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Sample records for abidjan cote divoire

  1. Petroleum geology of Cote d`Ivoir (Abidjan margin)

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cote d`Ivoire sedimentary basin is part of a typical transform passive margin developed along the West African coast from Liberia to Ghana. It straddles the coastline and the sedimentary section expands dramatically South of the East-West trending Lagune Fault, with up to 10,000 metres of sediments from Aptian to Present in age. Albo-Aptian rift series, mainly continental clastics without evaporites, have accumulated progressively in a tilted semi-graben. The drift stage marks a widespread marine sedimentation organized in progradational sequences which blanket the Albian block-fault topography of the continental break-up. Reservoirs are mainly clastics and present in the section from Middle Albian to Maastrichtian. Sand bodies are associated with identified submarine fans, infill structures or channelized units deposited in a shelf or outer-shelf environment. Trapping opportunities are due to block-faulting in the rift section, or gravity tectonics in the drift section, often combined with sand pinch-outs to constitute mixed structural-stratigraphic traps. Thick top-seal units formed by marine shales are widespread. Source-rocks have been shown to belong mainly to the rift series and they have been characterized in terms of geochemistry and maturation timing. An efficient simulation model has been used to recontruct the expulsion, migration and trapping of hydrocarbons along a selected North-South cross-section and to better define the Petroleum Systems.

  2. Appropriating "malaria": local responses to malaria treatment and prevention in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Granado, Stefanie; Manderson, Lenore; Obrist, Brigit; Tanner, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    A continuing dilemma for medical and public health professionals is the apparent lack of fit between global and local knowledge systems and technologies. This is illustrated in relationship to malaria, with implications in the management of the disease. Ethnographic research was conducted from 2003-2005 in urban Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, on community understandings of malaria and the relationship of this to its prevention and control. Malaria is referred to locally as palu, reflecting the incorporation of malaria into a local illness taxonomy. Although the labeling of malaria-related symptoms as palu has wide currency, preventive measures such as bed nets, as advocated by public health authorities, have not been accepted readily or evenly. Drawing on theoretical understandings of the introduction, transfer, and appropriation of concepts and material objects, we examine the processes of localization in relation to malaria in Abidjan, and in doing so, highlight the challenges for health professionals seeking to scale-up public health interventions. PMID:21218358

  3. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  4. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  5. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  6. Attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding options--a study from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Emmanuela A; Béquet, Laurence; Ekouévi, Didier K; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS-pandemic causes many problems for the most affected societies and their health care systems. One of these is the 'parent to child transmission' (PTCT) through breastmilk and its prevention (PPTCT). As economic and hygienic conditions do not always assure safe replacement feeding in developing countries, a WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-expert panel proposed methods to reduce the risk of PTCT but to use breastmilk for infant feeding. The study presented here aimed at identifying the expected acceptance of such a concept by addressing the attitudes of women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Interviews were performed with 150 mothers and 60 pregnant women. The vast majority regarded breastfeeding as the appropriate method of infant feeding, although the idea of exclusive breastfeeding was not well accepted. Water, especially, was felt to be a necessary supplement. In case of a suggested HIV-infection of the mother, 74 per cent of the women voted for weaning after 3 months. Eighty-three per cent accepted the exclusive use of breastmilk substitutes from birth. Seventy-six per cent were ready to boil their milk for pasteurization. Only 37 per cent considered a wet-nurse to breastfeed their child. As mixed breastfeeding implies a highest risk of PTCT of HIV, the most favoured option-exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning-requires some effort to convince women that breastmilk is a sufficient source of nutrients, fluid and energy for their child and that this feeding should preferably be practised up to 6 months of age. For affluent women, breastmilk substitutes can also be considered as a means of PPTCT in overall resource-poor countries. For the majority of women, there is no real alternative to breastfeeding and to the use of breastmilk for which appropriate technologies of PPTCT are to be developed with respect to national, local and household specifications. PMID:15890725

  7. Spotlight: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-11-01

    The Republic of Cote d'Ivoire's 1986 population was estimated at 10.8 million, with a 3.0% rate of natural increase. In 1986, there were 46 births/1000 population and 15 deaths/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.7. Infant mortality stood at 105/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth was 52 years. Since independence in 1960, Cote d'Ivoire has been one of the most prosperous countries in Africa, with nearly 7% annual growth in the 1960-80 period. The agricultural sector, which employs about 3/4 of the labor force, produces coffee, cocoa, and timber for export. The country is also one of the world's largest producers of palm oil, and the government is seeking to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production by the end of 1987. The gross national product per capita was US$620 in 1986. The government aims to increase fertility through the provision of social welfare services such as child allowances and maternity benefits. The population growth rate has increased from 3.64/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. If current trends persist, the population of Cote d'Ivoire will have doubled in 20 years. Immigration has also contributed to increase the overall rate of population growth, rising from 75,000/year in 1965-75 to a current figure of 94,000/year. The proportion of aliens in the population is expected to increase from 25% in 1980 to over 30% by 1990. PMID:12268738

  8. Female Genital Mutilation in Infants and Young Girls: Report of Sixty Cases Observed at the General Hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  9. Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d'ivoire, west Africa).

    PubMed

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  10. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  11. How to Certify Learning in a Country Split into Two by a Civil War: Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives in Cote d'Ivoire, 2002-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Magali Chelpi-den

    2007-01-01

    Following political turmoil and rising socio-economic difficulties, Cote d'Ivoire has been split into two since September 2002. The rebellion controls the northern part of the country and the main towns of Bouake, Korhogo and Man, while the government controls the southern part with Abidjan, Yamoussoukro, Daloa and all the ports in the coastal…

  12. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite. PMID:12319960

  13. Numerous seismic prospects dot concessions off Cote d'Ivoire

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, N. ); Barton, E.W. )

    1994-04-04

    A recently announced significant oil discovery off Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa has piqued industry interest in the area. The well, drilled in the CI-11 block in 70 m of water about 12 km offshore, comes several weeks after UMIC announced a sizable gas/condensate discovery in the same block, UMIC and partners plan further drilling. Petroci, the Cote d'Ivoire state oil company and working interest partner in the two new discoveries, is offering three large evaluation concessions to the international oil industry. This current concession round represents the first time in recent years that the region has been opened for petroleum exploration activity. In a major change, Cote d'Ivoire just reduced its income tax rate for the oil industry to 35% from 50%. The paper describes the structure of the margin, stratigraphy, the Espair oil field, the Belier oil field, and the Fox trot gas field.

  14. Education and Conflict in Cote d'Ivoire. Special Report 235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sany, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between conflict and education in Cote d'Ivoire, and suggests policy and program approaches for analysts and those engaged with education and peacebuilding in societies affected by conflict. Although the situation in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved since the main recommendations of this report were written in early…

  15. The Equity Impact of Public Finance of Private Education Provision in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The equity effects of public subsidization of private schools in Cote d'Ivoire are analyzed. The subsidy per student in private (and public) schools increases as one goes to higher household per capita expenditure groups. Students from families in the highest expenditure quartile receive twice the subsidy received by students from families in the…

  16. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs.... 2011-7 of March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act...

  17. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  18. Sociopolitical crisis and the reconstruction of sustainable periurban agriculture in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Babo, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the post-2002 sociopolitical crisis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, on urban and peri-urban agriculture. Based on the case study of Abidjan, it argues for a conceptualization of sustainability that includes social as well as environmental dimensions and focuses on coping strategies of producers and merchants. In Abidjan, these strategies included internal migration within the city and its periphery, the use of organic fertilizers, and changes in market structure. The study illustrates how such strategies allowed producers to continue to supply produce to the market, despite the difficulties of war. PMID:21322900

  19. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities. PMID:26646721

  20. Development of Foxtrot offshore gas field Cote d'Ivoire. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In December 1991, a definitional mission investigated a project to develop a natural gas field located offshore Cote d'Ivoire, and whether a grant to the Ivorian government should be made for the study. However, before the mission could be conducted, the character of the project changed from one which was primarily a gas-development venture to a power generation project in which the energy source was natural gas. It was concluded that the expanded project changed the focus of the definitional mission. In the project's original formulation in which the World Bank was to be the main lender, it was clear that U.S. firms would have an opportunity to bid on significant portions of the project due to the Bank's standard requirement for competitive bidding. But after French industrial and financial groups joined in the expanded project, it was not clear that a sufficient opportunity would still exist for the involvement of U.S. firms in the overall project. Therefore, the mission was modified to first assess the business and financial aspects of the project before making a decision on a mission to Cote d'Ivoire to conduct a technical review of the proposed development of the offshore gas field.

  1. Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sangare-Tigori, Béatrice; Moukha, Serge; Kouadio, James H; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Achour, Abdellatif; Creppy, Edmond E

    2006-06-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera contaminates a diversity of foods including cereals; cereals-derived foods; dry fruits; beans; cocoa; coffee; beer; wine; and foodstuffs of animal origin mainly poultry, eggs, pork and milk, including human breast milk. OTA is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far and most likely to humans, who show the longest half-life for elimination of this toxin among all species examined. Among other toxic effects, OTA is teratogenic, immunotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, all of which lead to life-threatening pathologies through several molecular pathways. In Côte d'Ivoire, preliminary surveys conducted by us have proven from 1998 to 2004 the reality of ochratoxin A-contamination of foodstuffs. To assess OTA in human blood, the immunoaffinity columns were used along with HPLC for separation and fluorimetric quantification of blood samples collected in Abidjan from two categories of people: apparently healthy donors (n=63) and nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis (n=39). Among healthy donors, 34.9% show OTA concentrations ranging from 0.01 - 5.81 microg/l with a mean value of 0.83 microg/l, whereas, among nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis 20.5% are OTA positive in a range of 0.167-2.42 microg/l and a mean value of 1.05. Although the sex ratio is 0.82 (46 females for 56 males) ochratoxin A contamination is equally distributed in both sexes. Nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis appear, however, less frequently contaminated than healthy donors (20.5 versus 34.9%) and show higher OTA concentrations (higher mean value, p=0.01). Ochratoxin A concentrations found in human blood reflect concentrations previously detected in cereals and peanuts according to the eating habits and diets of people in Côte d'Ivoire. But, the prevalence of ochratoxin A in blood of nephropathy people undergoing dialysis appears lower than expected from the frequency of OTA contamination in cereals and

  2. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C. ); Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d'Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian( )-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d'lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  3. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d`Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C.; Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d`Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian(?)-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d`lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  4. The Tradeoff between Number of Children and Child Schooling: Evidence from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Working Paper Number 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; And Others

    This research paper explores the relationship between fertility and the investments made by parents in the schooling of their children in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana (both in Africa). The tendency in developing nations research is that families with many children invest less in each, and families with fewer children make greater human capital…

  5. Pharmacovigilance for antiretroviral drugs in Africa, lessons from a study in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Djima, Mariam Mama; Coffie, Patrick; Kacou, Henri Die; Eholie, Serge P.; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Guehi, Calixte; Yavo, Jean Claude; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Dabis, Francois; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2011-01-01

    Background While antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse drug reactions (ADR) are documented in industrialized countries, there is no pre-existing surveillance system dedicated to ADR monitoring in most African countries. We assessed knowledge towards pharmacovigilance among ART prescribers and available capacity of HIV clinics to conduct ADR monitoring in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ART prescribers, to assess their knowledge towards the occurrence of ADRs. A retrospective ADR survey was also conducted, based on a data query of treatment modification/interruptions in three HIV clinics. Clinical monitors went back to medical charts to review and validate the reasons of the treatment modification/interruptions. Results Of the 81 ART prescribers interviewed, 25 (31%) declared not grading ADRs and 12 (14.8%) declared notifying ADRs to the national regulatory authorities. Among 5,252 adult ART-treated patients who attended the participating clinics in 2008, 599 treatment modifications were identified. Reasons for treatment modification/interruptions identified in the electronic database were documented in the medical charts in 554 (92.5%) cases, ADR accounting for 273 (45.5%) cases. Toxicity related to ART was graded in only 58 (21%) cases in the medical charts. Discussion This study describes challenges limiting the implementation of reliable pharmacovigilance activities in HIV clinics in Côte d’Ivoire. The lack of knowledge of ART prescribers concerning ADR grading does not support the spontaneous reporting of ADRs. Using treatment modification/interruptions for ADR monitoring appears feasible but improvements are needed to respond to key questions related to drug toxicities in the context of ART scale up in Africa. PMID:21735508

  6. HIV vulnerability and the erasure of sexual and gender diversity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the fight against concentrated HIV epidemics, men who have sex with men (MSM) are often framed as a homogeneous population, with little attention paid to sexual and gender diversity and its impact on HIV vulnerability. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire among les branchés - a local term encompassing several categories of same-sex desire and practice. In the context of increased HIV prevention programming targeting Ivoirian sexual and gender minorities, such diversity is effectively erased. This obfuscation of difference has particularly negative impacts for travestis, who may be at higher risk for HIV infection, though research and prevention efforts in which they are grouped with 'MSM' render them underrepresented and make their vulnerability difficult to quantify. Branchés whose class and/or ethnic backgrounds compound their stigmatised status as sexual and gender minorities also bear the burden of this exclusion. Furthermore, some branchés deploy 'MSM' as a form of self-identification, further complicating who such categories represent. By highlighting the ways in which constructions of gender and sexuality within HIV/AIDS programming obscure complex social realities, I aim to reorient thinking around the development of purposeful HIV programming that engages the complexity of sexual and gender minority experience. PMID:26894990

  7. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  8. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA. PMID:27040819

  9. [The quality of immunization services in community centers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Tiembré, Issaka; Benié Bi, Vroh Joseph; Attoh-Touré, Harvey; Douba, Alfred; N'zi, Ekie; Simplice Dagnan, N'cho; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2012-01-01

    In addition to health care centers, other institutions such as community centers are also involved in providing immunization services, the purpose being to address the inadequate provision of services in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of immunization services provided by non-medical staff. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the course of two months in the 15 public community centers providing immunization services in Abidjan. Data collection was performed by two physicians using three questionnaires (one for center managers, one for vaccinators and one for vaccine recipients) and two observation checklists (to assess vaccination equipment and to observe the behaviors and practices of vaccinators). The study found that none of the centers had a generator. One community center had no refrigerator. Refrigerators were not placed in a ventilated area in 14.3 % of the centers and were not exclusively used for the storage of vaccines in 26.7 % of the centers. None of the centers had an incinerator. 21.1 % of staff did not know the correct storage temperature. In 88.9 % of cases, the swab used to stop bleeding was also used to clean the injection site. The injection site was not sterilized in 10.8 % of cases. 73.9 % of the recipients did not know what vaccine they had been administered, while 95 % of the recipients did not know the date of their next vaccination appointment. The results indicate that immunization services in public community centers have many shortcomings. To address these issues, it is necessary to implement a training policy and to provide appropriate equipment and supervision. PMID:23472984

  10. Characteristics and outcome of living kidney donors after donation: A report from Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Delphine Amélie; Ackoundou-N'guessan, Kan Clément; Njapom, Tchakam Léopold; Sekongo, Yassongui Mamadou; Guei, Cyr Monley; Tia, Mélanie Weu; Gnionsahe, Daze Apollinaire

    2016-05-01

    Kidney transplantation from living kidney donors (LKDs) because of its good results represents a good option for the treatment of patients with the end-stage renal disease. Kidney donation is a relatively safe procedure according to several studies. We conducted this cross-sectional study in order to describe the demographic, clinical, and renal outcome of LKD in Côte d'Ivoire. From March to November 2014, LKD residing in Côte d'Ivoire at the time of investigation and having donated the kidney more than one year ago were considered for the study. They were evaluated through a questionnaire. Of the 29 LKD listed in Côte d'Ivoire, only 14 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at donation was 43.29 ± 9.12 years (27-59) and 10 of the LKD were women. Eight were related to the recipients, and the remaining were spouses. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in nine LKD. The left kidney was harvested in ten cases. The main motivation for donation in all donors was the desire to save a life. At the time of the survey, the average duration after the donation was 4.57 ± 2.56 years (1-8). Only five donors had a regular nephrological follow-up. Hypertension was observed in one donor, seven had significant proteinuria, and six had glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min but >30 mL/min. Significantly higher proteinuria was noted in donors under 45 years as compared to those over 45 years (0.43 ± 0.17 g/24 h vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 g/24 h, P = 0.01). Our study suggests that renal disease in LKD in Côte d'Ivoire is low after a mean follow-up period of four years. A donor registry is essential to ensure better follow-up of donors in order to detect potential adverse effects of kidney donation in the medium as well as in the long-term. PMID:27215251

  11. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S.; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  12. Perceptions and Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Sara J.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Cardoso, Lauren F.; Cole, Heather; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2016-01-01

    Background Men and women’s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) within crisis-affected populations are not well understood. This mixed-methods study examined the frequency of IPV against women in urban Cote d’Ivoire, and qualitatively explored how men and women perceive the impact of various forms of IPV on health, everyday activities, and feelings of shame. Methods A survey was administered to Ivorian women (N = 80) to measure the frequency of IPV, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with women (n = 46) and men (n = 45) to explore perceptions of different forms of IPV, including its impacts on disruptions to health, everyday activities, and experiences of shame. Results Half of all surveyed women (53.6%) reported past year exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional IPV. Of the multiple types of violence, emotional IPV was most common (46.4%), followed by sexual IPV (21.7%) and physical IPV (17.4%). Focus group participants identified additional forms of violence including economic IPV and community discrimination. Lack of financial resources and unemployment were common problems among crisis-affected women and were described as an underlying source of IPV. Both women and men reported that shame and stigma play a large role in how women experience the repercussions of IPV, regardless of the form of violence, with public episodes of IPV almost always seen as more detrimental than private episodes of IPV. Conclusions These results underscore the need for increased social support mechanisms for women to reduce the shame, stigma, and isolation associated with their experiences. The creation of safe and supportive spaces for women to talk about and challenge social norms may be an important first step in reducing community shaming and the secrecy that often surrounds IPV. Safe spaces along with broader societal outreach, including challenging men’s social positions and creating opportunities for increasing economic resources can, in turn

  13. [Growth in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Pessa; Adonis Koffy, Laurence; Diarrassouba, Gnenefoly; Timité Konan, Marguerite

    2015-06-01

    We realized one of the first observational studies in sub-Saharan Africa whose aim was to analyze the growth in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome. This was a retrospective study, involving 30 children followed for nephrotic syndrome in pediatric nephrology unit of the University Hospital of Yopougon (Abidjan) from 28.02.2005 to 19.12.2010. Each child was followed for two years and we are interested in demographic characteristics and the evolution of size. At the end of our study, it appears that: the mean age was 89.33 ± 43.41 months (7.44 years) with a sex ratio of 3,28. At the end of the two years of follow-up, patients had received a median dose of steroids 6151 ± 3832 mg/m(2), 9111 ± 1376 mg/m(2) and 8664 ± 5379 mg/m(2), respectively, for a relapse or no, two and at least three relapses. Fourteen patients had received vitamin D therapy and calcium. At the end of follow-up, four children had growth retardation. An average gain in Z-score was noted at the end of follow-up in girls and boys respectively +0.06 and +0.36. The growth retardation observed in our study was not associated with different growth periods (P=0.116), gender (P=0.548) and the mean Z-scores observed at the end of follow-up was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.26). Growth retardation observed was not related to the cumulative dose administered (P=0.15), number of relapse (P=1.000). PMID:25765237

  14. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N’guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Results: Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. Conclusion: This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery. PMID:25659551

  15. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas. PMID:27000124

  16. Spatial dispersion and characterisation of mosquito breeding habitats in urban vegetable-production areas of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J

    2010-12-01

    Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services). PMID:21144184

  17. Operational issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 1998-99.

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Hingst, G.; Kaba, F.; Viho, I.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility, from the public health standpoint, of preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Africa. METHODS: Voluntary counselling and HIV serotesting were routinely provided in four health centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, for six months in 1998-99. Peripartum treatment with zidovudine and alternatives to breastfeeding were provided free to HIV-infected women. FINDINGS: Of the 4309 pregnant women in the study who attended their first antenatal care visit, 3756 benefited from individual counselling and pretesting (87.2%), and 3452 (80.1%) agreed to undergo HIV serotesting. Overall HIV prevalence was (12.89%) and 5% for women aged under 18 years. Among the 2998 HIV-negative women, 71% returned for their test result, whereas only 60% of the 445 HIV-positive women did so. A total of 124 HIV-positive women were informed of their serostatus and the possibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 100 started treatment and 80 completed zidovudine prophylaxis. At 6 weeks of age, 36 of the 78 liveborn children were being breastfed (46%), two were being mixed-fed and 41 (52%) were being artificially fed. CONCLUSIONS: In Abidjan, voluntary counselling and HIV testing with a view to preventing mother-to-child transmission was feasible in antenatal care units and was well accepted by pregnant women. An insufficient proportion of women returned to obtain their test results. This was especially so among HIV-positive women, the target group for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Additional staff were required in order to offer voluntary counselling and HIV testing to the study women. Close supervision and strong commitment of health workers were essential. Alternatives to breastfeeding were effectively proposed to HIV-positive women, with active follow-up of children and clinical, nutritional and social support. PMID:11477967

  18. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

  19. Recurrent selection of cocoa populations in Cote d'Ivoire: comparative genetic diversity between the first and second cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Cote d'Ivore, the cocoa breeding programme has been based on the creation of hybrids between different genetic groups. From 1990 onward, a reciprocal recurrent selection programme has been set up with the purpose of improving simultaneously the characteristics of the two main genetic groups: Uppe...

  20. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kouakou S; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM) is strongly associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of action whereby PM cause adverse health effects are still unclear. In developing countries, like in the sub-Saharian region of Africa, people are often exposed to high PM levels. Hence, three PM(2.5) samples were collected in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), under rural, urban or industrial influences. Their most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined--thereby showing that most of them were equal or smaller than 2.5 microm--and the influence of both natural (Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, etc.) and anthropic (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, benzene and its derivatives, paraffins, etc.) emission sources. The toxicity induced by the three PM samples was studied through 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hence, effect concentrations at 10 and 50% (EC(10) and EC(50), respectively) were as follows: (i) rural PM--EC(10) = 5.91 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 29.55 microg cm(-2); (ii) urban PM--EC(10) = 5.45 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 27.23 microg cm(-2); and (iii) industrial PM--EC(10) = 6.86 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 34.29 microg cm(-2). Moreover, PM-induced oxidative damage in A549 cells was observed through the induction of lipid peroxidation, the alteration of superoxide dismutase activity, and the disruption of glutathione status. Both the transition metals and the organic chemicals within the three collected PM samples under study might be involved in the oxidative damage and, therefore, the toxicity they induced in A549 cells. PMID:19943358

  1. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  2. Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna; Tschannen, Andres B; Becket, Emmanuel Gbede; Gosoniu, Laura; Cissé, Gueladio; Tanner, Marcel; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people's health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. First, the heads of households were interviewed on agricultural land use, farming practices, water storage, sanitation facilities, and socioeconomic status. Second, a finger prick blood sample was taken from all household members and examined for the occurrence and density of Plasmodia. Geographic coordinates of houses, farming plots, and potential mosquito breeding sites were recorded and integrated into a geographic information system. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed using non-random and random effects Bayesian regression models. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 32.1%. In children < 15 years of age, risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included living in a specific agricultural zone, close proximity to permanent ponds and fish ponds, periodic stays overnight in temporary farm huts, and low socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa. PMID:17172397

  3. [Neonatal and child tetanus morbidity and mortality in the University hospitals of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2016-08-01

    The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO. PMID:27177642

  4. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    PubMed

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  6. A first database for landslide studies in densely urbanized areas of the intertropical zone: Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnagne, Frédéric; Demoulin, Alain; Biemi, Jean; Dewitte, Olivier; Kouadio, Hélène; Lasm, Théophile

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, a natural phenomenon often enhanced by human misuse of the land, may be a considerable threat to urban communities and severely affect urban landscapes, taking its death toll, impacting livelihood, and causing economic and social damages. Our first results show that, in Abidjan city, Ivory Coast, landslides caused more than fifty casualties in the towns of Attecoube and Abobo during the last twenty years. Although informal landslide reports exist, map information and geomorphological characterization are at best restricted, or often simply lacking. Here, we aim at constituting a comprehensive landslide database (localization, nature and morphometry of the slides, slope material, human interference, elements at risk) in the town of Attecoube as case study in order to support a first analysis of landslide susceptibility in the area. The field inventory conducted so far contains 56 landslides. These are mainly translational debris and soil slides, plus a few deeper rotational soil slides. Affecting 10-25°-steep, less than 10-m-high slopes in Quaternary sand and mud, they are most often associated with wild constructions either loading the top or cutting the toe of the slopes. They were located by GPS and tentatively dated through inquiries during the survey. While 12 landslides were accurately dated that way from the main rain seasons of 2013 to 2015, newspapers analysis and municipal archive consultation allowed us to assign a part of the rest to the last decade. Field inquiries were also used to collect information about fatalities and the local conditions of landsliding. This first landslide inventory in Attecoube provides clues about the main potential controls on landsliding, natural and anthropogenic, and will help define adequately anthropogenic variables to be used in the susceptibility modelling.

  7. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:21585092

  8. Implementing family-focused HIV care and treatment: the first 2 years' experience of the mother-to-child transmission-plus program in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Toure, Siaka; Koné, Mamadou; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane; Toro, Patricia; Dabis, François; El Sadr, Wafaa M.; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe a family-focused approach to HIV care and treatment and report on the first two years’ experience of implementing the MTCT-Plus program in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Program implementation New effective models of care are being sought to provide successful strategies to deliver safe, efficient and appropriate HIV care and treatment in resource limited settings. The MTCT-Plus Initiative aims to engage pregnant and postpartum women identified as HIV-infected to initiate comprehensive HIV care and treatment for the woman and her family. Main outcomes Between August 2003 and August 2005, 605 HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum women and 582 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. Amongst 568 male partners reported alive by enrolled women, 300 (52%) were aware of their wife’s HIV status and 169 (30%) have been tested for HIV. Amongst these partners, 88 (53%) were found to be HIV-infected and 69 (78%) were enrolled into the program. Overall only 10% of the women were enrolled together with their infected partner. On the other hand, a success of the program was also to involve a significant number of seronegative men (half of those who came for VCT) in the care of their families. Amongst 1,624 children <15 years reported alive by their mothers (excluding the last newborn infants of the most recent pregnancy systematically screened for HIV), only 146 (10.8%) were brought in for HIV testing, of whom 18 (12.3%) were found to be HIV-infected. Lessons learned and challenges The family-focused model of HIV care pays attention to the needs of families and household members. The program was successful in enrolling HIV women, their partners and infants in continuous follow-up. However engaging partners and family members of newly enrolled women into care involves numerous challenges outlined in the cascade of necessary events that must take place to achieve this goal. This involves the difficult issue of disclosure of HIV status by women to their

  9. Fire seasonality changes in Côte d'Ivoire revealed through Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, N. R.; Bassett, T. J.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fire plays a significant role in the savanna systems of West Africa, where a large proportion of the landscape burns annually. Previous research has suggested that shifts in land use and agricultural practices have modified the fire regime of Cote d'Ivoire over the past 30 years. Specifically, increasing pastoralism in north-central Cote d'Ivoire has been shown to coincide with a shift in fire seasonality toward fires earlier in the dry season. We investigated decadal trends in monthly fire occurrence across Cote d'Ivoire to determine whether similar processes of shifting fire seasonality are at play at the national scale. We assessed fire occurrence using remotely sensed Landsat imagery covering the entire extent of Cote d'Ivoire across a 30-year period from 1984 to 2014. The fine resolution of Landsat imagery makes possible the detection of small fires that commonly occur in heavily managed West African savannas. We investigated trends in the timing of both active fires and burned areas. Active fires were detected using shortwave infrared emissions of fire, and burned areas were identified based on spectral and temporal patterns distinctive to burn scars. The timing of fire occurrence influences fire intensity, and shifting fire seasonality has implications for land cover and terrestrial carbon budgets. Our findings point to temporal-spatial shifts in fire regimes over the past three decades and advance understanding of the contribution of West Africa's savannas to global greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. DITRAME Study Group (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). Diminution de la Transmission Mère Enfant du VIH. Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cartoux, Michel; Msellati, Philippe; Meda, Nicolas; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Leroy, Valériane; Van De Perre, Philippe; Dabis, François

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in two cities of West Africa: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods In the context of a clinical trial to prevent HIV vertical transmission, HIV counselling and testing was offered systematically to women attending antenatal clinics. Informed consent was obtained and test results were given anonymously. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with refusal for testing and failure to return for test results. Results A total of 9724 pregnant women were interviewed from January 1995 to September 1996. In Abidjan (n = 5766) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 3958), 78 and 92.4% of the women consented to HIV testing, respectively, and 58.4 and 81.8% of them returned for the test results disclosure, respectively. In the two sites, the counsellors themselves and high educational level of the women appeared to be related to refusal of the test, whereas last trimester gestation was associated with failure to return for test results. In Abidjan, foreigners and employees were more likely to refuse testing, and HIV-infected women were three times less likely to return for results than uninfected women. Conclusion Future implementation of interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV that require antenatal HIV testing and counselling will have to solve issue of acceptability of HIV testing by pregnant women. PMID:9863877

  11. Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast): World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the country's limited oil reserves which are almost exhausted meaning difficult times in the future. New terms for an offer of 11 offshore blocks allow for a negotiable split of cost oil and profit oil linked to either daily production or the ratio between accumulated net revenues and accumulated revenue.

  12. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    .4 and 2.9E-8 and 2.48E-5 m/s, respectively. These values of permeability are low. They were therefore multiplied by 10 in order to calibrate the model. This suggests that the environment of deposition of the sands is heterogeneous with coarse sand channels in places as it can be expected in such lagoon environment. The result of the model simulation in steady state indicates the groundwater flow direction (North-South) and the approach of pollutants plumes to some well fields after 20 years. References: Deh S. K. (2013). Contributions de l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates et d'un modèle de transport des organochlorés a la protection des eaux souterraines du district d'Abidjan (sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) 230p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  13. [Oral health care practices in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Samba, M; Guinan, J C; Sangare, A; Da-Danho, V; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    2004-09-01

    Abidjan, the economical capital of Ivory Coast has a CAO of 2.7 with index O practically nil. The professional density is one surgeon for 12.000 inhabitants. Abidjan population, despite the requirements in increasing care has not recourse to the dental surgeons for their assumption of responsibility. The general objective of our study is to describe the therapeutic itinerary in odonto-stomatology of the Abidjan population. We have realised a questionnaire survey beside of population sample. The results show that 25 per cent of our population gives up care despite the presence of pain or embarrassment. Our study has allowed highlighting all the other recourses to the care. Indeed, the people who give up the care have much other recourse which has be identified in order of importance: the modern and traditional self-medication. Let us note in our study, that the choice of dental surgeon knows a constant evolution from the first to the third recourse. The lack of financial means constitutes however the first obstacle at the accessibility to the oral care in Ivory Coast. PMID:15900823

  14. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  15. Investigation of a Large Collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages Collected from a Single Environmental Source in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essoh, Christiane; Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Nguetta, Simon-Pierre A.; Lathro, Serge; Cablanmian, Arsher; Kouassi, Athanase K.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two distinct bacteriophages were isolated from sewage water from five locations in the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire over a two-year period, using a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with diverse genotypes. The phages were characterized by their virulence spectrum on a panel of selected P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and by whole genome sequencing. Twelve virions representing the observed diversity were visualised by electron microscopy. The combined observations showed that 17 phages, distributed into seven genera, were virulent, and that five phages were related to temperate phages belonging to three genera. Some showed similarity with known phages only at the protein level. The vast majority of the genetic variations among virulent phages from the same genus resulted from seemingly non-random horizontal transfer events, inside a population of P. aeruginosa phages with limited diversity. This suggests the existence of a single environmental reservoir or ecotype in which continuous selection is taking place. In contrast, mostly point mutations were observed among phages potentially capable of lysogenisation. This is the first study of P. aeruginosa phage diversity in an African city and it shows that a large variety of phage species can be recovered in a limited geographical site at least when different bacterial strains are used. The relative temporal and spatial stability of the Abidjan phage population might reflect equilibrium in the microbial community from which they are released. PMID:26115051

  16. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  17. 76 FR 50284 - Request for Public Comments on Interim Review of Eligibility of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Opportunity Act Implementation Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (the ``Subcommittee'') is... submission at http://www.regulations .gov, please contact Laura Newport, Trade Policy Staff Committee, at....regulations .gov, docket number USTR-2011-0009. Donald W. Eiss, Acting Chair, Trade Policy Staff...

  18. [Impact of a targeted technical assistance to improve vaccine coverage in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mauritania in 2014].

    PubMed

    Ahanhanzo, Y Glèlè; Palenfo, D; Saussier, C; Gbèdonou, P; Tonda, A; Da Silva, A; Aplogan, A

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of its strategic goal of vaccine coverage (VC) improvement, GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance has entrusted the Agence de médecine préventive (agency for preventive medicine, AMP) with technical assistance services to Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), and Mauritania. This support was provided to selected priority districts (PDs) with the worst Penta3 coverage performances. In 2014, PDs benefited from technical and management capacities in vaccinology strengthening for district medical officers, supportive supervisions and technical assistance in health logistics, data management and quality. We analyzed the effects of the AMP technical assistance on the improvement of the cumulative Penta3 coverage, which is the key performance indicator of the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) performance. We compared Penta3 coverage between PDs and other non-priority districts (NPDs), Penta3 coverage evolution within each PD, and the distribution of PDs and NPDs according to Penta3 coverage category between January and December 2014. Technical assistance had a positive effect on the EPI performance. Indeed Penta3 coverage progression was higher in PDs than in NPDs throughout the period. Besides, between January and December 2014, the Penta3 VC increased in 70%, 100% and 86% of DPs in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire and Mauritania, respectively. Furthermore, the increase in the number of PDs with a Penta3 coverage over 80% was higher in DPs than in NPDs: 20% versus 8% for Cameroon, 58% versus 29% for Côte d'Ivoire and 17% versus 8% for Mauritania. Despite positive and encouraging results, this technical assistance service can be improved and efforts are needed to ensure that all health districts have a VC above 80% for all EPI vaccines. The current challenge is for African countries to mobilize resources for maintaining the knowledge and benefits and scaling such interventions in the public health area. PMID:27160219

  19. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  20. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  1. Closed Newton-Cotes Trigonometrically-Fitted Formulae for Long-Time Integration of Orbital Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.

    2006-10-01

    The connection between closed Newton-Cotes, trigonometrically-fitted differential methods and symplectic integrators is investigated in this paper. It is known from the literature that several one step symplectic integrators have been obtained based on symplectic geometry. However, the investigation of multistep symplectic integrators is very poor. Zhu et al.(1996) presented the well known open Newton-Cotes differential methods as multilayer symplectic integrators. Also, Chiou & Wu (1997) investigated the construction of multistep symplectic integrators based on the open Newton-Cotes integration methods. In this paper we investigate the closed Newton-Cotes formulae and we write them as symplectic multilayer structures. After this we construct trigonometrically-fitted symplectic methods which are based on the closed Newton-Cotes formulae. We apply the symplectic schemes in order to solve Hamilton's equations of motion which are linear in position and momentum. We observe that the Hamiltonian energy of the system remains almost constant as integration procceeds.

  2. The Kan River Gneiss terrane of central Côte D'Ivoire: mylonitic remnants of an ancient magmatic arc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, J.

    1992-11-01

    The Kan River Gneisses (KRG) which crop out to the east of the Birrimian Fetekro supracrustal belt in central Cote d'Ivoire are described. They comprise a TTG intrusive suite, part of which has been metamorphosed to amphibolite facies and extensively deformed by strike-slip deformation. These gneisses are considered to have been originally linked to the better known Dabakala Gneiss to the north. The eastern and western boundaries of the KRG are defined by major crustal shear zones which separate discrete lithostratigraphic terranes. To the east, the Comoe flysch basin lies beyond the Dimbokro strike-slip shear zone. The Boni Andokro shear zone marks the boundary between the KRG and the Toumodi Volcanic Group (TVG) to the west, where there is evidence of shortening and transcurrent movement. The KRG are geochemically similar to modern volcanic arc granites. They are clearly petrologically distinct from the calc-alkaline intrusive granitoids which intrude the TVG, and which geochemically resemble modern volcanic arc and syn-collisional granites. The KRG terrane resembles a deformed magmatic arc. In view of the nature of its eastern and western boundaries, its relations with neighbouring terranes are considered suspect.

  3. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public. PMID:12289034

  4. Therapeutic algorithms for the management of sexually transmitted diseases at the peripheral level in Côte d'Ivoire: assessment of efficacy and cost.

    PubMed Central

    La Ruche, G.; Lorougnon, F.; Digbeu, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) era, adequate management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is a primary concern in Africa. Assessed in this study is the clinical efficacy and feasibility of WHO-recommended therapeutic algorithms for genital discharges and ulcers, diagnosed without laboratory tests, for use at the primary health care level. Drugs were sold on a cost-recovery basis and included intramuscular ceftriaxone and oral ciprofloxacin for single-dose therapy of gonorrhoea and chancroid. During April 1993 in 10 peripheral health care centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a total of 207 patients were followed up, including 89 cases of male urethritis, 92 cases of vaginal discharges and 26 cases of genital ulcers; clinical success, assessed 7 days after the onset of therapy, was, respectively, 92%, 87%, and 100%. Less than 10% of the 207 patients were referred to the next care level, an acceptable rate from a public health point of view. Medical adherence to the algorithms was excellent for urethral discharges and genital ulcers but poor for vaginal discharges, partly because of intentional therapeutic modifications, without detriment to success. For drugs, the average cost per cure was 1546 francs CFA (US$ 5.60) (maximum, 2980 francs CFA (US$ 10.70). Effective and affordable treatments for STDs are necessary for their realistic case management in Africa. PMID:7614662

  5. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates). PMID:24944124

  6. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  7. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  8. Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analysing the Cross-Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany and the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of reactions of 14 German and 20 Ivory Coast managers to informant stories from 14 U.S. human resource professionals revealed differences in work myths that reflected national differences, e.g., individual versus collective orientation, business development patterns, and management approaches. Awareness of the ethnocentrism of work myths…

  9. [Survey of general dental practitioners in Abidjan on the use of the operatory field in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Avoaka-Boni, M C; Gnagne-Koffi, N D Y; Assoumou-Adou, N M; Kouakou, K F; Guinan, J C; Abouattier-Mansilla, E C

    2009-09-01

    Rubber dam is a standard operatory field in operative dentistry and endodontics. It is undoubtedly the most certain way to insure the success of therapeutics acts. Its use by Abidjan practitioners has been the subject of our study which aim is to underline the place of rubber dam in daily practice. Our investigations show that rubber dam is totally absent from practitioners acts. Generally cotton rolls constitute the most frequent mean used by practitioners to isolate the tooth in operative dentistry and endodontics. Only 23.9% of them associate saliva sucking up. Some cases of aspiration and swallowing file by accident by patients have been highlighted. Those results lead us to recommend the systematic use of rubber dam as the mean of efficiency and security which cannot be ignored in our practice. PMID:20441127

  10. Malaria transmission dynamics in central Côte d'Ivoire: the influence of changing patterns of irrigated rice agriculture.

    PubMed

    Koudou, B G; Tano, Y; Doumbia, M; Nsanzabana, C; Cissé, G; Girardin, O; Dao, D; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Bordmann, G; Keiser, J; Tanner, M; Utzinger, J

    2005-03-01

    The dynamics of malaria transmission was studied comparatively in the villages of Zatta and Tiemelekro, central Cote d'Ivoire, from February 2002 to August 2003. Prominent agroecosystems in these villages are irrigated rice growing and vegetable farming, respectively. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected on human bait at night and by pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections at four randomly selected sentinel sites in each village. In 2002, for a total of 96 man-nights per village, 7716 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and 3308 in Tiemelekro. In 2003, with half the sampling effort, 859 and 2056 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and Tiemelekro, respectively. Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. was the predominant mosquito and the key malaria vector throughout, followed by An. funestus Giles. Anthropophily among adult female Anopheles exceeded 95% in both villages. Comparison between years revealed that the biting rate of An. gambiae s.l. in Zatta decreased several-fold from 49.3 bites per person per night (b/p/n) in 2002 to 7.9 b/p/n in 2003 (likelihood ratio test (LRT) = 1072.66; P < 0.001). Although the biting rate remained fairly constant in Tiemelekro, the difference between years was significant (16.1 vs. 18.2 b/p/n; LRT = 148.06; P < 0.001). These observations were paralleled by a marked decrease in the infective rate of An. gambiae s.l. in Zatta (4.6-1.2%), and an increase in Tiemelekro (3.1-7.6%). Meanwhile, the entomological inoculation rate of An. gambiae s.l. decreased 21-fold in Zatta, from 789 to 38 infective bites per person per year (ib/p/y), whereas it remained high in Tiemelekro (233 vs. 342 ib/p/y). The interruption of irrigated rice growing in Zatta in 2003, consequential to a farmers' conflict over land, might be the underlying cause for the significant reduction in malaria transmission, whereas more stable conditions occurred in Tiemelekro. PMID:15752174

  11. Morphological variation in adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Stahl, Daniel; Boesch, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Twenty five adult chimpanzee skeletons (Pan troglodytes verus) of known age and sex (15 females, 10 males) from a long-term study site in Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire present new data on variation. These skeletons provide a rare opportunity to measure the cranium and postcranium from the same individuals. We compare measurements and indices of the Taï sample with those of relatively complete Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii skeletons from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Measurements of Pan paniscus are included as an outside comparison. The Taï and Gombe samples are analyzed by sex; combined sex samples are compared between the two groups, and the two sexes to each other. Taï females and males do not differ in most long bone lengths or in pelvic dimensions, but do differ significantly in cranial capacity, facial measurements, clavicle length, scapular breadth, and femur length. Gombe females and males differ significantly in some facial measurements and in scapular breadth. In combined sex samples, Taï individuals have lower cranial capacity, longer palate and mandible, and greater dimensions in the trunk and limb lengths. Taï females account for most of the variation; males differ from each other only in greater length of humerus and femur. The Taï skeletons provide new data for assessing individual variation and sexual dimorphism within and between populations and species. The combination of cranial and postcranial data provides a clearer picture of chimpanzee intraspecific and interspecific variation than can be gained from either data set alone. PMID:17786999

  12. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements. PMID:15545950

  13. [Self medication during orodental diseases in urban Ivory Coast. Results of a study in the region of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Souaga, K; Adou, A; Amantchi, D; Kouame, P; Angoh, Y

    2000-06-01

    During six months, a study enclosing 418 patients from 15 to 60 years old, has been realised in nine dental offices of the Abidjan area. Self-medication has been found among 37.32 per cent of the patients. The most concerned medicines are no steroid inflammatories, analgesics and antibiotics. According to this study, the main reasons of the self-medication are the pain, the lack of money, the practice and the fear of the dental surgeon. The medicines are obtained at the chemist's or bought at the market or in the street. The results of the study are compared to others did in different specialities. PMID:11372161

  14. The Long Forgotten Compound: CoTe, and its Epitaxial Film Growth and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhihai; Hines, William A.; Budnick, Joseph I.; Wells, Barrett O.

    As part of our investigation of Co-doped, Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, we have synthesized films of CoTe; a long forgotten binary compound. Using pulsed laser deposition, we have grown epitaxial films on MgO, CaF2, and SrTiO3 and have found that careful control of growth conditions allows for the synthesis of either (001) or (101) oriented films. X-ray diffraction shows the structure of the films is hexagonal. However, we also find the surprising presence of the nominally disallowed (001) peak. We also report temperature dependent transport and magnetic properties. This material may be of interest as a magnetic semiconductor and for its relationship to chemically doping Fe-based superconductors. DOE/BES Contract DE-FG02-00ER45801.

  15. Physical interaction and assembly of Bacillus subtilis spore coat proteins CotE and CotZ studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqing; Qiao, Haiyan; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hongda; Barak, Imrich; Tang, Jilin

    2016-08-01

    The spore of Bacillus subtilis, a dormant type of cell, is surrounded by a complex multilayered protein structure known as the coat. It is composed of over 70 proteins and essential for the spore to withstand extreme environmental conditions and allow germination under favorable conditions. However, understanding how the properties of the coat arise from the interactions among all these proteins is an important challenge. Moreover, many specific protein-protein interactions among the coat proteins are crucial for coat assembly. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was applied to investigate the interaction as a dynamic process between two morphogenetic coat proteins, CotE and CotZ. The unbinding force and kinetic parameters characterizing the interaction between CotE and CotZ were obtained. It is found that there is a strong affinity between CotE and CotZ. Furthermore, the assembly behaviors of CotE and CotZ, individually or in combination, were studied by AFM at solid-liquid interfaces. Our results revealed that CotE-CotZ assembly is dependent on their molar ratios and the interaction between CotE and CotZ involves in the CotE-CotZ assembly. PMID:27320701

  16. Numerical performance of half-sweep SOR method for solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Akhir, Mohd Kamalrulzaman Md; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, application of the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method is extended by solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature (2-CCNC) system. The performance of HSSOR method in solving 2-CCNC system is comparatively studied by their application on linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The derivation and implementation of the method are discussed. In addition, numerical results by solving two test problems are included and compared with the standard Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods. Numerical results demonstrate that HSSOR method is an efficient method among the tested methods.

  17. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-15441 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Related to Libya and C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  18. 76 FR 14269 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, March 7, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-6257 Filed 3-15-11... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended,...

  19. Using a Software Package to Publish EAD Encoded Finding Aids: A Practical Approach and Gradual Implementation at the Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarrewaere, Anthony; Roelly, Aude

    2005-01-01

    The Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or chose as a priority for its automation plan the acquisition of a search engine, to publish online archival descriptions and the library catalogue. The Archives deliberately opted for a practical approach, using for the encoding of the finding aids an automatic data export from an archival management…

  20. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores.

    PubMed

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O; Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  1. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O.; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  2. Landscape Diversity Related to Buruli Ulcer Disease in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Elguero, Eric; Asse, Henri; Guegan, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer disease (BU), due to the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, represents an important and emerging public health problem, especially in many African countries. Few elements are known nowadays about the routes of transmission of this environmental bacterium to the human population. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have investigated the relationships between the incidence of BU in Côte d'Ivoire, western Africa, and a group of environmental variables. These environmental variables concern vegetation, crops (rice and banana), dams, and lakes. Using a geographical information system and multivariate analyses, we show a link between cases of BU and different environmental factors for the first time on a country-wide scale. As a result, irrigated rice field cultures areas, and, to a lesser extent, banana fields as well as areas in the vicinity of dams used for irrigation and aquaculture purposes, represent high-risk zones for the human population to contract BU in Côte d'Ivoire. This is much more relevant in the central part of the country. Conclusions/Significance As already suspected by several case-control studies in different African countries, we strengthen in this work the identification of high-risk areas of BU on a national spatial scale. This first study should now be followed by many others in other countries and at a multi-year temporal scale. This goal implies a strong improvement in data collection and sharing in order to achieve to a global picture of the environmental conditions that drive BU emergence and persistence in human populations. PMID:18665259

  3. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  4. Sensitivity and selectivity determination of BPA in real water samples using PAMAM dendrimer and CoTe quantum dots modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun; Chen, Quanpeng; Zhu, Xiangbin; Liu, Xianggang; Zhu, Lusheng

    2010-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental pollutant to disrupt endocrine system or cause cancer, thus the detection of BPA is very important. Herein, an amperometric sensor was fabricated based on immobilized CoTe quantum dots (CoTe QDs) and PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA on the sensor exhibited a well-defined anodic peak at 0.490V in 0.1M pH 8.0 PBS. The determination conditions were optimized and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The linear range was 1.3 x 10(-8) to 9.89 x 10(-6)M with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1 x 10(-9)M. The current reached the steady-state current within about 5s. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in real water samples. PMID:19782469

  5. The Effects of Topical Agent (Kelo-Cote or Contractubex) Massage on the Thickness of Post-Burn Scar Tissue Formed in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Won Jin; Suh, Bum Sin; Kim, Hyeon A; Heo, Woo Hoe; Choi, Gum Ha; Lee, Seo Ul

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted an experimental study to compare the effect of massage using topical agents (Kelo-cote or Contractubex) on scar formation by massaging the healed burn wound on the dorsal area of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods Four areas of second degree contact burn were made on the dorsal area of each of 15 SD rats, using a soldering iron 15 mm in diameter. After gross epithelialization in the defect, 15 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the Kelo-cote group, Contractubex group, Vaseline group, and control group. Rats in three of the groups (all but the Control group) were massaged twice per day for 5 minutes each day, while those in the Control group were left unattended. For histologic analysis, we performed a biopsy and evaluated the thickness of scar tissue. Results In the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the Vaseline and control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups. In the Vaseline group, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the control groups. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that massage using a topical agent is helpful in the prevention of scar formation and that massage only with lubricant (no use of a topical agent) also has a considerable effect, although not as much as the use of a topical agent. Thus, we recommend massage with a topical agent on the post-burn scar as an effective method for decreasing the scar thickness. PMID:24286041

  6. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L.; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I. Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. PMID:27110390

  7. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon.

    PubMed

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. PMID:27110390

  8. Ten years of limnological monitoring of a modified natural lake in the tropics: Cote Lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Umaña, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    It is located 650m above sea level along the boundary between the North Caribbean and Pacific slopes, near the Southern end of the volcanic Guanacaste mountain range. In the early 1980s the lake's main outlet was dammed and the outflow was diverted into Arenal Reservoir. Lake Cote was first studied in 1990-1991, and later in 2001, before it was again modified by raising its dam by one meter to use its outflow for hydroelectricity. From 2002 to 2010 it has been monitored twice a year for changes in its limnology. Here I present a summary of its basic characteristics and an analysis of their changes through time. The lake is discontinuous polymictic, and sometimes develops a thermocline at 6m depth that may last for several days as evidenced by the occasional development of an anoxic layer close to the bottom. Since its modification for hydropower production, the surface water temperature has attained higher values than before. Oxygen levels in the lake show periods of hypoxia to anoxia in the hypolimnion, that have become more frequent since modification. Despite its turbid water, the lake has low levels of nutrient concentrations and of chlorophyll a. The trend in these parameters in recent times is a reduction in chlorophyll a and an increase in water transparency, implying a reduction in primary productivity. These changes are discussed in relationship with anthropogenic factors such as the modification of the lake and its management, changes in landscape around the lake and global climate change. PMID:25102640

  9. First ecotoxicological assessment assay in a hydroelectric reservoir: the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Roche, Hélène; Tidou, Abiba

    2009-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination was assessed in marketable species, two fishes (tilapia and catfish) and a prawn from the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire). Lindane and endosulfan were the main contaminants, suggesting their current use. DDT, endrin, heptachlor plus traces of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil were also detected. In fishes and in prawns, enzymatic biomarkers exhibited significant correlations with OCPs levels, showing the feasibility of a biomonitoring. The transfer of OCPs along the aquatic food web and their immunosuppressive effects in human are discussed. This preliminary study highlights that the pesticide contamination was concomitant with the increase in infectious diseases in the bordering population of this African lake. PMID:18936865

  10. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  11. Malaria in Côte d'Ivoire wet savannah region: the entomological input.

    PubMed

    Dossou-yovo, J; Doannio, J M; Rivière, F; Chauvancy, G

    1995-12-01

    A two years study has been carried out in Alloukoukro, a traditional wet savannah village in the central region of Côte d'Ivoire. The productive breeding sites of malaria vectors are natural puddles and some man-made shelters around the village. 576 man-nights of capture have identified Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus as vectors of malaria in the study area. The low densities of An. phaorensis and An coustani implies that their possible role in transmission is very negligible. An. gambiae s.l. was the predominant species throughout the year with a mean of 19.2 b/m/n in 1991 and 13.6 b/m/n in 1992. The densities of An. funestus increased gradually during the rainy season and reached its peak values towards the end of the season. An. gambiae s.l. assures transmission throughout the year. An. funestus maintains a seasonal transmission which is spread over seven months. In 1991, each person would have received an average of 264.5 infected bites altogether with 204.5 infected bites from An. gambiae s.l. and 62 infected bites from An. funestus. In 1992, there would have been 196.5 infected bites per man with 160 and 36.5 infected bites respectively from An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus. This study has shown that in wet savannah areas, the rainy season spreading almost all over the year, allows the breeding sites to retain water much longer and thus, to keep alive a more important residual vector populations capable to ensure malaria transmission even during the dry season. The great majority of infected glands (96.7%) were observed between 11 p.m. and 04 a.m. So, the large scale use of treated bednets has been therefore strongly recommended as key measure against malaria transmission in this area. PMID:8826108

  12. [Assessment of a programme of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (1999-20002)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, M; Noba, V; Rey, J-L; Msellati, P; Ekpini, R; Chambon, J-F; Malkin, J-E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the results of a programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV conducted from 1999 to 2002 by the PNLS in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. This programme was supported by grants from the Fonds de solidarité international (FSTI) and the Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) Foundation. After pre- and posttest counselling, pregnant women from 4 PMI centres underwent screening for HIV. Seropositive women were offered short course AZT and the possibility of financial assistance for breast-feeding. All programme activities were carried out in close cooperation with association members. A total of 22466 tests were given and 18116 women returned for results. Among the 1829 seropositive women to whom PMCT intervention was proposed, 667 received short course AZT. The rate of transmission at 18 months was 162%. In addition 69 mothers and 28 children eligible for ARV therapy benefited from tritherapy. Limiting factors, at each phase, and efficacy of intervention were analyzed. PMID:16615616

  13. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  14. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  15. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  16. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  17. Emergence in Western African Countries of MDR-TB, Focus on Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ekaza, Euloge; N'Guessan, Raymond Kouassi; Kacou-N'Douba, Adèle; Aka, N'Guetta; Kouakou, Jacquemin; Le Vacon, Françoise; Altare, Fréderic; Potel, Gilles; de-La-Cochetiere, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for a high mortality rate (2.5%) worldwide, mainly in developing countries with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The emergence of multiresistant strains of TB poses an extreme risk for TB outbreaks and highlights the need for global TB control strategies. Among Western African countries, Côte d'Ivoire (CI) represents a specific example of a country with great potential to prevent TB. Specifically, CI has a promising healthcare system for monitoring diseases, including vaccination programs. However, military and political conflict in CI favors the spread of infectious diseases, TB being among the most devastating. Compilation of the studies identifying common causes of TB would be extremely beneficial for the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this comprehensive review is to evaluate the epidemiology of TB in CI, describe the factors involved in pathogenesis, and suggest simple and applicable prevention strategies. PMID:24093098

  18. Malaria knowledge and long-lasting insecticidal net use in rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To improve effectiveness of malaria control interventions, it is essential to deepen the knowledge of contextual factors that govern people's practice for preventive and curative measures. The aim of this study was to determine factors that influence the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in three rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire, two of which benefited from recent interventions. Methods The study was carried out in 957 households in three villages (Bozi, N'Dakonankro and Yoho) located in central Côte d'Ivoire. Indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), malaria knowledge and practice, placing special emphasis on LLINs, were investigated during a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Principal component analysis was used to calculate the SEP of households by means of a list of household assets ownership. The concentration index was used to assess the direction of the association between SEP and a given variable. To compare groups or means, Fisher's exact test, χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis test were used, as appropriate. Results Significant differences were found between SEP and reported malaria symptoms, such as fever or hot body, convulsion, anaemia and jaundice (yellow eyes). Individuals from the least poor group cited more often the use of bed nets and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) compared to poorer groups. The mean number of individuals reporting the use of bed nets and LLINs was different between groups with different educational level. Moreover, the mean number of LLINs in a household was influenced by the presence of children below five years of age. Conclusion The study not only confirmed that education and SEP play important roles in the prevention and control of malaria and promotion of health in general, but pointed at the basic essential knowledge and the key behavioural elements that should guide education and learning processes among the poorer segments of the population. In turn, such knowledge may change behaviour and lead to

  19. 77 FR 6463 - Definition of the Term “Financial, Material, or Technological Support” Under the Côte d'Ivoire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13067, 62 FR 59989, 3 CFR, 1997 Comp., p. 230; E.O...-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13413, 71 FR 64105, 3 CFR, 2006 Comp., p. 247. Subpart..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' (71 FR 7389,...

  20. Use of Landsat TM imagery as a tool for mangrove forest mapping ; a case study of Ehotile island in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwassi, A.; Blivi, A.

    The integrated management of coastal zone requires a good coastal landscape knowledge. Mangroves in Côte d'Ivoire are valuable economic resources because of their high biomass production and their being a prolific fish habitat. They also play major role in the food chains and the fight against coastal erosion. However, mangroves are considered a hostile environment and thus are often cut down by man. Many restoration and protection efforts are underway. The present study is a remote sensing approach to map the mangroves of the Ehotilé Islands (Iles Ehotilé) in Côte d'Ivoire from the Landsat 7 scene 195-56 acquired on February 2nd, 2000. A multispectral analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Colour composites, Vegetation indices) was performed on the digital image which was later classified into nine (9) information classes (mangroves, swampy forest, forest, degraded forest, farmlands and/or fallows, grasslands, urban areas, seashore, water). The overall accuracy of the supervised classification is estimated at 93 percent. On the final classified image, areas predominantly covered by mangroves (Rhizophora racemosa) amount to 848 ha out of the 5715 ha of the study area. Remote sensing offers a valuable tool to monitor and map the mangrove ecosystems and land cover in tropical regions. Keywords: Mangroves, Remote sensing, Mapping, Classification, Landsat 7, Côte d'Ivoire, Iles Ehotilé, Land cover, coastal zone.

  1. [Malaria transmission in lagoon areas in Côte d'Ivoire: the villages of N'gatty and Allaba].

    PubMed

    Fofana, D; Koné, Ab; Konan, Yl; Konan, Kl; Doannio, Jmc; N'goran, Ek

    2010-01-01

    The ecological and climatic variations in tropical areas of Africa make the transmission of malaria very heterogeneous. Several species of mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus transmit the disease. In Côte d'Ivoire, studies in the southern and northern forests have shown the involvement of Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili in this transmission. This study was conducted in N'gatty and Allaba, two villages in a lagoon area of southern Côte d'Ivoire, in the district of Dabou. The district is located between 05 degrees 18 N and 04 degrees 27 W, about 40 kilometres from the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire, and has a surface of 2257.8 km2. Two lagoon villages, N'gatty and Allaba, about a kilometre apart, were selected as sites for this research. The topography of N'gatty is rugged, with two important sides: a banana plantation on the west and the lagoon on the east, covered by aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes, Acrosticum aureum, nympheacae and Eichhornia crassipes). This aquatic vegetation separates the last plots of the village from the lagoon. Mosquito populations were sampled from December 2007 through September 2008 by nighttime captures on volunteers three consecutive nights each month, inside six living rooms (4 in N'gatty and 2 in Allaba, a smaller village). The mosquitoes were captured when they landed on the volunteer's legs. There were two teams of catchers for each home; the first worked from 18:00 h to 24:00 and the second from 24:00 to 06:00. The ovaries and glands of An. gambiae were dissected. The physiological age of the females was determined by the appearance of the trachea on ovarian dissection. The sporozoites were sought by optic microscopy in cooled glands in a drop of physiological salt solution. During the 10 months of this study, 21 137 mosquitoes were caught in N'gatty and 7163 in Allaba. An. gambiae species accounted for less than 2% of the mosquito fauna in the two villages. Overall, the average bite rate was 203.24 bites per man

  2. When Do HIV-Infected Women Disclose Their HIV Status to Their Male Partner and Why? A Study in a PMTCT Programme, Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Allou, Gérard; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Leroy, Valériane; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel

    2007-01-01

    Background In Africa, women tested for HIV during antenatal care are counselled to share with their partner their HIV test result and to encourage partners to undertake HIV testing. We investigate, among women tested for HIV within a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme, the key moments for disclosure of their own HIV status to their partner and the impact on partner HIV testing. Methods and Findings Within the Ditrame Plus PMTCT project in Abidjan, 546 HIV-positive and 393 HIV-negative women were tested during pregnancy and followed-up for two years after delivery. Circumstances, frequency, and determinants of disclosure to the male partner were estimated according to HIV status. The determinants of partner HIV testing were identified according to women's HIV status. During the two-year follow-up, disclosure to the partner was reported by 96.7% of the HIV-negative women, compared to 46.2% of HIV-positive women (χ2 = 265.2, degrees of freedom [df] = 1, p < 0.001). Among HIV-infected women, privileged circumstances for disclosure were just before delivery, during early weaning (at 4 mo to prevent HIV postnatal transmission), or upon resumption of sexual activity. Formula feeding by HIV-infected women increased the probability of disclosure (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.04–2.27, Wald test = 4.649, df = 1, p = 0.031), whereas household factors such as having a co-spouse or living with family reduced the probability of disclosure. The proportion of male partners tested for HIV was 23.1% among HIV-positive women and 14.8% among HIV-negative women (χ2 = 10.04, df = 1, p = 0.002). Partners of HIV-positive women who were informed of their wife's HIV status were more likely to undertake HIV testing than those not informed (37.7% versus 10.5%, χ2 = 56.36, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PMTCT programmes, specific psychosocial counselling and support should be provided to women during the key moments of disclosure

  3. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  4. [Dynamic transmission of Schistosoma by Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the region of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yapi Yapi, G; Touré, M; Boka, O M; Tia, E; Boby, O A-M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d'Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d'Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not

  5. Tracing health system challenges in post-conflict Côte d'Ivoire from 1893 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Sabrina; Patel, Preeti

    2013-07-01

    While scholarship on health in conflict-affected countries is growing, there has been relatively little analysis of how armed conflict affects health systems in specific African countries, especially former French colonies. There is even less literature on the role of history in shaping health systems and how historical factors such as inequity may influence health impacts of armed conflict. Based on Côte d'Ivoire, this article argues that historical multidisciplinary analysis can provide valuable insight into the macro-level political, economic and social determinants of the health system over time. It explores how armed conflict has affected health services and exacerbates historically inherited challenges to the health system including unequal distribution of health services, bias towards curative care in urban areas, inadequate human resources and weak health governance. In the post-conflict period, this understanding may assist governments and other stakeholders to develop more appropriate health policies that address both urgent and long-term health needs. PMID:23701043

  6. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. PMID:24784569

  7. Assessment of Regional Climate Models over Côte d'Ivoire and Analysis of Future Projections over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouadio, K.; Konare, A.; Diawara, A.; Dje, B. K.; Ajayi, V. O.; Diedhiou, A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in AMMA-ENSEMBLES project is assessed over six meteorological stations in Côte d'Ivoire. The ensemble mean of the models is also used for the prediction of climate change over West Africa. The study focused on two periods: the period 1995-2005, the present-day simulations, is used to evaluate the skills of the models over the country and the years 2010-2013, for assessment of the future climate change scenario used. The results show that the skills of the models vary from one station to another and from one season to another. None of the models considered, presents an excellent performance over the entire country and in all the seasons. Generally, the ensemble mean of all the models presents better results when compared with the observation. These results suggest that the choice of any model for study over the country may depend on the focus of interest: intensity or variability of the rain and also on area of interest. The projection for 2020-2040, future climate change over West Africa shows that the Sahel exhibits a tendency to be drier while wetter Guinean coast is observed

  8. The current status of onchocerciasis in the forest/savanna transition zone of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Adjami, A G; Toé, L; Bissan, Y; Bugri, S; Yaméogo, L; Kone, M; Katholi, C R; Unnasch, T R

    2004-04-01

    Onchocerca volvulus exists in at least two strains in West Africa, while its black-fly vectors consist of sibling species, dwelling in the savanna and forest/transition zones. In transition and degraded forest zones both parasite strains and different sibling species of the vector can be sympatric. The strain of parasite in infected humans and in vector black-flies was determined in two bioclimes along the Bandama river of Côte d'Ivoire. The upper Bandama is located in the savanna bioclime while the Middle Bandama is located in a degraded forest zone. At both sites, savanna-dwelling sibling species of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex predominated. The severe-strain of O. volvulus was the predominant strain at both sites. However, severe-strain parasites represented a significantly larger proportion of those found in the vector population than in the human population in the degraded forest of the Middle Bandama. These data suggest that in degraded forest areas recently invaded by savanna-dwelling species of S. damnosunz s.l. transmission of the severe-strain of the parasite might be more efficient than transmission of the mild-strain. PMID:15151146

  9. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  10. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  11. Re-Visiting Insecticide Resistance Status in Anopheles gambiae from Côte d'Ivoire: A Nation-Wide Informative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P.; Kabran, Jean-Paul K.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Pennetier, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Insecticide resistance constitutes a major threat that may undermine current gain in malaria control in most endemic countries. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) need as much information as possible on the resistance status of malaria vectors and underlying mechanisms in order to implement the most relevant and efficient control strategy. Bioassays, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on An. gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and agricultural practices. An. gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The kdr and ace-1R mutations were detected in almost all sentinel sites with mosquitoes on the coastal and cotton growing areas mostly affected by these mutations. At almost all sites, the levels of detoxifying enzymes (mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)) in An. gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to PBO, an inhibitor of MFOs and NSEs, significantly increased mortality rates to pyrethroids and carbamates in mosquitoes but resistance in most cases was not fully synergised by PBO, inferring a residual role of additional mechanisms, including kdr and ace-1 site insensitivity. The large distribution of resistance in Côte d'Ivoire raises an important question of whether to continue to deploy pyrethroid-based long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and insecticide residual spraying (IRS) towards which resistance continues to rise with no guarantee that the level of resistance would not compromise their efficacy. Innovative strategies that combine insecticide and synergists in LLINs or spatially LLIN and an effective non-pyrethroid insecticide for IRS could be in the short term the best practice for the NMCP to manage insecticide

  12. The use of motion detectors to estimate net usage by householders, in relation to mosquito density in central Cote d’Ivoire: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The difficulty of accurately assessing LLIN use has led us to test electronic data logging motion detectors to provide quantitative data on household LLIN usage. Methods The main movements associated with an LLIN when appropriately used for malaria control were characterised under laboratory conditions. Data output from motion detectors attached to the LLINs associated with these specific movements were collated. In preliminary field studies in central Cote d’Ivoire, a pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to identify the number of days householders claimed to have slept under LLINs. This information was compared to data downloaded from the motion detectors. Results Output data recording movement on the x, y, and z axes from the data loggers was consistently associated with the specific net movements. Recall of LLIN usage reported by questionnaires after a week was overestimated by 13.6%. This increased to 22.8% after 2 weeks and 38.7% after a month compared to information from the data loggers. Rates of LLIN use were positively correlated with An.gambiae s.s biting density (LRT = 273.70; P < 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that motion detectors can be used to provide a useful quantitative record of LLIN use. This new methodology provides a supplementary means of surveying bed net usage. PMID:24602353

  13. Déterminants de la calcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Diby Jean-Paul; Amon-Tanoh-Dick, Flore; Aka, Joseph; Daniel, Sess Essiagne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le transfert du calcium de la mère au nouveau-né est nécessaire pour la constitution de la charpente osseuse. L'hypocalcémie néonatale reste peu documentée en Afrique. En 1993, il a été observé au service de néonatologie du Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Yopougon à Abidjan une proportion d'hypocalcémie asymptomatique de 26.9%. L'objectif de ce travail était de préciser la prévalence de l'hypocalcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique de Yopougon et en déterminer les facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une étude transversale a été menée à la formation sanitaire de de Yopougon de février à mai 2012 auprès de 145 parturientes et leurs nouveau-nés. Les caractéristiques des mères et des nouveau-nés ont été recueillies. Les prélèvements de sang maternel et du cordon ont permis le dosage des paramètres du métabolisme phosphocalcique. Une régression linéaire multiple a été faite pour apprécier les éléments de prédilection de la calcémie néonatale. Résultats Les valeurs moyennes étaient de 2,271 mmol/l pour la calcémie, 1,169 mmol/l pour le phosphore, 0,735 mmol/l pour le magnésium et 69 g/l pour les protides totaux chez les mères. La durée moyenne du travail était de 499 minutes. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 39 semaines. Les constantes anthropométriques et cliniques des nouveau-nés étaient normales. Les paramètres phosphocalciques étaient en moyenne normaux (calcémie = 2,52 mmol/l, phosphorémie = 1,668 mmol/l, magnesémie = 0,777 mmol/l, protidémie = 63 g/l). Six gestantes (4,1%) étaient hypocalcémiques contre 12 nouveau-nés (8,1%). La durée du travail influençait la calcémie néonatale (p = 0,02). En analyse multivariée, 34% de la variabilité de la calcémie néonatale était expliqué par la calcémie maternelle et la durée du travail. Conclusion L'hypocalcémie néonatale est rare en zone tropicale. Dans cette étude, la proportion était de 8,1%. La durée du travail

  14. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere. PMID:26482357

  15. Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. Methods A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. Results Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/μl of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water) were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. Conclusion It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels. PMID:19906295

  16. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Rapid and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as simple school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739

  17. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  18. Breastfeeding: the hidden barrier in Côte d'Ivoire's quest to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Buesseler, Heather M; Kone, Ahoua; Robinson, Julia; Bakor, Albert; Senturia, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Côte d'Ivoire has one of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics in West Africa. This study sought to understand how HIV-positive women's life circumstances and interactions with the public health care system in Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, influence their self-reported ability to adhere to antiretroviral prophylaxis during pregnancy. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive women not eligible for antiretroviral therapy and five health care workers recruited from four public clinics in which prevention of mother-to-child transmission services had been integrated into routine antenatal care. Results Self-reported adherence to prophylaxis is high, but women struggle to observe (outdated) guidelines for rapid infant weaning. Women's positive interactions with health providers, their motivation to protect their infants and the availability of free antiretrovirals seem to override most potential barriers to prophylaxis adherence. Conclusions This study reveals the importance of considering the full continuum of prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions, including infant feeding, instead of focussing primarily on prophylaxis for the mother and newborn. PMID:24746179

  19. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS for Sustainable Forest Management in Côte d'Ivoire; Case of the classified Forest of TENE in the department of OUME (Côte d'Ivoire).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    protected against logging in order to do not disturb them because they are refuge environments for fauna as well as flora conservation. This study will enable the manager of the classified forest of TENE to target those sites considered sensitive to preserve for a sustainable management. Keywords: Spectral signature, Forest, Wetland, Remote Sensing, GIS, Côte d'Ivoire.

  20. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N.; Esso, Emmanuel L. J. C.; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I.; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa. PMID:25959772

  1. Abcès cérébral compliquant une cardiopathie congénitale: à propos de 7 cas à l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Tano, Micesse; Traore, Fatoumata; Angoran, Inès; Roland, N'guetta; Traboulsi, Aké Evelyne; Yao, Konan Serge; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Le diagnostic précoce des cardiopathies congénitales (C.C) a une incidence positive sur leur évolution. En effet diagnostiquées tard ou non traitées elles peuvent se compliquer. L'abcès cérébral est une complication des C.C cyanogènes qui est rare dans les pays développés. Notre objectif était d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités de 7 cas de C.C compliquées d'abcès cérébral découvertes et prises en charge dans un service de cardiologie pédiatrique de l'Institut de Cardiologie d'Abidjan. La tétralogie de Fallot était la cardiopathie congénitale la plus fréquente. Le traitement a été médical et/ou chirurgical. Seule la réalisation de la cure complète des cardiopathies congénitales peut permettre la prévention de l'abcès cérébral. PMID:26848356

  2. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Toty, Abale; Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2005-01-01

    Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. In a first step, we carried out a cross-sectional parasitological survey. Stool specimens and finger prick blood samples were collected and processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods, for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium. Then, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the appraisal of self-reported morbidity indicators, as well as housing characteristics and household assets ownership. Mean travel distance from each village to the nearest health care delivery structure was provided by the regional health authorities. Poorer schoolchildren showed a significantly higher infection prevalence of hookworm than better-off children. However, higher infection prevalences of intestinal protozoa (i.e. Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii) were found with increasing socioeconomic status. Significant negative associations were observed between socioeconomic status and light infection intensities with hookworm and S. mansoni, as well as with several self-reported morbidity indicators. The poorest school-attending children lived significantly further away from formal health services than their richer counterparts. Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation

  3. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Wegmueller, Rita; Tschannen, Andreas B; Hurrell, Richard F

    2007-05-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) estimate the riboflavin content of the local diet; and (3) determine if riboflavin deficiency predicts anaemia and/or iron deficiency. In 5- to 15-year-old children (n 281), height, weight, haemoglobin (Hb), whole blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalence of Plasmodium spp. (asymptomatic malaria) and Schistosoma haematobium (bilharziosis) infections were measured. Three-day weighed food records were kept in twenty-four households. Prevalence of anaemia in the sample was 52%; 59% were iron-deficient based on an elevated ZPP concentration, and 36% suffered from iron deficiency anaemia. Plasmodium parasitaemia was found in 49% of the children. Nineteen percent of the children were infected with S. haematobium. Median riboflavin intake in 5- to 15-year-old children from the food records was 0.42 mg/d, approximately 47% of the estimated average requirement for this age group. Prevalence of riboflavin deficiency was 65%, as defined by an EGRAC value > 1.2. Age, elevated CRP and iron deficiency were significant predictors of Hb. Riboflavin-deficient children free of malaria were more likely to be iron deficient (odds ratio; 3.07; 95% CI 1.12, 8.41). In conclusion, nearly two-thirds of school-age children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire are mildly riboflavin deficient. Riboflavin deficiency did not predict Hb and/or anaemia, but did predict iron deficiency among children free of malaria. PMID:17381972

  4. Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. Results In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Conclusions Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23110236

  5. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia among Schoolchildren in Agboville Area (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guéssan, Nicaise A.; Yapi, Ahoua; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2010-01-01

    Background New efforts are being made to improve understanding of the epidemiology of the helminths and intensifying the control efforts against these parasites. In contrast, relatively few studies are being carried out in this direction for the intestinal protozoa. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of the intestinal protozoa, prevalence, and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia, and their association with drinking water supplies, were determined in the Agboville department in southeast Côte d'Ivoire. Methods/Findings Stool samples were taken from more than 1,300 schoolchildren in the third year of primary education (CE1) from 30 primary schools and preserved in SAF (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). The samples were analyzed by formalin-ether concentration. Then, a survey questionnaire addressed to schoolchildren and school directors was used to collect data on water supplies. Prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and G. lamblia were, respectively, 18.8% and 13.9%. No particular focus zone was observed in the spatial distribution of the two species. Significant negative association was observed between use of tap water and high prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar infection (OR = 0.83, p = 0.01). High prevalence of G. lamblia infection was positively associated with use of ponds as the source of drinking water (OR = 1.28, p = 0.009). Conclusion These two species of pathogenic protozoa are present with substantial prevalence in this area of Côte d'Ivoire. Although their spatial distribution is not focused in any one place, determination of the population segments with the highest levels of infection will help to target the chemotherapeutic fight. To reinforce treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, tap water should be made available in all the localities of this area. PMID:20087416

  6. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  7. So near and yet so far: the specific case of Ralstonia Solanacearum populations from Côte d'Ivoire in Africa.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, C A; Abo, K; Fondio, L; Chiroleu, F; Lebeau, A; Poussier, S; Wicker, E; Koné, D

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and phenotypic diversity of Côte d'Ivoire Ralstonia solanacearum strains was assessed on a 168-strain collection sampled on Solanaceae both in the southern lowlands and western highlands. Phylotypes I, II, and III were prevalent, though at unexpected frequencies. Phylotype I strains (87.5%) were genetically diverse and overrepresented in all agroecological areas, including highlands (AEZ III). Phylotype II strains (10.7%) only belonged to one tropical lowland-adapted broad host range lineage (IIA-35), whereas no highland-adapted potato brown rot (IIB-1) or Moko strains were detected. African phylotype III strains were rare (1.8%). They originated from a single Burkina Faso lineage (III-23) and were only found in lowlands. Three phylotype I strains were found harboring pRSC35, a plasmid identified in phylotype III strains in Cameroon. From pathogenicity tests performed on commercial varieties and tomato/eggplant/pepper references, the virulence diversity observed was high, with five pathoprofiles described. Eggplant accessions MM152 and EG203 and tomato HW7996 displayed the largest resistance spectrum and highest level. Two highly virulent phylotype I strains were able to bypass resistance of HW7996 and the eggplant reference AG91-25. Collectively, these points lead to the conclusion that the situation in Côte d'Ivoire is specific towards other African countries, and specifically from the Cameroon reference, and that within phylotype I can exist a high virulence diversity. This calls for similar studies in neighboring West African countries, linking R. solanacearum pathogen genetic diversity to strain virulence at the regional level, for the rationalization of regional resistance deployment strategies and future resistance durability studies. PMID:22533876

  8. The Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Rare Disease with Often Delayed Diagnosis—A Report of Two Cases in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Berthe; Yapo-Ehounoud, Constance; Baby, Mohamed Ben Allaoui; Aka-Diarra, Evelyne; Amon-Tanoh, Muriel; Tanoh, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare pathology characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia associated with behavioral and cognitive disorders with, among others, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. The disease mainly affects young males. A few studies mention cases that occurred in Africa, especially in Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper, we report the very first two cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody. The diagnosis was clinical, based on the recurrence of hypersomnia, cognitive and behavioral disorders during the periods of hypersomnia, and the return of patients to normal state between episodes. This diagnosis was delayed due to failure to understand the pathology, thereby leading patients to wandering. In fact, the two patients were consulted, respectively, 3 years and 6 years after the hypersomnia began. The objective was to report the very first cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26989535

  9. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  10. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Kone, Drissa; Bakayoko-Topolska, Monika; Manan K A, David; Lehmann, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000–2007). Design Cross-sectional, household survey. Setting 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. Participants 2678 men and women aged 15–49 years. Primary outcome measures Violence exposures measured since age 15. Questions included intimate partner physical and sexual violence; physical and sexual violence by others (including combatants) and exposure to traumatic events before, during and after the Crisis period (2000–2007). Results Physical and/or sexual violence since age 15 was reported by 57.1% women and 40.2% men (p=0.01); 29.9% women and 12.3% men reported exposure to any violence in the past year. Nearly 1 in 10 women (9.9%) and 5.9% men (p=0.03) were forced to have sex by a non-partner since age 15, and 14.8% women and 3.3% men (p=0.00) reported their first sexual experience was forced. Combatants were rarely reported as sexual violence perpetrators (0.3% women). After the Crisis, intimate partner physical violence was the most frequently reported form of violence and highest among women (20.9% women, 9.9% men, p=0.00). Fearing for their life was reported by men and women before, during and after the Crisis. Conclusions Sexual violence in conflict remains a critical international policy concern. However, men and women experience different types of violence before, during and after conflict. In many conflict settings, other forms of violence, including intimate partner violence, may be more widespread than conflict-related sexual violence. Alongside service provision for rape survivors, our findings underscore the need for postconflict reconstruction efforts to invest in programmes to prevent and respond to

  11. Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. Methods This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention – based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing – was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Results Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Conclusions

  12. Sustaining the Control of Schistosoma mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: Baseline Findings Before the Implementation of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Yapi, Ahoua; Yao, Patrick K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    We report baseline findings before the implementation of a 4-year intervention trial designed to assess the impact of three different school-based treatment schedules with praziquantel to sustain the control of intestinal schistosomiasis. The baseline survey was conducted in 75 schools of western Côte d'Ivoire previously identified with moderate Schistosoma mansoni endemicity (prevalence: 10-24% in children aged 13-14 years). Three stool samples collected over consecutive days were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each. A questionnaire was administered to collect village-specific information that is relevant for schistosomiasis transmission. Overall, 4,953 first graders (aged 5-8 years) and 7,011 school children (aged 9-12 years) had complete parasitologic data. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 5.4% among first graders and 22.1% in 9- to 12-year-old children. Open defecation was practiced in all villages. The current baseline findings will be important to better understand the dynamics of S. mansoni prevalence and intensity over the course of this trial that might be governed by village characteristics and specific treatment interventions. PMID:26598571

  13. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Berrilli, Federica; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Brandonisio, Olga; Kaboré, Yolande; Glé, Christoph; Cianfanelli, Cristina; Lauro, Renato; Di Cave, David

    2012-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species were studied in humans and free-ranging animals living in closed enclaves in Côte d'Ivoire. Three hundred and seven stool samples were tested from humans, and 47 from freely roaming domestic animals (dogs, goats, ducks, chickens). Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by sequence analysis of a portion of the SSU-rDNA for Giardia and the COWP gene for Cryptosporidium, and a β-giardin SYBR-green real-time PCR was also used to confirm the assignment of Giardia isolates to Assemblages. In humans, genotyping of Giardia assigned many of the sequences (43/56 by the SSU-rDNA gene, and 36/61 by the β-giardin gene) to Assemblage B. The animal species harboured only zoonotic Assemblages A and B, except for dogs, in which host specific Assemblages C and D were also detected. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. parvum and C. hominis were detected in humans, while among the animals only chickens were found positive for oocysts, identified as C. meleagridis and C. parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans. PMID:22265078

  14. The tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis is composed of several genetically differentiated small populations in the sleeping sickness focus of Bonon, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ravel, S; de Meeus, T; Dujardin, J P; Zézé, D G; Gooding, R H; Dusfour, I; Sané, B; Cuny, G; Solano, P

    2007-01-01

    Glossina palpalis is the main vector of human African trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) that dramatically affects human health in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the implications of genetic structuring of vector populations for the design and efficacy of control campaigns, G. palpalis palpalis in the most active focus of sleeping sickness in Côte d'Ivoire was studied to determine whether this taxon is genetically structured. High and statistically significant levels of within population heterozygote deficiencies were found at each of the five microsatellite loci in two temporally separated samples. Neither null alleles, short allele dominance, nor trap locations could fully explain these deviations from random mating, but a clustering within each of the two samples into different genetic sub-populations (Wahlund effect) was strongly suggested. These different genetic groups, which could display differences in infection rates and trypanosome identity, were composed of small numbers of individuals that were captured together, leading to the observed Wahlund effect. Implications of this population structure on tsetse control are discussed. PMID:16890499

  15. Changes in human schistosomiasis levels after the construction of two large hydroelectric dams in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, E K; Diabate, S; Utzinger, J; Sellin, B

    1997-01-01

    The construction of large dams has been shown to increase the prevalence and intensity of human schistosomiasis. However, until now no study had been carried out to assess the impact of such a project in Côte d'Ivoire. For Kossou and Taabo, two large dams which became operational in the 1970s, baseline data are available on schistosomiasis prevalence in the surrounding area before dam construction, so that the changes in schistosomiasis levels can be assessed. We re-evaluated the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni in November 1992, by analysing 548 urine and 255 stool samples, respectively, from schoolchildren from five villages around each lake. A marked increase in the overall prevalence of S. haematobium was observed, from 14% to 53% around Lake Kossou and from 0 to 73% around Lake Taabo. Baseline data for S. mansoni are only available for Lake Taabo, where a prevalence of 3% was found in 1979 and where the prevalence in 1992 was still low at 2%. The construction of these two large dams therefore led to little change in S. mansoni prevalence but to a significant increase in that of S. haematobium. PMID:9509626

  16. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  17. Novel Arenavirus Sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for Evolution of Arenaviruses in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Stéphane K.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Toni; Ölschläger, Stephan; Dosso, Hernri; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys) setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus–host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events. PMID:21695269

  18. Etiology of Anemia Among Infants, School-Aged Children, and Young Non-Pregnant Women in Different Settings of South-Central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Aurélie A.; Koua, Ahou-Yah G.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Niamké, Sébastien; Wegmüller, Rita; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population, but its etiology remains poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of anemia and studied underlying risk factors in infants (6–23 months), young school-aged children (6–8 years), and young non-pregnant women (15–25 years) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Blood, stool, and urine samples were subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. We found high prevalence of anemia, malaria, inflammation, and deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A but low prevalence and intensities of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between anemia and Plasmodium falciparum for infants, inflammation for school-aged children, and cellular iron deficiency for both school-aged children and non-pregnant women. Women with riboflavin deficiency had significantly lower odds of anemia. Our findings call for interventions to protect infants from malaria, improved intake of dietary iron, better access to health care, and health education. PMID:22848097

  19. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area. PMID:25279545

  20. Rapid and simple screening and supplemental testing for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Brattegaard, K; Kouadio, J; Adom, M L; Doorly, R; George, J R; De Cock, K M

    1993-06-01

    Researchers from an AIDS research project took blood samples from 1000 consecutive women during childbirth at a maternal and child health center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, and from 185 hospitalized patients to compare the results of a combination of synthetic peptide-based rapid tests (product names, Testpack and Genie), which check for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with those of the Western Blot-based test. They also wanted to see whether the rapid test-based strategy could replace the Western Blot-based test as a supplemental test. The Western Blot indicated the HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 prevalence to be 13% among the new mothers and 78% among the hospitalized patients for an overall prevalence of 23%. 3.3% of all people were positive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. 17.4% tested positive for just HIV-1. 2.1% were positive for HIV-2. The rapid tests had a sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. The positive predictive value was 99.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. The rapid tests identified 4% of the HIV-2 positive samples and 1% of the HIV-1 samples to be dually reactive. These findings demonstrated that rapid synthetic peptide-based assays reliably detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and can be supplemental tests. High quality HIV serology can be performed in a setting without running water and electricity which was the case in this study. A further advantage of this strategy is that each test takes only 10 minutes. These tests would have significant effects on HIV testing and counseling, diagnosis, and screening of blood for transfusion in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:8395857

  1. Usefulness of Noninvasive Predictors of Oesophageal Varices in Black African Cirrhotic Patients in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Mahassadi, Alassan Kouamé; Bathaix, Fulgence Yao; Assi, Constant; Bangoura, Aboubacar Demba; Allah-Kouadio, Emile; Kissi, Henriette Ya; Touré, Abdoulaye; Doffou, Stanislas; Konaté, Issa; Attia, Alain Koffi; Camara, Mathieu Benoit; Ndri-Yoman, Thérèse Aya

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the usefulness of platelet count (PC), spleen diameter (SD) and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD ratio) for the prediction of oesophageal varices (OV) and large OV in black African patients with cirrhosis in Côte d'Ivoire. Materials and Methods. Study was conducted in a training sample (111 patients) and in a validation sample (91 patients). Results. Factors predicting OV were sex: (OR = 0.08, P = 0.0003), PC (OR = 12.4, P = 0.0003), SD (OR = 1.04, P = 0.002) in the training sample. The AUROCs (±SE) of the model (cutoff ≥ 0.6), PC (cutoff < 110500), SD (cutoff > 140) and PC/SD ratio (cutoff ≤ 868) were, respectively; 0.879 ± 0.04, 0.768 ± 0.06, 0.679 ± 0.06, 0.793 ± 0.06. For the prediction of large OV, the model's AUROC (0.850 ± 0.05) was superior to that of PC (0.688 ± 0.06), SD (0.732 ± 0.05) and PC/SD ratio (0.752 ± 0.06). In the validation sample, with PC, PC/SD ratio and the model, upper digestive endoscopy could be obviated respectively in 45.1, 45.1, and 44% of cirrhotic patients. Prophylactic treatment with beta blockers could be started undoubtedly respectively in 36.3, 41.8 and 28.6% of them as having large OV. Conclusion. Non-invasive means could be used to monitor cirrhotic patients and consider treatment in African regions lacking endoscopic facilities. PMID:22888334

  2. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  3. Combined stool-based multiplex PCR and microscopy for enhanced pathogen detection in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Becker, S L; Chatigre, J K; Gohou, J-P; Coulibaly, J T; Leuppi, R; Polman, K; Chappuis, F; Mertens, P; Herrmann, M; N'Goran, E K; Utzinger, J; von Müller, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diarrhoea ranks among the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Although most acute diarrhoeal episodes are self-limiting, the diagnosis and treatment of persistent diarrhoea (≥2 weeks) are cumbersome and require laboratory identification of the causative pathogen. Stool-based PCR assays have greatly improved the previously disappointing pathogen detection rates in high-income countries, but there is a paucity of quality data from tropical settings. We performed a case-control study to elucidate the spectrum of intestinal pathogens in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples from 68 patients and 68 controls were obtained and subjected to molecular multiplex testing with the Luminex(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), microscopy and rapid antigen detection tests for the diagnosis of diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Overall, 20 different bacteria, parasites and viruses were detected by the suite of diagnostic methods employed. At least one pathogen was observed in 84% of the participants, and co-infections were observed in >50% of the participants. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (32%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Shigella species (20%) were the predominant pathogens, and Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) was the most prevalent helminth. Pathogen frequencies and numbers of co-infections were similar in patients and controls. Although the Luminex(®) GPP detects a broad range of pathogens, microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa remains necessary to cover the full aetiological spectrum in tropical settings. We conclude that highly sensitive multiplex PCR assays constitute a useful screening tool, but that positive results might need to be confirmed by independent methods to discriminate active infection from asymptomatic faecal shedding of nucleic acids. PMID:25743578

  4. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis. PMID:26004285

  5. Identification of yeasts isolated from raffia wine (Raphia hookeri) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by PCR inter-delta.

    PubMed

    Tra Bi, Charles Y; N'guessan, Florent K; Kouakou, Clémentine A; Jacques, Noemie; Casaregola, Serge; Djè, Marcellin K

    2016-08-01

    Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire. Based on the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA sequence analysis, nine species belonging to six genera were distinguished. With a percentage of 69.5 % out of 171 yeast isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant species in the raffia wine, followed by Kodamaea ohmeri (20.4 %). The other species isolated were Candida haemulonii (4.1 %), Candida phangngensis (1.8 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (1.2 %), Hanseniaspora jakobsenii (1.2 %), Candida silvae (0.6 %), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (0.6 %) and Meyerozyma caribbica (0.6 %). The molecular characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates at the strain level using the PCR-interdelta method revealed the presence of 21 profiles (named I to XXI) within 115 isolates. Only four profiles (I, III, V and XI) were shared by the four areas under study. Phenotypic characterization of K. ohmeri strains showed two subgroups for sugar fermentation and no diversity for the nitrogen compound assimilations and the growth at different temperatures. PMID:27339306

  6. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d'Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  7. [Detection of the IS2404 insertion sequence and ketoreductase produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans in the aquatic Heteroptera in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Konan, K L; Doannio, J M C; Coulibaly, N G D; Ekaza, E; Marion, E; Assé, H; Kouassi, D; N'Goran, K E; Dosso, M; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. Until now, the mode of BU transmission was unknown, but recent studies implicate aquatic Heteroptera in the chain of transmission. This study was launched in Côte d'Ivoire to search for specific genetic markers for M. ulcerans in these bugs, including the insertion sequence IS2404 and ketoreductase (Kr), both involved in the synthesis of mycolactone, a toxin produced by these mycobacteria. Samples of aquatic Heteroptera were collected monthly with deep nets from ponds near villages in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé. After identification and enumeration of the bugs, batches of the same taxon underwent real-time PCR to search for the IS2404 target and Kr. Saliva of 69 specimens of Diplonychus sp randomly selected in the samples was also analyzed by PCR. In all, 283 single-taxon batches were created. Thus, PCR identified 26 batches belonging to the families of Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Corixidae, Ranatridae, and Nepidae as positive for both targets. The IS2404 insertion sequence and Kr were present in 6 of the 69 samples analyzed in the saliva of Diplonychus sp. These aquatic Heteroptera suspected of infection by M. ulcerans might release it into the environment because of their ability to fly. They might thus be the source of human contamination. PMID:25499000

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions

  9. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  10. Towards understanding the presence/absence of Human African Trypanosomosis in a focus of Côte d'Ivoire: a spatial analysis of the pathogenic system

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Jamonneau, Vincent; Oké, Emmanuel; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Oswald, Yohan; Dupont, Sophie; Cuny, Gérard; Doumenge, Jean-Pierre; Solano, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at identifying factors influencing the development of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) in the focus of Bonon, located in the mesophile forest of Côte d'Ivoire. A previous study mapping the main daytime activity sites of 96 patients revealed an important disparity between the area south of the town- where all the patients lived- and the area north of the town, apparently free of disease. In order to explain this disparity, we carried out a spatial analysis of the key components of the pathogenic system, i.e. the human host, the tsetse vector and the trypanosomes in their environment using a geographic information system (GIS). Results This approach at the scale of a HAT focus enabled us to identify spatial patterns which linked to the transmission and the dissemination of this disease. The history of human settlement (with the rural northern area exploited much earlier than the southern one) appears to be a major factor which determines the land use pattern, which itself may account for differences found in vector densities (tsetse were found six times more abundant in the southern rural area than in the northern). Vector density, according to the human and environmental context in which it is found (here an intense mobility between the town of Bonon and the rural areas), may explain the observed spatial differences in HAT prevalence. Conclusion This work demonstrates the role of GIS analyses of key components of the pathogenic system in providing a better understanding of transmission and dissemination of HAT. Moreover, following the identification of the most active transmission areas, and of an area unfavourable to HAT transmission, this study more precisely delineates the boundaries of the Bonon focus. As a follow-up, targeted tsetse control activities starting north of Bonon (with few chances of reinvasion due to very low densities) going south, and additional medical surveys in the south will be proposed to

  11. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  12. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate

  13. Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gimbel, Sarah; Nduati, Ruth; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Wasserheit, Judith N.; Farquhar, Carey; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization. Methods: Thirty-six health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique were randomized to usual care or a systems engineering intervention, stratified by country and volume. The intervention guided facility staff to iteratively identify and then rectify barriers to PMTCT implementation. Registry data quantified coverage of HIV testing during first antenatal care visit, antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV-positive pregnant women, and screening HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for HIV by 6–8 weeks. We compared the change between baseline (January 2013–January 2014) and postintervention (January 2015–March 2015) periods using t-tests. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results: ARV coverage increased 3-fold [+13.3% points (95% CI: 0.5 to 26.0) in intervention vs. +4.1 (−12.6 to 20.7) in control facilities] and HEI screening increased 17-fold [+11.6 (−2.6 to 25.7) in intervention vs. +0.7 (−12.9 to 14.4) in control facilities]. In prespecified subgroup analyses, ARV coverage increased significantly in Kenya [+20.9 (−3.1 to 44.9) in intervention vs. −21.2 (−52.7 to 10.4) in controls; P = 0.02]. HEI screening increased significantly in Mozambique [+23.1 (10.3 to 35.8) in intervention vs. +3.7 (−13.1 to 20.6) in controls; P = 0.04]. HIV testing did not differ significantly between arms. Conclusions: In this first randomized trial of systems engineering to improve PMTCT, we saw substantially larger improvements in ARV coverage and HEI screening in intervention facilities compared with controls, which were significant in prespecified subgroups. Systems engineering could strengthen PMTCT service delivery and protect infants from HIV. PMID:27082507

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing Loss to Follow-up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Côte d'Ivoire Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Touré, Hapsatou; Uhler, Lauren M.; Anglaret, Xavier; Paltiel, A. David; Balestre, Eric; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Messou, Eugène; Weinstein, Milton C.; Dabis, François; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa. Methods and Findings We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3× gross domestic product per capita (3× GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire) as a plausible threshold for “cost-effectiveness.” The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y). Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%. Conclusions Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%–41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to start

  15. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  16. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  17. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  18. Memories of an Aid Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The author had come to Cote d'Ivoire in April 1999 to work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an independent humanitarian organization dedicated to persuading governments to respect the rules of international humanitarian law (IHL), which are found in the Geneva Conventions. These rules provide impartial protection for the…

  19. Cultural Issues in Secondary Education Development in West Africa: Away from Colonial Survivals, towards Neocolonial Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2001-01-01

    In urban Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), cultural factors arising from West Africa's "triple cultural heritage" (African, Euro-Christian, and Islamic) and globalization place considerable strains on secondary education and have implications for postcolonial nation-building and development. Surveys of 200 secondary students in the two…

  20. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  1. 78 FR 16908 - Determinations Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..., 66 FR 7837 (2001). Ron Kirk, United States Trade Representative. BILLING CODE 3190-F3-P ... textile and apparel articles and the use of counterfeit documents in connection with the shipment of such... specified in this notice, imports of eligible products from Cote d'Ivoire qualify for the textile...

  2. The Educational Community Running the School System: The Example of School Management Committees (COGES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Gbo; Aka, Rene Goubo

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the school system in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved with the advent of the second Republic and the rise to power of the Ivorian Popular Front (Front Populaire Ivoirien, FPI). The Government has introduced reforms in the education system making use of past experience and extending its benefits. Most of the innovations implemented as part of…

  3. Polymorphisms of the Pfatpase 6 and Pfcrt gene and their relationship with the in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abobo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bla, Brice K; Yavo, William; Trébissou, Jonhson; Kipré, Rolland G; Yapi, Félix H; N'guessan, Jean D; Djaman, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of widespread resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Côte d'Ivoire since 2005. A thorough understanding of the molecular bases of P. falciparum resistance to existing drugs is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to analyze the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum field isolates from Abobo to CQ, pyronaridine (PYR) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA), and to investigate the polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The standard in vitro drug sensitivity microtechnique recommended by the WHO was used to assess the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in December 2006. The Pfcrt haplotype 76 was analysed by PCR-RFLP while Pfatpase 6 amplification products were sequenced. Associations between drug sensitivity and parasite gene polymorphisms were evaluated with Cohen's kappa test. The correlation between the IC50 values for different drugs was assessed by the coefficient of determination (r²). Significance was assumed at p<0.05. Of 128 in vitro tests performed, 112 (87.5%) were successful. Of the isolates, 56.2% were resistant for CQ and 48% for PYR. One isolate (3.6%) demonstrated reduced DHA sensitivity (IC50 higher than 10 nM). The mutant K76T pfcrt codon, present in 90% of DNA fragments analyzed, was associated with CQ-R (ĸ=0.76). The N669Y (16.1%), D734Y (28.6%) and D734H (1.8%) isolates were found to have mutant Pfatpase6, however, these mutations were not associated with diminished DHA sensitivity (k=0.01). These high levels of antimalarial drug resistance in Abobo (Côte d'Ivoire) demand further studies of drug efficacy across the whole country. PMID:25706423

  4. Efficacy of PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. Methods The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. Results Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN

  5. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife. PMID:25474243

  6. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  7. Update on resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to conventional insecticides at a previous WHOPES field site, "Yaokoffikro", 6 years after the political crisis in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At Yaokoffikro field site near Bouaké, in central Côte d'Ivoire, a group of experimental huts built in 1996 served over many years for the evaluation of insecticides against highly resistant mosquitoes. Breeding sites of mosquitoes and selection pressure in the area were maintained by local farming practices until a war broke out in September 2002. Six years after the crisis, we conducted bioassays and biochemical analysis to update the resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations and detect other potential mechanisms of resistance that might have evolved. Methods An. gambiae s.s. larvae from Yaokoffikro were collected in breeding sites and reared to adults. Resistance status of this population to insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes with seven insecticides: two pyrethroids, a pseudo-pyrethroid, an organochloride, two carbamates and an organophosphate. Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify the L1014F kdr and ace-1R alleles in individual mosquitoes and to detect potential increase in mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity. Results High pyrethroids, DDT and carbamate resistance was confirmed in An. gambiae s.s. populations from Yaokoffikro. Mortality rates were less than 70% with pyrethroids and etofenprox, 12% with DDT, and less than 22% with the carbamates. Tolerance to fenitrothion was observed, with 95% mortality after 24 h. PCR analysis of samples from the site showed high allelic frequency of the L1014F kdr (0.94) and the ace-1R (0.50) as before the crisis. In addition, increased activity of NSE, GST and to a lesser extent MFO was found relative to the reference strain Kisumu. This was the first report detecting enhanced activity of these enzymes in An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro, which could have serious implications in detoxification of insecticides. Their specific roles in resistance should be

  8. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  9. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  10. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  11. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  12. Simulation of the transfer of hydrocarbons in unconfined aquifer in tropical zone: the case of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Kouamé, Kan Jean

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is the largest global reserves of continental freshwater (Bosca, 2002) and also an important source of drinking water in many parts of the world (Brassington. 2007). However, this resource is today threatened by pollution such as inadequate supply of drinking water services, inaccessibility and / or dilapidated sanitation facilities and excessive use fertilizers, and industrial wastewater and solid waste pesticides (Boubacar, 2010) and the rapid urbanization in great cities (Foster, 2001). Abidjan, the largest city in Côte d'Ivoire is also facing pollution problems such as illegal dumping of waste, waste oil spilled garages, land application of domestic and industrial wastewater, automotive workshops, overexploitation of sand in the Ebrié lagoon, open waste dump of Akouédo and the spill of about 400,000 liters of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" in August 2006. The Abidjan aquifer or the Continental terminal aquifer is the main source of supply drinking water. It is mainly composed of sandy and it is an unconfined aquifer as a whole (Jourda, 1987). According to Gilli and al., (2012), the recharge of unconfined aquifers comes mostly from the infiltration of surface water including rainwater. These waters on their transport in the basement could carry certain pollutants into groundwater. Kouamé (2007) reports a potential groundwater pollution of the "Continental terminal" aquifer in Abidjan. In addition to the cases cited pollution, there has been a proliferation of service stations in the district of Abidjan and this can cause possible pollution. We deemed it necessary to conduct a study on the groundwater pollution of Abidjan by oil in general. We chose benzene to simulate organic pollution in case of accident. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface, we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and benzene transport with FEFLOW software in steady and transient states. The models are composed

  13. Down to earth technology.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J

    1993-01-01

    There are constant problems with the water supply in northern Cote d'Ivoire. For example, wells have been abandoned because the pump stands are damaged and the wells contain no water during the dry season. Rural women usually can collect enough surface water during the rainy season, but during the dry season, they dig shallow wells for groundwater. Regardless of the water source, the water tends to be contaminated, resulting in diarrhea, schistosomiasis, and dysentery. Failed attempts in the past to drill productive wells (e.g, 50-60% of wells dug between 1973-1985 are inoperable) and the needs to find water sources have led researchers from Canada and the Cote d'Ivoire to develop a geographic information system (GIS) for the Marahoue River basin (12,000 square km). This basin receives little precipitation and the pre-Cambrian bedrock does not hold much water. This GIS system contains hydrological, geological, and geophysical data and remote sensing data collected from satellite. It can locate the best possible sites for drilling wells based on an analysis of fractures in the bedrock (the greater the density of clusters of fractures, the greater the probability of pinpointing productive water sources). Now GIS specialists can site 100 to 200 wells daily in the northern Cote d'Ivoire. This system is also capable of finding mineral deposits (e.g. diamonds are common in the Marahoue River basin). Despite the capabilities of this GIS system, water quality differs and pumping mechanisms still can become damaged. Nevertheless, this technology can be used to identify water sources in other developing countries, including countries in Africa, such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. PMID:12318005

  14. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  15. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  16. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    PubMed

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political

  17. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  18. Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.

    The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.

    The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were

  19. Ledantevirus: A Proposed New Genus in the Rhabdoviridae Has A Strong Ecological Association with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. PMID:25487727

  20. [4 years' evaluation of orthopedics and traumatology at an African Regional Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P

    1989-01-01

    The authors have made an evaluation of the results obtained in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology after a four year practice at the Korhogo hospital (Cote d'Ivoire). They analyse the peculiar conditions bond to the pathology, climate, environment, technical level. The incidence of post operative sepsis was 2.8 per cent, comparable to european statistics. Bed sores were exceptional, the general rate of nonunions was 2.9 per cent. The functional results were hardly analysable. However they seemed to be rather satisfactory despite the lack of post operative rehabilitation. It is concluded that an orthopaedic and traumatologic practice can be valuably conducted in Africa even far from the main centers, provided a rigorous organisation. PMID:2552513

  1. Opportunities in African power generation: A business briefing for industry and investment executives. Held in Baltimore, Maryland, June 21-22, 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The report, prepared by the Institute of International Education, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The information contained in the report was compiled in part for a power generation conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. The focus of the report is the market created by electric power projects financed by multilateral development banks. The study contains country information and project profiles related to the energy sector for eleven countries: Benin, Botswana, Cote D`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Morocoo, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The report also outlines the range of service opportunities in the region such as consulting, engineering, construction and project management, and equipment procurement. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Agenda/Program; (2) African Energy Sector Overview; (3) Project Profiles; (4) Country Information; and (5) Attendees.

  2. Approaching the limit of predictability in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  3. Drug companies, UNAIDS make drugs available.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) initiative is working with several drug companies and four countries on a pilot program to build a health infrastructure that provides affordable drugs to insure that combination therapies are used appropriately. The countries involved in the program are Uganda, Chile, Vietnam and Cote d'Ivoire, and the drug companies are Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Virco NV. Each country agreed to form national HIV/AIDS drug advisory boards, and non-profit companies will act as clearinghouses. Financing will come from the pharmaceutical companies, local health ministries, and a $1 million grant from UNAIDS. The program will be evaluated in terms of improvements to overall health care delivery, number of people treated, the impact on emergency care, and the rate of illness and death. PMID:11364863

  4. Approaching the Limit of Predictability in Human Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J.; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  5. Use of Lakes Waters in the Town of Yamousoukro for Industrial Boiler Rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Essi, Kra; Yobou, Bokra

    The industrialization of Cote D' Ivoire requires science an anticipation of the various projects of development. The town of Yamoussoukro, political capital of Cote D' Ivoire, is in the center of the country at 270 km in the North-East from Abidjan. It is situated at 6°7 ' of Northern latitude and 5°2 ' of Western longitude. Yamoussoukro is equipped with artificial lakes, which were created in 1970. This study dealt with ten of them numbered from 1 to 10. They are fed by two rivers and these rivers communicate between them. The analysis of 10 of the lakes of the city of Yamoussoukro reveals that the lakes have a relatively weak mineralization but that they stay polluted. It is the case of the hydrogen potential, turbidity and matters in suspension. The strong contents of these parameters make it difficult for these waters to be used in the industry. So, the analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the various lakes of the town of Yamoussoukro showed for a possible use in the boiler rooms The use of the waters of the 10 lakes of Yamoussoukro city in the industrial boiler room requires a double treatment: First is an environmental treatment and then a chemical treatment. The environmental treatment is a set of measures of regulation of the middle to reduce the organic pollution of waters. The chemical treatment consists, in a partial or total elimination of some raw water constituent by fixing, either by filtration, either by coagulation decanting. These methods, can contribute to the treatment of these lakes with success. Then, these waters could be used in the industry, notably in boiler room in order to obtain vapor which will use for infrastructures of the town.

  6. [Evaluation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Ivory Coast from 2008 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Ahui, B J-M; Horo, K; Bakayoko, A S; Kouassi, A B; Anon, J C; Brou-Gode, V C; Koffi, M O; Itchy, M V; N'Gom, A S; N'Goran, N B; Aka-Danguy, E

    2013-12-01

    This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2008 to December 2010 on sectional descriptive analysis of records of patients treated for MDR-TB and whose follow-up was in the thoracic department of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Cocody in Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire. We selected eight patients who met the inclusion criteria of 21 MDR-TB patients registered during the study period. The average age was 29.25years ranging from 21 to 39. Males accounted for 75% of the patients (6 males and 2 females). The students represented the professional social layer most affected with 37.5% of the patients. All patients had a history of tuberculosis and only one patient was HIV positive under anti-retroviral (zidovudin, lamivudin and efavirenz). All cultures found Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The resistance profile in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin, found two cases of resistance to ethambutol and streptomycin. The chest radiograph at the time of initiation of second-line treatment showed essentially excavations in 75% of cases and infiltrates in 25%. The lesions were bilateral in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%). The main side effects observed during treatment were limited to cochleovestibular disorders (2 patients) and neuropsychiatric disorders (2 patients) and digestive disorders in half of the patients with removal of the offending molecule kanamycin. After 24months of treatment, it was numbered five cures (62.5%), two failures and one death. PMID:24183291

  7. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  8. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  9. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  10. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  11. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  12. Modélisation à long terme et optimisation du stock d'énergie des installations solaires autonomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maafi, A.; Delorme, C.

    1996-04-01

    A sizing approach of storage capacity for autonomous solar system has been developed by analyzing the difference between solar radiation input and energy demand on long-term periods. This approach has been implemented using series of daily global irradiation data recorded or generated on a horizontal surface in the meteorological stations of Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Algiers and Tamanrasset (Algeria) and Carpentras (France). The obtained results show that for an energy demand equaling the pluriannual mean of solar irradiation a storage of several months is needed to obtain the autonomy of solar systems located in Algiers, Carpentras and Tamanrasset. It should be too expensive investment to set-up such solar systems in these locations. Therefore, the size of the storage is minimized by using a non-zero initial energy storage and reducing the energy demand. This procedure show that it is possible to provide every day a programmed energy using autonomous solar systems which are competitive economically. Une approche de dimensionnement de la capacité de stockage des installations solaires autonomes a été développé. Elle est basée sur l'analyse de la différence entre l'énergie incidente et la consommation requise. Cette méthode a été mise au point à partir de données journalières d'irradiation globale enregistrées ou reconstituées sur plan horizontal dans les stations météorologiques d'Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), d'Alger et de Tamanrasset (Algérie) et de Carpentras (France). Pour une demande énergétique correspondant à la production moyenne pluriannuelle d'énergie solaire, les résultats montrent qu'un stockage de plusieurs mois est requis pour garantir l'autonomie de fonctionnement des installations solaires implantées à Alger, Carpentras et Tamanrasset. L'autonomie ainsi obtenue n'est pas économiquement rentable. Aussi, la taille du stockage a été minimisée en utilisant un stock initial d'énergie au démarrage de l'installation et en r

  13. "Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1995-01-01

    Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

  14. Cost recovery shifts the brand image from Prudence to Protector.

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing programs are underway in Africa. One program markets condoms in Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire under the brand name Prudence. While a cost element does exist, this program was largely designed to demonstrate the viability of social marketing programs. Emphasis has now been placed upon recovering costs, and condoms are marketed under the name of Protector. Since the US wants to reduce its role as the dominant funder of condom distribution in Africa, and governments and other donors want to be able to buy condoms more cheaply on the open market, the recent cost recovery version of the program will most likely displace the initial version. The Protector program strives toward achieving scale economies and financial self-sufficiency. Specifically, the program aims to standardize campaign materials across all participating countries, make private sector partner organizations in each country responsible for local distribution and marketing, and have earnings pay for a predefined part of program expenditures. Conceptually, Prudence is marketed to prevent AIDS, while Protector is promoted more broadly against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Social marketing programs are spreading and condom use is on the rise. The World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS sees its role as advocating condom use and encouraging donors to fund social marketing programs. PMID:12344631

  15. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  16. Processes of diversification and dispersion of rice yellow mottle virus inferred from large-scale and high-resolution phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Traore, O; Sorho, F; Pinel, A; Abubakar, Z; Banwo, O; Maley, J; Hebrard, E; Winter, S; Sere, Y; Konate, G; Fargette, D

    2005-06-01

    Phylogeography of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was reconstructed from the coat protein gene sequences of a selection of 173 isolates from the 14 countries of mainland Africa where the disease occurred and from the full sequences of 16 representative isolates. Genetic variation was linked to geographical distribution and not to host species as isolates from wild rice always clustered with isolates from cultivated rice of the same region. Genetic variation was not associated to agro-ecology, viral interference and insect vector species. Distinct RYMV lineages occurred in East, Central and West Africa, although the Central African lineage included isolates from Benin, Togo and Niger at the west, adjacent to countries of the West African lineage. Genetic subdivision at finer geographical scales was apparent within lineages of Central and West Africa, although less pronounced than in East Africa. Physical obstacles, but also habitat fragmentation, as exemplified by the small low-lying island of Pemba offshore Tanzania mainland, explained strain localization. Three new highly divergent strains were found in eastern Tanzania. By contrast, intensive surveys in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea at the west of Africa did not reveal any new variant. Altogether, this supported the view that the Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspot was the centre of origin of RYMV and that the virus spread subsequently from east to west across Africa. In West Africa, specific strains occurred in the Inner Niger Delta and suggested it was a secondary centre of diversification. Processes for diversification and dispersion of RYMV are proposed. PMID:15910330

  17. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. WHO still reeling from racism charges.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is not as prestigious as it used to be. It operates on a relatively small annual budget of $1.8 billion, the WHO 1995 audit suggested irregularities in the way contracts were awarded and criticized a lack of control over funds at the WHO's African headquarters in the Congo, and its director, Hiroshi Nakajima, has been accused of being a racist against Africans. Nakajima complained during a January 1995 WHO board meeting that some African members had poor English skills. Delegates from several African nations to the annual World Health Assembly, which began in Geneva on May 1, subsequently raised the issue and called for the Japanese director to resign. The release of the recent WHO health report, "Bridging the Gaps," was an attempt by the organization to regain some its international respect, but little new was reported. Basic messages were that poverty is the most important cause of ill health, 60% of all new HIV infections occur among people aged 15-24 in many countries, 50% of people with HIV globally are younger than 25 years old, 60% of infections in women occur by age 20, and life expectancy is increasing in all countries except Cote d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, and Zambia, all countries hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. For now, Nakajima has retained his position, although British and US donors stress that they will keep closer watch over the organization and that reforms must be made. PMID:12289039

  19. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  20. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The role of the military: to protect society -- and themselves.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    Military personnel are at particularly high risk of becoming infected with HIV because they are in the age group at highest risk for infection, age 15-24 years; they are away from home for long periods of time; many feel invulnerable and ready to take risks; there are usually prostitutes and drugs in military areas; and troops have cash, but maybe not condoms, in their pockets. The level of attention given to HIV/AIDS in the military has grown over the course of the last few international AIDS conferences. One roundtable on HIV/AIDS in the armed forces was held at the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996. A large-scale survey reported at the conference found the level of sexual activity to be significantly higher among US military personnel than in the civilian population. Even the oldest soldiers reported higher levels of multiple partner sex habits than the most sexually active young men in the UK and France. The data further indicate that significant numbers of those men who were infected continued to knowingly have unprotected sex. Data from Angola, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, and Zimbabwe show significantly higher levels of HIV infection among military personnel compared to the civilian populations. The authors stress the important role the military can play in preventing the spread of HIV and the need to involve military personnel in AIDS prevention programs. PMID:12347381

  1. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  2. New Women of the World publication features Francophone Africa.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents the publication ¿Women of the World--Francophone Africa: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives,¿ by Codou Bop, a Senegalese women's rights activist. This book contains a comprehensive review of the reproductive health and rights of women in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, and Chad. It provides practical and legal guidelines for rights advocates and identifies problem issues in the region. Each country was examined in terms of its political framework, sources for governing laws, customary laws and health, population and family planning policies. Across the seven nations, similar problems in restrictive abortion laws, high maternal mortality rates, high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates, low contraceptive use and the continuation of harmful traditional practices were noted. Likewise, legal status of women in the context of their right to be free from discrimination and issues affecting adolescents were examined. During the launching of the book, representatives from the featured countries were able to discuss strategies for revising laws and adopting better policies to protect the rights and welfare of women. PMID:12322530

  3. Apport de la tomodensitométrie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose vertébrale à propos de 496 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouattara, Baly; Diomandé, Mohamed; Sessou, Viva; Kaboré, Fulgence; Djoko, Kouadio Flore; Traoré, Moriba; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus fréquente des tuberculoses ostéo articulaires, le diagnostic de certitude reste difficile. L'imagerie tient une place indéniable dans le diagnostic. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence de la tuberculose vertébrale et l'apport de la TDM dans le diagnostic. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective sur dossiers de tuberculose vertébrale dans le service de Rhumatologie du CHU de Cocody de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2013. N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude, tous les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Resultats La prévalence hospitalière de la tuberculose vertébrale était de 10,95%, elle représentait 90,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Elle concernait les 2 sexes, l’âge moyen était de 43,27 ans (4-88ans). L'atteinte dorsolombaire était la localisation la plus fréquente (95,13%). L'atteinte du rachis cervical était rare. La spondylodiscite était fréquente (92,14%). La spondylite (6%) et l'atteinte de l'arc postérieur (0,86%) étaient rares. La spondylodiscite était unique le plus souvent (70,05%), les formes multiétagées ont été notées dans 28,65% des cas, les atteintes mutifocales ont été notées dans14, 63% des cas. Les localisations inhabituelles étaient: atteinte sous occipitale (n=3), atteinte concomitante des 3 segments rachidiens (n=3), atteinte du sacrum (n=1), abcès isolés du psoas (n=4). La prévalence des abcès était de 85,91%, celle des épidurites était de 80,17%. La ponction scannoguidée des abcès a été réalisée dans 20 cas, la recherche de BAAR était positive dans 15 cas. Il existait une tuberculose viscérale évolutive dans 20% des cas. Conclusion La TDM est indéniable dans le diagnostic positif et lésionnel de la tuberculose vertébrale. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions. PMID:26113932

  4. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  5. Update of ichthyofauna diversity and ecological status of a coastal River Nero (Côte d'Ivoire - West Africa).

    PubMed

    N'Zi, Konan Gervais; Yao, Stanislas Silvain; Gooré Bi, Gouli; Ndouba, Valentin

    2015-05-01

    The general aim of this study is to update the inventory of the fish species and to specify distribution patterns in the Nero River ichthyofauna in order to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. From February 2009 to January 2010, thirty-three sites were sampled monthly with gill nets and a backpack electrofisher, and environmental variables were recorded. Overall, 46 species included in 33 genuses, 24 families and 9 orders were collected. Eleven families and 30 species were the first records for the Nero River. Including all species previously listed in the literature, the number of species presently known in the Nero River and its tributaries is revised to 59. Four families, Alestidae (21%), Schilbeidae (19%), Cyprinidae (17%) and Cichlidae (16%) that made up 73% of the total number of the catches, were the most dominant. The most dominant numerical species were Schilbe mandibularis and Brycinus longipinnis. Fish species and sampling sites along with eight environmental variables were ordinated with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) coupled to the Monte Carlo test. Ecological status based on fish assemblage according to environmental variables and anthropogenic pressures showed that miss dead wood leaves and roots, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, mud, nitrite, basin width, dissolved oxygen and pH, were the primary factors influencing fish distribution. The environmental tolerance index (ETI), ecological tolerance (tk ) and optima (uk ) values of 10 species to 8 different environmental variables were analyzed. Six species (Hemichromis fasciatus, Epiplatys chaperi, Barbus ablabes, B. longipinnis, Hemichromis bimaculatus and Chromidotilapia guntheri) have high ETI and a cosmopolitan distribution in the Nero River. In the tributaries of the middle course, high concentrations of nitrite in the water, added to the presence of a lot of tolerant species in the ichthyofauna are indications of disturbance of these areas. Subsequent recommendations were formulated for efficient restoration and conservation management of this River. PMID:25972747

  6. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and... Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and...

  7. Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an

  8. 76 FR 2193 - Designation Pursuant to Executive Order 13396 of February 7, 2006, “Blocking Property of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' AGENCY: Office of... Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The designation by...

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 DOVE COTE AND DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  10. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa-the case of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  11. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  12. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  13. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa--the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  14. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  15. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  16. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    PubMed

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. PMID:12285641

  17. Lithostratigraphy of the early Proterozoic Toumodi Volcanic Group in central côte d'ivoire: implications for Birrimian stratigraphic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of stratigraphic concepts for the early Proterozoic Birrimian supracrustals of the West African craton (Guinea Rise) is reviewed, tracing the origins of the upper and lower divisions which are in widespread usage. New data are presented from the central part of the Birrimian Fétékro belt where the Toumodi Volcanic Group (TVG) crops out. The TVG comprises a bimodal succession of predominantly proximal facies volcanogenic rocks which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Eburnian orogeny (c. 2.0 Ga), when greenschist facies assemblages and tight to isoclinal folding developed. TVG rocks are in thrust contact with amphibolite facies gneisses to the East, and both the volcanics and the gneisses have been intruded by Eburnian granites. The TVG stratigraphy has been divided into four formations on the basis of the prevalence of either basic or acid lithologies. Volcaniclastic lithologies are overwhelmingly more abundant than lavas. The basic rocks comprise a high-Mg basaltic suite of clinopyroxene-phyric lavas and clinopyroxene-bearing crystal tuffs and tuffbreccias. The acid rocks include proximal pyroclastics and lavas. The volcanic succession was clearly deposited in a proximal setting. Epiclastic rocks comprising conglomerates and sandstones of volcanic provenance occur in all four TVG formations. An increasingly distal depositional environment has been recognised to the South, where fine-grained laminated tuffs predominate, and it is clear that in this case the division of the Birrimian into upper and lower parts has not recognised the existence of simultaneous deposition of volcanic ejecta in proximal and distal environments, which throws doubt on the general applicability of this stratigraphic model. In addition, field evidence from the Fétékro belt, in which the recently proposed ≪Burkinian≫ orogeny was recognised, suggests that the "Burkinian" rests on shaky ground.

  18. Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on Sexual Behaviors and HIV-1 Transmission Risk Among Adults With Diverse Heterosexual Partnership Statuses in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raïmi; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods. On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results. Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion. Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals. PMID:23990567

  19. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: A comparative study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, William G.; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d’Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007–2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  20. Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors among Black Africans in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Soro Kountele; Marcellin, Koffi Gnangoran; Adama, Coulibaly; Toussaint, Assohoun; Manuela, Ehua Adjoba; Sylvain, Seu Gagon; Anthony, Afum-Adjei Awuah; Francis, Ehua Somian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a challenge for surgeons in Africa. Aim. To determine risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality among black Ivoirian patients with PPU. Methods. All 161 patients (median age = 34 years, 90.7 male) operated on for PPU in the visceral and general surgery unit were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Variables were studied with Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Among 161 patients operated on for PPU, 36 (27.5%) experienced complications and 31 (19.3%) died. Follow-up results were the incidence of complications and mortality of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.9–8.0) per 100 person-days and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0) per 100 person-days for incidence of mortality. In multivariate analysis, risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality were comorbidities (HR = 2.1, P = 0.03), tachycardia (pulse rate > 100/minutes) (HR = 2.4, P = 0.02), purulent intra-abdominal fluid collection (HR = 2.1, P = 0.04), hyponatremia (median value ≤ 134 mEq/L) (HR = 2.3, P = 0.01), delayed time of hospital admission > 72 hours (HR = 2.6, P < 0.0001), and delayed time of surgical intervention between 24 and 48 hours (HR = 3.8, P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The delayed hospital admission or surgical intervention and hyponatremia may be considered as additional risk of postoperative complications or mortality in Black African patients with PPU. PMID:26925099

  1. The ecology of primate retroviruses – An assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gogarten, Jan F.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2014-01-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d’Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus–host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research. PMID:25010280

  2. Importance of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Central Côte D'ivoire: Comparison of Termite Assemblages between Two Neighboring Areas Under Differing Levels of Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems). PMID:23448238

  3. Density estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire, and Guinea.

    PubMed

    Granier, Nicolas; Hambuckers, Alain; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography, and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km(2) . These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of two geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of two distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. PMID:25099739

  4. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; N'takpe, Jean-Baptiste; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Badjé, Anani; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. Results Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV care, rather than ART initiation, resulted in decreased sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours. We did not observe any evidence of a risk compensation phenomenon associated with early ART initiation. These results illustrate the potential behavioural preventive effect of early entry into care, which goes hand in hand with early ART initiation. PMID:24985779

  5. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  6. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  7. Les sous-prefectures de Sikensi et Dabakala, Cote-d'Ivoire. (The Regions of Sikensi and Dabakala, Ivory Coast.) Method de preparation de la carte scolaire: etudes de cas 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, J.; And Others

    This volume contains the results of the first study of the problems associated with using educational television in curriculum planning in the Ivory Coast. The study was conducted in two districts of this African country, one relatively developed and situated in the southern part of the country, and the other more characteristic of the poorer…

  8. Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of Cobalt Telluride Branched Nanostructures on Carbon Fiber Paper as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Ye, Zhiguo; Liu, Chenqi; Xi, Dan; Zhou, Chongjian; Shi, Zhongqi; Xia, Hongyan; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun

    2016-02-10

    Cobalt telluride branched nanostructures on carbon fiber paper (CFP) with two different morphologies were synthesized via solution-based conversion reaction. Both the CoTe2 with nanodendrite and CoTe with nanosheet morphologies on the CoTe2 nanotube (CoTe2 NDs/CoTe2 NTs and CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs) supported by CFP exhibit high activities toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Particularly, the CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs only require an overpotential of 230.0 mV to deliver the current density of 100 mA cm(-2) in acid solution. After cycling for 5000 cycles or 20 h continual electrolysis, only a small performance loss is observed. PMID:26809181

  9. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  10. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  11. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  12. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I.; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J.; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential... or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  14. [Resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) to deltamethrin and the use of impregnated mosquito nets in an urban area of Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Konan, Y L; Koffi, A A; Doannio, J M; Darriet, F

    2003-05-01

    The efficacy of pieces of nets treated with two formulations of deltamethrin (concentrated suspension at 1% and tablets at 25%) against two strains of Culex quinquefasciatus ("S-Lab", sensitive strain and "Bouaké", local strain) has been evaluated at the laboratory by experimental tunnels tests. The observed mortality of the sensitive strain has been 2-3 time more important than that of local strain. This observation seems to be linked to Culex quinquefasciatus of Bouaké pyrethrinoids-resistance. The excito-repellency effect of the two formulations has been lower for the local strain than for the sensitive strain. It has also been more important with the tablet at 25% than with concentrated suspension at 1%. The blood feeding rate has been more important for the local strain than for sensitive strain and it has been lower with the tablet at 25% than with the concentrated suspension at 1%. PMID:12836532

  15. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691

  16. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that wild-living red colobus represent a substantial reservoir of SIVwrc. Moreover, because of their frequent association with other monkey species, the predation pressure exerted by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and by poachers around and inside the park, simian to simian and simian to human SIVwrc cross-species transmission cannot be excluded. PMID:17916449

  17. A comparative, randomized clinical trial of artemisinin/naphtoquine twice daily one day versus artemether/lumefantrine six doses regimen in children and adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Toure, Offianan A; Penali, Louis K; Yapi, Jean-Didier; Ako, Berenger A; Toure, Walamtchin; Djerea, Kali; Gomez, Genevieve O; Makaila, Oyewole

    2009-01-01

    Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum poses a major threat to malaria control. Combination anti-malarial therapy, including artemisinins, has been advocated to improve efficacy and limit the spread of resistance. The fixed combination of oral artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is highly effective and well-tolerated. Artemisinin/naphtoquine (AN) is a fixed-dose ACT that has recently become available in Africa. The objectives of the study were to compare the efficacy and safety of AN and AL for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a high transmission-intensity site in Ivory Coast. Methods We enrolled 122 participants aged 6 months or more with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Participants were randomized to receive either artemisinin/naphtoquine or artemether/lumefantrine with variable dose according to their weight. Primary endpoints were the risks of treatment failure within 28 days, either unadjusted or adjusted by genotyping to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. Results Among 125 participants enrolled, 123 (98.4%) completed follow-up. Clinical evaluation of the 123 participants showed that cumulative PCR-uncorrected cure rate on day 28 was 100% for artemisinin/naphtoquine and 98.4% for artemether/lumefantrine. Both artemisinin-based combinations effected rapid fever and parasite clearance. Interpretation These data suggest that Arco® could prove to be suitable for use as combination antimalarial therapy. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetic studies and further efficacy assessment should be conducted before its widespread use can be supported. PMID:19575797

  18. No Association between Antenatal Common Mental Disorders in Low-Obstetric Risk Women and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Their Offspring: Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte D'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bonle, Marguerite Te; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Loag, Wibke; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Eberhardt, Kirsten A.; Tagbor, Harry; N’Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence linking common mental disorders (CMD) in pregnant women to adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent, and studies often failed to control for pregnancy complications. This study aimed to explore the association between antenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes in a low-obstetric risk sample of mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Methods In 2010-2011, a prospective cohort of 1030 women in their third trimester in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire was enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the third trimester using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. 719 mother/child dyads were included in the analysis. We constructed multivariate regression models to estimate the association between CMD and low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth (PTB) to control for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 28.9% and 14.2% respectively. The mean birth weight was 3172.1g (SD 440.6) and the prevalence of LBW was 1.7%. The mean gestational age was 39.6 weeks and the proportion of PTB was 4%. Multivariate linear regression revealed no significant association between maternal depression (B=52.2, 95% CI -18.2 122.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (B=17.1, 95% CI -74.6 108.7, p=0.72) and birth weight. Yet, low socio-economic status, female sex of the child, and younger maternal age were associated with lower birth weight. Multivariate logistic regression suggested no significant association between maternal depression (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 0.8 5.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 0.6 5.5, p=0.29) with PTB. Conclusions Our data suggests that depression and/or anxiety in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy are not independent predictors of adverse birth outcomes in low obstetric risk women. The role of pregnancy complications as confounders or effect modifiers in studies of maternal CMD and their impact on birth outcomes should be investigated. PMID:24260460

  19. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la réalisation du test pédiatrique disent s'y opposer ; bien entendu, même dans le cas où le conjoint l'accepterait. Discussion: Les mères sont les principales mises en cause et craignent les réprimandes et la stigmatisation. Le père, le conjoint peut être un obstacle, quand il s'oppose au test VIH du nourrisson, ou devenir le facilitateur de sa réalisation s'il est convaincu. Le positionnement du père demeure donc essentiel dans la question de l'acceptabilité du VIH pédiatrique. Les mères en ont conscience et présagent des difficultés à faire dépister ou non les enfants sans avis préalable du conjoint à la fois père, et chef de famille. Conclusion: La question du dépistage pédiatrique du VIH, au terme de notre analyse, met en face trois éléments qui exigent une gestion globale pour assurer une couverture effective. Ces trois éléments n'existeraient pas sans s'influencer, donc ils sont constamment en interaction et empêchent ou favorisent la réalisation ou non du test pédiatrique. Aussi, dans une intention d'aboutir à une couverture effective du dépistage VIH des nourrissons, faut-il tenir compte d'une gestion harmonieuse de ces trois éléments: La première, la mère seule (avec ses connaissances, ses perceptions), son environnement conjugal (de proposition du test intégrant 1- l’époux et / ou père de l'enfant avec ses perceptions et connaissances sur l'infection 2- la facilité de parler du test et sa réalisation chez les deux ou un des parents, la mère) et les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel de l’établissement sanitaire sur l'infection du VIH. Recommandations: Nos recommandations proposent une redéfinit

  20. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. PMID:22449542

  1. Chalcogenide Cobalt telluride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Bishnu; Dulal, Rajendra; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    Cobalt telluride nanotubes are grown using wet chemical and hydrothermal syntheses. Wet chemical synthesized nanotubes display nearly 1: 1 Co to Te ratio. On the other hand, CoTe nanotubes synthesized using hydrothermal method show excess Co content leading to the compound Co58Te42. Both CoTe and Co58Te42 display magnetic properties, but with totally different characteristics. The Curie temperature of CoTe is higher than 400 K. However, the Tc of Co58Te42 is below 50 K. Transport properties of cobalt telluride (CoTe) nanotube devices show that they exhibit p-type semiconducting behavior. The magnetoresistance measured at 10 K show a magnetoresistance of 54%. . National Science Foundation under ECCS-0845501 and NSF-MRI, DMR-0922997.

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  4. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 FIREPLACE IN DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH WEST - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Micrometer measurements of double stars (Ling+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. F.; Prieto, C.

    2000-10-01

    We report 312 micrometer measurements of 155 visual double stars made with the 50 cm refractor at the Cote D'Azur observatory (Nice, France) and with the 152 cm telescope at Calar Alto observatory (Almeria, Spain). (2 data files).

  7. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Libraries in Quebec: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/quebec.html Libraries in Quebec To use the sharing features on ... qc.ca Montreal Jewish General Hospital Health Sciences Library (QMJG) 3755 Cote St. Catherine Road Pav. A- ...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...