1998-10-01

    Pyrethroid resistance was investigated in thirty-three samples of Culex quinquefasciatus Say from twenty-five cities in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Permethrin resistance ratios at LC50 ranged from 9.5- to 82-fold in Côte d'Ivoire and from 17- to 49-fold in Burkina Faso. For deltamethrin, resistance ratios were lower and ranged from nine to thirty-eight in both countries. A strain was selected with permethrin to investigate resistance mechanisms. After forty-two generations of selection, permethrin resistance level reached 3750-fold, but deltamethrin resistance remained unexpectedly unchanged. This indicated that a specific mechanism was involved in permethrin resistance. Synergist assays and biochemical tests indicated that resistance was partly due to P450-dependent oxidases. A target site insensitivity (kdr) was also involved, associated with DDT cross resistance and a dramatic loss of permethrin knockdown effect on adults. This resistance should be taken into consideration when planning the use of pyrethroid-impregnated materials in urban areas, as Culex is by far the main source of nuisance. Any failure in nuisance control due to resistance is likely to demotivate people in using impregnated materials. PMID:9824819

  9. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Côte d’ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi-Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, James Halbin; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T.; Ouattara, Djeneba; Kouakou, Brou; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Scope: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Materials and Methods: Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July–September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), FB1, α-zearalenol (ZOL), β-ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Results: Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 – 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 – 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 – 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R2 ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. Conclusion: The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co-exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption. PMID:25948962

  10. PubMed Central

    Rioche, M.; Dubreuil, P.; Kouassi-Samgare, A.; Akran, V.; Nordmann, P.; Pillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    The first well-documented outbreak of viral hepatitis E in Africa was described in 1986 in Côte d'lvoire. Subsequently, no other outbreaks have been observed in the country. Côte d'lvoire therefore offers an excellent opportunity to evaluate the prevalence of sporadic viral hepatitis E in a country where the frequency of non-A, non-B, non-C viral hepatitis appears to be high. The study was carried out in Abidjan, the most populous city, and involved 111 hospitalized patients suffering from non-A, non-B and presumed non-C acute viral hepatitis. Screening for leptospirosis or a toxic etiology was carried out and the risk of including such patients eliminated. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis A was excluded from the absence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. Patients with HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies were not included in the study, although co-infection in asymptomatic HBV carriers or subsequent infection in patients who had recovered from a past HCV infection remained possible. There was a risk that some patients with late appearance of anti-HCV antibodies were included since PCR tests could not be performed. Cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus was not involved, since no specific IgMs against these viruses were detectable. Large discrepancies between the two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) available for serological diagnosis of hepatitis E (Abbott and Genelabs) were observed. Among the 53 sera screened using both tests, only 20 gave positive results in both, and all such sera were confirmed using a domestic immunological test involving inhibition of labelled, well-documented anti-HEV-specific human IgG. Immunological confirmation was obtained for only half of the sera with discordant results in the commercial ELISAs. Full agreement between both commercial tests was observed for only 59% of the sera studied. The minimal incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis E among hospitalized patients in Abidjan with an acute hepatitis was estimated to be 27%. PMID

  11. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  12. Satellite Detection of Ebola River Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics Trigger Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever, named after the Ebola River in Central Africa, first appeared in June 1976, during an outbreak in Nzara and Maridi, Sudan. In September 1976, a separate outbreak was recognized in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). One fatal case was identified in Tandala, DRC, in June 1977, followed by another outbreak in Nzara, Sudan, in July 1979. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks results in a very high mortality of patients who contract the disease: from 50 to 80% of infected people perish from this highly virulent disease. Death is gruesome, with those afflicted bleeding to death from massive hemorrhaging of organs and capillaries. The disease was not identified again until the end of 1994, when three outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Africa. In October, an outbreak was identified in a chimpanzee community studied by primatologists in Tal, Cote d'lvoire, with one human infection. The following month, multiple cases were reported in northeast Gabon in the gold panning camps of Mekouka, Andock, and Minkebe. Later that same month, the putative index case of the 1995 Kikwit, DRC, outbreak was exposed through an unknown mechanism while working in a charcoal pit. In Gabon, two additional outbreaks were reported in February and JuIy,1996, respectively, in Mayibout II, a village 40 km south of the original outbreak in the gold panning camps, and a logging camp between Ovan and Koumameyong, near Booue. The largest Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic occurred in Gulu District, Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. In December 2001, Ebola reappeared in the Ogooue-lvindo Province, Gabon with extension into Mbomo District, The Republic of the Congo lasting until July 2002. Since 2002 there have been several outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Gabon and adjacent areas of Congo. Of interest is the seasonal context and occasional temporal clustering of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. Near simultaneous appearances of Ebola epidemics in

  13. KSC-03PD-1086

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employees (from left) Harrell Watts, Mike Cote, and Jason Levandusky install Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  14. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of these binary NEAs with all NEAs and rapidly rotating NEAs suggests a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. --- Acknowledgments This research was carried out while Marco Delbo and Kevin Walsh were Henri Poincare Fellows at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur. The Henri Poincare Fellowship is funded by the CNRS-INSU, the Conseil General des Alpes-Maritimes and the Rotary International -- District 1730.

  15. Airborne measurements of surface layer turbulence over the ocean during cold air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Shien; Yeh, Eueng-Nan

    1987-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence for the near-shore cloud street regions over the Atlantic Ocean were examined using 50-m level data of airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks. The present study, performed for the Mesoscale Air-Sea Exchange (MASEX) experiment, extends and completes the preliminary analyses of Chou and Yeh (1987). In the inertial subrange, a near 4/3 ratio was observed between velocity spectra normal to and those along the aircraft heading. A comparison of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets with those of Wyngaard and Cote (1971) and Caughey and Wyngaard (1979) data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy in the surface layer is dissipated less in the MASEX data than in data obtained by the previous groups.

  16. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Nestor, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated importance of diffusion control in leaching, other mechanisms have been observed to play a role and leaching from porous solid bodies is not simple diffusion. Only simple diffusion theory has been developed well enough for extrapolation, as yet. The well developed diffusion theory, used in data analysis by ANSI/ANS-16.1 and the NEWBOX program, can help in trying to extrapolate and predict the performance of solidified waste forms over decades and centuries, but the limitations and increased uncertainty must be understood in so doing. Treating leaching as a semi-infinite medium problem, as done in the Cote model, results in simpler equations, but limits, application to early leaching behavior when less than 20% of a given component has been leached. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Quick, N.

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  18. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefields in an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefields in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(N log(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield.

  19. Sensitivity of inelastic response to numerical integration of strain energy. [for cantilever beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    The exact solution to the quasi-static, inelastic response of a cantilever beam of rectangular cross section subjected to a bending moment at the tip is obtained. The material of the beam is assumed to be linearly elastic-linearly strain-hardening. This solution is then compared with three different numerical solutions of the same problem obtained by minimizing the total potential energy using Gaussian quadratures of two different orders and a Newton-Cotes scheme for integrating the strain energy of deformation. Significant differences between the exact dissipative strain energy and its numerical counterpart are emphasized. The consequence of this on the nonlinear transient responses of a beam with solid cross section and that of a thin-walled beam on elastic supports under impulsive loads are examined.

  20. On a quadrature formula of Gori and Micchelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shijun

    2005-04-01

    Sparked by Bojanov (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 70 (1996) 349), we provide an alternate approach to quadrature formulas based on the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind for any weight function w introduced and studied in Gori and Micchelli (Math. Comp. 65 (1996) 1567), thereby improving on their observations. Upon expansion of the divided differences, we obtain explicit expressions for the corresponding Cotes coefficients in Gauss-Turan quadrature formulas for and I(fTn;w) for a Gori-Micchelli weight function. It is also interesting to mention what has been neglected for about 30 years by the literature is that, as a consequence of expansion of the divided differences in the special case when , the solution of the famous Turan's Problem 26 raised in 1980 was in fact implied by a result of Micchelli and Rivlin (IBM J. Res. Develop. 16 (1972) 372) in 1972. Some concluding comments are made in the final section.

  1. A high-order fast method for computing convolution integral with smooth kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji

    2009-09-28

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate convolution integral with smooth non-periodic kernel. This method is based on the Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for the integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation. The method can have an arbitrarily high-order accuracy in principle depending on the number of points used in the integral approximation and a computational cost of O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of grid points. For a three-point Simpson rule approximation, the method has an accuracy of O(h{sup 4}), where h is the size of the computational grid. Applications of the Simpson rule based algorithm to the calculation of a one-dimensional continuous Gauss transform and to the calculation of a two-dimensional electric field from a charged beam are also presented.

  2. KSC-03PD-1064

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employee Mike Cote installs Thermal Protection System tiles on a test panel. The test panel and sections of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101) will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing after the tile installation is complete. The testing has been requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight.

  3. KSC-03PD-1085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employees (from left) Mike Cote, Tom Baggitt, and Jason Levandusky install Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  4. Estimation of the Gini coefficient for the lognormal distribution of income using the Lorenz curve.

    PubMed

    Darkwah, Kwasi A; Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Lotsi, Anani

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to compare the Newton-Cotes methods such as the Trapezium rule, Simpson 1/3 rule and Simpson 3/8 rule to estimate the area under the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient of income using polynomial function with degree 5. Comparing the Gini coefficients of income computed from the Polynomial function with degree 5 for the Trapezium, Simpson 1/3 and Simpson 3/8 methods using the relative errors showed that the trapezium rule, Simpson's 1/3 rule and Simpson's 3/8 rule show negative biases with the Simpson 1/3 rule yielding the lowest absolute relative true error of 4.230711 %. PMID:27516934

  5. KSC-03PD-1080

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employees (from left) John Kuhn, Mike Cote, and Tom Baggitt discuss the installation of Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  6. Development of Carbon Based optically Transparent Electrodes from Pyrolyzed Photoresist for the Investigation of Phenomena at Electrified Carbon-Solution Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Donner, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    The work presented herein describes a fundamental investigations of carbon as electrode material by using the pyrolysis of photoresist to create an optically transparent material. The development of these carbon-based optically transparent electrodes (C-OTEs) enables investigations of molecular interactions within the electrical double layer, processes that are central to a wide range of important phenomena, including the impact of changes in the surface charge density on adsorption. The electrochemical importance of carbon cannot be understated, having relevance to separations and detection by providing a wide potential window and low background current in addition to being low cost and light weight. The interactions that govern the processes at the carbon electrode surface has been studied extensively. A variety of publications from the laboratories of McCreery and Kinoshita provide in depth summaries about carbon and its many applications in electrochemistry. These studies reveal that defects, impurities, oxidation, and a variety of functional groups create adsorption sites on carbon surfaces with different characteristics. The interest in C-OTEs was sparked by the desire to study and understand the behavior of individual molecules at electrified interfaces. It draws on the earlier development of Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC), which uses carbon as the stationary phase. EMLC takes advantage of changing the applied potential to the carbon electrode to influence the retention behavior of analytes. However, perspectives gained from, for example, chromatographic measurements reflect the integrated response of a large ensemble of potentially diverse interactions between the adsorbates and the carbon electrode. Considering the chemically and physically heterogeneous surface of electrode materials such as glassy carbon, the integrated response provides little insight into the interactions at a single molecule level. To investigate individual

  7. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.

    2012-03-22

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(Nlog(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield force. I. INTRODUCTION

  8. REGAIN: a new optical beam combiner for the G12T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourard, Denis; Blazit, A.; Bonneau, D.; Merlin, D.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; Vakili, Farrokh; Menardi, Serge; Rebattu, S.; Hill, L.; Rousselet, Karine; Boit, J.-L.; Le Merrer, J.; Lasselin-Waultier, G.; Saisse, Michel; Pouliquen, D.; Joubert, M.

    1994-06-01

    A new focal instrumentation for the Grand Interferometre a 2 Telescopes (GI2T) called REGAIN (REcombinaison pour GrAnd INterferometre) is under study at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) and the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale (LAS) in Marseille, France. The objectives of the REGAIN project are multiple. Priority number 1 is a more efficient astrophysical exploitation of the GI2T. Next is the possibility for observing simultaneously at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Finally REGAIN should ensure the test of the OVLA prototype telescope added to the present GI2T. Therefore, the resulting GI3T could be used for phase-closure imaging with 1.5-m apertures. At the same time reservations will be made for implementing adaptive optics units for each telescope whilst the VLT interferometer fringe- sensor currently studied at the OCA, should be tested on the GI3T.

  9. Mental Health Care for Vulnerable People With Complex Needs in Low-Income Countries: Two Services in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Julian; Des Roches, Benoît; Nwaubani, Kenneth; Winters, Lopa

    2015-10-01

    People with severe and enduring mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are among the most disabled, socially excluded, and underserved populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Some programs have been created to target this group. The current global development agenda emphasizes the need to provide care to vulnerable groups. This column compares two long-standing and successful programs for homeless people with mental illness in three West African countries--Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, and Bénin. The authors describe essential ingredients of these programs and their integration into existing systems, including funding and other resources, leadership models, and staff. The success of these programs provides support for initiatives to scale up services for people with severely disabling and complex needs, even as the focus is increasingly on cost-effectiveness of mental health integration into decentralized health services. PMID:26073416

  10. Fighting rabies in Africa: the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB).

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty; Adjogoua, E V; Aguemon, A R; Amadou, O H; Atipo, A L; Baba, B A; Ada, S Bara; Boumandouki, P; Bourhy, H; Diallo, M K; Diarra, L; Diop, B M; Diop, S A; Fesriry, B; Gosseye, S; Hassar, M; Kingé, T; Kombila Nzamba, T E; Yandoko, E Nakouné; Nzengué, E; Ramahefalalao, E F; Ratsitorahina, M; Simpore, L; Soufi, A; Tejiokem, M; Thiombano, R; Tiembré, I; Traoré, A K; Wateba, M I

    2008-11-25

    Rabies experts from 14 francophone African countries met in Grand Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire), 10-13 March 2008. They presented the situation in their respective countries, acknowledging the lack of rabies awareness among the population, health care workers and health authorities. They recognized that infrastructure for the management of rabies exposure is scarce, modern vaccines are in limited quantity and immunoglobulins are lacking in most of their countries. They defined as a priority the need to have reliable figures on the disease burden, which is necessary for informed decision making and priority setting, and for applying for aid in controlling the disease. This meeting sealed the establishment of the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB). PMID:18617294

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed. PMID:10686730

  12. Remotely sensed surrogates of meteorological data for the study of the distribution and abundance of arthropod vectors of disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I; Tucker, C J; Rogers, D J; Packer, M J

    1996-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of how certain meteorological data used in studies of the population dynamics of arthropod vectors of disease may be predicted using remotely sensed, satellite data. Details are given of the stages of processing necessary to convert digital data arising from satellite sensors into ecologically meaningful information. Potential sources of error in these processing steps are also highlighted. Relationships between ground-measured meteorological variables (saturation deficit, ground temperature and rainfall) and data from both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's, polar-orbiting, meteorological satellites and the geostationary, Meteosat satellite are defined and examples detailed for Africa. Finally, the current status of existing satellite platforms and future satellite missions are reviewed and potential data availability discussed. How such satellite-based predictions have proved valuable in understanding the distribution of tsetse fly species in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso will be the subject of a future review. PMID:8729623

  13. Gouléako Virus Isolated from West African Mosquitoes Constitutes a Proposed Novel Genus in the Family Bunyaviridae▿

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, M.; Handrick, S.; Grasse, W.; Kurth, A.; Lukashev, A.; Drosten, C.; Ellerbrok, H.; Leendertz, F. H.; Pauli, G.; Junglen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The family Bunyaviridae is the most diversified family of RNA viruses. We describe a novel prototypic bunyavirus, tentatively named Gouléako virus, isolated from various mosquito species trapped in Côte d'Ivoire. The S segment comprised 1,087 nucleotides (nt), the M segment 3,188 nt, and the L segment 6,358 nt, constituting the shortest bunyavirus genome known so far. The virus had shorter genome termini than phleboviruses and showed no evidence of encoded NSs and NSm proteins. An uncharacterized 105-amino-acid (aa) putative open reading frame (ORF) was detected in the S segment. Genetic equidistance to other bunyaviruses (74 to 88% aa identity) and absence of serological cross-reactivity with phleboviruses suggested a proposed novel Bunyaviridae genus. PMID:21715500

  14. [The characteristics of the macro- and trace element composition of the hair in the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Iu V; Alisievich, V I

    1999-01-01

    Macro- and trace element composition of hairs on the head, chest, in the armpits, and on the pubis in the population of Asia, Africa, and Latin America adapted and not to the climate, geographic and ecological conditions of the Russian Federation (Moscow) is studied by spectrography (DPS-13 spectrograph). Element composition of residents of 16 countries is analyzed by variation statistics methods using PC: Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, India, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Rwanda, Kenya, Sudan, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brasilia, Columbia, and Chile. Hairs from residents of East Europe (Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians) living in Moscow for 6-8 years (adapted) were the reference for comparison. A total of 371 specimens of hairs were examined. Hairs from adapted and not adapted residents of the above-listed countries and continents differ significantly from each other and from the hairs of Russians, Byelorussians, and Ukrainians living in Moscow. PMID:10224921

  15. 4,300-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The “Chimpanzee Stone Age” pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human–chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence. PMID:17360606

  16. N-Body Model of High-Energy Collisions with Inter-Particle Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Michel, P.; Richardson, D. C.; Schwartz, S. R.

    2009-09-01

    We present a study of high-speed collisions with an N-body particle representation of targets and impactors. The targets are constructed of hard spherical particles where collisions between particles are modeled and energy dissipation during collisions is regulated by a coefficient of restitution. The targets also incorporate a simple model of cohesion based on a spring-like restoring force between adjacent particles. The "springs" are parameterized by the Young's modulus (which determines spring strength) and stress limit (maximum distension before breaking). Once a spring breaks, it remains broken and, in this work, each spring has identical parameters. To explore this model's behavior in high-energy impacts in the strength regime (negligible gravity), the primary simulations presented are designed to calibrate our model against the laboratory experiments of Nakamura and Fujiwara (1991) [Nakamura and Fujiwara, Icarus, 92, 132 (1991)] who characterized the velocity distribution of fragments following a 3.3 km/s collision of a 7 mm diameter nylon sphere into a 6 cm basalt sphere. The target bodies are constructed of 1000, 2000 or 5000 particles with each individual particle having 10 - 107 Pascal bonding with, on average, 10 nearby particles. Values of coefficient of restitution, target particle packing and impactor structure (single particle or rubble pile) are also explored. The simulations are compared to the results of the laboratory experiments in remnant size distribution and morphology. KJW is supported by the Henri Poincaré fellowship at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, France. PM had the support of the French Programme National de Planetologie. DCR and SRS acknowledge support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AM39G issued through the Office of Space Science and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST0708110. We acknowledge the use of the Mesocentre de Calcul-SIGAMM at the Observatoire de la

  17. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry in West and Central Africa: Cocirculation of Genotype XIV and Newly Defined Genotypes XVII and XVIII

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Okwen, Mbah P.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Komoyo, Giscard F.; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Le Faou, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria between 2006 and 2011. Based on rational criteria recently proposed for the classification of NDV strains into classes, genotypes, and subgenotypes, we revisited the classification of virulent strains, in particular those from West and Central Africa, leading to their grouping into genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII, each with two subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that several (sub)genotypes are found in almost every country. In Cameroon, most strains were related to vaccine strains, but a single genotype XVII strain was also found. Only three highly similar genotype XVII strains were detected in Central African Republic. Subgenotypes XVIIa, XVIIIa, and XVIIIb cocirculated in Côte d'Ivoire, while subgenotypes XIVa, XIVb, XVIIa, XVIIb, and XVIIIb were found in Nigeria. While these genotypes are so far geographically restricted, local and international trade of domestic and exotic birds may lead to their spread beyond West and Central Africa. A high genetic diversity, mutations in important neutralizing epitopes paired with suboptimal vaccination, various levels of clinical responses of poultry and wild birds to virulent strains, strains with new cleavage sites, and other genetic modifications found in these genotypes tend to undermine and complicate NDV management in Africa. PMID:23658271

  18. The Effect of Climate Fluctuation on Chimpanzee Birth Sex Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; N'Guessan, Antoine; Riedel, Julia; Metzger, Sonja; Deschner, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR) of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation. PMID:22563387

  19. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas. PMID:26974571

  20. Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild Birds and Pigeons in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Ottosson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region. PMID:24123735

  1. Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients of sub-saharan origin starting antiretrovirals: impact of westernized lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Eholié, Serge Paul; Lacombe, Karine; Krain, Alysa; Diallo, Zelica; Ouiminga, Mariama; Campa, Pauline; Bouchaud, Olivier; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    In a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin we describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy after 3 years of combined antiretroviral therapy, and model the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases, while taking into account environmental factors. This is a multinational, prospective cohort study conducted in HIV outpatient clinics from four tertiary care centers set in France and Côte d'Ivoire. The participants were HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients eligible to start antiretroviral treatment and were of sub-Saharan African origin. The main outcome measures were the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, and the assessment of the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases using Framingham risk prediction, D.A.D. Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and WHO/ISH prediction charts. Of 245 patients followed for up to 3 years, the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy was 5.5, 8.5, and 6.8 per 100 person-years of follow-up (cumulative incidence: 14.4%, 19.2%, and 18.1%, respectively). Living in France as well as female gender and being overweight were risk factors for metabolic disorders as whole and only first generation protease inhibitors were marginally associated with metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular risk as modeled through the three equations was high in all patients with the synergistic and deleterious effect of living in France compared to Côte d'Ivoire. This cohort study shows how the synergy between HIV, antiretroviral (ARV) exposure, and westernization of life style in a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin leads to a progressive increase in the risk of lipodystrophy, as well as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, all associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:25707418

  2. Dynamics of Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Malaria in an Armed Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Raso, Giovanna; Acka, Cinthia A.; Tschannen, Andres B.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Background Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and malaria. Methodology The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. Principal Findings There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. Conclusion New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects. PMID:19907632

  3. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Romand, Olivier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Michel, Rémy; Pognant, Corinne; Todesco, Alain; Migliani, René; Baudon, Dominique; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Results Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. Conclusion SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual travellers. PMID:19852811

  4. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Paraclinic Aspect of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Black Africans

    PubMed Central

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Gbéry, Ildevert Patrice; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Diabate, Almamy; Kourouma, Sarah; Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Kouamé, Kouassi Alexandre; Kassi, Komenan; Kouame, Kanga; Sangaré, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    The specific objectives were to identify the epidemiology of cutaneous sarcoidosis and describe the clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. Materials and Methods. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 24 referred cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in 25 years (1990–2014) collected at Venereology Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) both in consultation and in hospitalization. Results. The hospital frequency was one case per year. The average age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 64. The sex ratio was 1. The shortest time interval between the appearance of the skin lesion and consultation of Dermatology Department at CHU Treichville was 3 months. The elementary lesions were represented primarily by a papule (18 cases), placard (3 cases), and nodule (2 cases) and mainly sat on the face and neck in 8 cases (38%). Extra cutaneous lesions were dominated by ganglion and respiratory involvement with 5 cases each followed by musculoskeletal damage in 3 cases. Chest radiography showed abnormality in 13 cases (54%). The pulmonary function test performed in 13 patients found 7 cases (54%) having restrictive ventilatory syndrome and 6 cases (46%) being normal. A tuberculin anergy was found in 11 cases (61%). PMID:26633968

  5. [Comparison of platelet activity, fibrinolysis and environmental factors in 50 Africans and 50 Europeans. Role of fish consumption].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Cloitre, B; Ticolat, R; Darracq, R; Rain, S F

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied 50 Ivorians and 50 Europeans people, all living in Abidjan for at least 10 years. Platelet aggregability with increasing ADP concentration (0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mumoles/l), collagen (0.4 mg/l), or ristocetin (1 g/l) was examined. Fibrinolysis and the euglobulin test were also studied before and after anoxia. Other blood parameters measured were: hematocrit, hemoglobin level, platelet count, bleeding time, Howell coagulation test, cephalin tests, prothrombin activity ratio, fibrinogen level. Metabolic tests included: glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, uricemia, A1 and B apoproteins, protidemia, gamma globulinemia. Environmental factors such as physical activity, alcohol and smoking habits, fish consumption, chloroquine prophylaxis were evaluated. The most evident result was lower platelet aggregability in Ivorian people as compared to Europeans. A more precocious and important fibrinolysis activity, either spontaneous or after anoxia was noted in the Ivorian group. Lower platelet number, fibrinogen level, and prothrombin activity were present in the Ivorian group as compared to the European people. The authors eliminated the influence of age, and considered environmental factors as predominant in the genesis of such difference, i.e., hypocholesterolemia, lower smoking and drinking levels. They emphasized the higher fish consumption in Ivorian people. PMID:2827101

  6. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Historical highlights, status, and forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, G.L.; Avery, W.H.; Francis, E.J.; Richards, D.

    1983-07-01

    In 1881, d'Arsonval conceived the closed-Rankine-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system in which a working fluid is vaporized by heat exchange with cold water drawn from a 700-1200 m depth. In 1930, Claude demonstrated an open-cycle process in Cuba. Surface water was flash-vaporized at 3 kPa to drive a turbine directly (no secondary working fluid) and then was condensed by direct contact with water drawn from a 700-m depth through a 1.6m-diam, 1.75-km-long cold-water pipe (CWP). From a delta T of 14/sup 0/C his undersized turbine generated 22 kW. In 1956 a French team designed a 3.5-MW (net) open-cycle plant for installation off Abidjan on the Ivory Coast of Africa and demonstrated the necessary CWP deployment. The at-sea demonstrations by Mini-OTEC and OTEC-1 and other recent advances in OTEC technology summarized herein represent great progress. All of the types of plants proposed for the DOE's PON program may be worthy of development; certainly work on a grazing plant is needed. Our estimates indicate that the U.S. goals established by Public Law 96-310 leading to 10 GW of OTEC power and energy product equivalents by 1999 are achievable, provided that adequate federal financial incentives are retained to assure the building of the first few plants.

  7. AllAboard: Visual Exploration of Cellphone Mobility Data to Optimise Public Transport.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Sbodio, M; Calabrese, F; Berlingerio, M; Pinelli, F; Nair, R

    2016-02-01

    The deep penetration of mobile phones offers cities the ability to opportunistically monitor citizens' mobility and use data-driven insights to better plan and manage services. With large scale data on mobility patterns, operators can move away from the costly, mostly survey based, transportation planning processes, to a more data-centric view, that places the instrumented user at the center of development. In this framework, using mobile phone data to perform transit analysis and optimization represents a new frontier with significant societal impact, especially in developing countries. In this paper we present AllAboard, an intelligent tool that analyses cellphone data to help city authorities in visually exploring urban mobility and optimizing public transport. This is performed within a self contained tool, as opposed to the current solutions which rely on a combination of several distinct tools for analysis, reporting, optimisation and planning. An interactive user interface allows transit operators to visually explore the travel demand in both space and time, correlate it with the transit network, and evaluate the quality of service that a transit network provides to the citizens at very fine grain. Operators can visually test scenarios for transit network improvements, and compare the expected impact on the travellers' experience. The system has been tested using real telecommunication data for the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, and evaluated from a data mining, optimisation and user prospective. PMID:26731450

  8. [Determinants of street drug use in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Angbo-Effi, Kachi Odile; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Douba, Alfred; Secki, Richmond; Kadjo, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to assess street drug use in an urban setting. The study was conducted in Abidjan city center (Adjamé). The general aim of the study was to contribute to the fight against street drug consumption by identifying the determinants of drug use. The objectives of this paper are to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of street drug users, to determine the type of drugs purchased, and to identify the factors influencing drug purchase. Based on a sample of 300 individuals, the study found that the use of street drugs is a widespread phenomenon, as shown by its prevalence in the surveyed population (216 individuals out of a total of 300, i.e. 72% of the surveyed population). The study found that most drug users were young, male (32%) and worked in the informal sector. More than half of the drug users (58%) had a monthly income below 50,000 CFA and had no health insurance. The low cost of drugs was found to be the main reason for drug use (69%). The most commonly used drugs were analgesics (75%), antimalarial drugs (72%) and antibiotics (48%). Because of the lack of medical knowledge of drug sellers, drug users are exposed to serious health risks. The results of this study suggest the need for greater public awareness of the dangers of street drugs and emphasize the importance of promoting access to essential generic drugs. PMID:22365044

  9. Usefulness of routine preoperative testing in a developing country: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Julien; Cungi, Pierre-Julien; Savoie, Pierre-Henry; Bonnet, Stéphane; Kaiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The assessment of anesthetic risks is an essential component of preoperative evaluation. In developing world, preanesthesia evaluation may be challenging because patient's medical history and records are scare, and language barrier limits physical examination. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine preoperative testing in a low-resources setting. Methods Prospective observational study performed in a French forward surgical unit in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 201 patients who were scheduled for non urgent surgery were screened with routine laboratory exams during preoperative evaluation. Changes in surgery were assessed (delayed or scheduled). Results Abnormal hemoglobin findings were reported in 35% of patients, abnormal WBC count in 11,1% of patients, abnormal platelets in 15,3% of patients. Positive HIV results were found in 8,3% of cases. Routine tests represented 43,6% of changes causes. Conclusion Our study showed that in a developing country, routine preoperative tests showed abnormal results up to 35% of cases, and represented 43,5% of delayed surgery causes. The rate of tests leading to management changes varied widely, from 0% to 8,3%. These results suggested that selected tests would be useful to diagnose diseases that required treatment before non urgent surgery. However, larger studies are needeed to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio and the clinical impact of such a strategy. PMID:26516395

  10. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Paraclinic Aspect of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Black Africans.

    PubMed

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Gbéry, Ildevert Patrice; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Diabate, Almamy; Kourouma, Sarah; Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Kouamé, Kouassi Alexandre; Kassi, Komenan; Kouame, Kanga; Sangaré, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    The specific objectives were to identify the epidemiology of cutaneous sarcoidosis and describe the clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. Materials and Methods. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 24 referred cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in 25 years (1990-2014) collected at Venereology Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) both in consultation and in hospitalization. Results. The hospital frequency was one case per year. The average age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 64. The sex ratio was 1. The shortest time interval between the appearance of the skin lesion and consultation of Dermatology Department at CHU Treichville was 3 months. The elementary lesions were represented primarily by a papule (18 cases), placard (3 cases), and nodule (2 cases) and mainly sat on the face and neck in 8 cases (38%). Extra cutaneous lesions were dominated by ganglion and respiratory involvement with 5 cases each followed by musculoskeletal damage in 3 cases. Chest radiography showed abnormality in 13 cases (54%). The pulmonary function test performed in 13 patients found 7 cases (54%) having restrictive ventilatory syndrome and 6 cases (46%) being normal. A tuberculin anergy was found in 11 cases (61%). PMID:26633968

  11. Two-Year Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Four African Cities

    PubMed Central

    Benbachir, Mohamed; Benredjeb, Saida; Boye, Cheick Saadbouh; Dosso, Mireille; Belabbes, Houria; Kamoun, Aouatef; Kaire, Omar; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2001-01-01

    Worldwide spread of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major problem. However, data from West and North African countries are scarce. To study the level of resistance and compare the situations in different cities, a prospective study was conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Casablanca (Morocco), Dakar (Senegal), and Tunis (Tunisia), from 1996 to 1997. The resistances to eight antibiotics of 375 isolates were studied by E test, and the results were interpreted using the breakpoints recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Overall, 30.4% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin G (25.6% were intermediate and 4.8% were resistant). Amoxicillin (96.3% were susceptible) and parenteral third-generation cephalosporins (92.7%) were highly active. Resistance to chloramphenicol was detected in 8.6% of the isolates. High levels of resistance were noted for erythromycin (28%), tetracycline (38.3%), and cotrimoxazole (36.4%). Resistance to rifampin was rare (2.1%). There were significant differences in resistance rates between individual countries. Multiple resistance was more frequent in penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates than in penicillin-susceptible isolates. Recommendations for treatment could be generated from these results in each participating country. PMID:11158769

  12. Couples, PMTCT programs and infant feeding decision-making in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Tijou Traoré, Annick; Querre, Madina; Brou, Hermann; Leroy, Valériane; Desclaux, Alice; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel

    2009-09-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevention of HIV pediatric infection due to breastfeeding requires turning to alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding: artificial feeding or exclusive breastfeeding with early weaning. Choosing a preventive option and applying it does not only depend upon the mother but also on the father and more specifically on couple interactions. To date, not enough studies have considered this question. In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, HIV-positive women and their infants were followed over two years in Ditrame Plus, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) project. Using data from this project and from interviews conducted with couples and women, we analyzed the construction of decisions and practices concerning the application of preventive infant feeding options. Differences may be found between women and men in discourses regarding their attitudes, which are in part related to their conceptions of motherhood and fatherhood. We found that when men know their wife is HIV positive and are involved in the PMTCT project, they play an active role in applying the advice received. However, women do not always need the support of their spouse to undertake preventative behaviour. The project team also plays an important role in the adoption of such by women and men. The implementation of preventive options is a complex process in which three groups of actors (women, men and the project team) interact. In order to optimize PMTCT programs for couples, it is essential that this dynamic be taken into account. PMID:19586699

  13. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 106 CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 106–108

  14. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  15. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa: a multicountry survey in the antiretroviral treatment era

    PubMed Central

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M; Maiga, Moussa Y; Minta, Daouda K; Sow, Papa S; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Dabis, François; Eholié, Serge P

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. Method We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan, Ouagadougou, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. From April to October 2010, all newly hospitalized HIV-positive patients were eligible. Baseline and follow-up information until hospital discharge was recorded using standardized forms. Diagnoses were reviewed by a local event validation committee using reference definitions. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were studied with a logistic regression model. Results Among 823 hospitalized HIV-positive adults (median age 40 years, 58% women), 24% discovered their HIV infection during the hospitalization, median CD4 count was 75/mm3 (IQR: 25–177) and 48% had previously received antiretroviral treatment (ART). The underlying causes of hospitalization were AIDS-defining conditions (54%), other infections (32%), other diseases (8%) and non-specific illness (6%). The most frequent diseases diagnosed were: tuberculosis (29%), pneumonia (15%), malaria (10%) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. Conclusions AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most frequent causes of hospitalization in HIV-positive adults in West Africa and resulted in high in-hospital fatality. Sustained efforts are needed to integrate care of these disease

  16. Origins and dispersal of the mitochondrial DNA region V 9 bp deletion and insertion in Nigeria and the Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Merriwether, D.A.; Huston, S.L.; Bunker, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    An intergenic region V Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 9 bp deletion located between the genes for tRNA{sup LYS} and cytochrome oxidase II was discovered in a small percentage of Nigerian and Ivory Coast natives. Previously this deletion has been described as Asian-specific and has been reported throughout the New World, Asia, S.E. Asia, and the Pacific Islands at frequencies ranging from 0% to 100%. In the New World and the Pacific Islands, the deletion is almost always accompanied by an Hae III restriction site gain at nt 16517. All 9 occurrences of the deletion observed in Africa (from four different populations) co-occur with the Hae III 16517 site gain, indicating that the African deletion probably shares a common origin with the deletion described as {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes}. The deletion was found in Benin and Sokoto, Nigeria in 2/54 Edo Bini, 1/2 Edo Ishan, 3/99 Hausa, 0/18 Fulani, and 0/16 other Nigerians. The deletion was also detected in 3/115 Ivory Coast natives from Abidjan. A 9 bp insertion (triplication) was observed in 1/115 Ivory Coast natives. The triplicated individual also possessed the Hae III 16517 site gain. The fragment containing the African deletion was sequenced and found to be identical in sequence to the Asian deletion region. D-loop sequence of nts 15975 to 00048 revealed that 2 of the 3 Ivory Coast deleted individuals and 1 of the 6 Nigerians deleted (Hausa) had a T-C transition at nt position 16189 which is common in New World-deleted individuals. These results raise the possibility that the occurrence of this deletion predates the separation of Asian and African populations from a common ancestral populations, or that the deletion has occurred more than once in human evolution. Either explanation requires that caution be exercised when using the 9 bp deletion as a population marker.

  17. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. PMID:24239818

  18. Sexual prevention of HIV within the couple after prenatal HIV-testing in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Allou, Gérard; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Zanou, B.; Leroy, Valériane; Desgrees-Du-Loû, Annabel

    2008-01-01

    The resumption of sexual activity after delivery is a key moment in the management of the risk of sexual HIV transmission within the couple for women who had been prenatally tested for HIV. In this study, we have investigated consistent condom use during the resumption of sexual activity and its evolution over time among women tested for HIV infection during pregnancy. We tested for HIV during pregnancy 546 HIV-infected and 393 HIV-negative women within the DITRAME Plus ANRS project in Abidjan; these women were followed-up for two years after delivery. Most HIV-negative women (96.7%) disclosed their HIV-test result to their partners, whereas only 45.6% of HIV-infected women did it (p<0.001). Partners of HIV-infected women were more likely to be tested for HIV before resuming sexual activity than partners of HIV-negative women (11.7% versus 7.4% p=0.054). Less than one third of both HIV-infected and HIV-negative women reported having systematically used condoms during the resumption of sexual activity. The proportions of HIV-infected and HIV-negative women having consistently used condom were respectively 26.2% and 19.8% (p=0.193) at 3 months post-partum, 12.1% and 15.9% (p=0.139) at 12 months post-partum, 8.4% and 10.6%, (p=0.302) at 18 months post-partum. In our study, although women had been prenatally tested for HIV and properly counselled on the sexual risk of HIV transmission, male partners were not tested for HIV before the resumption of sexual activity after delivery, very few couples were using condoms systematically and condom use was decreasing over time. PMID:18449817

  19. PubMed Central

    Cordellier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made during the epidemics in Côte d'Ivoire (1982), Burkina Faso (1983), Nigeria (1986 and 1987) and Mali (1987), together with studies conducted in the last 10 years, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, now make it possible, without calling into question the dynamics of yellow fever virus circulation in space and time, to redefine some features of the pattern suggested in 1977 and refined on a number of occasions up to 1983. The endemicity area is still the region of epizootic and enzootic sylvatic circulation, and contains the natural focus and the endemic emergence zone. --The natural focus is no longer confined to the forest alone, now that transovarial transmission has been demonstrated. --The endemic emergence zone is tending to become conterminous with the endemicity area on account of increasing deforestation. Emergence in forest regions, due to Aedes africanus, is still few and isolated, unlike that observed in savanna regions where A. furcifer is the major vector. The different behaviour of these two vectors and their population dynamics determine the quality of the man-vector contact and are responsible for these two patterns of emergence. --The emergence front limits the endemicity area in the north. Its position varies and depends on annual rainfall patterns. The epidemicity area, where the virus does not circulate before an epidemic and where the immunity status of unvaccinated populations is low, is geographically heterogeneous. It consists of regions to the north of the emergence front and of towns anywhere. It is characterized by high potentials for the development of A. aegypti populations. Only man can introduce the virus into this area. Three types of epidemic are distinguished, depending on the vectors: --Urban epidemics resulting from transmission by a domestic vector. These epidemics always occur within the epidemicity area, either in dry savanna (rural subtype) or in towns (urban subtype). The virus is introduced into the ecosystem

  20. New insights on shear margin gravitational evolution through time. The case of the equatorial margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Gaullier, V.; Maillard, A.; Patriat, M.; Sage, F.; Roest, W.

    2009-04-01

    30% of passive margins in the world correspond to shear margins. Unlike divergent margins, those margins present a very sharp ocean-continent boundary which is expressed by steep surface slopes and complex rift structures. In addition of tilted blocks, wrench and strike-slip faults frequently deform the continental crust. High marginal ridges, rising 1-3 km over the adjacent margin typically form along the continental side of the margin. The best known example of transform margin is the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana margin, highly investigated in the 1980's. New observations along the French-Guiana shear margin (GUYAPLAC survey, 2003) have evidenced massive early (immediately after rifting) and late collapses of the margin. These collapses concern huge volumes: remobilized masses that reach nearly 15000 km3 have been identified in the abyssal plain. No marginal ridge has been observed there. These observations have been compared to results published for the Surinam prolongation of this shear segment (Gouyet, 1988; Erbacher et al., 2004). There also, collapses and slope instabilities are evident, though part of a marginal ridge remains present. Finally, published data from the western Côte d'Ivoire transform margin (De Caprona, 1992) show wide collapses, some deep-seated, and other shallow. Sinking of entire parts of shear margins by gravity collapses appears thus rather common. These observations show that the post-rift gravity collapse of shear margins has been largely underestimated, and has even not been considered in evolutional models of transform margins, despite the fact this has important implications on the geometry and balance of those margins. On the basis of these observations, we propose a tentative scenario for the equatorial Atlantic shear margin gravitational evolution. References: Gouyet, S., 1988. Evolution tectono-sédimentaire des marges guyannaise et Nord-Brésilienne au cours de l'ouverture de l'Atlantique Sud. PhD Thesis, univ Pau et des pays de l

  1. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  2. Early upper digestive tract side effects of zidovudine with tenofovir plus emtricitabine in West African adults with high CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Eric; Danel, Christine; Moh, Raoul; Gabillard, Delphine; Peytavin, Gilles; Konan, Romuald; Carrou, Jérome Le; Bohoussou, Franck; Eholie, Serge P; Anglaret, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tenofovir (TDF) with emtricitabine (FTC) and zidovudine (ZDV) is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Clinical studies comparing TDF+FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods Participants in a trial of early ART in Côte d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136) started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV) or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine). We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs) between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3–4 AEs or persistent grade 1–2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3) started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting) of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p<0.0001), including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p<0.0001). In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1–4). Plasma ZDV (Cmax) distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. Conclusions We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in Côte d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever possible

  3. Short-course eflornithine in Gambian trypanosomiasis: a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Khonde, N.; Maiso, F.; Doua, F.; Jaffar, S.; Ngampo, S.; Mpia, B.; Mbulamberi, D.; Kuzoe, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether 7 days of intravenous eflornithine (100 mg/kg every 6 h) was as effective as the standard 14-day regimen in the treatment of late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. METHODS: A total of 321 patients (274 new cases, 47 relapsing cases) were randomized at four participating centres in Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda to one of these treatment regimens and followed up for 2 years. RESULTS: Six patients died during treatment, one of whom was on the 7-day regimen, whereas the other five had been on the 14-day regimen (P = 0.2). The response to eflornithine differed markedly between Uganda and other countries. Among new cases in Uganda, the 2-year probability of cure was 73% on the 14-day course compared with 62% on the 7-day regimen (hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure, 7-day versus 14-day regimen: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.7, 3.1, P = 0.3). Among new cases in Côte d'Ivoire, Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined, the 2-year probability of cure was 97% on the 14-day course compared with 86.5% on the 7-day regimen (HR for treatment failure, 7-day vs 14-day: 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 31.0, P = 0.003). Among relapsing cases in all four countries, the 2-year probability of cure was 94% with 7 days and 100% with 14 days of treatment. Factors associated with a higher risk of treatment failure were: a positive lymph node aspirate (HR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-9.4), a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count > or = 100/mm3 (HR 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-10.9), being treated in Uganda (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-5.9), and CSF trypanosomes (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-4.1). Being stuporous on admission was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (HR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-1.4) as was increasing age (HR 0.977; 95% CI: 0.95-1.0, for each additional year of age). DISCUSSION: The 7-day course of eflornithine is an effective treatment of relapsing cases

  4. [The epidemiology of yellow fever in Western Africa].

    PubMed

    Cordellier, R

    1991-01-01

    Observations made during the epidemics in Côte d'Ivoire (1982), Burkina Faso (1983), Nigeria (1986 and 1987) and Mali (1987), together with studies conducted in the last 10 years, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, now make it possible, without calling into question the dynamics of yellow fever virus circulation in space and time, to redefine some features of the pattern suggested in 1977 and refined on a number of occasions up to 1983. The endemicity area is still the region of epizootic and enzootic sylvatic circulation, and contains the natural focus and the endemic emergence zone. --The natural focus is no longer confined to the forest alone, now that transovarial transmission has been demonstrated. --The endemic emergence zone is tending to become conterminous with the endemicity area on account of increasing deforestation. Emergence in forest regions, due to Aedes africanus, is still few and isolated, unlike that observed in savanna regions where A. furcifer is the major vector. The different behaviour of these two vectors and their population dynamics determine the quality of the man-vector contact and are responsible for these two patterns of emergence. --The emergence front limits the endemicity area in the north. Its position varies and depends on annual rainfall patterns. The epidemicity area, where the virus does not circulate before an epidemic and where the immunity status of unvaccinated populations is low, is geographically heterogeneous. It consists of regions to the north of the emergence front and of towns anywhere. It is characterized by high potentials for the development of A. aegypti populations. Only man can introduce the virus into this area. Three types of epidemic are distinguished, depending on the vectors: --Urban epidemics resulting from transmission by a domestic vector. These epidemics always occur within the epidemicity area, either in dry savanna (rural subtype) or in towns (urban subtype). The virus is introduced into the ecosystem

  5. Modelling of the equatorial ionospheric E-layer based on cos ξ index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeem, A. K.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adediji, A. T.

    2014-06-01

    Daytime hourly values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E-layer, f oE, obtained at Ouagadougou Ionospheric Observatory (12.4°N, 1.5°W) in Burkina Faso, West Africa, an equatorial station, during the solar cycle 22 (1985-1995) have been used to develop a model based on solar zenith angle through cos ξ index factor using the relation f oE = a (cos ξ)n, The average value of the diurnal cos ξ index, n, at Ouagadougou was found to be 0.30 for both low and high solar activity. The model was tested with f oE data from Korhogo (9.3°N, 5.4°W) in Cote-d'Ivoire, another equatorial station, and there is good agreement between the model and observations. The validity of the f oE model was also compared with predicted values by IRI-2012 model and good agreement has been observed. The percentage difference, when f oE observed compared with IRI-2012 model, was found to be within f ±10% for both equinoxes and solstices for the two levels of solar activity.

  6. Measurements of radio propagation in rock salt for the detection of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; Goodhue, Abigail; Miki, Christian; Nichol, Ryan; Saltzberg, David

    2009-02-01

    We present measurements of the transmission of radio/microwave pulses through salt in the Cote Blanche salt mine operated by the North American Salt Company in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. These results are from data taken in the southwestern region of the 1500 ft (457 m) deep level of the mine on our third and most recent visit to the mine. We transmitted and received a fast, high-power, broadband pulse from within three vertical boreholes that were drilled to depths of 100 ft (30 m) and 200 ft below the 1500 ft level using three different pairs of dipole antennas whose bandwidths span 125-900 MHz. By measuring the relative strength of the received pulses between boreholes with separations of 50 and 169 m, we deduce the attenuation of the signal attributed to the salt medium. We fit the frequency dependence of the attenuation to a power law and find the best fit field attenuation lengths to be 93±7m at 150 MHz, 63±3m at 300 MHz, and 36±2m at 800 MHz. This is the most precise measurement of radio attenuation in a natural salt formation to date. We assess the implications of this measurement for a future neutrino detector in salt.

  7. Nonconservative extension of Keplerian integrals and a new class of integrable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The invariance of the Lagrangian under time translations and rotations in Kepler's problem yields the conservation laws related to the energy and angular momentum. Noether's theorem reveals that these same symmetries furnish generalized forms of the first integrals in a special nonconservative case, which approximates various physical models. The system is perturbed by a biparametric acceleration with components along the tangential and normal directions. A similarity transformation reduces the biparametric disturbance to a simpler uniparametric forcing along the velocity vector. The solvability conditions of this new problem are discussed, and closed-form solutions for the integrable cases are provided. Thanks to the conservation of a generalized energy, the orbits are classified as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Keplerian orbits appear naturally as particular solutions to the problem. After characterizing the orbits independently, a unified form of the solution is built based on the Weierstrass elliptic functions. The new trajectories involve fundamental curves such as cardioids and logarithmic, sinusoidal, and Cotes' spirals. These orbits can represent the motion of particles perturbed by solar radiation pressure, of spacecraft with continuous thrust propulsion, and some instances of Schwarzschild geodesics. Finally, the problem is connected with other known integrable systems in celestial mechanics.

  8. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  9. The superconvergence of the composite midpoint rule for the finite-part integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiming; Dai, Zihuan; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2010-02-01

    The composite midpoint rule is probably the simplest one among the Newton-Cotes rules for Riemann integral. However, this rule is divergent in general for Hadamard finite-part integral. In this paper, we turn this rule to a useful one and, apply it to evaluate Hadamard finite-part integral as well as to solve the relevant integral equation. The key point is based on the investigation of its pointwise superconvergence phenomenon, i.e., when the singular point coincides with some a priori known point, the convergence rate of the midpoint rule is higher than what is globally possible. We show that the superconvergence rate of the composite midpoint rule occurs at the midpoint of each subinterval and obtain the corresponding superconvergence error estimate. By applying the midpoint rule to approximate the finite-part integral and by choosing the superconvergence points as the collocation points, we obtain a collocation scheme for solving the finite-part integral equation. More interesting is that the inverse of the coefficient matrix of the resulting linear system has an explicit expression, by which an optimal error estimate is established. Some numerical examples are provided to validate the theoretical analysis.

  10. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel. PMID:23620904

  11. Characterization of high order spatial discretizations and lumping techniques for discontinuous finite element SN transport

    SciTech Connect

    Maginot, P. G.; Ragusa, J. C.; Morel, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    We examine several possible methods of mass matrix lumping for discontinuous finite element discrete ordinates transport using a Lagrange interpolatory polynomial trial space. Though positive outflow angular flux is guaranteed with traditional mass matrix lumping in a purely absorbing 1-D slab cell for the linear discontinuous approximation, we show that when used with higher degree interpolatory polynomial trial spaces, traditional lumping does yield strictly positive outflows and does not increase in accuracy with an increase in trial space polynomial degree. As an alternative, we examine methods which are 'self-lumping'. Self-lumping methods yield diagonal mass matrices by using numerical quadrature restricted to the Lagrange interpolatory points. Using equally-spaced interpolatory points, self-lumping is achieved through the use of closed Newton-Cotes formulas, resulting in strictly positive outflows in pure absorbers for odd power polynomials in 1-D slab geometry. By changing interpolatory points from the traditional equally-spaced points to the quadrature points of the Gauss-Legendre or Lobatto-Gauss-Legendre quadratures, it is possible to generate solution representations with a diagonal mass matrix and a strictly positive outflow for any degree polynomial solution representation in a pure absorber medium in 1-D slab geometry. Further, there is no inherent limit to local truncation error order of accuracy when using interpolatory points that correspond to the quadrature points of high order accuracy numerical quadrature schemes. (authors)

  12. Identification of a New Gene Essential for Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Ca2+-Dipicolinate

    PubMed Central

    Ragkousi, Katerina; Eichenberger, Patrick; van Ooij, Christiaan; Setlow, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores can germinate with a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid (DPA), a compound present at high levels in the spore core. Using a genetic screen to identify genes encoding proteins that are specifically involved in spore germination by Ca2+-DPA, three mutations were identified. One was in the gene encoding the cortex lytic enzyme, CwlJ, that was previously shown to be essential for spore germination by Ca2+-DPA. The other two were mapped to an open reading frame, ywdL, encoding a protein of unknown function. Analysis of ywdL expression showed that the gene is expressed during sporulation in the mother cell compartment of the sporulating cell and that its transcription is σE dependent. Functional characterization of YwdL demonstrated that it is a new spore coat protein that is essential for the presence of CwlJ in the spore coat. Assembly of YwdL itself into the spore coat is dependent on the coat morphogenetic proteins CotE and SpoIVA. However, other than lacking CwlJ, ywdL spores have no obvious defect in their spore coat. Because of the role for YwdL in a part of the spore germination process, we propose renaming ywdL as a spore germination gene, gerQ. PMID:12644503

  13. (T2L2) Time Transfer by Laser Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian; Fridelance, Patricia

    1995-05-01

    T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) is a new generation time transfer experiment based on the principles of LASSO (Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit) and used with an operational procedure developed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) during the active intercontinental phase of LASSO. The hardware improvements could lead to a precision better than 10 ps for time transfer (flying clock monitoring or ground based clock comparison). Such a package could fly on any spacecraft with a stable clock. It has been developed in France in the frame of the PHARAO project (cooled atom clock in orbit) involving CNES and different laboratories. But T2L2 could fly on any spacecraft carrying a stable oscillator. A GPS satellite would be a good candidate, as T2L2 could allow to link the flying clock directly to ground clocks using light, aiming to important accuracy checks, both for time and for geodesy. Radioastron (a flying VLBI antenna with a H-maser) is also envisioned, waiting for a PHARAO flight. The ultimate goal of T2L2 is to be part of more ambitious missions, as SORT (Solar Orbit Relativity Test), aiming to examine aspects of the gravitation in the vicinity of the Sun.

  14. Diverse supramolecular structures formed by self‐assembling proteins of the B acillus subtilis spore coat

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuo; Wan, Qiang; Krajcikova, Daniela; Tang, Jilin; Tzokov, Svetomir B.; Barak, Imrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial spores (endospores), such as those of the pathogens C lostridium difficile and B acillus anthracis, are uniquely stable cell forms, highly resistant to harsh environmental insults. B acillus subtilis is the best studied spore‐former and we have used it to address the question of how the spore coat is assembled from multiple components to form a robust, protective superstructure. B . subtilis coat proteins (CotY, CotE, CotV and CotW) expressed in E scherichia coli can arrange intracellularly into highly stable macro‐structures through processes of self‐assembly. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrate the capacity of these proteins to generate ordered one‐dimensional fibres, two‐dimensional sheets and three‐dimensional stacks. In one case (CotY), the high degree of order favours strong, cooperative intracellular disulfide cross‐linking. Assemblies of this kind could form exquisitely adapted building blocks for higher‐order assembly across all spore‐formers. These physically robust arrayed units could also have novel applications in nano‐biotechnology processes. PMID:25872412

  15. Ground-based solar astrometric measurements during the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Corbard, T.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Assus, P.; Fodil, M.; Lin, M.; Ducourt, E.; Lesueur, P.; Poiet, G.; Renaud, C.; Rouze, M.

    2011-11-01

    PICARD is a space mission developed mainly to study the geometry of the Sun. The satellite was launched in June 2010. The PICARD mission has a ground program which is based at the Calern Observatory (Observatoire de la C^ote d'Azur). It will allow recording simultaneous solar images from ground. Astrometric observations of the Sun using ground-based telescopes need however an accurate modelling of optical e®ects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Previous works have revealed a dependence of the Sun radius measurements with the observation conditions (Fried's parameter, atmospheric correlation time(s) ...). The ground instruments consist mainly in SODISM II, replica of the PICARD space instrument and MISOLFA, a generalized daytime seeing monitor. They are complemented by standard sun-photometers and a pyranometer for estimating a global sky quality index. MISOLFA is founded on the observation of Angle-of-Arrival (AA) °uctuations and allows us to analyze atmospheric turbulence optical e®ects on measurements performed by SODISM II. It gives estimations of the coherence parameters characterizing wave-fronts degraded by the atmospheric turbulence (Fried's parameter, size of the isoplanatic patch, the spatial coherence outer scale and atmospheric correlation times). This paper presents an overview of the ground based instruments of PICARD and some results obtained from observations performed at Calern observatory in 2011.

  16. Two body and multibody interaction in a cold Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing; Gallagher, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) are not isolated and they tend to bond through dipole-dipole and multiple-multiple interactions between Rydberg atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the fact that the dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction show the same size of broadening, studied by Raithel's group, and there is transition between two molecular states, studied by Farooqi and Overstreet, can not be explained by the two atom picture. The purpose of this paper is to show the multibody nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular state microwave spectrum. Specifically, single body, two body and three body interaction regions are separated. Moreover, the multibody energy levels for selected geometries are calculated. In addition, multibody blockade will be discussed. [3pt] [1] A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. Cubel Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008).[0pt] [2] S.M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic,Y.P. Zhang, J.R. Ensher, A.S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E.E. Eyler, and P.L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).[0pt] [3] K. Richard Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403 (2007).

  17. Ambulatory home oxygen: what is the evidence for benefit, and who does it help?

    PubMed

    Criner, Gerard J

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of ambulatory home oxygen have been demonstrated since the 1950s, when Cotes and Gibson gave oxygen to ambulatory COPD patients from small portable high pressures cylinders in the United Kingdom. Over the ensuing 7 decades, oxygen has been prescribed to millions of COPD patients in the home setting. Additionally, it is common clinical practice to prescribe supplemental oxygen when chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure not due to COPD (eg, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, kyphoscoliosis, and cystic fibrosis) is present or in patients with hypoxemia at hospital discharge following flares of their underlying chronic respiratory disorder, without any substantial evidence. Despite the importance of long-term oxygen therapy in clinical home management, there are many gaps in our current knowledge regarding its mechanisms of action, indications for prescription, and its effects on important patient outcomes. Research conducted in the 1970s and 1980s still provides the basis for clinical decision making and insurance coverage policies regarding long-term oxygen administration. Remarkably, little current research is being conducted to extend our knowledge regarding the indications, mechanisms, and benefits of long-term oxygen therapy. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the end points for supplemental oxygen at home, such as mortality, effects on functional performance, sensation of dyspnea, cognitive function, and quality of life, and highlight areas where future research is needed. PMID:23271819

  18. Development of cellulose-polypyrrole microfiber membranes and assessment of their capability on water softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, C.; Arrieta, A.; Escobar, N.; Gañan, P.; Castro, C.

    2013-11-01

    The application of conducting polymer composite for water softening is based on the use of pyrrole's electrochemical properties joined with the flexibility and relatively high surface areas associated with cellulose fibers, to develop a new hybrid material that exhibits the inherent proprieties of both components. This hybrid would allow to promote an ion exchange reaction between the composite membrane and the hard water. The cellulose membranes obtained from banana plant agricultural waste (raquis), were uniform with individual and well separated fibers. The fibers were encapsulated by a continuous coating of polypyrrole by an in situ oxidative chemical polymerization. The amount of polypyrrole deposited on the fiber increased by increasing the monomer concentration, behavior that was identified through the observation of differences on the intensity of the light to dark color shift that coated the fibers after the polymerization. The ion removal capability of the membrane coted with the conducting polymer was tested using an experimental device, finding reductions on the conductivity for hard water within 23 to 66 μs/cm after 6 hours of the assay.

  19. Spectroscopic Evidence for the Localization of Skyrmions near ν=1 as Tarrow 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. E.

    2002-03-01

    Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR) measurements of ^71Ga spectra were carried out in an n-doped GaAs/Al_0.1Ga_0.9As multiple quantum well (MQW) sample near Landau level filling factor ν=1. Novel spin textures called skyrmions are predicted(S. L. Sondhi, A. Karlhede, S. A. Kivelson, and E. H. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B) 47, 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig, L. Brey, R. Cote, and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994). to be the charged quasiparticles introduced by small deviations (|δν |) from this ferromagnetic quantum Hall ground state. At ``high'' temperatures, the spectra provide evidence for delocalized skyrmions. As the temperature is lowered (down to T ≈ 0.3 K), a ``tilted plateau'' emerges in the Knight shift data, which is a novel experimental signature of quasiparticle localization.(P. Khandelwal, A. E. Dementyev, N. N. Kuzma, S. E. Barrett, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 86, 5353 (2001). The dependence of the spectra on both T and ν suggests that the localization is a collective process. The frozen limit spectra appear to rule out a 2D lattice of conventional skyrmions.

  20. (T2L2) Time Transfer by Laser Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veillet, Christian; Fridelance, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) is a new generation time transfer experiment based on the principles of LASSO (Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit) and used with an operational procedure developed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) during the active intercontinental phase of LASSO. The hardware improvements could lead to a precision better than 10 ps for time transfer (flying clock monitoring or ground based clock comparison). Such a package could fly on any spacecraft with a stable clock. It has been developed in France in the frame of the PHARAO project (cooled atom clock in orbit) involving CNES and different laboratories. But T2L2 could fly on any spacecraft carrying a stable oscillator. A GPS satellite would be a good candidate, as T2L2 could allow to link the flying clock directly to ground clocks using light, aiming to important accuracy checks, both for time and for geodesy. Radioastron (a flying VLBI antenna with a H-maser) is also envisioned, waiting for a PHARAO flight. The ultimate goal of T2L2 is to be part of more ambitious missions, as SORT (Solar Orbit Relativity Test), aiming to examine aspects of the gravitation in the vicinity of the Sun.

  1. Software structure for Vega/Chara instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausse, J.-M.

    2008-07-01

    VEGA (Visible spEctroGraph and polArimeter) is one of the focal instruments of the CHARA array at Mount Wilson near Los Angeles. Its control system is based on techniques developed on the GI2T interferometer (Grand Interferometre a 2 Telescopes) and on the SIRIUS fibered hyper telescope testbed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur). This article describes the software and electronics architecture of the instrument. It is based on local network architecture and uses also Virtual Private Network connections. The server part is based on Windows XP (VC++). The control software is on Linux (C, GTK). For the control of the science detector and the fringe tracking systems, distributed API use real-time techniques. The control software gathers all the necessary informations of the instrument. It allows an automatic management of the instrument by using an original task scheduler. This architecture intends to drive the instrument from remote sites, such as our institute in South of France.

  2. Infiltration rate measurement by active perfluorocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Pong, C.M.; Randel, M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The rate of air infiltration in homes and buildings is a significant factor affecting the magnitude of human exposure to air pollutants in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been utilized for the determination of air infiltration. These include building pressurization and tracer analysis, e.g., SF/sub 6/. Dietz and Cote at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a simple, steady-state tracer kit that can be utilized by homeowners. This kit includes a source(s) of perfluorocarbon, i.e., perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) or perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), and a passive sampling tube containing Ambersorb XE-347. Typically, the sampling tube is deployed for several days and then returned to a laboratory for analysis by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The authors developed an alternative sampling and analysis technique for PMCH/PDCH in homes. In order to facilitate monitoring of short-term infiltration rates (i.e., less than one day) they developed an active sorbent sampling method and solvent desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection analytical method. The method is based on the collection of PMCH on charcoal. The method validation, which is discussed in this article, includes analytical method development, selection of a solid sorbent, determination of desorption efficiency, analysis of breakthrough, testing of storage stability, and assessment of precision and accuracy in both the laboratory and field environment.

  3. High levels of endemism in suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Pezold, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Freshwater systems are under threat globally, yet the biodiversity in many areas is still unknown. This is especially true for the aquatic biodiversity of the Upper Guinean forests of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. Access to this area is largely restricted, though recent surveys by the authors are allowing us to reassess the area's diversity. This area has vast mineral reserves and hydroelectric potential. As the area emerges from civil strife and the recent public health crisis, policy makers and resource managers require accurate accounts of biodiversity to evaluate future development projects. Here we look at the diversity of the suckermouth catfishes (Chiloglanis) populations from the area; inferred from mitochondrial (cyt b) and nuclear (Growth Hormone intron) markers. The phylogenies revealed additional lineages, independent of the currently recognized taxa, suggesting the presence of ten new candidate species. These new taxa are largely endemic and allopatrically distributed in rivers of the Upper Guinean forests. Our results suggest that the aquatic diversity within the Upper Guinean forests is currently underestimated. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the historical biogeography of the region and highlights the endemism within rivers in the Upper Guinean forests and surrounding areas. PMID:27090447

  4. Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  5. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) eradication.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    Since the seminal review by Ralph Muller about Dracunculus and dracunculiasis in this serial publication in 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Carter Center forged, during the 1980s, a coalition of organizations to support a campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis. Eighteen of 20 countries were known in 1986 to have endemic dracunculiasis, i.e., Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. Transmission of the disease in Yemen was documented in 1995, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Central African Republic endemic in 1995. As of the end of 2004, a total of 16026 cases of dracunculiasis were reported from 12 endemic countries (91% of these cases were reported from Ghana and Sudan, combined), a reduction greater than 99% from the 3.5 million cases of dracunculiasis estimated in 1986 to occur annually; the number of endemic villages has been reduced by >91%, from the 23475 endemic villages in 1991; disease transmission has been interrupted in 9 of the 20 endemic countries; and WHO has certified 168 countries free of dracunculiasis, including Pakistan (1996), India (2000), Senegal and Yemen (2004). Asia is now free of dracunculiasis. PMID:16735167

  6. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. PMID:26833496

  8. Remotely measuring populations during a crisis by overlaying two data sources

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Nita; Lu, Xin; Bengtsson, Linus; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Societal instability and crises can cause rapid, large-scale movements. These movements are poorly understood and difficult to measure but strongly impact health. Data on these movements are important for planning response efforts. We retrospectively analyzed movement patterns surrounding a 2010 humanitarian crisis caused by internal political conflict in Côte d'Ivoire using two different methods. Methods We used two remote measures, nighttime lights satellite imagery and anonymized mobile phone call detail records, to assess average population sizes as well as dynamic population changes. These data sources detect movements across different spatial and temporal scales. Results The two data sources showed strong agreement in average measures of population sizes. Because the spatiotemporal resolution of the data sources differed, we were able to obtain measurements on long- and short-term dynamic elements of populations at different points throughout the crisis. Conclusions Using complementary, remote data sources to measure movement shows promise for future use in humanitarian crises. We conclude with challenges of remotely measuring movement and provide suggestions for future research and methodological developments. PMID:25733558

  9. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    PubMed

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  10. Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

  11. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention. PMID:23394104

  12. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  13. Rural children's attitudes to people with HIV/AIDS in Mali: the causes of stigma.

    PubMed

    Castle, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research among young people and other community members in rural Mali elicited knowledge and attitudes with regard to HIV/AIDS. Findings indicated that rumours concerning methods of infection are likely to increase the stigmatization of those with the disease. The most frequently stated mode of transmission involved urinating in a place where someone with AIDS had already urinated. Shared clothes, food and water were seen as sources of infection. Both children and teachers recommended that people with AIDS be isolated. Even talking to them would lead to a risk of infection. Discriminatory views were likely to have been reinforced by parents and community elders who possessed the same misinformation. The notion that AIDS results from sexual encounters between young women and dogs belonging to white people in Côte d'Ivoire was also widespread. These discourses may reflect perceived xenophobia and risk to migrants associated with current tensions between the two countries, together with misgivings about Western sexual liberalism. A holistic educational programme is proposed to address not simply HIV/AIDS, but the social context in which infection occurs, with view to combating stigma and discrimination associated with not just HIV but also with migration in this setting. PMID:21972829

  14. A Five-Country Evaluation of a Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Assay for the Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G.; Binder, Sue; Campbell, Carl; King, Charles H.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Erko, Berhanu; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Rathbun, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test was more sensitive (86% versus 62%) but less specific (72% versus ∼100%) than multiple Kato-Katz smears from one stool. However, only 1% of POC-CCA tests in a non-endemic area were false positives, suggesting the latent class analysis underestimated the POC-CCA specificity. Multivariable modeling estimated POC-CCA as significantly more sensitive than Kato-Katz at low infection intensities (< 100 eggs/gram stool). By linear regression, 72% prevalence among 9–12 year olds by POC-CCA corresponded to 50% prevalence by Kato-Katz, whereas 46% POC-CCA prevalence corresponded to 10% Kato-Katz prevalence. We conclude that one urine POC-CCA test can replace Kato-Katz testing for community-level S. mansoni prevalence mapping. PMID:23339198

  15. Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes.

    PubMed

    Köndgen, Sophie; Kühl, Hjalmar; N'Goran, Paul K; Walsh, Peter D; Schenk, Svenja; Ernst, Nancy; Biek, Roman; Formenty, Pierre; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Junglen, Sandra; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Nitsche, Andreas; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Pauli, Georg; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2008-02-26

    Commercial hunting and habitat loss are major drivers of the rapid decline of great apes [1]. Ecotourism and research have been widely promoted as a means of providing alternative value for apes and their habitats [2]. However, close contact between humans and habituated apes during ape tourism and research has raised concerns that disease transmission risks might outweigh benefits [3-7]. To date only bacterial and parasitic infections of typically low virulence have been shown to move from humans to wild apes [8, 9]. Here, we present the first direct evidence of virus transmission from humans to wild apes. Tissue samples from habituated chimpanzees that died during three respiratory-disease outbreaks at our research site, Côte d'Ivoire, contained two common human paramyxoviruses. Viral strains sampled from chimpanzees were closely related to strains circulating in contemporaneous, worldwide human epidemics. Twenty-four years of mortality data from observed chimpanzees reveal that such respiratory outbreaks could have a long history. In contrast, survey data show that research presence has had a strong positive effect in suppressing poaching around the research site. These observations illustrate the challenge of maximizing the benefit of research and tourism to great apes while minimizing the negative side effects. PMID:18222690

  16. A new method for isolating Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from sleeping sickness patients.

    PubMed

    Dukes, P; Kaukas, A; Hudson, K M; Asonganyi, T; Gashumba, J K

    1989-01-01

    Low infectivity to laboratory mammals and low virulence make Trypanosoma brucei gambiense difficult to isolate and grow in amounts sufficient for biochemical characterization. We report the isolation of T.b. gambiense by feeding cryopreserved primary isolates to laboratory-reared Glossina morsitans morsitans, followed by rapid cultivation in vitro of procyclic forms dissected from infected tsetse fly midguts. This technique allows the characterization of hitherto unsampled populations and avoids selection due to long-term subpassage. Of 16 primary isolates from trypanosomiasis patients of the Fontem focus in Cameroon, 12 (75%) produced infections in tsetse whereas only 4 (25%) infected rats. Ten isolates were subsequently cultivated as procyclic forms in vitro; 2 failed to grow owing to bacterial contamination. In addition, 2 primary isolates from Côte d'Ivoire patients and a stock of low virulence from the Congo Republic were similarly grown. Only one primary isolate produced tsetse salivary gland infections, an observation consistent with the hypothesis that some populations of T.b. gambiense are intrinsically incompatible with G.m. morsitans. PMID:2617625

  17. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert C; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Wittig, Roman M; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G

    2015-01-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking. PMID:26481858

  18. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Antonation, Kym S; Grützmacher, Kim; Dupke, Susann; Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R; Klee, Silke R; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2016-09-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PMID:27607836

  19. Novel Polyomaviruses of Nonhuman Primates: Genetic and Serological Predictors for the Existence of Multiple Unknown Polyomaviruses within the Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Scuda, Nelly; Madinda, Nadege Freda; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Adjogoua, Edgard Valerie; Wevers, Diana; Hofmann, Jörg; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Jarvis, Michael A.; Moens, Ugo; Mugisha, Lawrence; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of small non-enveloped DNA viruses that encode oncogenes and have been associated, to greater or lesser extent, with human disease and cancer. Currently, twelve polyomaviruses are known to circulate within the human population. To further examine the diversity of human polyomaviruses, we have utilized a combinatorial approach comprised of initial degenerate primer-based PCR identification and phylogenetic analysis of nonhuman primate (NHP) polyomavirus species, followed by polyomavirus-specific serological analysis of human sera. Using this approach we identified twenty novel NHP polyomaviruses: nine in great apes (six in chimpanzees, two in gorillas and one in orangutan), five in Old World monkeys and six in New World monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that only four of the nine chimpanzee polyomaviruses (six novel and three previously identified) had known close human counterparts. To determine whether the remaining chimpanzee polyomaviruses had potential human counterparts, the major viral capsid proteins (VP1) of four chimpanzee polyomaviruses were expressed in E. coli for use as antigens in enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Human serum/plasma samples from both Côte d'Ivoire and Germany showed frequent seropositivity for the four viruses. Antibody pre-adsorption-based ELISA excluded the possibility that reactivities resulted from binding to known human polyomaviruses. Together, these results support the existence of additional polyomaviruses circulating within the human population that are genetically and serologically related to existing chimpanzee polyomaviruses. PMID:23818846

  20. Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Fuller, T L; Ducatez, M F; Njabo, K Y; Couacy-Hymann, E; Chasar, A; Aplogan, G L; Lao, S; Awoume, F; Téhou, A; Langeois, Q; Krauss, S; Smith, T B

    2015-07-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT-PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks. PMID:25530320

  1. Regional-scale climate-variability synchrony of cholera epidemics in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Guégan, Jean-François; Petit, Michel; Cazelles, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The relationship between cholera and climate was explored in Africa, the continent with the most reported cases, by analyzing monthly 20-year cholera time series for five coastal adjoining West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Methods We used wavelet analyses and derived methods because these are useful mathematical tools to provide information on the evolution of the periodic component over time and allow quantification of non-stationary associations between time series. Results The temporal variability of cholera incidence exhibits an interannual component, and a significant synchrony in cholera epidemics is highlighted at the end of the 1980's. This observed synchrony across countries, even if transient through time, is also coherent with both the local variability of rainfall and the global climate variability quantified by the Indian Oscillation Index. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that large and regional scale climate variability influence both the temporal dynamics and the spatial synchrony of cholera epidemics in human populations in the Gulf of Guinea, as has been described for two other tropical regions of the world, western South America and Bangladesh. PMID:17371602

  2. A re-evaluation of the origin of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Forbi, Joseph C.; Sue, Amanda; Layden, Jennifer E.; Switzer, William M.; Opare-Sem, Ohene K.; Phillips, Richard O.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes based on genetic diversity, and most genotypes have been found in Africa. Infections with HCV genotype 2 (HCV2) are most prevalent in West Africa and it was suggested that HCV2 originated in West Africa. To better understand the evolutionary epidemiology of HCV2 in Africa, we examined new NS5B sequences of HCV2 strains obtained from Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria sequenced at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with those available from West, North and Central Africa. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a discrete trait model showed that Ghana was the most likely geographical region for the origin of HCV2. Spread of HCV2 from Ghana did not appear to be through diffusion to adjacent countries along the coast. Rather, it was transmitted from Ghana to many distant countries in Africa, suggesting that certain routes of geographical dissemination were historically more efficient than mere proximity and that the HCV2 epidemic history in West Africa is extremely complex. PMID:25888623

  3. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. PMID:22578420

  4. Unpeeling the layers of language: Bonobos and chimpanzees engage in cooperative turn-taking sequences.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Müller, Gudrun; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Human language is a fundamentally cooperative enterprise, embodying fast-paced and extended social interactions. It has been suggested that it evolved as part of a larger adaptation of humans' species-unique forms of cooperation. Although our closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, show general cooperative abilities, their communicative interactions seem to lack the cooperative nature of human conversation. Here, we revisited this claim by conducting the first systematic comparison of communicative interactions in mother-infant dyads living in two different communities of bonobos (LuiKotale, DRC; Wamba, DRC) and chimpanzees (Taï South, Côte d'Ivoire; Kanyawara, Uganda) in the wild. Focusing on the communicative function of joint-travel-initiation, we applied parameters of conversation analysis to gestural exchanges between mothers and infants. Results showed that communicative exchanges in both species resemble cooperative turn-taking sequences in human conversation. While bonobos consistently addressed the recipient via gaze before signal initiation and used so-called overlapping responses, chimpanzees engaged in more extended negotiations, involving frequent response waiting and gestural sequences. Our results thus strengthen the hypothesis that interactional intelligence paved the way to the cooperative endeavour of human language and suggest that social matrices highly impact upon communication styles. PMID:27211477

  5. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  6. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. PMID:25256960

  7. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    PubMed

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements. PMID:26618326

  8. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom. PMID:24522127

  9. Geographic Distribution and Genetic Characterization of Lassa Virus in Sub-Saharan Mali

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Sogoba, Nafomon; Lopez, Job E.; Maiga, Ousmane; Dahlstrom, Eric; Zivcec, Marko; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Munster, Vincent J.; Branco, Luis; Garry, Robert; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schwan, Tom G.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is an acute viral illness characterized by multi-organ failure and hemorrhagic manifestations. Lassa fever is most frequently diagnosed in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, although sporadic cases have been recorded in other West African countries, including Mali. The etiological agent of Lassa fever is Lassa virus (LASV), an Arenavirus which is maintained in nature and frequently transmitted to humans by Mastomys natalensis. The purpose of this study was to better define the geographic distribution of LASV-infected rodents in sub-Saharan Mali. Methodologies/Principal Findings Small mammals were live-trapped at various locations across Mali for the purpose of identifying potential zoonotic pathogens. Serological and molecular assays were employed and determined LASV infected rodents were exclusively found in the southern Mali near the border of Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 19.4% of Mastomys natalensis sampled in this region had evidence of LASV infection, with prevalence rates for individual villages ranging from 0 to 52%. Full-length genomic sequences were determined using high throughput sequencing methodologies for LASV isolates generated from tissue samples of rodents collected in four villages and confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of Malian LASV with strain AV. Conclusions/Significance The risk of human infections with LASV is greatest in villages in southern Mali. Lassa fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis for febrile individuals and appropriate diagnostic techniques need to be established to determine the incidence of infection and disease in these regions. PMID:24340119

  10. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei spp. in human blood by a nonradioactive branched DNA-based technique.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E; Detmer, J; Dungan, J; Doua, F; White, T; Kolberg, J A; Urdea, M S; Agabian, N

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a nonradioactive branched DNA (bDNA)-based assay for the diagnosis of the African trypanosomiases in simple buffy coat preparations of human blood. Two repetitive DNA sequences specific to the Trypanosoma brucei complex were chosen as targets of the bDNA assay, a technique which amplifies the signal from a target molecule rather than the target itself. Comparable sensitivities were observed with cloned target sequences, purified T. brucei DNA, procyclic trypanosomes, and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The results of bDNA analysis of human blood samples from Côte d'Ivoire (n = 50) showed excellent agreement with those of buffy coat microscopy. The bDNA technology offers certain advantages over alternative molecular biological techniques, including the simplicity of sample preparation and of the procedure itself, the stability of the reagents, the ability to process large numbers of samples simultaneously, and freedom from crosscontamination artifacts. We have successfully applied the bDNA technique to the detection of T. brucei in clinical samples from regions where T. brucei infection is endemic; to our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular detection of T. brucei in human blood. PMID:8880488

  11. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  12. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: extended families as part of the ecological model.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  13. Mesoniviridae: a proposed new family in the order Nidovirales formed by a single species of mosquito-borne viruses.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Chris; Ziebuhr, John; Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian; Zirkel, Florian; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Snijder, Eric J; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

    2012-08-01

    Recently, two independent surveillance studies in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively, led to the discovery of two mosquito-borne viruses, Cavally virus and Nam Dinh virus, with genome and proteome properties typical for viruses of the order Nidovirales. Using a state-of-the-art approach, we show that the two insect nidoviruses are (i) sufficiently different from other nidoviruses to represent a new virus family, and (ii) related to each other closely enough to be placed in the same virus species. We propose to name this new family Mesoniviridae. Meso is derived from the Greek word "mesos" (in English "in the middle") and refers to the distinctive genome size of these insect nidoviruses, which is intermediate between that of the families Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae, while ni is an abbreviation for "nido". A taxonomic proposal to establish the new family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus, and species Alphamesonivirus 1 has been approved for consideration by the Executive Committee of the ICTV. PMID:22527862

  14. Ocular onchocerciasis and intensity of infection in the community. III. West African rainforest foci of the vector Simulium sanctipauli.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Remme, J; Baker, R H; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1990-12-01

    The community pattern of ocular onchocerciasis is described for 11 villages from the forest area in Côte d'Ivoire where S. sanctipauli is the princial vector. An analytical method is applied which relates indices of ocular onchocerciasis with the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL) and compares the results with the ocular onchocerciasis pattern found in the West African savanna. In spite of high transmission levels as estimated by entomological indices, the CMFLs were relatively low which complicated the characterization of the ocular disease pattern. Nevertheless, it could be shown that ocular onchocerciasis is less severe in the Sanctipauli forest than in the savanna, even after correction for differences in CMFL. The prevalence of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness were low and advanced sclerosing keratitis was completely absent. The differences are explained by presuming strain differences of the parasite Onchocerca volvulus. For given CMFLs the mean microfilarial loads in the eye were significantly lower than in the savanna which suggests that the parasite strain in the Sanctipauli forest is less invasive to the eye. Ocular microfilarial loads were too low to determine if the parasite is also less pathogenic to the eye, as has been concluded previously for foci of S. yahense, but this possibility cannot be excluded. PMID:1963702

  15. Improvement and Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for the Ouémé River Basin (Bénin), West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GABA, C. O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water resources is still an important issue especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we propose a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action. A first version of a Least Action based model, in its deterministic version has already given very good results on simulating the Bétérou catchment in the Ouémé basin, Benin. The paper presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODYPMA was applied on 22 subcatchments in Africa, in Bénin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia; in Europe, and in the USA. Its performance was compared to two well known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model could be successfully calibrated and validated; it shows a good performance for a range of scales but a limited applicability to catchments smaller than 500 km2 . The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. The parameter uncertainty was analysed using the GLUE methodology. It is concluded that model uncertainty is higher during high flows and that uncertainty analysis should include the uncertainty of the discharge data. Finally, some aspects that further research must address are brought out.

  16. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  17. Imported lassa fever in Germany: molecular characterization of a new lassa virus strain.

    PubMed Central

    Günther, S.; Emmerich, P.; Laue, T.; Kühle, O.; Asper, M.; Jung, A.; Grewing, T.; ter Meulen, J.; Schmitz, H.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a new Lassa virus strain imported into Germany by a traveler who had visited Ghana, Côte D'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso. This strain, designated "AV," originated from a region in West Africa where Lassa fever has not been reported. Viral S RNA isolated from the patient's serum was amplified and sequenced. A long-range reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction allowed amplification of the full-length (3.4 kb) S RNA. The coding sequences of strain AV differed from those of all known Lassa prototype strains (Josiah, Nigeria, and LP) by approximately 20%, mainly at third codon positions. Phylogenetically, strain AV appears to be most closely related to strain Josiah from Sierra Leone. Lassa viruses comprise a group of genetically highly diverse strains, which has implications for vaccine development. The new method for full-length S RNA amplification may facilitate identification and molecular analysis of new arenaviruses or arenavirus strains. PMID:10998376

  18. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  19. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  20. GPS Observations of Plasma Bubbles and Scintillations over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Valladares, C. E.; Semala, G. K.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Adeniyi, J.; Amaeshi, L. L.; Damtie, B.; D'Ujanga Mutonyi, F.; Ndeda, J. D.; Baki, P.; Obrou, O. K.; Okere, B.; Tsidu, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored in part by the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program, Boston College, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and several universities in Africa have collaborated to deploy a network of GPS receivers throughout equatorial Africa, a region which has been largely devoid of ground-based ionospheric monitoring instruments. High date-rate GPS receivers capable of measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) and GPS scintillations were installed at Abidjan, Ivory Coast (5.3°N, 4.0°W, dip 3.5°S); Addis Ababa (9.0°N, 38.8°E, dip 0.1°N ); Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (26.1°N, 50.6°E, dip 20.1°N); Cape Verde (16.6°S, 22.9°W, dip 4.9°N); Ilorin, Nigeria (8.4°S, 4.7°E, dip 1.9°S); Kampala, Uganda (0.3°S, 32.6°E, dip 9.2°S); Lagos, Nigeria (6.5°N, 3.4°E, dip 3.1°S); Nairobi, Kenya (1.3°S, 36.8°W, dip 10.7°S); Nsukka, Nigeria (6.8°S, 7.4°W, dip 3.0°S); and Zanzibar, Tanzania (6.2°S, 39.2°E, dip 15.9°S). In this paper we report on the longitudinal, local time and seasonal occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over equatorial Africa in 2009 and 2010, as a first step toward establishing the climatology of ionospheric irregularities over Africa. The scintillation intensity is obtained by measuring the standard deviation of normalized GPS signal power. The plasma bubbles are detected using an automated technique, whereby the GPS TEC is detrended to remove the diurnal variation and excursions exceeding a particular threshold are extracted for further analysis. A harmonic analysis (FFT) of these extracted events is performed to exclude wavelike features indicative of gravity waves or traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the remaining events are identified as plasma bubbles. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over Africa are well correlated, but that some discrepancies in their morphologies are evident. While plasma bubbles and scintillations are generally observed during equinoctial

  1. Paleoclimatic and deforestation effect on the chemical and isotopic composition of the coastal fresh groundwater resources of South-east Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiaffi, B.; Marlin, C.; Yei, O. M.-S.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Biemi, J.

    2009-04-01

    Since a half of century, the forest surface area of the South Ivory Coast has been decreased for the benefit of agriculture (15 000 km2 in 1993 versus 83 000 km2 in 1955-1958). This area also undergoes climate change. Vegetation cover has gradually changed from rainforests (C3 plants) to savanna (C4 plants) and agricultural plants. In the Abidjan area (5.00-6.00°N, 2.40-4.40°W), the mean rainfall amount and temperature value evolve during the 20th century (1912 mm/year and 26.3°C/year during the first decennial to 1613 mm/year and 26.9°C/year during the last ten years). The Paleoproterozoïc fractured bedrock (PB) and the Continental Terminal (CT) deposits groundwater are studied to show the climate change and deforestation effect on the area groundwater resources using stable isotopes (18O, 2H and 13C) contents, radiocarbon (14C) contents and chemical data on a set of 25 groundwater samples. The residence time of the groundwaters is estimated by the 14C using two models: (i) the model of well-mixed reservoir (WMR model) and (ii) the piston flow model (PF model). The range of the PB groundwater residence time (15 000 - 8 000 to ~ 300 - 100 a BP) for both models shows that the recharge has started at the beginning of the post-glacial period whereas the CT aquifer recharge is much more recent (from 300 a BP to today). The PB groundwater provides information about paleoclimatic conditions that occurred over the studied area during the late Pleistocene. It is demonstrated, through this study, that the evolution of vegetation cover (from forests to savanna and agriculture plants) is shown in groundwater by the trend in 13C content from old groundwater (confined bedrock groundwater: residence time of ~ 15 000 a BP) to the recent groundwater (unconfined bedrock groundwater and CT groundwater: residence times: ~ 300 a BP and lower than 100 a BP, respectively). The δ18O and δ2H values also increase with time from the beginning of the post-glacial period (~ 15 000 a BP

  2. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  3. Incidence of serious morbidity in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in a West African care centre, 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) has required the involvement of decentralized health facilities with limited equipment. We estimated the incidence of serious morbidity among HIV-infected adults receiving ART in one of these HIV routine care center in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a prospective study at the Centre Medical de Suivi des Donneurs de Sang (CMSDS), which is affiliated with the National Centre for Blood Transfusion in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Adult patients infected with HIV-1 or HIV-1/HIV-2 who initiated ART between January 2003 and December 2008 were eligible for the study. Standardized clinical data were collected at each visit. Serious morbidity was defined as a new episode of malaria, WHO stage 3–4 event, ANRS grade 3–4 adverse event, or any event leading to death or to hospitalization. Results 1008 adults, 67% women, with a median age of 35 years, and a median pre-ART CD4 count of 186/mm3 started ART and were followed for a median of 17.3 months. The overall incidences of loss to follow-up, death, and attrition were 6.2/100 person-years (PY) [95% CI 5.1-7.2], 2.3/100 PY [95% CI 1.6-2.9], and 8.1/100 PY [95% CI 7.0-9.4], respectively. The incidence of first serious event was 11.5/100 PY overall, 15.9/100 PY within the first year and 8.3/100 PY thereafter. The most frequently documented specific diagnoses were malaria, tuberculosis, bacterial septicemia and bacterial pneumonia. Conclusion Among HIV-infected adults followed in routine conditions in a West African primary care clinic, we recorded a high incidence of serious morbidity during the first year on ART. Providing care centers with diagnostic tools and standardizing data collection are necessary steps to improve the quality of care in primary care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24373303

  4. Teledetection passive et processus decisionnel a reference spatiale: Application a l'aquaculture en milieu marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbane, Mohamed

    L'objectif de cette etude est d'elaborer un processus decisionnel a reference spatiale (PDRS) pour la mariculture. Le PDRS est applique aux eaux cotieres de la baie des Chaleurs, dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole, d'une limite de resolution spatiale de 1 kmsp2, est produite avec des parametres du niveau 1. Ces parametres englobent la temperature de l'eau de surface, extraite des images AVHRR, la salinite, les courants ainsi que les pigments chlorophylliens, quantifies a l'aide de mesures in situ. Les images AVHRR, prises en 1994, ont ete utiliees comme reference primaire pour selectionner des aires pouvant supporter une activite maricole sur la cote nord de la baie des Chaleurs. La temperature de surface extraite de ces images permet une analyse mesoechelle a la fois qualitative et quantitative des processus cotiers observes pendant la periode d'acquisition des donnees. Les autres donnees, soit la salinite, les courants et les concentrations en pigments chlorophylliens, sont analysees de facon a identifier la variabilite spatio-temporelle des caracteristiques des eaux de surface. L'ensemble des informations permet de produire une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole de la partie centrale de la baie des Chaleurs. Selon cet indice (defini entre 0 et 1), le secteur de potentiel aquicole de 0,5 a 0,75 s'etend sur une superficie d'environ 300 kmsp2. La localisation de cette aire potentielle est en accord avec les fortes concentrations en pigments chlrophylliens, presentant des conditions environnementales ideales a une haute productivite biologique. Par la suite la carte preliminaire est modifiee en tenant compte des parametres du niveau 2. Ces parametres sont la geomorphologie littorale, la bathymetrie, les sediments en suspension, les vents, les vagues, le debit d'eau douce, la glace marine, le carbone organique dissous, les aires de peche et les sources de pollution. Ces

  5. A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, P.; Holmes, T.; Gaetani, F.; D'Andrea, M.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change and forest fire interaction under climate and socio-economics changes, is one of the main issues of the 21th century. The capability of defining future scenarios of land cover and fire regime allow forest managers to better understand the best actions to be carried out and their long term effects. In this paper a new methodology for land cover change simulations under climate change and fire disturbance is presented and discussed. The methodology is based on the assumption that forest fires exhibits power law frequency-area distribution. The well known Forest Fire Model (FFM), which is an example of self organized criticality, is able to reproduce this behavior. Starting from this observation, a modified version of the FFM has been developed. The new model, called Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM) introduces several new features. A stochastic model for vegetation growth and regrowth after fire occurrence has been implemented for different kind of vegetations. In addition, a stochastic fire propagation model taking into account topography and vegetation cover has been introduced. The MFFM has been developed with the purpose of estimating vegetation cover changes and fire regimes over a time windows of many years for a given spatial region. Two different case studies have been carried out. The first case study is related with Liguria (Italy), a region of 5400 km2 lying between the Cote d'Azur, France, and Tuscany, Italy, on the northwest coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. This region is characterized by Mediterranean fire regime. The second case study has been carried out in California (Florida) on a region having similar area and characterized by similar climate conditions. In both cases the model well represents the actual fire regime in terms of power law parameters proving interesting results about future land cover scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economics change.

  6. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  7. A Framework for the Next Generation of Risk Science

    PubMed Central

    Krewski, Daniel; Andersen, Melvin E.; Paoli, Gregory M.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Croteau, Maxine C.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Cote, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the NexGen project to develop a new paradigm for the next generation of risk science. Methods: The NexGen framework was built on three cornerstones: the availability of new data on toxicity pathways made possible by fundamental advances in basic biology and toxicological science, the incorporation of a population health perspective that recognizes that most adverse health outcomes involve multiple determinants, and a renewed focus on new risk assessment methodologies designed to better inform risk management decision making. Results: The NexGen framework has three phases. Phase I (objectives) focuses on problem formulation and scoping, taking into account the risk context and the range of available risk management decision-making options. Phase II (risk assessment) seeks to identify critical toxicity pathway perturbations using new toxicity testing tools and technologies, and to better characterize risks and uncertainties using advanced risk assessment methodologies. Phase III (risk management) involves the development of evidence-based population health risk management strategies of a regulatory, economic, advisory, community-based, or technological nature, using sound principles of risk management decision making. Conclusions: Analysis of a series of case study prototypes indicated that many aspects of the NexGen framework are already beginning to be adopted in practice. Citation: Krewski D, Westphal M, Andersen ME, Paoli GM, Chiu WA, Al-Zoughool M, Croteau MC, Burgoon LD, Cote I. 2014. A framework for the next generation of risk science. Environ Health Perspect 122:796–805; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307260 PMID:24727499

  8. Iron Meteorites as the Not-So-Distant Cousins of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.,; Martel, L. M. V.

    2006-07-01

    Iron meteorites are fragments from the cores of small differentiated asteroids (20-200 kilometers in diameter) that formed very early in Solar System history. They are commonly assumed to have originated in the same region as most stony meteorite parent bodies, namely the main asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter. A new paper in the journal Nature by William Bottke, David Nesvorny, and Robert Grimm (Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado) along with Alessandro Morbidelli and David O'Brien (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azure, Nice, France), however, finds that the iron meteorites may have come from a different and possibly much more intriguing place. According to their numerical simulations that tracked the dynamical evolution of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos interacting with tens of thousands of test bodies during the first 10 million years of Solar System evolution, many iron meteorite parent bodies formed and fragmented in the same region where Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are found today. The fast accretion times of planetesimals in this zone allowed heat produced by the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes like aluminum-26 to melt and differentiate many of these objects into core, mantle, and crust. At the same time, gravitational interactions with planetary embryos increased their mutual impact velocities, enough that these planetesimals broke apart when they struck one another. The net result was the production of millions of fragments continually jostled about by planetary embryos. Over millions of years, a small fraction of this differentiated debris was scattered into the innermost region of the main belt, where it then stayed for billions of years until chance collisional and dynamical events sent it on a crash course to Earth. Bottke and colleagues' prediction of these asteroid main belt gatecrashers could mean that some of the iron meteorites we hold in our hands today are pieces of the same precursor fabric that formed

  9. The core histone N-terminal domains are required for multiple rounds of catalytic chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF and RSC complexes.

    PubMed

    Logie, C; Tse, C; Hansen, J C; Peterson, C L

    1999-02-23

    SWI/SNF and RSC are large, distinct multi-subunit complexes that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosome structure, facilitating the binding of transcription factors or restriction enzymes to nucleosomes [Cote, J., Quinn, J., Workman, J. L., and Peterson, C. L. (1994) Science 265, 53-60 (1); Lorch, Y., Cairns, B. R., Zhang, M., and Kornberg, R. D. (1998) Cell 94, 29-34 (2)]. Here we have used a quantitative assay to measure the activities of these ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes using nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with hypoacetylated, hyperacetylated, or partially trypsinized histones. This assay is based on measuring the kinetics of restriction enzyme digestion of a site located within the central nucleosome of a positioned 11-mer array [Logie, C., and Peterson, C. L. (1997) EMBO J. 16, 6772-6782 (3)]. We find that the DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of SWI/SNF and RSC are not altered by the absence of the histone N-termini. Furthermore, ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling is also equivalent on all three substrate arrays under reaction conditions where the concentrations of nucleosomal array and either SWI/SNF or RSC are equivalent. However, SWI/SNF and RSC cannot catalytically remodel multiple nucleosomal arrays in the absence of the histone termini, and this catalytic activity of SWI/SNF is decreased by histone hyperacetylation. These results indicate that the histone termini are important for SWI/SNF and RSC function; and, furthermore, our data defines a step in the remodeling cycle where the core histone termini exert their influence. This step appears to be after remodeling, but prior to intermolecular transfer of the remodelers to new arrays. PMID:10029546

  10. A method of time transfer between remote stations via LRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Evan; Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Mao, Dandan

    2014-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is a standard geodetic technique that uses the round trip time of light from a ground station to a satellite to determine distance. When combined with a spacecraft detector and timing system, this technique can also be used to transfer time between ground stations, demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. We describe an additional method of time transfer using simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) by two or more ground stations to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). A one way ranging is necessary, as two way ranging via retroreflectors for time transfer becomes impractical at lunar distances. The method will utilize the one-way LR currently being performed as a part of the LRO mission, allowing time transfer to be a by-product of the conventional usage of the data. Each ground station is referenced to a Master Clock using a multifrequency all-view GPS receiver at both the ground station and Master Clock locations.The Master Clock is located close enough to the ground station to make ionospheric differences in signal path negligible. Two or more stations range to LRO at the same time and their times of arrival are compared. Results from a ground-based experiment are shown, with sub-nanosecond precision shown to be achievable. Ultimately this measurement will provide a more precise and accurate relation of timing standards between stations, leading to a marked improvement in orbit determination.

  11. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  12. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Sili-cone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Bray-cote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pre-treatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  13. Study on gas kinetic unified algorithm for flows from rarefied transition to continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xin

    2004-01-01

    The modified BGK equation adapted to various flow regimes can be presented by the aid of the basic characteristics on molecular movement and collision approaching to equilibrium. The discrete velocity ordinate method is developed and applied to the velocity distribution function to remove its continuous dependency on the velocity space, and then the velocity distribution function equation is cast into hyperbolic conservation law form with nonlinear source terms. Based on the unsteady time-splitting method and the non-oscillatory, containing no free parameters, and dissipative (NND) scheme, the gas kinetic finite difference second-order scheme is constructed for the computation of the discrete velocity distribution functions. The mathematical model on the interaction of molecules with solid surface is studied and used in the numerical method. Four types of numerical quadrature rules, such as the modified Gauss-Hermite formula, the composite Newton-Cotes integration method, the Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature rule, and the Golden Section number-theoretic integral method, are developed and applied to the discretized velocity space to evaluate the macroscopic flow parameters at each point in the physical space. As a result, a unified simplified gas kinetic algorithm is established for the flows from rarefied transition to continuum regime. Based on analyzing the inner parallel degree of the unified algorithm, the parallel strategy adapted to the gas kinetic numerical algorithm is studied, and then the HPF parallel processing software for the unified algorithm is developed. To test the present method, the one-dimensional shock-tube problems, the flows past two-dimensional circular cylinder, and the flows around three-dimensional sphere and spacecraft shape with various Knudsen numbers are simulated. The computational results are found in high resolution of the flow fields and good agreement with the theoretical, DSMC, N-S, and experimental results.

  14. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Roger J.; Sangmanee, Domrongphol; Piergallini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  15. Parallelization of exoplanets detection algorithms based on field rotation; example of the MOODS algorithm for SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, D.; Smith, I.; Ferrari, A.; Carbillet, M.

    2010-10-01

    Post-processing for exoplanet detection using direct imaging requires large data cubes and/or sophisticated signal processing technics. For alt-azimuthal mounts, a projection effect called field rotation makes the potential planet rotate in a known manner on the set of images. For ground based telescopes that use extreme adaptive optics and advanced coronagraphy, technics based on field rotation are already broadly used and still under progress. In most such technics, for a given initial position of the planet the planet intensity estimate is a linear function of the set of images. However, due to field rotation the modified instrumental response applied is not shift invariant like usual linear filters. Testing all possible initial positions is therefore very time-consuming. To reduce the time process, we propose to deal with each subset of initial positions computed on a different machine using parallelization programming. In particular, the MOODS algorithm dedicated to the VLT-SPHERE instrument, that estimates jointly the light contributions of the star and the potential exoplanet, is parallelized on the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur cluster. Different parallelization methods (OpenMP, MPI, Jobs Array) have been elaborated for the initial MOODS code and compared to each other. The one finally chosen splits the initial positions on the processors available by accounting at best for the different constraints of the cluster structure: memory, job submission queues, number of available CPUs, cluster average load. At the end, a standard set of images is satisfactorily processed in a few hours instead of a few days.

  16. Mucosal immunity induced by gliadin-presenting spores of Bacillus subtilis in HLA-DQ8-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, Roberta; Isticato, Rachele; Maurano, Francesco; Ricca, Ezio; Rossi, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    The induction of mucosal immunity requires efficient antigen delivery and adjuvant systems. Probiotic bacterial strains are considered to be very promising tools to address both of these needs. In particular, Bacillus subtilis spores are currently under investigation as a long-lived, protease-resistant adjuvant system for different antigens. Furthermore, a non-recombinant approach has been developed based on the stable adsorption of antigen on the spore surface. In the present study, we explored this strategy as a means of modulating the immune response to wheat gliadin, the triggering agent of celiac disease (CD), an enteropathy driven by inflammatory CD4(+) T cells. Gliadin adsorption was tested on untreated or autoclaved wild-type (wt) and mutant (cotH or cotE) spores. We found that gliadin was stably and maximally adsorbed by autoclaved wt spores. We then tested the immune properties of the spore-adsorbed gliadin in HLA-DQ8-transgenic mice, which express one of the two HLA heterodimers associated with CD. In vitro, spore-adsorbed gliadin was efficiently taken up by mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, gliadin-pulsed DCs efficiently stimulated splenic CD4(+) T cells from mice immunised with spore-adsorbed gliadin. Nasal pre-dosing with spore-adsorbed gliadin failed to down-regulate the ongoing cellular response in gliadin-sensitised DQ8 mice. Notably, naïve mice inoculated intranasally with multiple doses of spore-adsorbed gliadin developed an intestinal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell-mediated response. In conclusion, our data highlight the ability of spore-adsorbed gliadin to elicit a T-cell response in the gut that could be exploitable for developing immune strategies in CD. PMID:25944582

  17. Arhgef16, a novel Elmo1 binding partner, promotes clearance of apoptotic cells via RhoG-dependent Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juyeon; Park, Boyeon; Kim, Gayoung; Kim, Kwangwoo; Pak, Jeongjun; Kim, Kwanhyeong; Ye, Michael B; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Park, Daeho

    2014-11-01

    Elmo is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans CED-12 with proposed roles during the removal of apoptotic cells, cell migration, neurite outgrowth, and myoblast fusion (Katoh and Negishi (2003) [1], Park and Tosello (2007) [2], Grimsley et al. (2004) [3], Hamoud et al. (2014) [4]). Elmo mediates these cellular processes by interacting with various proteins located in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, and by modulating their activities although it has no intrinsic catalytic activity (Park and Tosello (2007) [2], Hamoud et al. (2014) [4], Li et al. (2013) [5], Margaron, Fradet and Cote (2013) [6], and Mauldin et al. (2013)[7]). Because there are a limited number of proteins known to interact with Elmo, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Elmo1 as bait to identify Elmo1-interacting proteins and to evaluate their mode of regulation. Arhgef16 was one of the proteins identified through the screen and subsequent analyses revealed that Arhgef16 interacted with Elmo1 in mammalian cells as well. Expression of Arhgef16 in phagocytes promoted engulfment of apoptotic cells, and engulfment mediated by Arhgef16 increased synergistically in the presence of Elmo1 but was abrogated in the absence of Elmo1. In addition, Arhgef16-mediated removal of apoptotic cells was dependent on RhoG, but independent of Dock1. Taken together, this study suggests that the newly identified Elmo1-interacting protein, Arhgef16, functions synergistically with Elmo1 to promote clearance of apoptotic cells in a RhoG-dependent and Dock1-independent manner. PMID:25063526

  18. Identification of autophosphorylation sites in eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Pyr Dit Ruys, Sébastien; Wang, Xuemin; Smith, Ewan M.; Herinckx, Gaëtan; Hussain, Nusrat; Rider, Mark H.; Vertommen, Didier; Proud, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    eEF2K [eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) kinase] phosphorylates and inactivates the translation elongation factor eEF2. eEF2K is not a member of the main eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, but instead belongs to a small group of so-called α-kinases. The activity of eEF2K is normally dependent upon Ca2+ and calmodulin. eEF2K has previously been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, the stoichiometry of which suggested the existence of multiple sites. In the present study we have identified several autophosphorylation sites, including Thr348, Thr353, Ser366 and Ser445, all of which are highly conserved among vertebrate eEF2Ks. We also identified a number of other sites, including Ser78, a known site of phosphorylation, and others, some of which are less well conserved. None of the sites lies in the catalytic domain, but three affect eEF2K activity. Mutation of Ser78, Thr348 and Ser366 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue decreased eEF2K activity. Phosphorylation of Thr348 was detected by immunoblotting after transfecting wild-type eEF2K into HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, but not after transfection with a kinase-inactive construct, confirming that this is indeed a site of autophosphorylation. Thr348 appears to be constitutively autophosphorylated in vitro. Interestingly, other recent data suggest that the corresponding residue in other α-kinases is also autophosphorylated and contributes to the activation of these enzymes [Crawley, Gharaei, Ye, Yang, Raveh, London, Schueler-Furman, Jia and Cote (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 2607–2616]. Ser366 phosphorylation was also detected in intact cells, but was still observed in the kinase-inactive construct, demonstrating that this site is phosphorylated not only autocatalytically but also in trans by other kinases. PMID:22216903

  19. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jianing

    2010-11-15

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  20. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold Rb85 Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2010-11-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233201 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.183002 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.011403 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  1. Monthly mean foF2 model for an African low-latitude station and comparison with IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikubanni, S. O.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Obrou, O. K.

    2014-02-01

    We have employed the hourly values of the ionospheric F-region critical frequency (foF2) obtained from Ouagadougou ionosonde, Burkina Faso (geographic coordinates 12° N, 1.8° W) during the interval of 1985-1995 (solar cycle 22) and solar radio flux of 10 cm wavelength (F10.7) to develop a local model (LM) for the African low-latitude station. The model was developed from regression analysis method, using the two-segmented regression analysis. We validated LM with foF2 data from Korhogo observatory, Cote d'Ivorie (geographical coordinates 9.3° N, 5.4° W). LM as well as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) agrees well with observations. LM gave some improvement on the IRI-predicted foF2 values at the sunrise (06 LT) at all solar flux levels and in all seasons except June solstice. The performance of the models at the representing the salient features of the equatorial foF2 was presented. Considering daytime and nighttime performances, LM and IRI are comparable in low solar activity (LSA), LM performed better than IRI in moderate solar activity (MSA), while IRI performed better than LM in high solar activity (HSA). CCIR has a root mean square error (r.m.s.e), which is only 0.10 MHz lower than that of LM while LM has r.m.s.e, which is about 0.05 MHz lower than that of URSI. In general, our result shows that performance of IRI, especially the CCIR option of the IRI, is quite comparable with the LM. The improved performance of IRI is a reflection of the numerous contributions of ionospheric physicists in the African region, larger volume of data for the IRI and the diversity of data sources, as well as the successes of the IRI task force activities.

  2. High resolution operational air quality forecast for Poland and Central Europe with the GEM-AQ model - EcoForecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The air quality forecast is an important component of the environmental assessment system. The "Clean Air for Europe" (CAFE) Directive 2008/50/EC stipulates a need for numerical modelling in order to support public information services to interpret measurements of pollutants concentrations and to prepare and evaluate air quality plans. Most European countries have developed model-based air quality modelling and information services. We will present the design strategy, development and implementation of a regional high resolution forecasting system that was implemented in Poland. The new national high resolution air quality forecasting system has evolved from a semi-operational chemical weather system EcoForecast.EU which is based on the GEM-AQ model (Kaminski et al., 2008). GEM-AQ is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols), troposphere and stratospheric chemistry are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model, the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model (Cote et al, 1998), developed at Environment Canada. For these applications, the model is run on a global variable resolution grid with horizontal spacing of 15 km over Europe. In the vertical there are 28 hybrid levels, with the top at 10 hPa. A high resolution nested forecast at 5 km resolution over Poland (and surrounding countries) was implemented in December 2012. The forecast is published once a day at www.EcoForecast.EU. The air quality forecast is presented for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, PM10 and PM2.5 as maps of daily maxima and daily averages. We will present results from the on-going model evaluation study over Central Europe (2010-2012). Modelling results were evaluated and compared with available observation of ozone and primary pollutants from air quality monitoring stations and from meteorological synoptic stations. Ozone exposure indices, as defined in the CAFE Directive, will be shown for the

  3. Scientific Considerations for Evaluating Cancer Bioassays Conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C.; Jinot, Jennifer; Evans, Marina V.; Cote, Ila; Vandenberg, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) has completed nearly 400 cancer bioassays on > 200 compounds. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and others have suggested that study design and protocol differences between the RI and other laboratories by may contribute to controversy regarding cancer hazard findings, principally findings on lymphoma/leukemia diagnoses. Objective: We aimed to evaluate RI study design, protocol differences, and accuracy of tumor diagnoses for their impact on carcinogenic hazard characterization. Methods: We analyzed the findings from a recent Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of RI procedures and tumor diagnoses, evaluated consistency of RI and other laboratory findings for chemicals identified by the RI as positive for lymphoma/leukemia, and examined evidence for a number of other issues raised regarding RI bioassays. The RI cancer bioassay design and protocols were evaluated in the context of relevant risk assessment guidance from international authorities. Discussion: Although the PWG identified close agreement with RI diagnoses for most tumor types, it did not find close agreement for lymphoma/leukemia of the respiratory tract or for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium. Here we discuss a) the implications of the PWG findings, particularly lymphoma diagnostic issues; b) differences between RI studies and those from other laboratories that are relevant to evaluating RI cancer bioassays; and c) future work that may help resolve some concerns. Conclusions: We concluded that a) issues related to respiratory tract infections have complicated diagnoses at that site (i.e., lymphoma/leukemia), as well as for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium, and b) there is consistency and value in RI studies for identification of other chemical-related neoplasia. Citation: Gift JS, Caldwell JC, Jinot J, Evans MV, Cote I, Vandenberg JJ. 2013. Scientific considerations for evaluating cancer bioassays conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

  4. PubMed Central

    Laveissière, C.; Meda, A. H.; Doua, F.; Sane, B.

    1998-01-01

    The solution to the problem of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) first of all requires improved case detection. Effective tests have been available for a number of years but the results of medical surveys are still mediocre, mainly because the populations are poorly mobilized. Those few mobile teams still visiting villages obtain very low presentation rates. In spite of major information campaigns among villagers, in Côte d'Ivoire the Institut Pierre Richet (IPR) and Trypanosomiasis Clinical Research Project (PRCT) teams examined only 42% (9311) of the 22,300 inhabitants of a disease focus during a conventional ten-day survey. In the same focus, community health workers specially trained in sleeping sickness and in the collection of blood samples on filter-paper examined 73% of the population (15,000 individuals) in less than two months. Implementation of a sleeping sickness control strategy is restricted to two types of intervention: either conventional mobile teams which are on hand, competent and rapidly operational but which fail to carry out exhaustive case detection, or integration of case detection into primary health care by entrusting surveillance to the community health workers. This approach requires a minimum of training but ensures that sentinels are permanently present in the village communities. By using the community health workers rather than mobile teams it should be possible to achieve comprehensive monitoring. In operational terms, the cost of surveillance per person is US$ 0.55 for the mobile teams as against US$ 0.10 for the community health workers. Integration of HAT case detection into primary health care is therefore an effective and economical solution, provided the community health workers are properly supervised and above all motivated. PMID:10191551

  5. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context. PMID:26375806

  6. African Swine Fever Diagnosis Adapted to Tropical Conditions by the Use of Dried-blood Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Randriamparany, T; Kouakou, K V; Michaud, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Gallardo, C; Le Potier, M-F; Rabenarivahiny, R; Couacy-Hymann, E; Raherimandimby, M; Albina, E

    2016-08-01

    The performance of Whatman 3-MM filter papers for the collection, drying, shipment and long-term storage of blood at ambient temperature, and for the detection of African swine fever virus and antibodies was assessed. Conventional and real-time PCR, viral isolation and antibody detection by ELISA were performed on paired samples (blood/tissue versus dried-blood 3-MM filter papers) collected from experimentally infected pigs and from farm pigs in Madagascar and Côte d'Ivoire. 3-MM filter papers were used directly in the conventional and real-time PCR without previous extraction of nucleic acids. Tests that performed better with 3-MM filter papers were in descending order: virus isolation, real-time UPL PCR and conventional PCR. The analytical sensitivity of real-time UPL PCR on filter papers was similar to conventional testing (virus isolation or conventional PCR) on organs or blood. In addition, blood-dried filter papers were tested in ELISA for antibody detection and the observed sensitivity was very close to conventional detection on serum samples and gave comparable results. Filter papers were stored up to 9 months at 20-25°C and for 2 months at 37°C without significant loss of sensitivity for virus genome detection. All tests on 3-MM filter papers had 100% specificity compared to the gold standards. Whatman 3-MM filter papers have the advantage of being cheap and of preserving virus viability for future virus isolation and characterization. In this study, Whatman 3-MM filter papers proved to be a suitable support for the collection, storage and use of blood in remote areas of tropical countries without the need for a cold chain and thus provide new possibilities for antibody testing and virus isolation. PMID:25430732

  7. Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelli and C. petaurista with C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Polyspecific associations (PSA) are common in many African primate communities, including the diurnal primates at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper I use data on the PSA of two forest guenons, Campbell's (Cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (C. petaurista), with Diana monkeys (C. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. I analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured forest strata use for C. campbelli and C. petaurista when alone and in associations with and without C. diana. I also measured predator risk and reactions to potential predators. C. campbelli and C. petaurista had high association rates with C. diana monkeys, and fruit availability did not influence association rates. C. campbelli and C. petaurista used higher strata when in association with C. diana than when alone, but they used even higher strata when associated with other primates without C. diana. This suggested that C. diana competitively exclude C. campbelli and C. petaurista from higher strata. There were relatively large numbers of potential predators, and C. diana were usually the first callers to threatening stimuli, suggesting that antipredator benefits of association with C. diana outweighed the competitive costs. C. campbelli spent more time in association with C. diana than C. petaurista did and appeared to be more reliant on C. diana for antipredator benefits. C. petaurista were less reliant on C. diana because of a cryptic strategy and may have associated less in some months because of high chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presence. PMID:20535628

  8. Receiving Post-Conflict Affiliation from the Enemy's Friend Reconciles Former Opponents

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive function of bystander initiated post-conflict affiliation (also: consolation & appeasement) has been debated for 30 years. Three influential hypotheses compete for the most likely explanation but have not previously been tested with a single data set. The consolation hypothesis argues that bystander affiliation calms the victim and reduces their stress levels. The self-protection hypothesis proposes that a bystander offers affiliation to either opponent to protect himself from redirected aggression by this individual. The relationship-repair hypothesis suggests a bystander can substitute for a friend to reconcile the friend with the friend's former opponent. Here, we contrast all three hypotheses and tested their predictions with data on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We examined the first and second post-conflict interactions with respect to both the dyadic and triadic relationships between the bystander and the two opponents. Results showed that female bystanders offered affiliation to their aggressor friends and the victims of their friends, while male bystanders offered affiliation to their victim friends and the aggressors of their friends. For both sexes, bystander affiliation resulted in a subsequent interaction pattern that is expected for direct reconciliation. Bystander affiliation offered to the opponent's friend was more likely to lead to affiliation among opponents in their subsequent interaction. Also, tolerance levels among former opponents were reset to normal levels. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence for the relationship-repair hypothesis, moderate evidence for the consolation hypothesis and no evidence for the self-protection hypothesis. Furthermore, that bystanders can repair a relationship on behalf of their friend indicates that recipient chimpanzees are aware of the relationships between others, even when they are not kin. This presents a mechanism through which

  9. Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: past and present.

    PubMed

    Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Mulangu, S; Masumu, Justin; Kayembe, J M; Kemp, A; Paweska, Janusz T

    2012-01-01

    Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (NHP). Outbreaks in Africa occur mainly in the Congo and Nile basins. The first outbreaks of EHF occurred nearly simultaneously in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, former Zaire) and Sudan with very high case fatality rates of 88% and 53%, respectively. The two outbreaks were caused by two distinct species of Ebola virus named Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV). The source of transmission remains unknown. After a long period of silence (1980-1993), EHF outbreaks in Africa caused by the two species erupted with increased frequency and new species were discovered, namely Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV) in 1994 in the Ivory Coast and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV) in 2007 in Uganda. The re-emergence of EHF outbreaks in Gabon and Republic of the Congo were concomitant with an increase in mortality amongst gorillas and chimpanzees infected with ZEBOV. The human outbreaks were related to multiple, unrelated index cases who had contact with dead gorillas or chimpanzees. However, in areas where NHP were rare or absent, as in Kikwit (DRC) in 1995, Mweka (DRC) in 2007, Gulu (Uganda) in 2000 and Yambio (Sudan) in 2004, the hunting and eating of fruit bats may have resulted in the primary transmission of Ebola virus to humans. Human-to-human transmission is associated with direct contact with body fluids or tissues from an infected subject or contaminated objects. Despite several, often heroic field studies, the epidemiology and ecology of Ebola virus, including identification of its natural reservoir hosts, remains a formidable challenge for public health and scientific communities. PMID:23327370

  10. Variable microsatellite loci for population genetic analysis of Old World monkey lice (Pedicinus sp.).

    PubMed

    Scholl, Katlyn; Allen, Julie M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Chapman, Colin A; Reed, David L

    2012-10-01

    Parasitic lice have been valuable informants of their host's evolutionary history because they complete their entire life cycle on the host and move between hosts primarily through direct host-to-host contact. Therefore, lice are confined to their hosts both in ecological and evolutionary time. Lice on great apes have been studied to examine details of their host's evolutionary history; however, species of Pedicinus, which parasitize the Old World monkeys, are less well known. We sampled lice from 2 groups of red colobus (Procolobus spp.) in Kibale National Park in Uganda and from red colobus and black and white colobus (Procolobus polycomos) in Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. We used next-generation sequencing data analysis and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) genome to search for microsatellites for population genetic studies of Pedicinus lice. The 96 primer sets for microsatellite loci designed from the human body louse genome failed to amplify microsatellites in Pedicinus sp., perhaps due to the fast rate of evolution in parasitic lice. Of 63 microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing data analysis of Pedicinus sp., 12 were variable among populations and 9 were variable within a single population. Our results suggest that these loci will be useful across the genus Pedicinus. We found that the lice in Uganda are not structured according to their hosts' social group; rather, 2 non-interbreeding populations of lice were found on both groups of red colobus. Because direct host-to-host contact is usually required for lice to move among hosts, these lice could be useful for identification and study of behavioral interactions between primate species. PMID:22509906

  11. Importance of migrants infected with Onchocerca volvulus in west African river valleys protected by 14 to 15 years of Simulium control.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-06-01

    A study was done to determine the importance of human migration from non-controlled endemic onchocerciasis foci to the river valleys that have been protected for the past 14 to 15 years by the vector control operations of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of migrants to the prevalence and intensity of infection in villages from 5 major river valleys and their potential role in causing relapse of transmission once the vector is allowed to return. In Burkina Faso the migrant population varied from 0.0% to 18.1% of the village population, and averaged 4.9%. Migrants accounted only for 0.6% of the population in Ghanaian and Ivorian villages along the Black Volta river. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in migrants (8.2%) than in non migrants (1.1%) in the surveyed villages in Burkina Faso, and 1.5% of migrants had infections with more than 16 microfilariae per snip as against 0.2% of non migrants. Nearly all infected migrants came from the south of the Côte d'Ivoire. The study shows that human migration has caused the importation of Onchocerca volvulus from non-controlled areas. However, the epidemiological importance of this phenomenon is limited because of the very small number of infected migrants per village while two-third of the infected migrants are believed to be infected with the less pathogenic forest strain of the parasite. Because migration patterns changes geographically and over time similar studies will be continued on a regular basis. PMID:1654591

  12. Comparison of the Flotac-400 Dual Technique and the Formalin-Ether Concentration Technique for Diagnosis of Human Intestinal Protozoon Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sören L.; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Speich, Benjamin; Rinaldi, Laura; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for accurate diagnosis of intestinal parasite infections in humans, but currently available copromicroscopic techniques have shortcomings, such as low sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a further modified version of the recently developed Flotac technique with that of the widely used formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for the detection of intestinal protozoa in human stool samples. Formaldehyde-preserved stool samples from 108 individuals in Côte d'Ivoire were subjected to the Flotac-400 dual technique, using two different flotation solutions (FS), and to the FECT. Stool samples were examined according to computer-generated random lists by an experienced laboratory technician blinded for the results of each method. Both methods detected the same eight intestinal protozoon species. While the Flotac-400 dual technique (results from both FS combined) found higher prevalences of Entamoeba coli (77.8% versus 71.3%, P < 0.001), Blastocystis hominis (20.4% versus 13.0%, P = 0.458), and Giardia intestinalis (8.3% versus 6.5%, P < 0.001), the FECT detected higher prevalences of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (27.8% versus 20.4%, P = 0.019) and four species of nonpathogenic intestinal protozoa. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods differed considerably depending on the intestinal protozoon investigated (Cohen's kappa measures; range, 0.01 to 0.46). Our study confirmed that the Flotac-400 dual technique can be utilized for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoon infections in humans. Since Flotac is a sensitive technique for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni, it might become a viable copromicroscopic technique for the concurrent diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections. PMID:21525226

  13. A new variant of the capsule 3 cluster occurs in Streptococcus pneumoniae from deceased wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Denapaite, Dalia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2011-01-01

    The presence of new Streptococcus pneumoniae clones in dead wild chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, with previous respiratory problems has been demonstrated recently by DNA sequence analysis from samples obtained from the deceased apes. In order to broadenour understanding on the relatedness of these pneumococcal clones to those from humans, the gene locus responsible for biosynthesis of the capsule polysaccharide (CPS) has now been characterized. DNA sequence analysis of PCR fragments identified a cluster named cps3(Taï) containing the four genes typical for serotype 3 CPS, but lacking a 5'-region of ≥2 kb which is degenerated in other cps3 loci and not required for type 3 biosynthesis. CPS3 is composed of a simple disaccharide repeat unit comprising glucose and glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The two genes ugd responsible for GlcUA synthesis and wchE encoding the type 3 synthase are essential for CPS3 biosynthesis, whereas both, galU and the 3'-truncated gene pgm are not required due to the presence of homologues elsewhere in the genome. The DNA sequence of cps3(Taï) diverged considerably from those of other cps3 loci. Also, the gene pgm(Taï) represents a full length version with a nonsense mutation at codon 179. The two genes ugd(Taï) and wchE(Taï) including the promoter region were transformed into a nonencapsulated laboratory strain S. pneumoniae R6. Transformants which expressed type 3 capsule polysaccharide were readily obtained, documenting that the gene products are functional. In summary, the data indicate that cps3(Taï) evolved independent from other cps3 loci, suggesting the presence of specialized serotype 3 S. pneumoniae clones endemic to the Taï National Park area. PMID:21969869

  14. The price of play: self-organized infant mortality cycles in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Hjalmar S; Elzner, Caroline; Moebius, Yasmin; Boesch, Christophe; Walsh, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees have been used extensively as a model system for laboratory research on infectious diseases. Ironically, we know next to nothing about disease dynamics in wild chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze long-term demographic and behavioral data from two habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, where previous work has shown respiratory pathogens to be an important source of infant mortality. In this paper we trace the effect of social connectivity on infant mortality dynamics. We focus on social play which, as the primary context of contact between young chimpanzees, may serve as a key venue for pathogen transmission. Infant abundance and mortality rates at Taï cycled regularly and in a way that was not well explained in terms of environmental forcing. Rather, infant mortality cycles appeared to self-organize in response to the ontogeny of social play. Each cycle started when the death of multiple infants in an outbreak synchronized the reproductive cycles of their mothers. A pulse of births predictably arrived about twelve months later, with social connectivity increasing over the following two years as the large birth cohort approached the peak of social play. The high social connectivity at this play peak then appeared to facilitate further outbreaks. Our results provide the first evidence that social play has a strong role in determining chimpanzee disease transmission risk and the first record of chimpanzee disease cycles similar to those seen in human children. They also lend more support to the view that infectious diseases are a major threat to the survival of remaining chimpanzee populations. PMID:18560519

  15. Model-based estimates of risks of disease transmission and economic costs of seven injection devices in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Weniger, Bruce G.; Chen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare seven types of injection devices for their risks of iatrogenic transmission of bloodborne pathogens and their economic costs in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Risk assumptions for each device and cost models were constructed to estimate the number of new hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections resulting from patient-to-patient, patient-to-health care worker, and patient-to-community transmission. Costs of device purchase and usage were derived from the literature, while costs of direct medical care and lost productivity from HBV and HIV disease were based on data collected in 1999 in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Uganda. Multivariate sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation characterized uncertainties in model parameters. Costs were summed from both the societal and health care system payer's perspectives. FINDINGS: Resterilizable and disposable needles and syringes had the highest overall costs for device purchase, usage, and iatrogenic disease: median US dollars 26.77 and US dollars 25.29, respectively, per injection from the societal perspective. Disposable-cartridge jet injectors and automatic needle-shielding syringes had the lowest costs, US dollars 0.36 and US dollars 0.80, respectively. Reusable-nozzle jet injectors and auto-disable needle and syringes were intermediate, at US dollars 0.80 and US dollars 0.91, respectively, per injection. CONCLUSION: Despite their nominal purchase and usage costs, conventional needles and syringes carry a hidden but huge burden of iatrogenic disease. Alternative injection devices for the millions of injections administered annually in sub-Saharan Africa would be of value and should be considered by policy-makers in procurement decisions. PMID:12481207

  16. Ant-dipping among the chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, and some comparisons with other sites.

    PubMed

    Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2002-11-01

    We present a detailed study of ant-dipping among the wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Bossou, in southeastern Guinea, West Africa. Observations suggest a strong influence of prey (Dorylusspp.) characteristics, including aggressiveness and/or gregariousness, on tool length and technique employed by the chimpanzees. Bossou chimpanzees exhibit two ant-dipping techniques: 1) direct mouthing, and 2) pull-through. In addition, they were observed dipping for several species of Dorylus ants, classed into two categories: Red and Black. Tool length was longer when dipping in higher-risk contexts, i.e., at the ants' nest site or on Black ants. The pull-through technique was almost exclusively associated with dipping at the nest site. This latter technique was associated with tools over 50 cm long, whereas direct mouthing was the only technique observed with tools < 50 cm long. Our experimental findings, together with our observations on the behavior of the chimpanzees, suggest that at the nest, the pull-through technique was a more efficient technique than direct mouthing. We review our results in the context of ant-dipping observed at two other long-term chimpanzee study sites, i.e., Gombe (Tanzania) and Taï (Côte d'Ivoire), where differences in tool length, technique used, and focal Dorylus ant species have been reported. Finally, we urge similar detailed studies of this tool-use behavior in both Gombe and Taï to shed further light upon our results and their implications. PMID:12454957

  17. Spatially-explicit risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections at a small scale: a geostatistical modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Silué, Kigbafori D; Raso, Giovanna; Yapi, Ahoua; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a renewed political will and financial support to eradicate malaria. Spatially-explicit risk profiling will play an important role in this endeavour. Patterns of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence were examined among schoolchildren in a highly malaria-endemic area. Methods A questionnaire was administered and finger prick blood samples collected from 3,962 children, aged six to 16 years, attending 55 schools in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire. Information was gathered from the questionnaire on children's socioeconomic status and the use of bed nets for the prevention of malaria. Blood samples were processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods for diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. infections. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images and digitized maps. Bayesian variogram models for spatially-explicit risk modelling of P. falciparum infection prevalence were employed, assuming for stationary and non-stationary spatial processes. Findings The overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 64.9%, ranging between 34.0% and 91.9% at the unit of the school. Risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, distance to health care facilities and a number of environmental features (i.e. normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall and distance to rivers). After taking into account spatial correlation only age remained significant. Non-stationary models performed better than stationary models. Conclusion Spatial risk profiling of P. falciparum prevalence data provides a useful tool for targeting malaria control intervention, and hence will play a role in the quest of local elimination and ultimate eradication of the disease. PMID:18570685

  18. Discovery of a Unique Novel Clade of Mosquito-Associated Bunyaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Rwego, Innocent B.; Heidemann, Hanna; Trippner, Pascal; Kurth, Andreas; Kallies, René; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian; Drosten, Christian; Gillespie, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are the largest known family of RNA viruses, infecting vertebrates, insects, and plants. Here we isolated three novel bunyaviruses from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Uganda. The viruses define a highly diversified monophyletic sister clade to all members of the genus Orthobunyavirus and are virtually equidistant to orthobunyaviruses and tospoviruses. Maximal amino acid identities between homologous putative proteins of the novel group and orthobunyaviruses ranged between 12 and 25%. The type isolates, tentatively named Herbert virus (HEBV), Taï virus (TAIV), and Kibale virus (KIBV), comprised genomes with L, M, and S segments of about 7.4 kb, 2.7 kb, and 1.1 kb, respectively. HEBV, TAIV, and KIBV encode the shortest bunyavirus M segments known and did not seem to encode NSs and NSm proteins but contained an elongated L segment with an ∼500-nucleotide (nt) insertion that shows no identity to other bunyaviruses. The viruses replicated to high titers in insect cells but did not replicate in vertebrate cells. The enveloped virions were 90 to 110 nm in diameter and budded at cellular membranes with morphological features typical of the Golgi complex. Viral RNA recovered from infected cells showed 5′-terminal nontemplated sequences of 9 to 22 nt, suggestive of cap snatching during mRNA synthesis, as described for other bunyaviruses. Northern blotting identified RNA species of full and reduced lengths, suggested upon analogy with other bunyaviruses to constitute antigenomic-sense cRNA and transcript mRNAs, respectively. Functional studies will be necessary to determine if this group of viruses constitutes a novel genus in the bunyavirus family. PMID:24067954

  19. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  20. Adherence as therapeutic citizenship: impact of the history of access to antiretroviral drugs on adherence to treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Ako, Cyriaque Yapo; Niamba, Pascal; Sylla, Aliou; Tiendrébéogo, Issoufou

    2007-10-01

    A dramatic increase in the use of antiretroviral drugs in Africa has increased focus on adherence to treatment, which has so far been equivalent if not superior to that in northern contexts. The reasons for this exceptional adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine adherence in the historical and ethnographic context of access to treatment in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali. Living where there is no social security and minimal, if any, medical care, individuals diagnosed with HIV are faced with the threat of illness, death, ostracism and destitution, and were obliged to negotiate conflicting networks of obligation, reciprocity, and value. HIV and AIDS programmes value efforts to address social, and indeed biological, vulnerability. In contrast, kinship-based social relationships may value individuals in other ways. These conflicting moral economies often intersect in the worlds of people living with HIV. HIV status can be used to claim resources from the public or non-governmental organization programmes. This may interfere with social networks that are the most stable source of material and emotional support. Self-help and empowerment techniques provided effective tools for people living with HIV to fashion themselves into effective advocates. In the early years of the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), access to treatment was thus mediated by confessional practices and forms of social triage. We introduce the term 'therapeutic citizenship' to describe the way in which people living with HIV appropriate ART as a set of rights and responsibilities to negotiate these at times conflicting moral economies. Exemplary adherence should be viewed through the lens of therapeutic citizenship. PMID:18090265

  1. Molecular and antigenic evolution and geographical spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in western Africa.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, M F; Olinger, C M; Owoade, A A; Tarnagda, Z; Tahita, M C; Sow, A; De Landtsheer, S; Ammerlaan, W; Ouedraogo, J B; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fouchier, R A M; Muller, C P

    2007-08-01

    In Africa, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was first detected in northern Nigeria and later also in other regions of the country. Since then, seven other African countries have reported H5N1 infections. This study reports a comparison of full-length genomic sequences of H5N1 isolates from seven chicken farms in Nigeria and chicken and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso with earlier H5N1 outbreaks worldwide. In addition, the antigenicity of Nigerian H5N1 isolates was compared with earlier strains. All African strains clustered within three sublineages denominated A (south-west Nigeria, Niger), B (south-west Nigeria, Egypt, Djibouti) and C (northern Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire), with distinct nucleotide and amino acid signatures and distinct geographical distributions within Africa. Probable non-African ancestors within the west Asian/Russian/European lineage distinct from the south-east Asian lineages were identified for each sublineage. All reported human cases in Africa were caused by sublineage B. Substitution rates were calculated on the basis of sequences from 11 strains from a single farm in south-west Nigeria. As H5N1 emerged essentially at the same time in the north and south-west of Nigeria, the substitution rates confirmed that the virus probably did not spread from the north to the south, given the observed sequence diversity, but that it entered the country via three independent introductions. The strains from Burkina Faso seemed to originate from northern Nigeria. At least two of the sublineages also circulated in Europe in 2006 as seen in Germany, further suggesting that the sublineages had already emerged outside of Africa and seemed to have followed the east African/west Asian and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways of migratory birds. PMID:17622635

  2. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin) alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Asidi, Alex N; N' Guessan, Raphael; Koffi, Alphonsine A; Curtis, Christopher F; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Darriet, Frédéric; Zaim, Morteza; Rowland, Mark W

    2005-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM), an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L), a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R). Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut. PMID:15918909

  3. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  4. West Africa - a safe haven for frogs? A sub-continental assessment of the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis).

    PubMed

    Penner, Johannes; Adum, Gilbert B; McElroy, Matthew T; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Sandberger, Laura; Weldon, Ché; Cunningham, Andrew A; Ohst, Torsten; Wombwell, Emma; Portik, Daniel M; Reid, Duncan; Hillers, Annika; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oduro, William; Plötner, Jörg; Ohler, Annemarie; Leaché, Adam D; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    A putative driver of global amphibian decline is the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While Bd has been documented across continental Africa, its distribution in West Africa remains ambiguous. We tested 793 West African amphibians (one caecilian and 61 anuran species) for the presence of Bd. The samples originated from seven West African countries - Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone - and were collected from a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland rainforests to montane forests, montane grasslands to humid and dry lowland savannahs. The species investigated comprised various life-history strategies, but we focused particularly on aquatic and riparian species. We used diagnostic PCR to screen 656 specimen swabs and histology to analyse 137 specimen toe tips. All samples tested negative for Bd, including a widespread habitat generalist Hoplobatrachus occipitalis which is intensively traded on the West African food market and thus could be a potential dispersal agent for Bd. Continental fine-grained (30 arc seconds) environmental niche models suggest that Bd should have a broad distribution across West Africa that includes most of the regions and habitats that we surveyed. The surprising apparent absence of Bd in West Africa indicates that the Dahomey Gap may have acted as a natural barrier. Herein we highlight the importance of this Bd-free region of the African continent - especially for the long-term conservation of several threatened species depending on fast flowing forest streams (Conraua alleni ("Vulnerable") and Petropedetes natator ("Near Threatened")) as well as the "Critically Endangered" viviparous toad endemic to the montane grasslands of Mount Nimba (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis). PMID:23426141

  5. Onchocerciasis infection in children born during 14 years of Simulium control in West Africa.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of onchocerciasis infection in children born since the start of vector control is one of the indicators used in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). Though initially of littel value, after a decade of control it has become a sensitive indicator of residual transmission. The results of 14 years of control are reported. In 179 villages parasitological surveys were undertaken at intervals of 3-4 years. 15,286 children were examined and 110 were found to be infected, compared to an expected number of 2467 infected had there been no control. There was considerable geographical variation in the results. In the large central OCP area the results were excellent. Of 12,172 children examined in 127 villages, only 23 were found to be infected compared to an expected number of 1960 without control. This suggests that larviciding had achieved a 99% reduction in the incidence of infection in children. Additional surveys in 2 foci in the central OCP area where transmission had relapsed showed that these problems were very localized. Most villages with infected children were found in OCP border areas in the east and west, which had been reinvaded by infective vectors from elsewhere, and in the intermediate area between forest and savanna in Côte d'Ivoire where there had been partial control failures because of resistance. The incidence of infection in children was reduced by an estimated 68% in the eastern reinvaded area, by 87% in the western reinvaded area, and by 84% in the intermediate area. PMID:1949145

  6. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M.; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C.; Perea, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years’ experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. Methods. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). Results. The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100 000 in 2004–2010 to 0.02 per 100 000 in 2011–2013 (P < .0001). Conclusions. In addition to supporting timely outbreak response, the enhanced meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. PMID:26553668

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Dipstick Diagnostic Test for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X

    PubMed Central

    Agnememel, Alain; Traincard, François; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Mulard, Laurence; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Denizon, Mélanie; Kacou-N′douba, Adèle; Dosso, Mireille; Gake, Bouba; Lombart, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X (NmX) in the African meningitis belt has urged the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines for this serogroup, especially following the introduction of a conjugate vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup A (NmA). We have developed and evaluated a new rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for detecting the capsular polysaccharide (cps) antigen of this emerging serogroup. Whole inactivated NmX bacteria were used to immunize rabbits. Following purification by affinity chromatography, the cpsX-specific IgG antibodies were utilized to develop an NmX-specific immunochromatography dipstick RDT. The test was validated against purified cpsX and meningococcal strains of different serogroups. Its performance was evaluated against that of PCR on a collection of 369 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients living in countries within the meningitis belt (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Niger) or in France. The RDT was highly specific for NmX strains. Cutoffs of 105 CFU/ml and 1 ng/ml were observed for the reference NmX strain and purified cpsX, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94%, respectively. A high agreement between PCR and RDT (Kappa coefficient, 0.98) was observed. The RDT gave a high positive likelihood ratio and a low negative likelihood (0.07), indicating almost 100% probability of declaring disease or not when the test is positive or negative, respectively. This unique NmX-specific test could be added to the available set of RDT for the detection of meningococcal meningitis in Africa as a major tool to reinforce epidemiological surveillance after the introduction of the NmA conjugate vaccine. PMID:25411183

  8. Receiving post-conflict affiliation from the enemy's friend reconciles former opponents.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive function of bystander initiated post-conflict affiliation (also: consolation & appeasement) has been debated for 30 years. Three influential hypotheses compete for the most likely explanation but have not previously been tested with a single data set. The consolation hypothesis argues that bystander affiliation calms the victim and reduces their stress levels. The self-protection hypothesis proposes that a bystander offers affiliation to either opponent to protect himself from redirected aggression by this individual. The relationship-repair hypothesis suggests a bystander can substitute for a friend to reconcile the friend with the friend's former opponent. Here, we contrast all three hypotheses and tested their predictions with data on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We examined the first and second post-conflict interactions with respect to both the dyadic and triadic relationships between the bystander and the two opponents. Results showed that female bystanders offered affiliation to their aggressor friends and the victims of their friends, while male bystanders offered affiliation to their victim friends and the aggressors of their friends. For both sexes, bystander affiliation resulted in a subsequent interaction pattern that is expected for direct reconciliation. Bystander affiliation offered to the opponent's friend was more likely to lead to affiliation among opponents in their subsequent interaction. Also, tolerance levels among former opponents were reset to normal levels. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence for the relationship-repair hypothesis, moderate evidence for the consolation hypothesis and no evidence for the self-protection hypothesis. Furthermore, that bystanders can repair a relationship on behalf of their friend indicates that recipient chimpanzees are aware of the relationships between others, even when they are not kin. This presents a mechanism through which

  9. West Africa - A Safe Haven for Frogs? A Sub-Continental Assessment of the Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Johannes; Adum, Gilbert B.; McElroy, Matthew T.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Sandberger, Laura; Weldon, Ché; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Ohst, Torsten; Wombwell, Emma; Portik, Daniel M.; Reid, Duncan; Hillers, Annika; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oduro, William; Plötner, Jörg; Ohler, Annemarie; Leaché, Adam D.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    A putative driver of global amphibian decline is the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While Bd has been documented across continental Africa, its distribution in West Africa remains ambiguous. We tested 793 West African amphibians (one caecilian and 61 anuran species) for the presence of Bd. The samples originated from seven West African countries - Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone - and were collected from a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland rainforests to montane forests, montane grasslands to humid and dry lowland savannahs. The species investigated comprised various life-history strategies, but we focused particularly on aquatic and riparian species. We used diagnostic PCR to screen 656 specimen swabs and histology to analyse 137 specimen toe tips. All samples tested negative for Bd, including a widespread habitat generalist Hoplobatrachus occipitalis which is intensively traded on the West African food market and thus could be a potential dispersal agent for Bd. Continental fine-grained (30 arc seconds) environmental niche models suggest that Bd should have a broad distribution across West Africa that includes most of the regions and habitats that we surveyed. The surprising apparent absence of Bd in West Africa indicates that the Dahomey Gap may have acted as a natural barrier. Herein we highlight the importance of this Bd-free region of the African continent - especially for the long-term conservation of several threatened species depending on fast flowing forest streams (Conraua alleni (“Vulnerable”) and Petropedetes natator (“Near Threatened”)) as well as the “Critically Endangered” viviparous toad endemic to the montane grasslands of Mount Nimba (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis). PMID:23426141

  10. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    rivières Kettle et Granby, qui coulent dans la vallée. Toutes les simulations ont montré des différences relativement faibles dans la configuration d'ensemble de la nappe et dans la direction générale des écoulements. Des simulations de conditions de recharge forte et de recharge faible produisent respectivement une remontée de 0,05 m et un abaissement de 0,025 m, approximativement, des cotes de la nappe pour l'ensemble de l'aquifère. Des changements simulés de la cote du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus hauts que ceux des pics de crues (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des remontées de la nappe de 2,72 et 3,45 m en moyenne. Des changements simulés de l'altitude du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus bas que ceux de basses eaux (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des abaissements de la nappe de 0,48 et 2,10 m en moyenne. Les altitudes courantes observées de la nappe dans la vallée sont cohérentes avec une cote moyenne du niveau de la rivière (entre les niveaux courants de basses eaux et de crues). El acuífero de los Grand Forks, situado al sur de la Columbia Británica central (Canadá) ha sido utilizado como lugar de estudio para modelar la sensibilidad de un acuífero a los cambios en la recarga y el caudal de los ríos de acuerdo con escenarios previstos de cambio climático en la región. Los resultados sugieren que las variaciones en la recarga al acuífero bajo los diversos escenarios, que han sido modelados en régimen estacionario, tienen un impacto mucho menor en las aguas subterráneas que los cambios en el caudal de los ríos Kettle y Granby, que discurren por el valle. Todas las simulaciones muestran diferencias relativamente pequeñas en la configuración regional de los niveles freáticos y en la dirección general del flujo subterráneo. Las simulaciones de recarga elevada y baja causan un incremento de 0,05 m y un decremento de 0,025 m, respectivamente, en los niveles del acu

  11. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    rivières Kettle et Granby, qui coulent dans la vallée. Toutes les simulations ont montré des différences relativement faibles dans la configuration d'ensemble de la nappe et dans la direction générale des écoulements. Des simulations de conditions de recharge forte et de recharge faible produisent respectivement une remontée de 0,05 m et un abaissement de 0,025 m, approximativement, des cotes de la nappe pour l'ensemble de l'aquifère. Des changements simulés de la cote du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus hauts que ceux des pics de crues (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des remontées de la nappe de 2,72 et 3,45 m en moyenne. Des changements simulés de l'altitude du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus bas que ceux de basses eaux (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des abaissements de la nappe de 0,48 et 2,10 m en moyenne. Les altitudes courantes observées de la nappe dans la vallée sont cohérentes avec une cote moyenne du niveau de la rivière (entre les niveaux courants de basses eaux et de crues). El acuífero de los Grand Forks, situado al sur de la Columbia Británica central (Canadá) ha sido utilizado como lugar de estudio para modelar la sensibilidad de un acuífero a los cambios en la recarga y el caudal de los ríos de acuerdo con escenarios previstos de cambio climático en la región. Los resultados sugieren que las variaciones en la recarga al acuífero bajo los diversos escenarios, que han sido modelados en régimen estacionario, tienen un impacto mucho menor en las aguas subterráneas que los cambios en el caudal de los ríos Kettle y Granby, que discurren por el valle. Todas las simulaciones muestran diferencias relativamente pequeñas en la configuración regional de los niveles freáticos y en la dirección general del flujo subterráneo. Las simulaciones de recarga elevada y baja causan un incremento de 0,05 m y un decremento de 0,025 m, respectivamente, en los niveles del acu

  12. A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Liousse, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Rather surprisingly, urban atmospheric particulate levels in West Africa compare with measured concentrations in Europe and Asia megacities (Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Assamoi, E.-M., Ndiaye, A., Diop, B., Cachier, H., Doumbia, T., Gueye, P., Yoboue, V., Lacaux, J.-P., Guinot, B., Guillaume, B., Rosset, R., Castera, P., Gardrat, E., Zouiten, C., Jambert, C., Diouf, A., Koita, O., Baeza, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., Didier, A., Audry, S., Konare, A., 2009. Integrated Focus on West African Cities (Cotonou, Bamako, Dakar, Ouagadougou, Abidjan, Niamey): Emissions, Air Quality and Health Impacts of Gases and Aerosols. Third International AMMA Conference on Predictability of the West African Moosoon Weather, Climate and Impacts. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. July 20-24). This pollution mainly derives from road traffic emissions with, in some capitals (e.g. Cotonou), the strong contribution of two-wheel vehicles. Two key questions arise: are presently available emission inventories (e.g. Junker, C., Liousse, C., 2008. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997. Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 8, 1-13; Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., Klimont, Z., 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1009, D14203, DOI:10.1029/2003JD003697) able to account for these emissions? And, if not, how can we remedy this? The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate emissions produced by two-wheel vehicles in West Africa for 2002 in a context where reliable information is hardly available. Fuel consumption ratios between two-wheel engines (in this work) and all vehicles issued from UN database ( http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=EDATA&f=cmID%3aMO%3btrID%3a1221) are as high as 169%, 264% and 628%, for Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad respectively, indicating that this global

  13. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the

  14. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID

  15. Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s. s. M form prior to the scaling up of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) in Adzopé, Eastern Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The growing development of pyrethroid resistance constitutes a serious threat to malaria control programmes and if measures are not taken in time, resistance may compromise control efforts in the foreseeable future. Prior to Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) distribution in Eastern Cote d’Ivoire, we conducted bioassays to inform the National Malaria Control Programme of the resistance status of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s. s. and the need for close surveillance of resistance. Methods Larvae of An. gambiae s. s. were collected in two areas of Adzopé (Port-Bouët and Tsassodji) and reared to adults. WHO susceptibility tests with impregnated filter papers were carried out to detect resistance to three pyrethroids commonly used to develop LLINs: permethrin 1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%. Molecular assays were conducted to detect M and S forms and the L1014F kdr allele in individual mosquitoes. Results Resistance, at various degrees was detected in both areas of Adzopé. Overall, populations of An. gambiae at both sites surveyed showed equivalent frequency of the L1014F kdr allele (0.67) but for all tested pyrethroids, there were significantly higher survival rates for mosquitoes from Tsassodji (32–58%) than those from Port-Bouët (3–32%) (p < 0.001), indicating the implication of resistance mechanisms other than kdr alone. During the survey period (May–June) in this forested area of Côte d’Ivoire, An. gambiae s. s. found were exclusively of the M form and were apparently selected for pyrethroid resistance through agricultural and household usage of insecticides. Conclusion Prior to LLINs scaling up in Eastern Côte d’Ivoire, resistance was largely present at various levels in An. gambiae. Underlying mechanisms included the high frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation and other unidentified components, probably metabolic detoxifiers. Their impact on the efficacy of the planned strategy (LLINs) in the

  16. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d

  17. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  18. Diffusion coefficient of cyclic GMP in salamander rod outer segments estimated with two fluorescent probes.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, A; Pugh, E N

    1993-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that single photoisomerizations in amphibian and primate rods can cause the suppression of 3-5% of the dark circulating current at the response peak (Baylor, D. A., T. D. Lamb, and K. W. Yau. 1979. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 288:613-634; Baylor, D. A., B. J. Nunn, and J. L. Schnapf. 1984. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 357:575-607). These results indicate that the change in [cGMP] effected by a single isomerization must spread longitudinally over at least the corresponding fractional length of the outer segment. The effective longitudinal diffusion coefficient, Dx, of cGMP is thus an important determinant of rod sensitivity. We report here measurements of the effective longitudinal diffusion coefficients, Dx, of two fluorescently labeled molecules: 5/6-carboxyfluorescein and 8-(fluoresceinyl)thioguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, introduced into detached outer segments via whole-cell patch electrodes. For these compounds, the average time for equilibration of the entire outer segment with the patch pipette was approximately 6 min. Fluorescence images of rods were analyzed with a one-dimensional diffusion model that included limitations on transfer between the electrode and outer segment and the effects of intracellular binding of the dyes. The analyses yielded estimates of Dx of 1.9 and 1.0 microns 2.s-1 for the two dyes. It is shown that these results place an upper limit on Dx for cGMP of 11 microns2.s-1. The actual value of Dx for cGMP in the rod will depend on the degree of intracellular binding of cGMP. Estimates of the effective buffering power for cGMP in the rod at rest range from two to six (Lamb and Pugh, 1992; Cote and Brunnock, 1993). When combined with these estimates, our results predict that for cGMP itself, Dx falls within the range of 1.4-5.5 microns 2.s-1. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8241412

  19. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013–2014), Cote d’Ivoire (2011–2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012–2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012–2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12–59 months. The

  20. PADME (Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment): A Proposed NASA Discovery Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    , Cornell U., U. of Central Florida, U. of Maryland, U. of Virginia, Lowell Observatory, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, and JAXA.

  1. h-Goliath, paralog of GRAIL, is a new E3 ligase protein, expressed in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Guais, Adeline; Siegrist, Sylvie; Solhonne, Brigitte; Jouault, Hélène; Guellaën, Georges; Bulle, Frédérique

    2006-06-01

    In Drosophila, the RING finger protein d-Goliath was originally identified as a transcription factor involved in the embryo mesoderm formation [Bouchard, M.L., Cote, S., 1993. The Drosophila melanogaster developmental gene g1 encodes a variant zinc-finger-motif protein. Gene 125, 205-209]. In mouse, the m-Goliath mRNA level was shown to be increased in growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis of myeloid cells [Baker, S.J., Reddy, E.P., 2000. Cloning of murine G1RP, a novel gene related to Drosophila melanogaster g1. Gene 248, 33-40]. Due to its putative function of transcription factor in apoptosis, we cloned the human cDNA for h-Goliath and characterized the expression of the protein in blood and bone marrow cells. The human protein of 419 aa (44 kDa) contains a protease-associated domain, a transmembrane domain and a RING-H2 motif. This structure classifies h-Goliath as a new member of a human family of ubiquitin ligases with GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes) as founder. This E3 ligase controls the development of T cell clonal anergy by ubiquitination [Anandasabapathy, N., Ford, G.S., Bloom, D., Holness, C., Paragas, V., Seroogy, C., Skrenta, H., Hollenhorst, M., Fathman, C.G., Soares, L., 2003. GRAIL: an E3 ubiquitin ligase that inhibits cytokine gene transcription is expressed in anergic CD4+ T cells. Immunity 18, 535-547]. In vitro ubiquitination studies support the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of h-Goliath. In human, the protein is expressed under 3 isoforms, a major one at 28 kDa and two others at 46 and 55 kDa. These proteins come from a common precursor (44 kDa) as we observed using in vitro transcription-translation. Using immunohistochemistry on blood or bone marrow smears, of healthy or leukemia samples, we found that the protein expression was restricted to the cytoplasm of progenitors and fully differentiated leukocyte populations. We did not observe any modification of h-Goliath expression or localization in leukemia. In these cells

  2. Rise, transport, and storage of magma during continental rupture: Constraints from the Afar rifting episode (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Cote, D. M.; Keir, D.; Rowland, J. V.; Hammond, J.

    2009-12-01

    The production, storage, and eruption of magma within continental and oceanic rift zones shapes the structure and morphology of the plate boundary, and the buoyancy force of the magma adds to the tectonic forces driving plate divergence. Dikes transport magma from crustal and sub-crustal magma reservoirs, accommodate extensional strain, and impart a length scale to rift deformation. From seismic and geodetic detection of rare ridge intrusion events, dikes of length 10-30 km are emplaced over time periods of hours to days. Both the temporal and spatial patterns of faulting and magmatism help to initiate and maintain the ~50 km along-axis segmentation of mid-ocean ridges and highly evolved continental rifts, and are fundamental to our understanding of lithospheric deformation within rift zones. Four years of seismicity data and field observations from the ongoing rifting episode in the subaerial southern Red Sea rift provide fundamental constraints on the time and length scales of magma transport in this incipient seafloor spreading center. Migrating swarms of tectonic, volcano-tectonic, and very low frequency earthquakes mark the along-axis propagation of 10-20 km-long dikes that initiate in the aseismic axial zone near the mid-segment (Belachew et al., 2009). Post-dike seismicity occurs along the length of the dike zones for months to years after large volume dike intrusions, illuminating differences in the dike height (Cote et al., 2009), as well as syn- and post-dike faulting. Episodic volcano-tectonic and low-frequency earthquakes near the centers of the 3 adjoining tectono-magmatic segments in the southern Red Sea rift suggest that their segment centers are underlain by pressurized magma chambers. For example, moderate magnitude, volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred at the centers of 4 tectono-magmatic segments during the 5-day earthquake swarm and eruption on the Erta’Ale magmatic segment in 2008. Ongoing studies examine the distribution of melt zones

  3. Spin Polarization of the ν=1 Quantum Hall State Via Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. B.

    1996-03-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that the response of a 2DES with small g-factor in the spin-polarized state (ν=1) to a change of one quantum of magnetic flux is not a single-particle spin-flip excitation, but rather a macroscopic spin object called a Skyrmion or charged spin-texture excitation (CSTE).(S. L. Sondhi, A. Karlhede, S. A. Kivelson, and E. H. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 47), 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig, L. Brey, R. Cote, and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994) Evidence of these excitations have been recently observed in NMR and in tilted-field transport measurements.(S. E. Barrett, G. Dabbagh, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and Z. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 5112 (1995); A. Schmeller, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, LANL Cond-mat preprint 9506133. They consist of a radial spin density distribution that is reversed at the center but gradually heals to the spin background over a distance of many magnetic lengths. With each particle in a nearly spin-aligned neighborhood, the exchange contribution lowers the energy of the CSTE relative to a single flipped spin. We present an experimental observation of Skyrmions in GaAs through the dramatic reduction in the degree of spin-polarization when the Fermi energy moves off the mid-point of the spin-gap of the lowest Landau level, ν=1. The degree of electron spin polarization as a function of ν is measured through interband magneto-absorption spectroscopy which distinguish the occupancy of the two electron spin-states. The spectra show quenching of absorption to the lower energy, spin-up electron band directly correlated to an increase in the higher energy, spin-down absorption at ν=1. This indicates the spin-up state fills with electrons while the spin-down state empties, providing a large spin-polarization Sz which exhibits a pronounced, symmetric decay when ν deviates from 1. The data provide a measurement of the absolute electron spin and are evidence for the presence of Skyrmion

  4. A VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO SURVEY OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Capetti, Alessandro; Kharb, Preeti; Axon, David J.; Merritt, David; Baldi, Ranieri D.

    2009-12-15

    We present the results of an 8.4 GHz Very Large Array radio survey of early-type galaxies extracted from the sample selected by Cote and collaborators for the Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey. The aim of this survey is to investigate the origin of radio emission in early-type galaxies and its link with the host properties in an unexplored territory toward the lowest levels of both radio and optical luminosities. Radio images, available for all 63 galaxies with B {sub T} < 14.4, show the presence of a compact radio source in 12 objects, with fluxes spanning from 0.13 mJy to 2700 mJy. The remaining 51 galaxies, undetected at a flux limit of {approx}0.1 mJy, have radio luminosities L {approx}< 4 x 10{sup 18} W Hz{sup -1}. The fraction of radio-detected galaxies are a strong function of stellar mass, in agreement with previous results: none of the 30 galaxies with M {sub *} < 1.7 x 10{sup 10} M {sub sun} is detected, while 8 of the 11 most massive galaxies have radio cores. There appears to be no simple relation between the presence of a stellar nucleus and radio emission. In fact, we find radio sources associated with two nucleated galaxies, but the majority of nucleated objects are not a radio emitter above our detection threshold. A multiwavelength analysis of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission, combining radio and X-ray data, confirms the link between optical surface brightness profile and radio loudness in the sense that the bright core galaxies are associated with radio-loud AGNs, while non-core galaxies host radio-quiet AGNs. Not all radio-detected galaxies have an X-ray nuclear counterpart (and vice versa). A complete census of AGNs (and supermassive black holes, SMBHs) thus requires observations, at least, in both bands. Nonetheless, there are massive galaxies in the sample, expected to host a large SMBH (M {sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}), whose nuclear emission eludes detection despite their proximity and the depth and the

  5. Exploring Mechanisms of Biofilm Removal

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Karan; Khashai, Fatemeh; Forghany, Ali; Krasieva, Tatiana; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel anti-plaque formulation on oral biofilm removal. Specific aim was to elucidate the role of 2 potentially complementary mechanisms on dental biofilm removal using EPIEN Dental Debriding Solution (EDDS) like desiccating action leading to denaturation and destabilization of plaque and mechanical removal of destabilized plaque through forceful rinsing action Materials and Methods 25 extracted teeth, after routine debriding and cleaning, underwent standard biofilm incubation model over 4 days. Then samples were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 teeth each, treated and stained with GUM®Red-Cote® plaque disclosing solution and imaged. Samples were subsequently treated with HYBENX® Oral Decontaminant. Group 1 samples were treated with a standardized “static” water dip exposure following biofilm incubation. Samples in Group 2 were given a standardized “dynamic” exposure to a dental high pressure air/water syringe for 20 s. Group 3 samples were exposed to a standardized “static” application of test agent (30 s dip rinse) followed by a standardized “static” water rinse (30 s dip rinse). Samples in Group 4 were given both the standardized “static” application of test formulation followed by the standardized “dynamic” exposure to a dental high pressure air/water syringe. Finally, samples in Group 5 were treated with a standardized “dynamic” application of test agent (20 s high pressure syringe at 10 ml/s) followed by the standardized “dynamic” exposure to a dental high pressure air/water syringe. Results The MPM images demonstrated that the water dip treatment resulted in the persistence of an almost continuous thick layer of biofilm coverage on the tooth surface. Similarly, test agent dip treatment followed by water dip only removed a few patches of biofilm, with the majority of the tooth surface remaining covered by an otherwise continuous layer of biofilm. Samples

  6. Effets de la pollution de l’air sur la santé

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire connaître aux médecins de famille les effets de la pollution atmosphérique sur la santé et indiquer quels conseils donner aux patients vulnérables pour qu’ils soient moins exposés. Sources de l’information On a consulté MEDLINE à l’aide des termes relatifs à la pollution atmosphérique et à ses effets indésirables. On a révisé les articles en anglais publiés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2009. La plupart des études contenaient des preuves de niveau II. Principal message Au Canada, la pollution de l’air extérieur cause une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Elle peut affecter le système respiratoire (exacerbation de l’asthme et de la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique) et le système cardiovasculaire (déclencher l’arythmie, l’insuffisance cardiaque et les AVC). La cote air santé (CAS) est un nouvel outil de communication mis au point par Santé Canada et Environnement Canada qui indique sur une échelle de 1 à 10, le risque pour la santé causé par la pollution atmosphérique. La CAS est largement diffusée dans les médias et cet outil pourrait être utile au médecin de famille pour inciter les patients à haut risque (comme ceux qui souffrent d’asthme, de maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique ou d’insuffisance cardiaque) à réduire leur exposition à la pollution atmosphérique. Conclusion Le médecin de famille peut se servir de la CAS et de ses messages sur la santé pour enseigner aux asthmatiques et aux autres patients à risque élevé la façon de réduire les risques pour la santé causés par la pollution atmosphérique.

  7. Time-transfer experiments between satellite laser ranging ground stations via one-way laser ranging to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All

  8. Missed opportunities in full immunization coverage: findings from low- and lower-middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Johnson, Hope L.; Pariyo, George; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated 23 million infants are still not being benefitted from routine immunization services. We assessed how many children failed to be fully immunized even though they or their mothers were in contact with health services to receive other interventions. Design Fourteen countries with Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys carried out after 2000 and with coverage for DPT (Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) vaccine below 70% were selected. We defined full immunization coverage (FIC) as having received one dose of BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin), one dose of measles, three doses of polio, and three doses of DPT vaccines. We tabulated FIC against: antenatal care (ANC), skilled birth attendance (SBA), postnatal care for the mother (PNC), vitamin A supplementation (VitA) for the child, and sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN). Missed opportunities were defined as the percentage of children who failed to be fully immunized among those receiving one or more other interventions. Results Children who received other health interventions were also more likely to be fully immunized. In nearly all countries, FIC was lowest among children born to mothers who failed to attend ANC, and highest when the mother had four or more ANC visits Côte d'Ivoire presented the largest difference in FIC: 54 percentage points (pp) between having four or more ANC visits and lack of ANC. SBA was also related with higher FIC. For instance, the coverage in children without SBA was 36 pp lower than for those with SBA in Nigeria. The largest absolute difference on FIC in relation to PNC was observed for Ethiopia: 31 pp between those without and with PNC. FIC was also positively related with having received VitA. The largest absolute difference was observed in DR Congo: 41 pp. The differences in FIC among whether or not children slept under ITN were much smaller than for other interventions. Haiti presented the largest absolute difference: 16 pp

  9. Prospects for the Development of Odour Baits to Control the Tsetse Flies Glossina tachinoides and G. palpalis s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Rayaisse, J. B.; Tirados, I.; Kaba, D.; Dewhirst, S. Y.; Logan, J. G.; Diarrassouba, A.; Salou, E.; Omolo, M. O.; Solano, P.; Lehane, M. J.; Pickett, J. A.; Vale, G. A.; Torr, S. J.; Esterhuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were done of the responses of Glossina palpalis palpalis in Côte d'Ivoire, and G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides in Burkina Faso, to odours from humans, cattle and pigs. Responses were measured either by baiting (1.) biconical traps or (2.) electrocuting black targets with natural host odours. The catch of G. tachinoides from traps was significantly enhanced (∼5×) by odour from cattle but not humans. In contrast, catches from electric targets showed inconsistent results. For G. p. gambiensis both human and cattle odour increased (>2×) the trap catch significantly but not the catch from electric targets. For G. p. palpalis, odours from pigs and humans increased (∼5×) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the vicinity of the odour source but had little effect on landing or trap-entry. For G. tachinoides a blend of POCA (P = 3-n-propylphenol; O = 1-octen-3-ol; C = 4-methylphenol; A = acetone) alone or synthetic cattle odour (acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol with carbon dioxide) consistently caught more tsetse than natural cattle odour. For G. p. gambiensis, POCA consistently increased catches from both traps and targets. For G. p. palpalis, doses of carbon dioxide similar to those produced by a host resulted in similar increases in attraction. Baiting traps with super-normal (∼500 mg/h) doses of acetone also consistently produced significant but slight (∼1.6×) increases in catches of male flies. The results suggest that odour-baited traps and insecticide-treated targets could assist the AU-Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) in its current efforts to monitor and control Palpalis group tsetse in West Africa. For all three species, only ∼50% of the flies attracted to the vicinity of the trap were actually caught by it, suggesting that better traps might be developed by an analysis of the visual responses and identification of any semiochemicals involved in short

  10. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific Basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats.

    PubMed

    Kliks, M M; Palumbo, N E

    1992-01-01

    (1977), Puerto Rico (1984), New Orleans, Louisiana (1985) and Port Harcourt, Nigeria (1989). Human infections have now been detected in Cuba (1973), Réunion Island (1974) and Côte d'Ivoire (1979) and should be anticipated wherever infected rats of mollusks have been introduced. Caged primates became infected in zoos in Hong Kong (1978) and New Orleans and Nassau, Bahamas (1987). The use of mollusks and crustacea as famine foods, favored delicacies and medicines has resulted in numerous outbreaks and isolated infections. Economic and political instability, illicit trade, unsanitary peridomestic conditions and lack of health education promote the local occurrence and insidious global expansion of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1738873

  11. A Unique Nodavirus with Novel Features: Mosinovirus Expresses Two Subgenomic RNAs, a Capsid Gene of Unknown Origin, and a Suppressor of the Antiviral RNA Interference Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Susan; Zirkel, Florian; Kurth, Andreas; van Cleef, Koen W. R.; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insects are a reservoir for many known and novel viruses. We discovered an unknown virus, tentatively named mosinovirus (MoNV), in mosquitoes from a tropical rainforest region in Côte d'Ivoire. The MoNV genome consists of two segments of positive-sense RNA of 2,972 nucleotides (nt) (RNA 1) and 1,801 nt (RNA 2). Its putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase shares 43% amino acid identity with its closest relative, that of the Pariacoto virus (family Nodaviridae). Unexpectedly, for the putative capsid protein, maximal pairwise identity of 16% to Lake Sinai virus 2, an unclassified virus with a nonsegmented RNA genome, was found. Moreover, MoNV virions are nonenveloped and about 50 nm in diameter, larger than any of the known nodaviruses. Mature MoNV virions contain capsid proteins of ∼56 kDa, which do not seem to be cleaved from a longer precursor. Northern blot analyses revealed that MoNV expresses two subgenomic RNAs of 580 nt (RNA 3) and 292 nt (RNA 4). RNA 4 encodes a viral suppressor of RNA interference (RNAi) that shares its mechanism with the B2 RNAi suppressor protein of other nodaviruses despite lacking recognizable similarity to these proteins. MoNV B2 binds long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and, accordingly, inhibits Dicer-2-mediated processing of dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Phylogenetic analyses indicate that MoNV is a novel member of the family Nodaviridae that acquired its capsid gene via reassortment from an unknown, distantly related virus beyond the family level. IMPORTANCE The identification of novel viruses provides important information about virus evolution and diversity. Here, we describe an unknown unique nodavirus in mosquitoes, named mosinovirus (MoNV). MoNV was classified as a nodavirus based on its genome organization and on phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Notably, its capsid gene was acquired from an unknown virus with a distant relationship to nodaviruses. Another remarkable feature of Mo

  12. Innovative financing for HIV response in sub–Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Atun, Rifat; Silva, Sachin; Ncube, Mthuli; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 around 15 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub–Saharan Africa. Sustained provision of ART, though both prudent and necessary, creates substantial long–term fiscal obligations for countries affected by HIV/AIDS. As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. We explore how Innovative Financing has been used to co–finance domestic HIV/AIDS respons